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0 OVERVIEW OF BATTERY MODELS There are many types of batteries and many factors that affect battery performan ce. To predict the performance of batteries, many different mathematical models exist. None of these models are completely accurate nor do any include all neces sary performance-effecting factors. State of charge (SOC) Battery storage capacity Rate of charge/discharge Temperature Age/shelf life 1.1 ELECTROCHEMICAL BATTERY MODELS The simplest models are based solely on electrochemistry. These models ignore th ermodynamic and quantum effects. Consequently, while these models can predict en ergy storage they are unable to model phenomena such as the time rate of change of voltage under load. Nor do they include temperature and age effects. 1.1.1 Peukert Equation The Peukert relationship states that the discharge current of a battery decrease s with increasing "constant current" discharge time. Specifically (Bumby, J. R., P. H. Clarke, and I. Forster, U of Durham (UK), "Computer modelling of the auto motive energy requirements for internal combustion engine and battery electric-p owered vehicle", IEE Proceedings, Vol 132, Pt. A, No. 5, Sept 1985, pp. 265-279) : I^n * Ti = constant Where I = discharge current [amp] N = battery constant (n=1.35 for typical lead-acid batteries) Ti = time to discharge at current I [seconds] The Peukert relationship can be written to relate the discharge current at one d ischarge rate to another combination of current and discharge rate: C1 = C2*(I2/I1)^(n-1) Where C = discharge rate Subscripts 1 and 2 refer different discharge-rate states From this relationship the state of charge (SOC) at a constant discharge rate is : SOC = 1 - (I*TIME)/C For non-constant discharge rates the above equation must be modified and evaluat ed in small time steps: DeltaSOC = I2*TIMESTEP/3600/C1*(I2/I1)^(n-1) In the above equation, it is assumed that a given combination of current and dis charge rate (C1 and I1) is known. Given the current at the present time step (I2 ), the corresponding discharge rate is calculated using equation for C1 and plug ged into a incremental form of equation for SOC - yielding the above equation fo r DeltaSOC. 1.1.2 Shepherd Model Equation The Shepherd model is perhaps the best known and most often used battery model f or HEV analysis. The model describes the electrochemical behavior of the battery directly in terms of voltage and current. It is often used in conjunction with the Peukert equation to obtain battery voltage and state of charge given power d raw variations (Moore, Stephen and Merhdad Eshani, Texas A&M, "An Empirically Ba sed Electrosource Horizon Lead-Acid Battery Model", Strategies in Electric and H ybrid Vehicle Design, SP-1156, 1996, pp.135-138 and Unnewehr, L. E. and Nasar, S

. A., Electric Vehicle Technology, John Wiley, pp. 81-91, 1982): Et = Eo - Ri*I - Ki*(1/(1 - f)) Where Et = battery terminal voltage [volts] Eo = open circuit voltage of a battery cell when fully charged [volts] Ri = internal (ohmic) resistance of the battery [ohms] Ki = polarization resistance [ohms] Q = battery capacity [ampere-hour] I = instantaneous current [amps] f = integral of I*dTIME/Qo = accumulated ampere-hours divided by full battery cap acity. The fractional state of charge is then found via Peukert's equation. 1.1.3 Modifications to the Shepherd Model Modifications to the Shepherd model usually consist of adding terms to describe certain aspects of battery performance. The Lindstorm model adds an improved int ernal resistance calculation. The Wood model incorporates secondary equations to describe overcharging and gas generation, along with a self-discharge term (Moo re 1996). 1.1.4 Unnewehr Universal Model Shepherd based his research on constant current discharges at low current levels . His equation tries to find the cut-off point beyond which the terminal voltage decreases very rapidly. In electric vehicles, batteries are not usually used at these extreme states of depth of discharge. Unnewehr and Nasar (Unnewehr and Na sar, 1982) suggest simplifying the Shepherd equation as Et = Eo - Ri*I - Ki*f The open circuit voltage or no-load battery terminal voltage for this model is s imply Eoc = Eo - Ki*f Unnewehr and Nasar go on to define an equivalent internal resistance function R = Ro - KR*f Where Ro = total internal resistance of a fully charged battery KR = experimental constant This equation attempts to model the variation in Ri with respect to SOC. Bu combining this equation with Power=V*I, one cane create the following relatio n to calculate current during discharge: I = (Eoc - SQRT(Eoc2 - 4*R*P)) / (2*R) And during charge as: I = (-Eoc + SQRT(Eoc2 + 4*R*P)) / (2*R) The max power, P, can be computed as: Pmax = Eoc2/(4*R) 1.2 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT BATTERY MODELS Engineers have created many equivalent circuit models for batteries. The charge storing capacity of the battery is often represented by a capacitor such as the Kleckner (discharge-only model) and the Zimmerman-Peterson models (Moore 1996). Other models employ a capacitor in parallel with the "steady state battery" (vol tage source in series with a resistor representing the internal resistance) to l imit the rate of change of battery voltage which a steady state model would not otherwise predict (Dobner, Donald J. and Edward J. Woods, GM Research Laboratori es, "An Electric Vehicle Dynamic Simulation", 1982, pp. 103-115). In such a mode l the total current is the sum of the steady state current and the "capacitor" c urrent. The steady state battery voltage as a function of steady state current i s obtained from tabulation of measured data. The "capacitor" current is calculat ed as the product of the capacitance and dV/dTIME.

1) Thevenin Battery Model This basic equivalent circuit (Salameh, Ziyad M., Margaret A. Casacca and Willia m A. Lynch, U of Lowell, "A Mathematical Model for Lead-Acid Batteries", IEEE Tr ansactions on Energy Conversions, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 1992, pp. 93-97) consists of a voltage source (at Voc) in series with a resistor (internal resistance) an d a parallel combination of a capacitor and resistor (overvoltage model). This m odel is not very accurate since all of its elements can change their value depen ding on the condition and state of the battery. 2) Linear Electric Model The linear electric model is a step above the Thevenin battery model (Salameh et al 1992 and Appelbaum, J and Weiss, R., "Estimation of Battery Charge in Photov oltaic Systems", 16th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 513-518, 198 2). The open circuit voltage, Voc, is applied across the voltage source and a ca pacitor. In series with this is a network of 3 capacitors and 3 resistors that m odels overcharge. In parallel to all these elements is a self-discharge resistor . Although more accurate than the Thevenin model, the components must be "replac ed" as the state of the battery changes. Other researchers define a "linear" battery model as merely a resistor (internal resistance when fully charged) in series with a voltage source. This model, of course, is one step below the Thevenin model. Of the same complexity as this model is the Randles equivalent circuit used for lithium polymer batteries (Baudry, P. et al, "Electro-thermal modelling of polym er lithium batteries for starting period and pulse power", Journal of Power Sour ces, Vol 54, pp. 393-396, 1995). The equivalent circuit consists of a resistor ( Rel, ohmic resistance of the electrolyte and current collector) is series with a parallel combination of a capacitor (Cdl, double-layer capacitance at the catho de/electrolyte and lithium/electrolyte interfaces) and a Warburg complex impedan ce (arising from diffusion of lithium ions) in series with a resistor (Rct, char ge-transfer resistance). 1.2.3 Nonlinear Electric Model This model is a nonlinear modification to the Linear Electric Model (Salameh et al 1992). The ciruit is composed of five sections: The battery capacity is represented by a capacitor, Cb Parallel to Cb is a resistor representing self-discharge, Rp The open circuit voltage, Voc, is the voltage across Cb and/or Rp Overvoltage is modeled by a capacitor-and-resistor-in-parallel-network that is in series with Cb and Rp. The resistor in this network, R1, is modeled as two oppo sing perfect diodes in parallel with one another, representing the differing val ues of overvoltage resistance during discharge and charge modes. Internal resistance is modeled by R1 and by a two-diode-in-parallel-network, Rs, that is in series with the R1-C1-parallel network and the Rp-Cb-parallel network . The internal resistance is the sum of R1 and Rs. Rs represents the electrolyte , plate, and fluid resistance while R1 represents the resistance created by elec trolyte diffusion. As with R1, Rs is modeled as being two opposing diodes in ord er to account for variations between charge and discharge states. The model is nonlinear in the sense that the elements Cb, Rs, Rp and R1 are not constants but are modeled as a function of voltage. Additionally, Rp has a tempe rature dependent term multiplying it. Only C1 is constant. The functional forms specifying the varying resistance and capacitance is determ ined through a set of experiments. The voltage-dependent functionality is curve fit to an equation of the following form: Element_value = K*exp{ [W*(Vm-Voc)] F } Where K = constant (gain multiplier)

W = width factor Vm = mean voltage level Voc = open circuit voltage F = flatness factor The temperature dependence multiplier of Rp is modeled as: TC = (R/Rref) ([Tref-T]/Tref) Where TC = temperature compensation factor R = resistance at temperature T Rref = resistance at reference temperature This model has been tested successfully in conjunction with both lead-acid and N ickel-Cadmium batteries. 1.2 FRACTIONAL DISCHARGE BATTERY MODELS The fractional discharge model measures the battery incremental state of charge in energy terms as (Bumby 1985): DeltaSOC = (Pdi/Edi)*(TIMESTEP/36000) Edi = Pdi * Tdi DeltaSOC = (TIMESTEP/Tdi)/36000 Where Pdi = incremental power density discharge of the battery Edi = battery energy density at power density Pdi Tdi = time the battery pack can discharge at the power density level Pdi [hours] The third equation is a combination of the first two. The relationship between power-density and energy-density is usually obtained th rough experimentation, specifically through a series of constant-power discharge tests. The relationship between power-density and discharge time, Tdi, is then curve fit to a quadratic (which can be written two different ways depending whic h variable is dependent on the other): Pdi = exp[ A*(ln(Tdi)) 2 + B*lin(Tdi) + C ] Tdi = exp{ 0.5*[ -B/A + SQRT( (B/A) 2 - 4*(C-ln(Pdi))/A) ] } Where A, B and C are determined from the curve fit of measured data. For lead-acid batteries, Chapman and Aston (Chapman, P. and M. Aston, "A generic battery model for electric and hybrid vehicle simulation performance prediction ", Electric and Hybrid Vehciles, SP-2, Int. J. Veh. Design, 1982, pp. 82-95) sug gest that variations in C can be used to represent changes in electrolyte temper ature: C = Ck + ln(1 + 0.012*(Tk - T)) Where C = the constant in Pdi and Tdi equations above at temperature T Ck = the constant in Pdi and Tdi equations at temperature Tk 1.3 DYNAMIC LUMPED PARAMETER BATTERY MODEL The dynamic lumped parameter battery model (Bailey, K. E. and B. K. Powell, Ford Research Laboratories, "A Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain Dynamic Model", Pr oceedings of the American Control Conference, 1995, pp. 1677-1682) is based on a static battery model that describes the instantaneous terminal voltage as a fun ction of steady charge/discharge current. To this basic model a first order volt age transient at incipient-steady-current discharge relation is added as well as a polarization capacitive effect. The three underlying equations of this model are: Rint * Cp * dEpc/dTIME = Voc + Rint/Rb*Etb - (Rb + Rint)/Rb*Epc Rb*Ci*dEtb/dTIME = Epc - Rb*Itb - Etb Etb = Voc - (Rb + K/SOC)*Itb

Where Rint = battery internal resistance [ohms] Cp = polarization capacitance Epc = voltage drop due to polarization capacitance Voc = battery open circuit voltage [volt] Rb = battery terminal resistance [ohm] Etb = battery terminal voltage Ci = incipient terminal capacitance Itb = battery discharge current [amps] K = a battery constant SOC = battery state of charge For a lead acid battery, Powell et al (Powell, B. K., K. E. Bailey, and S. R. Ci kanek, Ford Research Laboratories, "Dynamic Modeling and Control of Hybrid Elect ric Vehicle Powertrain Systems", IEEE Control Systems, Oct 1998, pp. 17-33) repl aces the last equation above with: Voc = 338.8 * (0.94246 + 0.05754*SOC) Note that in the above equation, the constant multiplying SOC is misprinted in t he Powell paper (and hence could be 0.005754 or some other number). 1.4 OTHER BATTERY MODELS Engineers have created other types of battery models, trying to model certain as pects of battery behavior. 1.4.1 Hydrodynamic Model The hydrodynamic model uses an analogy between the charging and discharging of a battery with the hydrodynamic filling and draining of a double tank reservoir ( Leontopoulos, C., M .R. Etemad, K. R. Pullen and M. U. Lamperth, Imperial Colleg e (London), Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., Vol 212, Part D, 1998, pp. 357-368). The two tanks are of unequal size, and the input/output to the tank system lies with in the smaller tank. Fluid can flow between the two tanks based on their separat e fluid levels. If the flow between the two tanks is less than the output demand , the small tank will empty before the large tank; this simulates a battery bein g unable to meet high rates of power demand. During recharging, the volume of fl uid stored in the small tank will define the pressure at the inlet and hence the rate at which the battery can be charged. 1.4.2 Finite Element Type Models Finite chemistry and other finite element models have been devised for battery s imulation. Some divide each cell into a number of finite elements while others ( Gu, W. B., C. Y. Wang, and B. Y. Liaw, "The use of computer simulation in the ev aluation of electric vehicle batteries", Journal of Power Sources, 75, 1998, pp. 151-161) use each cell as an individual element. These physiochemical models ty pically model current flow and potential distributions in the cell, species tran sport (migration, diffusion and advection), density-driven flow in elctrolyte, e lectrodes surface passivation, and gas evolution in overcharge. These computer s imulations are complex and CPU-intensive. 1.5 USING TABULATED BATTERY DATA Tables of battery performance can be used to predict battery parameters over a w ide range of conditions. The following describe the methods by which these table s are used to predict battery performance. In their Hybrid Electric Vehicle Analysis (HEVA) code, NASA Lewis Research Cente r makes use of plots of battery SOC (state of charge) versus Voc (open circuit v oltage) and SOC versus internal resistance. Some researchers use separate SOC ve rsus resistance curves for charge and discharge (Merkle, Matthew A., 1997, "Vari able Bus Voltage Modeling for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation", Master

's Thesis, Virginia Tech) noting the wide variation between those eir method is iterative. Estimates are made of the voltage at the rent time step, V1, based on the voltage at the start of the time similarly for the internal resistance. Vavg = 0.5*(V0 + V1) Ravg = 0.5*(R0 + R1) IR = (Vavg/2/Ravg) 2 - Pbat/Ravg Iavg = Vavg/2/Ravg - SQRT(IR) if IR > 0 Based on the guess for the current, Iavg, a new value for Vavg is Vavg_new = Vavg - Iavg*Ravg SOC1 = SOC0 - P*TIMESTEP/(3600*C*V) Where

two states. Th end of the cur step, V0, and

calculated as:

C = battery capacity [amp-hour] TIMESTEP [seconds] The process is repeated with the updated values of Vavg until the value of SOC1 varies less than 0.01% between iterations. 1.6 MODELING SPECIFIC FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE Since many conventional battery models do not handle all the factors effecting b attery performance, researchers have created stand-alone models to predict the i nfluence of these factors. Models for the factors of temperature, age and cycle history have been developed. 1.6.1 Temperature Model The impact that temperature exerts on battery capacity can be explained with a s imple model of the battery electrochemistry. As the temperature increases toward s the peak-performance-operating temperature the electrolyte viscosity decreases , thus allowing for increased diffusion of ions and hence increased battery capa city. As the temperature increases past this peak point, the battery electrodes begin to corrode - thus leading to a reduced "active" electrode area and thus to fewer electrode reactions and reduced battery capacity. One model (Roan, Vernon P. and Anand Raman, U of Florida, "An Approach to Incorp orating Age and Electrolyte Temperature Effects on Performance Simulation of Ele ctric/Hybrid Vehicle batteries", American Chemical Society, 1993, pp. 2.229-2.23 7) that predicts this impact, starts with the general equation for battery capac ity (Unnewhr, L. E. and S. A. Nasar, Electric Vehicle Technology, John Wiley and Sons, 1982): C = C25*(1 - ALPHA*(25 - T)) Where C = battery capacity at temperature T [Ah] C25 = battery capacity at 25 C [Ah] ALPHA = temperature coefficient [Ah/C] T = current battery temperature [C] The temperature coefficient, ALPHA, which varies from battery to battery, is det ermined empirically from experiments. This coefficient is typically formulated a s being a quadratic function of temperature. 1.6.2 State of Charge The state of charge (SOC) greatly influences battery performance. The open circu it voltage (Voc) generally decreases - nearly linearly - with increasing SOC (Va lvo, Michael, et al, "Development and Application of an Improved Equivalent Circ uit Model of a Lead Acid Battery", 1996 31st Intersociety Energy Conversion Engi neering Conference (IECEC), Volume 2, 1996). The internal resistance (Ri) decrea ses slightly with increasing SOC at very low levels (<0.3 Full SOC), then remain s relatively constant until the SOC approaches its full state (> 0.6 Full SOC) a t which point it increases rapidly (Valvo, 1996). This Ri vs SOC relationship wa

s also observed by Ekdunge (Ekdunge, Per, "A simplified model of the lead/acid b attery", Jornal of Power Sources, Vol 46, pp. 251-262, 1993) and at Virginia Tec h (Merkle, 1997). Valvo represented the relation between internal resistance and SOC with a 5th order polynomial. In an earlier work, Facinelli (Facinelli, W. A ., "Modeling and Simulation of Lead-Acid Batteries for Photocoltaic Systems", 19 83 18st Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Volume 4, 1983) employed linear relationships for both Voc and Ri. Facinelli used differe nt curve fit parameters for charging and discharging conditions. 1.6.3 Cycle History How cycle life varies with depth of discharge (DOD) has been modeled (McDonald, Alan T., "Reducing Battery Costs for Electric Vehicles through Optimal Depth-ofDischarge:, EVC Symposium VI Proceedings, 1981) as: LIFE = LIFEzero * exp(M*DOD) Where LIFE = number of cycles in life at depth of discharge DOD LIFEzero = number of cycles in life obtained by extrapolating cycle-life data to zero depth-of-discharge M = slope of plot of natural logarthmic of LIFE/LIFEzero versus DOD DOD = depth of discharge Analysis of experimental data for each battery leads to the determination of LIF Ezero and M. Logarithmic plots of DOD versus cycles-to-failure (Linden, David, Handbook of Ba tteries & Fuel Cells, McGraw-Hill, 1984, p. 13-19) for various battery types (Le ad-acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Zinc, and Alkaline-MnO2) verify the form of the above relationship. Numerous researchers in other fields, such as photovoltaic systems (Facinelli, 1 983 who reports that other photovoltaic researchers also found the same trend), reports a linear relationship between DOD and cycles-to-failure. 1.6.4 Battery Age Corrosion is the main component behind decreased battery performance by age. Thi s effect has been modeled (Roan 1993) as being linear. For instance, if a batter y specification states that the battery loses 15% of its operational life by the end of its 5 year calendar life, then one supposes that every month the battery will lose 0.25% of its cycle-life and its capacity every month (0.25% = 15%/60 months). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------