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(2ND SEMISTER) ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SMT.KAMALA MEHTA V.W.A.COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
A PROJECT REPORT ON WATER POLLUTION BY AKHILESH VISHWAKARMA ROLL NO: 15 FIRST YEAR OF BACHELOR OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES. (2ND SEMISTER) ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SMT.KAMALA MEHTA V.W.A.COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
Payal Vighne Madam and Our project in charge Ms. I/we express my/our profound thanks to our Coordinator Ms. Dipali Sapre Madam .Acknowledgement We the student with immense pleasure are Presenting "WATER POLLUTION" project report as part of curriculum of Bachelor of management studies. We wish to THANK all people who gave us unending support.
developed countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well. and 32 percent of assessed bay and estuarinesquare miles were classified as polluted. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use. and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14. and 1. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet.000 people daily.000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day. In addition to the acute problems of water pollution indeveloping countries. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States. 47 percent of assessed lake acres. Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution. and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases. Natural phenomena . and/or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities. such as fish.THANK YOU!!! Introduction Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). such as drinking water. 45 percent of assessedstream miles.
then you may have also noticed that these things contribute to one of the ecological problems that we encounter. and . storms.such as volcanoes. and unpleasant change in the state of water when contaminated with unsafe and perilous substances is water pollution. chemical and biological properties of water that has a detrimental consequence on living things is water pollution. and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water. All the foremost water bodies of the world such as lakes. What Is Water Pollution? The world has been continually facing many environmental problems that affect all forms of life. unhealthy. You may see people dumping trash into the river. The unfavorable. Water pollution takes place when pollutants are released directly or indirectly into bodies of water without sufficient treatment to eliminate damaging compounds. hostile. Polluted water is unfit. Any change or modification in the physical. Life on earth has been distressed by the growing number of ecological problems that are mostly caused by humans themselves. If so. Water pollution is the second most imperative environmental concern along with air pollution. algae blooms. You may be aware of dynamite fishing. rivers.. You may have heard about oil spill from ships. oceans and groundwater are affected by such problem. You may have seen ships sailing across the sea.
although they are interrelated. Clean Water Act (CWA) defines point source for regulatory enforcement purposes. The U. This water pollution is harmful to human beings. which can originate waterborne diseases such as diarrhea. plants. dysentery. identifiable source. Contaminated water also houses and contains viruses. Categories Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources. What has been contributing to the existing and seem-to-be undying water pollution is domestic and agricultural waste. Surface water seeps through the soil and becomes groundwater. or a city storm drain. It is also not apt for agricultural and industrial assistance. such as from construction sites. marine dumping. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from asewage treatment plant. a factory. bacteria. intestinal parasites. groundwater can also feed surface water sources. The CWA definition of point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems.S. and industrial effluents. Sources of surface water pollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their origin. Due to water pollution. global warming and eutrophication. animals. and typhoid. Conversely. such as a pipe or ditch. Other sources comprise of oil spills. the entire ecosystem is being disturbed. Point sources Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single. as well as industrial stormwater. fish and birds.dangerous for drinking and for other consumption processes. ] . radioactive waste. and other harmful microorganisms. atmospheric deposition.
By its very nature. A spill or ongoing releases of chemical or radionuclide contaminants into soil (located away from a surface water body) may not create point source or non-point source pollution. defined as a toxin plume. hydrology. groundwater pollution. called urban runoff. may be analyzed through a hydrological transport model or groundwater model. non-point source may be irrelevant. Nutrient runoff in stormwater from "sheet flow" over an agricultural fieldor a forest are also cited as examples of NPS pollution. However.Non–point sources Non–point source pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. hydrogeology. sometimes referred to asgroundwater contamination. roads and highways. is not as easily classified as surface water pollution. called a plume front. this runoff is typically channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local surface waters. Groundwater pollution Interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex. However where such water is not channeled and drains directly to ground it is a non-point source. Consequently. A common example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands. . NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. groundwater aquifers are susceptible to contamination from sources that may not directly affect surface water bodies. The movement of the plume. Analysis of groundwater contamination may focus on the soil characteristics and site geology. and the nature of the contaminants. is sometimes included under the category of NPS pollution. and the distinction of point vs. but can contaminate the aquifer below. and is a point source. Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lots.
electrical conductivity. Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts.Causes The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals. etc. and physical or sensory changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration. manganese. and what is a contaminant. Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth. pathogens. subsequent negative environmental effects such as anoxia (oxygen depletion) and severe reductions in water quality may occur.) the concentration is often the key in determining what is a natural component of water. Eutrophication is an increase in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases in the primary productivity of the ecosystem. such as plant matter (e. Alteration of water's physical chemistry includes acidity (change in pH). affecting fish and other animal populations. temperature. and eutrophication. Depending on the degree of eutrophication. Oxygen-depleting substances may be natural materials. . iron.g. High concentrations of naturally-occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna. sodium. Many of the chemical substances are toxic. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring (calcium. leaves and grass) as well as man-made chemicals. and clogs the gills of some fish species.
In some areas of the world the influence can be traced hundred miles from the mouth by studies using hydrology transport models. Elevated water temperatures decreases oxygen levels (which can kill fish) and affects ecosystem composition. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant bypower plants and industrial manufacturers. Transport and chemical reactions of water pollutants Marine pollution Most water pollutants are eventually carried by rivers into the oceans. such as invasion by new thermophilicspecies. Thermal pollution can also be caused by the release of very cold water from the base of reservoirs into warmer rivers.Thermal pollution Potrero Generating Stationdischarges heated water into San Francisco Bay Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Indicator filter feeding species such ascopepods have also been used to study pollutant fates in the New York Bight. Thermal pollution. Advanced computer models such as SWMM or the DSSAM Model have been used in many locations worldwide to examine the fate of pollutants in aquatic systems. for example. results in a change in the physical properties of water. The highesttoxin loads are not directly at the mouth of the Hudson River. unlike chemical pollution. Urban runoff may also elevate temperature in surface waters. .
g. Further south then are areas of oxygen depletion. The Hudson discharge flows south along the coast due to coriolis force. caused by chemicals using up oxygen and by algae blooms. caused by excess nutrients from algal cell death and decomposition. Some of these facilities can install a pre-treatment system to remove the toxic components. then large fish eat smaller fish. Heated water generated by power plants or manufacturing plants may be controlled with: . heavy metals. toxic pollutants (e. since several days are required for incorporation into planktonic tissue.but 100 kilometers south. because toxins climb the food chain after small fish consume copepods. Each successive step up the food chain causes a stepwise concentration of pollutants such as heavy metals Industrial wastewater Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic sewage that can be treated by municipal facilities. oil and grease). Fish andshellfish kills have been reported. Some industries have been successful at redesigning their manufacturing processes to reduce or eliminate pollutants. need specialized treatment systems. through a process called pollution prevention. Industries generating large volumes of wastewater typically operate their own complete on-site treatment systems.g. and then send the partiallytreated wastewater to the municipal system. Industries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of conventional pollutants (e. volatile organic compounds) or other nonconventional pollutants such as ammonia. etc.
crop rotation. convection. and radiation cooling towers. crop mulching. Common techniques include contour plowing. and protect water quality. animalmanure. irrigation water. Point source wastewater treatment . Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) are typically applied to farmland as commercial fertilizer. and atmospheric deposition. planting perennial crops and installingriparian buffers. man-made bodies of water designed for cooling by evaporation. To minimize pesticide impacts. Farmers can develop and implement nutrient management plans to reduce excess application of nutrients. reduce reliance on chemical pesticides. Nutrients may also enter runoff from crop residues. farmers may use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques (which can include biological pest control) to maintain control over pests. or spraying of municipal or industrial wastewater (effluent) or sludge. which transfer waste heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and/or heat transfer cogeneration.cooling ponds. Agricultural wastewater Nonpoint source controls Sediment (loose soil) washed off fields is the largest source of agricultural pollution in the United States.Farmers may utilize erosion controls to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields. wildlife. a process where waste heat is recycled for domestic and/or industrial heating purposes.
Farms with large livestock and poultry operations. such as factory farms. it’s unintended and unknown that actions are contributing to water pollution. many of the situations that cause water pollution can be stopped or decreased. but usually leads back to these sources: • • • Industry Agriculture Homes Man-made situations are typically the causes of water pollution. Ways Water is Polluted . water pollution is a result of various things. Often. Effects of Water Pollution & Solutions The effects of water pollution strongly impact the balance of nature. which ultimately impacts all humans. Some animal slurries are treated by mixing with straw and compostedat high temperature to produce a bacteriologically sterile and friable manure for soil improvement. With proper care and consideration. are called concentrated animal feeding operations or feedlots in the US and are being subject to increasing government regulation. Constructed wetlands are sometimes used to facilitate treatment of animal wastes. Types of Water Pollution Without getting too technical.  Animal slurries are usually treated by containment in anaerobic lagoons before disposal by spray or trickle application to grassland. Many times it’s the last thought on someone’s mind that their actions could significantly impact the environment locally and beyond.
• Thermal pollution occurs when water used to cool hot machinery is released into waterways and the temperature of the water is drastically increased. it contaminates local natural waterways including streams. these chemicals join the run-off water and flow into streams. Additionally. Additionally. This causes the death of many aquatic animals. are pollutants in the fact that they cause the waterways to become cloudy and muddy. this waste decreases the amount of oxygen in water. This temperature change may cause aquatic life to die and numbers to be reduced. Additionally. rivers and lakes. Direct disposal of waste into natural waterways causes waste to build up within the water. too. rivers and lakes. thus polluting them. without any chemicals. causing the death of aquatic animals or other organisms. • Agriculture It’s common for farmers to use fertilizers and other chemicals on their crops to help them grow. They pollute by disposing of waste directly into waterways. such a temperature increase decreases the amount of oxygen in water. emitting toxic gases that cause acid rain and changing the temperature of water with their disposals into waterways. However. Even just the sediments of dirt. Homes . When the acid rain falls. • The emission of toxic fumes into the air causes acid rain. these chemicals and nutrients added to the soil can soak into the underground water supplies. when it rains. causing more of a chance of death to organisms. Other animals drinking the water may become ill and die. A pungent odor is the result.Industry There are three main ways that industries contribute to water pollution.
thus breaking a link in the food chain. The effects of water pollution are not always immediate. Even if taken to landfills. The decreased oxygen causes harm to other organisms living in the water. • Affects body organs: The consumption of highly contaminated water can cause injury to the heart and kidneys. They are sometimes never known by the person responsible for the pollution. Spread of disease: Drinking polluted water can cause cholera or typhoid infections. Any time a septic system is not installed properly or bursts beneath the ground. consideration and preparation. Human waste. However. • Flooding: The erosion of soil into waterways causes flooding. Algae grow according to how much waste is in a water source. the underground water supply may be polluted. water pollution has a huge impact on our lives. Other animals are affected when they eat dead fish in contaminated streams. • WATER POLLUTION CAUSES .Households are a leading cause of water pollution by the trash they create. pollute water. Effects of Water Pollution There are various effects of water pollution. disposed of typically by sewers. It doesn’t take much effort just a little thought. • Harms the food chain: Toxins within water can harm aquatic organisms. Oils and anti-freeze leaked from vehicles pollute water. With knowledge. water pollution can be decreased. They are not always seen at the point of contamination. • Harms animals: Birds that get into oil-contaminated water die from exposure to cold water and air due to feather damage. • Causes algae in water: Urea. especially with heavy rainfall. animal manure and vegetable peelings are food for algae. along with diarrhea. often this trash finds its way to natural waterways. Bacteria feed off the algae. decreasing the amount of oxygen in the water.
Discharges of chlorinated solvents from Dry Cleaners to sewer lines are also a recognized source of water pollution with these persistent and harmful solvents. However. Storm water runoff – carrying various oils. Cr and other metals) and other particulate matter into the air. Burning of fossil fuels – the emitted ash particles usually contain toxic metals (such as As or Pb). the risk of polluting surface and groundwater exist. These usually forms sheens on the water surface. read more at Mining Sites. read more at Industrial Sites.carrying fertilizers. ponds). petroleum products and other contaminants from urban and rural areas (ditches). read more at Foundry. pesticides/insecticides/herbicides and other pollutants into water bodies such as lakes. too. Intended/illegal discharges of waste – while such occurrences are less common today. rivers. they may still happen due to the high cost of proper waste disposal. Foundries – have direct emissions of metals (including Hg. The usual effect of this type of pollution consists in algae growing in affected water bodies. The left material may easily generate sulfuric acid in the presence of precipitation water. the most common causes of water pollution are the anthropogenic ones including: • • • • • • • • • Agriculture runoff . Pb. An example are ship accidents such as Exxon Valdez disaster which spilled large amounts of petroleum products into the ocean. Mining activities – mining activities involve crushing the rock that usually contains many trace metals and sulfides. This is a sign of increased nitrates and phosphates in water that could be harmful for human health. Please. Accidental leaks and spills – associated with handling and storage of chemicals may happen anytime and. Burning will also add a series of oxides including carbon dioxide to air and respectively water bodies. Industrial discharges – may add significant pollution to water bodies.The causes of water pollution vary and may be both natural and anthropogenic. Please. Fe. Please. although they are usually contained soon after they occur. illegal waste discharges into water bodies were recorded all over the world. Leaking sewer lines – may add trihalomethanes (such as chloroform) as well as other contaminants into groundwater ending up contaminating surface water. . Mn. but are usually regulated today.
.• • • • • • • Transportation – even though Pb has been banned in gasoline in the U. vehicle emissions pollute the air with various tailpipe compounds (including sulfur and nitrogen compounds. as well as carbon oxides) that may end up in water bodies via deposition with precipitation water. and many other countries. Animal wastes – contribute to the biological pollution of water streams. Plastic materials/wastes in contact with water – may degrade slowly releasing harmful compounds for both human health and ecosystem. Construction activities – introduce a series of contaminants into the ground that may eventually end up in groundwater.S. Disposal of personal care products and household chemicals (including detergents and various cleaning solutions) – this is a serious problem since the releases to water are unpredictable and hard if not impossible to control. It is up to each of us to minimize this contribution to water pollution by controlling our consumption and disposal of such products as well as trying to recycle as much as we can! Improper disposal of car batteries and other batteries – may add metals Leaking landfills – may pollute the groundwater below the landfill with a large variety of contaminants (whatever is stored by the landfill).
This is caused by pesticide contamination from the soil and this can infect the drinking water and lead to huge problems. In poor countries. it is called groundwater pollution. like nuclear waste. In case the pollution has multiple sources. Most of these microorganims thrive in water and fish. . Pollution Microbiological Pollution This is a natural form of water pollution caused by microorganisms. When the pollution affects the environment many miles away from the source. it is called transboundary pollution. rivers and lakes. These are found on the exterior of the Earth's crust. Nutrients. microbiological. In case this water becomes polluted. People use aquifers to obtain drinking water and build wells to access it.Different types of Water Pollution The different types of water pollution are point-source. it is called point-source pollution. When the pollution has a single source like an oil spill. oceans. Many types of pollution affect the immediate area surrounding the source. there are no facilities to treat polluted water and hence the health of people are affected. it is called nonpoint-source pollution. and oxygen depletion are some of the varieties of water pollution. nonpointsource and transboundary. Surface water. Surface Water Pollution These are the natural water resources of the Earth. Groundwater Considerable amount of Earth's water is found in soil or under rock structures called aquifers. viruses and protozoa cause serious diseases like cholera. land animals and humans to become ill. suspended matter and chemicals are responsible for such pollution. groundwater. Microorganims like bacteria.
When a lot of biodegradable material is mixed with water. Most of these are found in wastewater and fertilizers. If birds. The marine life on the floor of rivers and lakes are harmed. The algae use up the oxygen in the water and leave none for the surrounding marine life and this can damage other aquatic organisms. Drinking water and clog filters can be contaminated. These can cause excess weed and algae growth if there are large concentrations in water. Suspended Matter As the molecules are very large to mix between the water molecules. The suspended particles finally settle and form a thick silt at the bottom. As oxygen levels in water are depleted. some pollutants do not dissolve in water. Petroleum is a different type of chemical pollutant that pollutes water by oil spills in case a . Nutrients These are necessary for plant growth and development. Metals and solvents from industrial work pollute rivers and lakes. Run-off's of these pesticides poisons aquatic life. Pesticides are used to control weeds. This is called oxygen depletion. Aquatic life is endangered by these and made infertile. the number of microorganims increase and utilize the available oxygen. This material is termed as particulate matter and can lead to water pollution. Some anaerobic microorganisms are harmful to people. Biodegradable substances are suspended in water and raise the quantity of anaerobic microorganisms present. humans and other animals eat infected fish they may be poisoned. Chemical Agricultural and Industrial work has the use of many chemicals that can run-off into water and pollute it.Oxygen depletion Pollution Microorganisms that thrive in water feed on biodegradable substances. environment and animals and they produce toxins like ammonia and sulfides. insects and fungi. harmless aerobic microorganisms die and anaerobic microorganims prosper.
fish respiration is affected. This loses their ability to fly. but can spread for miles. This oil can cause the death of many fish and stick to the feathers of seabirds. This is an aging process that fills in the water body with sediment and organic matter. In case these sediments enter various water bodies. Mostly this prevention of water pollution acts are imposed on the industrial sector than any other. This heavy industrialization with bigger area of working chemical factories . rivers and other water bodies. As increasing pollution is becoming a serious problem these days. Water Pollution Prevention Water pollution prevention in India is the most important work for the environment which includes the support from both government and as well as form people also. Eutrophication occurs under natural conditions. water pollution prevention procedure is been working with its full efficiency. Pollution happens when silt and other suspended solids like soil. For this water pollution control various rules and regulations under various acts are imposed on several sectors. thus. washoff plowed fields enters river banks. lakes. plant productivity and water depth is decreased. Oil spills have a localized effect on wildlife.ship ruptures. construction. Major part of the country is affected and working on water pollution prevention in India with these sorts of water and air pollutions just because of the industrial sector.
Hence. Water pollution control can also be done by lowering the usage of chemicals and fertilizers. The pollutants must be treated chemically and must be converted into the non toxic substances. water cooling. it can be noticed that. It is best controlled by the dilution of water. Their main aim is to keep the water cool . Education and identification for such problems also helps in prevention of water pollution. Apart form above water pollution prevention steps. cooling can be wet or dry. Bann on dumping of waste materials and hazardous chemicals can also act as a good water pollution control. How to control water pollution? Water pollution can be controlled in the multiple ways. Things which are needed for water pollution prevention in India are sudden change and gradual action should be taken toward it. The low level of radioactive wastes in the water is removed by the oxidation of ponds. installation of filtration system is also a good step. At homes clearing up drains also acts as water pollution control. There have been many programs started similarly to this water pollution prevention in India. It can be understood that dumping is not the way to get rid of the waste materials and also make hurdles in the path for prevention of water pollution. It is the most effective and working prevention of water pollution. a small effort from cleaning the waste before throwing in to garbage or drains can also contribute a lot in water pollution prevention. Above all.directly dumps tons of waste chemicals and materials in seas and oceans against water pollution control which causes such problems. There are certain chemicals which act on the organic insecticideand are used in the pesticide. There are different techniques which are very helpful in the process of thermal pollution and involve the cooling. Primary education and awareness is also a good measure for water pollution prevention. Water conservation is also a step for water pollution prevention in India. evaporation. Personal precautions like driving lesser vehicles can also prove to be a good prevention of water pollution. a better water pollution prevention needs a higher level of interest which must be given upon it.
The polluted water can be treated by the use of a plant known as water hyacinth which is also referred as kaloli. It could be an invaluable tool for public health programmes in developing countries. hepatitis A and tapeworms. Dr Ebdon found a strain of the bacterial species. Bacteroides ovatus. One must avoid the large ponds. The heavy metals are also removed by it. Current tests using indicator organisms however. can be used in the field and gives results in a day. among the human waste that his team tested in sewage works. a researcher in the School of Environment and Technology. The shallow ponds must be used to store the domestic and industrial wastes. but in developing countries tens of thousands of people die each year from water-borne infections that cause diseases like cholera. The reclaimed polluted water can be used in making fertilizers as it is rich in phosphorous.in rivers and streams. The waste has a presence of sunlight and organic nutrients which may lead to the larger growth of bacteria which act on the waste matter. Dr Ebdon. It can also be used for the irrigation and factories purposes. cannot distinguish between human and non-human faeces – which are much less likely to carry human pathogens – so they are not accurate. CASE STUDY We take our unpolluted tap water for granted. potassium and nitrogen. dysentery. The proper sewage treatment plans play a crucial role in the reclaimed polluted water. It costs only a few pounds. typhoid. It deals with the biological and chemical waste. whose presence tells us that faecal contamination has occurred and that the pathogens that cause infection in humans might be present. has developed a test that can accurately identify the presence of human faeces. Many such cases occur because faeces from an infected person get into the water supply. A simpler approach is to look for a group of microbes. This bacterium (GB124) is about one- . There must be a law which ensures that the industries must treat the waste before the water is discharged into the rivers and seas. but this is too expensive for developing countries. known as indicator organisms. Ideally we would test the water for all of the thousand or so organisms that might cause disease.
We all know that water pollution can affect our health badly and seriously. so do bacteria. Let us notdestroy it nor pollute it. However. let us be disciplined and responsible enough to save. say. andother bodies of water because we will also bare the burden of this problem. including GB124. more quickly than many of the disease-causing infectious organisms that also find their way into the water. We need . killing it as they do so. Itcan cause such sicknesses and diseases that will badly affect our health. Because GB124 is found only in human sewage. It is our only source of living. And so therefore. and help prevent our waters from being polluted. the time where clean water is insufficient tothe people and animals. its presence in a river indicates that human excrement has polluted the water. and the time where in our sources of water arediminishing or until the time where there are totally no sources of water.especially in different bodies of water? Water pollution is the caused of ourundisciplined actions and irresponsibility. protect. ready to attack more bacterial cells and repeat the cycle. fresh and clean water. Just as humans get viral infections like flu. which then assemble into new viruses.thousandth of a millimetre wide. So it would be unwise to drink water that had tested negative for live GB124 because it could still contain. Dr Ebdon. These then burst out of the cell. humans are only creatingproblems that consequently we will also carry the burden of these problems. has found a way around this problem. Let us act for a change. the bacterium dies after a day or so out of the body. we should save rivers. It is harmless to humans and could now prove vitally important. We. Andso. Neither wenor every living thing can’t survive without water. Let’s just realize howimportant our mother nature is. dysentery or cholera bacteria. Conclusion Aren’t we aware of the different problems occurring in our nature. working alongside colleagues from the University of Barcelona.We should not wait for the time until people are competing just to getsufficient.we should act as early as now. Viruses called phages enter the bacterium's cells and hijack its protein-making apparatus to make copies of their body parts. protect andconserve not only sources of water but also our mother nature because ournature provides and helps us in our daily lives. save. Weall know how important water is. Water is essential to our body. seas and oceans. lives in the human gut and leaves the body in faeces. weshould keep.
especially the different bodies of water. Act right now .and we should helpsave and conserve our mother nature. there are many simple ways in how we can help. Absolutely. Changeourselves before we construct changes in our nature.