Cadlan, Pili, Camarines Sur S/Y 2011-2012


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Yet medical writers often use these words in special meanings. often involving the opposing pro-life and pro-choice movements (both self-named). In many parts of the world there is prominent and divisive public controversy over the ethical and legal issues of abortion. in the human embryo. when induced in the developed world in accordance with local law.DEFINITION OF TERMS ABORTION is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo before it is viable. before the third month of gestation. but does not survive the delivery. unsafe abortions(those performed by persons without proper training or outside of a medical environment) result in approximately 70 thousand maternal deaths and 5 million disabilities per year globally. Viability may exist in the seventh month of gestation. is among the safest procedures in medicine. though less properly. cultural and religious status of abortion vary substantially around the world. in which case it is usually called a miscarriage. Abortion and abortion-related issues feature prominently in the national politics in many nations. that is. Abortion (from the Latin word aboriri. or it can be purposely induced."In it the fetus dies while yet within the generative organs of the mother. An abortion can occur spontaneously. However. The word miscarriage is taken in the same wide sense. Forty percent of the world's women are able to access therapeutic and elective abortions within gestational limits. The term abortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy. "to perish") may be briefly defined as "the loss of a fetal life. The term abortion is also applied. In this article we shall take the word in its widest meaning. The legality. If the child survives its premature birth. to cases in which the child is become viable. and other traditional methods. the use of sharpened tools. Contemporary medicine utilizes medications and surgical procedures to induce abortion. but it cannot safely be presumed before the eighth month. with 20 million of those performed unsafely. that is. Abortion. but before viability. The incidence of abortion has declined worldwide as access to family planning education and contraceptive services has increased. . restricting abortion to the time when the embryo has not yet assumed specific features. An estimated 42 million abortions are performed globally each year. prevalence. while the birth of a viable child before the completed term of nine months is styled premature birth. miscarriage occurs later. Induced abortion has a long history and has been facilitated by various methods including herbal abortifacients. or it is ejected or extracted from them before it is viable. physical trauma. and treat of abortion as occurring at any time between conception and safe delivery. before it is sufficiently developed to continue its life by itself. there is no abortion for this word always denotes the loss of fetal life.

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An abortion is medically referred to as a therapeutic abortion when it is performed to save the life of the pregnant woman. and doctor or patient preference.[8]Specific procedures may also be selected due to legality. is the unintentional expulsion of an embryo or fetus before the 20th to 22nd week of gestation.[17]Other causes include vascular disease (such as lupus).[14] Between 15% and 30% of known pregnancies end in clinically apparent miscarriage. infection.[7] which increases in size as the pregnancy progresses. or during delivery. prevent harm to the woman's physical or mental health. also known as miscarriage. and many pregnancies are lost before medical practitioners have the ability to detect the presence of an embryo. diabetes. A pregnancy that ends before 37 weeks of gestation resulting in a live-born infant is known as a "premature birth" or a "preterm birth". regional availability.[6] A pregnancy can be intentionally aborted in several ways.[15] The most common cause of spontaneous abortion during the first trimester is chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo/fetus. Over a third are unintended and about a fifth end in induced abortion. The manner selected often depends upon the gestational age of the embryo or fetus. Spontaneous Spontaneous abortion. Only 30 to 50% of conceptions progress past the first trimester. Reasons for procuring induced abortions are typically characterized as either therapeutic or elective.[9][10] An abortion is referred to as an elective or voluntary abortion when it is performed at the request of the woman for non-medical reasons.[16] Advancing maternal age and a patient history of previous spontaneous abortions are the two leading factors associated with a greater risk of spontaneous . or to selectively reduce the number of fetuses to lessen health risks associated with multiple pregnancy. The vast majority of those that do not progress are lost before the woman is aware of the conception.[5] Most abortions result from unintended pregnancies. terminate a pregnancy where indications are that the child will have a significantly increased chance of premature morbidity or mortality or be otherwise disabled.TYPES OF ABORTION Induced Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year worldwide. When a fetus dies in utero after viability.[10][16] accounting for at least 50% of sampled early pregnancy losses. and abnormalities of the uterus. Premature births and stillbirths are generally not considered to be miscarriages although usage of these terms can sometimes overlap. other hormonal problems. depending upon the age and health of the pregnant woman. it is usually termed "stillborn".

[23] Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) abortion consists of removing the fetus or embryo. how early in pregnancy they can be used.[24] From the 15th week until approximately the 26th. Premature labor and delivery can be induced with prostaglandin. and does not require cervical dilation. gemeprost is used in the UK and Sweden. categorically called abortifacients. while electric vacuum aspiration (EVA) abortion uses an electric pump. other techniques must be used.abortion.[21] Misoprostol can be used alone.) When used within 49 days gestation. approximately 92% of women undergoing medical abortion with a combined regimen completed it without surgical intervention. this can be coupled with . medical abortions constituted 13% of all abortions in the United States. Curettage refers to cleaning the walls of the uterus with a curette.[18] Induction methods Medical Medical abortions are those induced with pharmaceuticals. MVA. suction-aspiration or vacuum abortion is the most common method. but has a lower efficacy rate than combined regimens. also called sharp curettage. also known as "mini-suction" and "menstrual extraction". placenta and membranes by suction using a manual syringe. intentional trauma or stress to cause miscarriage is considered induced abortion or feticide.. including examination of the uterine lining for possible malignancy. can be used in very early pregnancy.[22] Surgical A vacuum aspiration abortion at eight weeks gestational age (six weeks after fertilization). and whether cervical dilation is necessary. These techniques are comparable.[19] in 2010 the figure increased to 17%. In 2005. Dilation and evacuation (D&E) consists of opening the cervix of the uterus and emptying it using surgical instruments and suction. and differ in the mechanism used to apply suction.S. the second most common method of surgical abortion.[17] A spontaneous abortion can also be caused by accidental trauma. is a standard gynecological procedure performed for a variety of reasons. The World Health Organization recommends this procedure.Dilation and curettage (D&C). and abortion. investigation of abnormal bleeding. In cases of failure of medical abortion.[20] Combined regimens include methotrexate ormifepristone. followed by a prostaglandin (either misoprostol or gemeprost: misoprostol is used in the U. only when MVA is unavailable. 1: Amniotic sac 2: Embryo 3: Uterine lining 4: Speculum 5: Vacurette 6: Attached to a suction pump In the first 15 weeks. surgical abortion must be used to complete the procedure.

abortions can also be induced by intact dilation and extraction (IDX) (also called intrauterine cranial decompression). a number of herbs reputed to possess abortifacient properties have been used in folk medicine: tansy.[29] Abortion is sometimes attempted by causing trauma to the abdomen. Hysterotomy abortion is a procedure similar to a caesarean section and is performed under general anesthesia. and is not recommended by physicians. there is an ancient tradition of attempting abortion through forceful abdominal massage. and the now-extinct silphium (see history of abortion). self-induced abortion include misuse of misoprostol. can cause serious internal injuries without necessarily succeeding in inducing miscarriage. or by hysterotomy. black cohosh.[28] The use of herbs in such a manner can cause serious even lethal side effects." which has been federally banned in the United States.[25] Other methods Historically. if severe. These methods are rarely seen in developed countries where surgical abortion is legal and available.[31] . such as multiple organ failure. and insertion of nonsurgical implements such as knitting needles and clothes hangers into the uterus.[26] Reported methods of unsafe. which requires surgical decompression of the fetus's head before evacuation. induction of labor.pennyroyal. The degree of force.[26] One of the bas reliefs decorating the temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia depicts a demon performing such an abortion upon a woman who has been sent to theunderworld. IDX is sometimes called "partial-birth abortion.injecting theamniotic fluid with hypertonic solutions containing saline or urea. It requires a smaller incision than a caesarean section and is used during later stages of pregnancy. abortion may be performed by IDX as described above.[30] In Southeast Asia. After the 16th week of gestation. In the third trimester of pregnancy.

Health care providers such as physicians. acts without the consent of the woman. if he acts without violence. any pharmacist who. by whom. abortion practiced by a physician or midwife dispensing of abortives. Although the Catholic church allows induced abortions for women whose health is endangered by the child. thus. there is an unknown number of women who perform induced abortions to stop unwanted pregnancies. without the proper prescription from a physician. however. Abortion in the Philippines is considered taboo because of its legal. The penalties cover: any one who causes intentional abortion by using violence on the person of the pregnant woman. the Philippine Constitution does not have a specific provision that allows for exemption. and their corresponding penalties: reclusion temporal. the law has been hard to apply because no aggrieved party or complainant comes to the courts to file a criminal case on an abortion. Abortion remains a controversial topic for many conservative Filipinos who are concerned with its social and psychological repercussions. religious and cultural implications. any person who causes unintentional abortion by violence. While it makes abortion punishable. It only indicates that the right to life of the unborn is an issue that Philippine society. midwives and pharmacists who perform the act of abortion even with the consent of the pregnant woman may face up to six years in prison and/or have their license suspended or revoked. There are many types of abortions that range from surgery to invasive techniques such as massages and medicine. Article 256-259) defines the various ways and means by which abortion is committed. Despite the criminalization of the act. Philippine Abortion Ban The Constitution of the Philippines mandates that the state shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception (sec. The Revised Penal Code (Act No. thereby negating all other reasons behind induced abortion invalid except endangering the life of the mother. exempts a mother who consents to an abortion if it would mean her survival. The Revised Penal Code.ABORTION IN THE PHILIPPINES Abortion is illegal in the Philippines. art. Basically. II). abortion practiced by the woman herself or by her parents. 3815. in general. and prision correccional . dispenses of abortives. prison mayor. y y y y y . has refused to confront. only a limited number of investigatory reports have been conducted on the topic. But just because the law is hardly applied does not mean that crime is less offensive. 2. or. The woman who undergoes the procedure for any reason may spend up to six years in prison. abortion is any procedure to end a pregnancy.

"Section 12. It is also notable that the provision is enumerated as among several state policies. e. Article XVI. and even a requirement that "all educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors. It may be argued that an abortion to save the mother's life could be classified as a justifying circumstance (duress as opposed to self-defense) that would bar criminal prosecution under the Revised Penal Code. Article XIV) Whether these provisions may. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. Article 258 further imposes a higher prison term on the woman or her parents if the abortion is undertaken "in order to conceal [the woman's] dishonor". although the enactment of a more definitive provision sanctioning the ban was not successful. II) The provision was crafted by the Constitutional Commission which drafted the charter with the intention of providing for constitutional protection of the abortion ban. by themselves. this has yet to be adjudicated by the Philippine Supreme Court. in part. Proposals to liberalize Philippine abortion laws have been opposed by the Catholic Church." (Section 19. 258 and 259 of the Code mandate imprisonment for the woman who undergoes the abortion. 12. The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. Article II). and its opposition has considerable influence in the predominantly Catholic country. as well as for any person who assists in the procedure. Article II). has ruled that a provision requiring that the State "guarantee equal access to . the affirmation of labor "as a primary social economic force" (Section 14. the recognition of Filipino as "the national language of the Philippines" (Section 6. The present Constitution of the Philippines." (sec. The act is criminalized by the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines. even if they be the woman's parents. Section 1). which are generally regarded in law as unenforceable in the absence of implementing legislation. However. Art.g. enacted in 1987. the equal protection of "the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception" (Section 12. the "Filipino family as the foundation of the nation" (Article XV. The Court. which was enacted in 1930 and remains in effect today. Articles 256.1..Legal basis for Philippine abortion ban Article II of the 1987 Philippine Constitution says. for example. There is no law in the Philippines that expressly authorizes abortions in order to save the woman's life. and the general provisions which do penalize abortion make no qualifications if the woman's life is endangered. The 1987 RP Constitution also contains several other provisions enumerating various state policies including. However. pronounces as among the policies of the State that "[The State] shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. the constitutionality of abortion restrictions has yet to be challenged before the Philippine Supreme Court. a physician or midwife. be the source of enforceable rights without implementing legislation has been the subject of considerable debate in the legal sphere and within the Supreme Court.

in 1994 there were 400. Abortion practices in the Philippines One study estimated that. 12% of all maternal deaths in 1994 were due to unsafe abortion according to the Department of Health of the Philippines. Article II of the Constitution. despite legal restrictions.[b] Any legal challenge to abortion restrictions in the Philippines would necessarily have to evaluate the legal force given to Section 12. . and thus could not bar the disallowance of so-called "nuisance candidates" in presidential elections.opportunities to public service" could not be enforced without implementing legislation.However. The Department of Health has created a program to address the complications of unsafe abortion.000 abortions performed illegally in the Philippines and 80. Two-thirds of Filipino women who have abortions attempt to self-induce or seek solutions from those who practice folk medicine. Prevention and Management of Abortion and its Complications. This program had been tested in 17 government-run hospitals by 2003.000 hospitalizations of women for abortion-related complications. in another case the Court held that a provision requiring that the State "protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology" did not require implementing legislation to become the source of operative rights.

Abortion has been part of family planning since ancient times. preservation of social order. and the duty to produce fit citizens for the state or community. which has removed abortion from the Criminal Code History er East Germany. and political power issues that surround it. Pro-life forces were led by a combination of conservative groups opposed to abortion on moral grounds. many Western countries began to use statutes to codify or place further restrictions on abortion. ethical. and for slaves who produced abortion in a woman of high status. The harshest penalties were generally reserved for a woman who procured an abortion against her husband's wishes.[citation needed] It was difficult to obtain sufficient evidence to prosecute the women and abortion doctors. He went to prison. and Canada.LAW OF ABORTION Abortion law is legislation and common law which pertains to the provision of abortion. Malta. It has been banned frequently and otherwise limited by law. which ban the procedure entirely. Abortion laws vary widely by country. Under the born alive rule. Henry Morgentaler.[3] The number of abortions worldwide is declining due to increased access to contraception according to WHO. with natural remedies being found amongst a wide variety of tribal people and in all our written sources. the Dominican Republic. El Salvador. and abortion was not treated as murder in English law. he served 10 months. ranging from those in Chile. Nicaragua. however. appealed. Uruguay and Vatican City. practical. abortions continue to be common in many areas where they are illegal.[4] to those in the United Kingdom and the United States.In the 19th century. Abortion has been a controversial subject in many societies through history because of the moral. suffering a heart attack while in solitary confinement. Our earliest texts contain no mention of abortion or abortion law. However. was never convicted by a jury. the fetus was not considered a "reasonable being" in rerum natura. It became clear in the following years.As a matter of common law in England and the United States. and judges and juries were often reluctant to convict. a compromise was reached which deemed most abortions illegal. (He was acquitted by a jury in the 1973 court case. and by medical professionals who were concerned about the danger presented by the procedure and the regular involvement of non-medical personnel in performing abortions.Religious texts often contained severe condemnations of abortion. which restrict abortion after the point of fetal viability.) Many[citation needed] were also outraged at the invasion of privacy and the medical problems resulting from abortions taking place . abortion was illegal anytime after quickening when the movements of the fetus could first be felt by the woman. it is entailed in concerns about male property rights. When it does appear.[2] due to unavailability of modern contraceptives in areas where abortion is illegal. for instance. but the acquittal was overturned by five judges on the Quebec Court of Appeal in 1974.[2] Almost 2/3 of the world's women currently reside in countries where abortion may be obtained on request for a broad range of social. In total. economic or personal reasons. abortion rates are similar in countries where the procedure is legal and in countries where it is not according to the World Health Organization(WHO). and was again acquitted. that illegal abortions continued to take place in large numbers even where abortions were expressly illegal. recommending penance but seldom enforcing secular punishment.

Hungary. holding that they contradict the constitution's human rights guarantees. Sweden. threat to mother's health. Austria (1975). Mexico) legalized abortion in some special cases (rape. In 1975. Some Soviet allies (Poland. is difficult to measure. However just as it was difficult to convict abortion providers it was also difficult for many countries to get the public support necessary for the elected government to legalize it.[7] and pro-life groups have criticized researchers for allegedly jumping to conclusions about those numbers. As such. In the 1930s. providing that access to contraceptives would result in about 25 million fewer abortions annually. there is an inherent difficulty in the enforcement of international law due to the issue that state sovereignty poses.[8] According to the Guttmacher Institute and the United Nations Population Fund.[5][6] Abortion rates are very difficult to measure in locations where those abortions are illegal. the Soviet Union legalized all abortions in 1920. the Abortion Act of 1967 clarified and prescribed abortions as legal up to 28 weeks. New Zealand (1977). Denmark. the frequency of abortions is similar in developing countries (where abortion is generally restricted) to the frequency in developed countries (where abortion is generally much less restricted). these countries vary greatly in the circumstances under which abortion is permitted. despite the legal status of abortion in the form International law In addition to national and regional laws. Bulgaria. Other countries soon followed. However. the United States (1973 in most states. pursuant to the federal Supreme Court decision which legalized abortion nationwide). France (1975). the Netherlands (1980) and Belgium (1990). the abortion rate in developing countries is largely attributable to lack of access to modern contraceptives. the West German Supreme Court struck down a law legalizing abortion. Italy (1978). Political movements soon coalesced around the legalization of abortion and liberalization of existing laws. many countries had begun to legalize abortions when performed to protect the life of the woman. The adoption of contraceptives in the 1950s and 1960s in Western countries resulted in comparatively few statutory changes on abortion law. Under Vladimir Lenin. Actual access to abortion may vary significantly on the basis of . Czechoslovakia. Tunisia (1973).illegally in medically dangerous circumstances. several countries (Poland. including Canada (1969). and in some cases to protect the health of the woman. there are treaties that may actually be enforced on or within their parties. including almost 15 million fewer unsafe abortions.The following series of tables present the current abortion legislation of the world's nations as divided by continent.By the early 20th century. the effectiveness of even binding multinational efforts to legislate the rights to life and liberty in general. Romania) legalized abortion in the late fifties under Soviet pressure[citation needed]. Turkey. In 1948 abortion was legalized in Japan. Iceland. 1952 in Yugoslavia (on a limited basis) and 1955 in the Soviet Union (on demand). assuming no change in abortion laws. However. fetal malformation). or abortion in specific. In Great Britain. After Germany's reunification. so countries like Canada and the United States legalized it by the will of the Supreme Court instead. National laws On average. but this was fully reversed in 1936 by Joseph Stalin in order to increase population growth.

income. cost. including waiting periods. .geography. health care. Many jurisdictions also place other restrictions on abortion access. the assent of multiple doctors. and spousal or parental notification. social factors. and other issues. the provision of information.





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