You are on page 1of 5

Non-Hydrocarbon Alcohol 1.

General formula: CnH2n + 1OH

Where n = 1, 2, 3 (n = number of carbon)

2. Alcohols are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. 3. The functional group in alcohols is hydroxyl group, OH. Name of alcohol Molecular formula of alcohol Methanol CH3OH Ethanol C2H5OH Propanol / Propan-1-ol C3H7OH Butanol / Butan-1-ol C4H9OH Pentanol / Pentan-1-ol C5H11OH Hexanol / Hexan-1-ol C6H13OH Heptanol / Heptan-1-ol C7H15OH Octanol / Octan-1-ol C8H17OH Nonanol / Nonan-1-ol C9H19OH Decanol / Decan-1-ol C10H21OH 4. Physical properties of alcohol Name Methanol Ethanol Propanol Butanol Pentanol

Molecular formula CH3OH C2H3OH C3H5OH C4H7OH C5H9OH

Melting point (C) -97 -117 -127 -90 -79

Boiling point (C) 65 78 97 118 138

Physical state at 25C Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid

Solubility in water all members in alcohol are very soluble in water (miscible with water). Volatility all alcohols are highly volatile. Colour and Smell alcohols are colourless liquid and have sharp smell. Boiling and melting points all alcohols in general have low boiling points (78C).

5. Chemical properties of alcohol

Combustion of alcohol Complete combustion of alcohol. C2H5OH + 3O2 > 2CO2 + 3H2O (Alcohol burns with clean blue flames. Alcohol burns plenty of

oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. This reaction releases a lot of heat. Therefore, it is a clean fuel as it does not pollute the air.) Other example: 2C3H7OH + 9O2 > 6CO2 + 8H2O Oxidation of ethanol In the laboratory, two common oxidising agents are used for the oxidation of ethanol which are acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution (orange to green) and acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution (purple to colourless). C2H5OH + 2[O] > CH3COOH + H2O Ethanol oxidised to ethanoic acid (a member of the homologous series of carboxylic acids will be discussed in Part 6). Other example: C3H7OH + 2[O] > C2H5COOH + H2O Removal of water (Dehydration) Alcohol can change to alkene by removal of water molecules (dehydration). It results in the formation of a C=C double bond. CnH2n+1OH > CnH2n + H2O C2H5OH > C2H4 + H2O Two methods are being used to carry out a dehydration in the laboratory. a) Ethanol vapour is passed over a heated catalyst such as aluminium oxide, unglazed porcelain chips, pumice stone or porous pot. b) Ethanol is heated under reflux at 180C with excess concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4. Other example: C3H7OH > C3H6 + H2O

6. Uses of Alcohol

Alcohol as a solvent (cosmetics, toiletries, thinners, varnishes, perfumes). Alcohol as a fuel (fuel for racing car, clean fuel, alternative fuel). Alcohol as a source of chemicals (polymer, explosives, vinegar, fiber). Alcohol as a source of medical product (antiseptics for skin disinfection, rubbing alcohol).

7. Misuse and Abuse

Depressant drug Alcoholic drinks Addictive drug

SPM Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds Non-Hydrocarbon Carboxylic Acids 1. General formula: CnH2n+1COOH

Where n = 0, 1, 2, 3 (n = number of carbon)

2. Carboxylic acids are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. 3. The functional group in alcohols is carboxyl group, COOH. Name of carboxylic acids Methanoic acid(Formic acid) Ethanoic acid(Acetic acid) Propanoic acid Butanoic acid Molecular formula of alcohol HCOOH CH3COOH C2H5COOH C3H7COH

4. Physical properties of carboxylic acid Name Molecularformula Boiling point (C) HCOOH 101 118 141 164

Methanoic acid(Formic acid) Ethanoic CH3COOH acid(Acetic acid) Propanoic acid C2H5COOH Butanoic acid C3H7COH

Solubility in water generally in carboxylic acid (the less than four carbon atoms) are very soluble in water and ionise partially to form weak . Density of carboxylic acid density of carboxylic acid increases due to the increases in the number of carbon atoms in a molecule. Boiling points all carboxylic acid in general have relatively high boiling points than the corresponding alkanes. This is due to the presence of carboxyl group in carboxylic acid. Smell carboxylic acid (< 10 carbon) are colourless and pungent smell. Carboxylic acid (>10 carbons) are wax-like solids.

5. Preparation of carboxylic acid

Oxidation of an alcohol The oxidation of ethanol is used to prepare ethanoic acid. C2H5OH + 2[O] > CH3COOH + H2O Carried out by refluxing* ethanol with an oxidising agent [acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution orange colour turns to green / acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution purple colour turns to colourless] * reflux = upright Liebig condense to prevent the loss of a volatile liquid by vaporisation.

6. Chemical properties of carboxylic acid

Acid properties Ethanoic acid is a weak monoprotic acid that ionises partially in water (produce a low concentration of hydrogen ions). CH3COOH <> CH3COO- + H+ Ethanoic acid turns moist blue litmus paper red. Reaction with metals Ethanoic acid reacts with reactive metals (copper and metals below it in the reactivity series cannot react with ethanoic acid). (K, Na, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu, Hg, Au) 2CH3COOH + Zn > Zn(CH3COO)2 + H2 In this reaction, a colourless solution (zinc ethanoate) is formed. 2CH3COOH + Mg > Mg(CH3COO)2 + H2 In this reaction, a colourless solution (magnesium ethanoate) is formed. Reaction with bases acid neutralises alkalis (sodium hydroxide). CH3COOH + NaOH > CH3COONa + H2O In this reaction, a salt (sodium ethanoate) and water are formed. Reaction with carbonates Ethanoic acid reacts with metal carbonates (calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, zinc carbonate). 2CH3COOH + CaCO3 > Ca(CH3COO)2 + CO2 + H2O In this reaction, a salt (calcium ethanoate), carbon dioxide and water are formed. Reaction with alcohols (Esterification) Ethanoic acid reacts with alcohol (ethanol, propanol, butanol) CH3CO-OH + H-OC4H9 > CH3COOC4H9 + H2O (Concentrated H2SO4 is a catalyst) In this reaction, an ester (colourless sweet-smelling liquid) (butyl ethanoate) and water are formed.

7. Uses of Carboxylic Acid

Carboxylic acid (methanoic acid and ethanoic acid) is used to coagulate latex. Vinegar (dilute 4% of ethanoic acid) is used as preservative and flavouring. Ethanoic acid is used to make polyvinvyl acetate which is used to make plastics and emulsion paints.

Benzoic acid is used as food preservative. Butanoic acid is used to produce ester (artificial flavouring).