ffJ/fff

Design of Liquid-Containing Concrete Structures for Earthquake Forces
by Javeed A. Munshi
Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc,

r1Ilill

PORTLAND

(EMF.NT

ASSOClr\TION

An organization of cement manufacturers to improve and extend the uses of portland cement and concrete through market development, engineering, research, education and public affairs work. 5420 Old Orchard Road, Skokie, IL 60077 - 1083 USA

All right l'(!Sl'n'l'd, No part [)I this book may be rcprud uced ill .my lorrn without pcrrmssiun in writing from the pub lisher, l'XCl'P L by a rev iewcr W 11(1 wishes to {luotc bric r p<l~;,a~l's in a review wri tten tor i ncl usiou in a Tlldgazinellr news pd per, ISBN 0-89312.-2 I q-x Printed in the United States of Amcr ica Hils public.uiun is in tended SOLELY for lise hv PROFESwho are competent to evaluate the signific<HlcL' and lunitarions of lhc information provided herein, and who will "cn'pl lLltal rcsponsibil iLy for the ,1ppl i(,,1[i(1I1Ilf this in [ormation. The Portland Cement Association DISCLAll\1S an)' and .11i R[SPONSlBfLITY and UABILITY lur the ,1(CUT.lCy of and the application 01 the information contained in this publication to the full cvtcnt permitted bv l.nv.

r.;[ONAL prRS(lNNEl

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
lhe authoi would like h' than], the members of ACt Subcorn rni ttce 3511,:.'\ for prov id ing the informa Lion, encu U ra Memen t .1 nd S \.1 ppo rt d uring the d eve topmen t of this publication. In particular. the author woulJ like to thank William C. Sherman, Camp Dresser & McKel', Inc. Denver, CO, member of ACI Cornm i ttee 1:;0 tor his extensive review and coni ribu tion to this publication. Review 01 selected portrons provided by Nicholas A. 1 ega In", Preload lnc., Chair of ACl Su bet '111 rni t lee 3503, is alsu hi g;hlv apprecia ted. Thanks ore ,11H' d ueto David A, Fa nella , Manager, Buildings and Special Structures, Portland Cement Association for reviewing the entire publication. Finally, Wes lkezoe worked on the layout and production of this publication, which is much appreciated.

u

Contents
l. Introduction
2. Gt·!1el'ill J. Earthq ua ke Design Loads

,

1
3

5 __ II 2~ 29 35 ..+3 53

-1-. i\.ll1dding and Analysis 5. Desi bl1 of Co IIIpOllen ts .._ 6. Detailing -

7. Fxamplc I Design uf Rt'clant.\l.Ild1" Concrete Tank S. 1:\Jlllpll' Nota tion 2: Design of Circular Concrete 1 ank

CHAPTER1

Introduction
GENERAL
Se\ cral challenges were encountered during this process bera USC of incorn pa tibi Iities and insu ffie; ('11 t inforrnaLion pertaining to luad combinations invoh ing carthqua ke and nuid prl;'s::.ure, response modification factors corres pll nd i ng to im puls: ve and cnnvecti ve motion of Iiqu id, effects of dynamic earth and ground water pressure and the manner in wh lch thev should be combined with other load", and last but least, complexity o( structural response- and boundary conditions. Since In<ln) uf these issues arc complex and ell rrentl , being resea rrhed and debated, the interpretations given m this publication are by IlO III eans fina r. A C I Co III mit tel' 3.'i0 has identi lied some 1)( [hest.' iss lies to be taken lip as [u ru re b usiness. Th is publica tion will he updated when either mOT(' inforrnation (11' better in lerpretations uf these issues become avai lable through the consensus committee efforts.

1.1
lor till'

!'h i~ pu b Iic,11ion P ruv Idl\~ rcq UI rcmen ts and g II ide! ines design and detailing of hqurd-containing structun-s fur (',ythq uakc fmc'.'s using till' 11K 2000, UI3C 1CJ97, UBC 199..J, BOCA 11.)% and SHe jlJt)7 Il111Lil'l codes. Note tl1.11"I though these codes lhl'l1lsl,:h'l'-' do not con lain SPL~ci fit.: rW\ isions lor ddaikd seismic .m,,] y>;i>; ,1 nd design of liquid-contain ing structures, they d~l <1110\\ usc of consensu-, i ndustrv "tand.utl ....The [,l'pm! ofCnrnmittco 350-01 on

not

the Cod« R{:r/llifClI/t'Hh /<!I' E-IH'II'II!/IHl'1Itrll £lIgillL'l'rIIIS COli at'll' StnfCiIIn's. of the American Cnncrete Institute meets
this requirement of being ,1 11,1 tionallv rl'C(l)!;l1 izcd consensus standard applicable tu lit]llid·~-nntailling and other env irnnmcn la I structures. IIll' (om IIIitlce reren tly pu bhshcd Sl'i~fl/lC Lh':OI;'{11 (If Lll/IWI-C(llJltlillll!g Concrete Siructurc« {/\CI.l5U.3 ·1)I )mld CIJIIIIIII'//{llfl/ (;\ CI 35(l. "lR-O'/), wh ich gi \ e" dl'tc1i1l'd prorcd II res IIl]" <;'-.'is;11 anah -.b and design ic of liquid-containing <tructurcs. Furthermor«, Chapter 21 o! AC1350-ll1 )4in~s provisions fIll' seismic design of liquidcont.nnina sl ructurcs much ill the same 1n,1 1111('r its Chapter 21 of ACI 31 H does ltl building structures. NotL' that ACI 3~(l-1l1 refer.; tn ACl 316-95 while ACI J5D.3-nl b compatible \\ ith UBe jlN--J. service-level earthquake dl'sign methodolugy. Ihe provisions ,)[ ACI 3:'i0.301 are not pn'Sl'l1 tly compatible with IBe 2UOlJ,UI3C 1l)97, BOCA J '-)lJl'1.lIld SHC 19'01711_11' reasons: (.l) ,1\ ll ol these LW(l model codes usc strength level earthquake forces, and (b) S(ln1L' el[ till' Il1~Klt'1 ,,\lc/L'''' arc b,l.'-l'd on more recent (postIlJ77) sei... ic hazard anal \ <;i" ,1 Ill] selsm ic zoning, which m h,l\'l' not been inwqwr,lll:d ill i\C135U3. Therefore, t\CI 3511..1-0l in its current form l',lll 1101 be directly used With these build illg L'llLk,.,. This publication bri...igL's the gdl' between ACI 350.301 and the model codes indicated abovcwh lrh use strengthIL'\'~'I carthqua ke forces. The concepts uf ACI 3S0-01 and \("1 35(J.1-1) I have been extended lor usc with the !B( 2000, L tlC 19lJ7, BOCA J 9911and SBC 1YL)7 the design for ot hquid-cont.nnlng structures. An cuort has been made to mtcrprct and extrapolate tho CllllCepts ,llld provisions of i\CI J'i1l3-(1J III Ill.lkl' them COlllp.1 lible \\ ith these codes,

1.2

SCOPE

Thb publication is meant .:IS a guide for the design and detailing of concrete liqu id-conlaining structu res for earthquake forces accord ing t,) the model build ing codes. It covers rectangu lar and Circular tanks wi th non-flcxiblo and l1cxible wall-to-base _'jl"b connections. Chapter 2 prm ides baSIC info-matron un the different types of tanks and their wall-to-base slab connections, Chapter 3 summarizes the required earthquake design load~ as prescribed in the model (Odes noted above.It also contains till' appl icable code-prescribed load cornbinations for design of concrete structures, A disrussirm on v arious luad combinations invoi v ing ea rLhq u it ke and fI uid pressure load" appl icahle to liquid -containing concrete structures is abo presented. Chapter 4 dcs( ribes modeling and analysis methods using different model codes. The concepts of AC I 350.3-01 Me integrated with the lll<lliing provisions of the !Be 20llD, UBC 1Y97, UBC 1994, BOCA 1946, and SBC 1997, This chapter also gh es equations for determining the period the structure based on the boundary conditions (Ii ib walls. Charts and design <lids lor determining the

or

/'''J'J/''IIJ

<111<"111\:NIl!

1/1("1

I B21o.)

lin pulsivv a nd C(111v{'(ti\{~ weights along with the height
an,
;1150 ~i\"l'I1.

Chapter 5 contuins the design rerom mcnda lions for varil'US components ot the llquid-contairung structure, includIng [ounda nons, immersed elements and other componcn t<; "11 hie ted tll d} narn u; l(Ml.1;;. Proced ures for design 0 f both red.ll1~tll H and circular tank walls are included Chapter esu 111ndriz~'s thl' detailing requirements r based (111 "\0 ;i18-Y9. The overriding provisions i'io-n I a Fe also noted w hcrevcr applicable, for walls 01 ACI

Chapter 7 illustrates the design and detailing of a rectangular concrete tank located in a region of high seismicity per the IBC 2000. The base shear is also computed for the USC 1997, UBC 1994, BOCA 1996 and SBC 1997 codes. Chapter 8 illustrates the design and detailing of a nonpresttessed circular concrete tank located in a regIon of high seismicity, per the IBe 2000.

2

CHAPTER 2

General
2.1 TYPES OF LIQUID-CONTAINING
STRUCTURES
i. Rectangular
1. Fixed Base (Fig. 2-1(a)) 2. Hinged Base (Fig. 2-' (b)) Ii. Circular without Prestressing 1. Fixed Base (Fig. 2-1(a)) 2. Hinged Base (Fig. 2-1 (b))

l.iquid-contaming structures essentially tall into two categories of behavior based on their wall-to-footlng conner11,111' the non-sliding or the rigid base (Pig. 2-1) and the t1exlble base (pig. 2-2). The non-sliding base typically uses a fixed or hinged wa ll-to-Iooting connection. The fIlJ,ible base typically uses a base pad between the wall and the

footing and i111()'w~arying degrees and types of movev
ment depending upon whether the wall [0; anchored, lind nchored con rained or unanchored uncon tai ned j n the footing (Fig. 2-2). This type of connection is nnly used for circu 1<1prestressed tanks. The tvpe 0 f base connection is r likely to influence the seismic response of a liquid-containing struc ture u nd its effect sho u Id be properly incl uded in mudding, dosign and detailing.

iiI. Circular with Prestressing
1. Fixed Base (Fig. 2-1(a)) 2. Hinged Base (Fig. 2·1 (b)) 3. Flexible Base a. Anchored (Fig. 2-2(a)) b. Unanchored. Contained (Fig. 2-2(b)) c. Unanchored, uncootarneo (Fig. 2-2(C))

Tank Wall (Typ)

if required

Hold downs

(a) FIXED

(b) HINGED OR PINNED

Figure 2-1. Nonflellible Base Connections Seismic Cables

or Anchors (Typ)

Flexible Containment Pads

(a) ANCHORED

(b) UNANCHORED, CONTAINED FLEXIBLE BASE

(c) UNANCHORED, UNCONTAINED FLEXIBLE BASE

FIgure 2-2. Flexible Base Connections

3

I II/IIII.! ',11

Non*sJiding Base T.1Ilj,,~ that 11,1\ l'.1 fixed or hinged COIlnccuon betwcer th, \\,]Ib and the luund,]lion are essen1.111, non- ..ltd!l]~ t) pt Skl,IIl'1ll nrccrncnt or kl'~'il1gaclinn ensure- till' 1l11ll-~lidH11..: l1l'il,l\ I(ll .l~ .. hl'\\ 11 in Fig 2-1. Anchored Flex i ble Base. ,1Il k .. wrt h IIt:\. ible btl ~l' Iha t usc ""lilt kind . or"g-v lwtln'('l1 the 11,111 ,111d the Iootinj; ,llln\~ 1,ldr, In' I nt bllil'l'sf ric I till' t,mgentialllh)\'cl11cnl ,1tth('l',hlllllhe ...rucrurc [lpl\t111\ t 'lnLh(lr<lgl'i~'l(hie'l'd II ith ~lr,lIld ul Ie" t'ml'I'ddl'd "1 till' \\.. and till' touting ,11 I J i~. ::O-:~1(1)) l ('111 f'I"l· ...ibJl' ...II'\'\ 1,' ... Mi.' used 0\ cr ,1 nchor " l ahk's ,11 111l' ["'''l' Illi111to ,11\,\\ r,ld <11 \I ,111 111,\ crncnt. 1

Unanchored Contained Flexible Base. These tanh usc <Ill unanchored '\'<111con lained bv a llmcreiccurb as shown ill Fi l';. 2-2(b) 1 his type (It connection 011101'1':-> limited radial and tangell rial movement. Unanchored Uncontained Flexible Base, These allow an unlimited radial and t,[llgl'lltlal mov ernent ot the joint ..ince no andlOr'l~e or contamrncnt 01 Lilt' walls i<; 1111 oived (J ig ~-2k)), Ihis t~ Fk' ot tank is not permitted in r~~i()]j., III high "l'bmjdt~ (UBC zones 1.1nd -l) for obvious rl',hDn., \If poten I i,111\ \lIICOIl trlllk'J 1110\ernent d 111"in~ a <;L'h 111ic l'\ ell l,

4

CHAPTER 3

Earthquake Design Loads
3.1 IBe 2000 METHOD 3.1.1 General
of litlUid-dJ!1t,'il1l1lg structures f"lls under Section Buildtr1~ l'ndp' I ([BC lOOD) (or non-building structures, 1 hi" sccttou rontains 1l1lWL' elaborate pruvi ...ons both for l.'il'\'illl'd and Dil/ above ground i tanks as compared to lhl' 1997 L'nlform Build ing Code" (LJ BC '(7), the ll)q7~I,lIld,ll"li RUlkl in.!; Cl1dl,··l (C,BC '97) and the I')l,lh BOCA Natlon.ii Building Clldl'''"' (BOCA '96). ':>l,ltil111 j 622.2 (11 me :W!lOind ica tcs that when cakulolting the scisrn ic rllITE'S, the 111)1"111,11 operating con tents should be included for I"11ks, The seismic wl'ight Vl'should ,1Isl' include snow and icc 1,1clLb when these constitute n'llrl' th.m 2""" of W, TIll' III ndarncntal period can be determined by Section IhJ7...[..2 of mCurl.w U~il1g .1m other rational method sud, ,1S gi"l'll in Chapter -I- of th is public'! tlon. rhl' displacemen t. dri Ftand the I'-~ L'fJl'l'!"; ,) rc gl'ner,l II) no! 5if,'T1ikant f fur a t/ 01 [','101\' gr;]dc t.111 ks. Till' SL' ismic roc f(ic ien ts R, C1, and U" .1 re ).!,i ven in me r able Ih22.2.5 (I), based (111 the structure Lype, The i rnpar. tauro tile! ms., re gIven b,ls,'d un tln- se ism ir 1Ise gruu p and the hazard/Tunctinn criteria in me T,lbk' 1622.2.5 (2). Ihc seismic ('I'ket I' In bl' used in load corn bina nons shall bl' determined lISlllg Section 1617.\ reproduced below (Sl'ctinn 1.1A). Ill!" redundancv / reliabi lily f,l("tor (p) shall be laken ,1::. I. l'ho base shear is computed using Sect ion I() 17A.1.
1022 oj' lilt' Inll'rIl,llj(l)l,li C :> n.8Sj'

,-

H.

Eg. 16-76 (Section 1622.2.5)

Pl'sign

where, = Importance factor (Table 1622.2.5 (2)) /{ = Seism ic Coefficiern (Table \622.2.5 (1)) IV = effective seisrrucweight of the structu re pel' 1617A SO' the desig-n spectral response acceleration atshort period obtained Irorn Section 1615.1.3. 5DI = the design spectral response acceleration at 1 second period obtained from Section 1615.1.3.
0=

s., = 2/3 5\1,
S,)I = 2/J S\I'

maxi mu m considered earthquake spectral response acceleration at short period (1615.1.2). S~'( = maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration at 1second period (1615.1.2).
=;

5'1<

site coefficients defined in Table 1615.1.2. Tables 1622.2.5 (I) and 1622.2.5 (2) give the \'<11uI;)5for F~ and Fe corresponding to the site class, TIll' sito class can be determined by using Table 1615.1.1. S., S, = the mapped spectral accelerations for short period and 1 second periods, respectively, as determined in Section 1615.1. F, F
=

3.1.2 Base Shear
S.;ct ion 10:'2.2.5 stip Ul,lt.'S that the 111 inirn lim seismic base shear 'iha II not be less than that computed in accordance with the rl'qu irernen h of Ih 17"+.1, rhl' procedure for COll1puting lilt' base ~hL'Mis <1" lolluws V", l,IV

'I'

:: fundamental period (St'€' Sections and Chapter 4)

1617.4,.2.1

3.1.3 Rigid Structures
J he Iiquid-containing structures that ha ve a fundaments I period, T,less than 0.06s, including thciranchorages, shall be designed for the latera I force obtained from the following (16'7".:',6):

S,,/ (. _ S"J ,<.~ N - NT
C, <': O.14S.I hj. I (i~;C; (::lVCtillll 1622.2.5)

v = O.3S,,~lVl
where S, <;, IV and I are
,1S

defined previously.

5

3.1.4 Seismic Load Effect
TIl' C.lrli1'lll.l kl'llld lIu,d Iorc e rrorn tilt' l\ vmblncd horizontal ,wei \ crtic.il ,h(L'il'r,11illlll'lll'd" h lctcrmincd in ,1lC'ol'cIance w 'II' "l'dhlll I (l22 l I and I()ItA I (.s follow".

Whl'l'l'L 1 1\

= seismic coefficient (Table lh-Q of UBC '97)

= weight

importance factnr (Table 16-K oi USC '97) of tank and contained liquid

3.2.2 Alternate Methods
Sldit1n 163.j..-I-1110\\'" the 111110\\ inb twu methods as an , ,1ILl'ril,ltil e to Section 1.2.1: I rcspon ... ... ectrum anal, sis that includes considep cration of ,1\. tual ~r,Jllnd motion alll1lip.l ted at the si te and the inertial cffecb of the contained liquid. 2. ,\ de"i~n b.isis for the pnrticular type of lank bv .U1 approved national standard, provided th.il the seismic zones <Inti occupancy categories Me in contormarrce \\ rth provisions of Sections 162lJ,4 and 11129.2,r""'pl·ctil·t.'i) ,

r
01

(l due

12

'1

l'Ikltllllll/ulll<ll
III

..eisr-ucrorces
\

m the element

base

:;h[;',lf

Lvccption

where 50 < ILl 'ig .ind \ ~ l.U.tg, the strucI }t·...I~n <It<lglll'\ \

ture shall ill' dl':-'I~nl'd lor sl'i-;mll

3.1.5 Above-Grade Storage Tanks
Ihc liquid-conla ining strurtu J'l'!> mounted above :,;rcld<.' in ., iructtu l'S, 1 he attac hments. supports ,1n.1 I Ill' t,1I1 I-. ...11,111e b ,Ie"igned to meet the lorce rcquiremcnts utScction 1621. j A, I' ith N. equal to R S~1C'li!iL'd in Section l(1~2. The II t'i~ht of the storage tank (\\ ) "hall include the I\'ci~ht of the tank ...tructurc and appurtenances .ind the opcr.iting II'eight of the lIlnll',b at maximum rated capacitv. l'urther, when tho sloshmg pcnod lllltH' ...tnred liquid i~ \\ ithin 7ll"" to ISO''', \11 !Ill' tundamuntal period 01 the supporting .,1rue ture, tIll' i.'1kd .. ol <,Il,..,hin~ ... .111be 111h eluded in till' dl':-'Ign nt tan], ,1I1dIb -uppnrting ...ructure, t

3,3 BOCA National Building Code and the Standard Building Code (S8C) Method
The BOCA and the SAC Codes rill not gi\'l' specific
isions for design of liquid-containing ...ructures, t Section 1610,1 lli the BOCA National Building Cudo <l11..J Sectam 1607.1.1 of t11L' Standard Building l ode indicate that p1'm biolls of ASCE 7\ ~ mav be used IL~lk:->ign such structures. This method is similar tl) the one gl\ en in UBC IL)l)7. These codes further ... ecil) that special structures p shall be designed for earthquake loads 111jltzinh <111 approved substantiate 1.111<11y-.i-;. prll\

3.1.6 At-Grade Storage Tanks
\ccllrLiing lu ~L'ctIOIl 1022 1.32, :-.tol·dgC t.in 1-.::. 111t111nted ,11 the base ...h.111be di':->i~l1L'd to meet the desl~l rl'llll iremen Is 1)[ ~l'..:lh 111 16~2 111addiuon, tor sites \\ here "if''' I... Sre"lL'r than O.(i[l, Il,lt bottom tanks UI,.,lgllt'dwith II' grc<ltl'l' than I (l ,111d 1,111"'" grt'.lh:r th.m20 11111 diameter and tank ...Ihal h,1\ (' .J rwi~hl-io-di.llllel"r ratio ~rL'<lkr than 1.(1 are rc quircd It mel'! certain condiuous m 16224.1.2.

3.4 ACI 350.3 METHOD
Note that both the IBe 2\)00 (1022.2.5) and till' LBC J 997 [163.t -l) PH)\ isions a lluw the 11~(, of an alternate d(':-ign PW(l'JUl'l' from a nationally approved standard. 1 11l' ~'nl\ isions 01 .t\Cl ~'iO.3- can be used as an alternate il'..,ign procedure s<1lisfl'ing the criteria 01 il nahonallx approved ...andard t Various «oncepts of ACI 350.3 h,l\ e be n included in Chapter .t. Note that the pro\'lsllln-; of ACI ~:;O 1 are compatible \\ ith the USC 1'IQ.j. that im 01\ es s,,'n ice-level ~·.Hthllllakt.' forces. The me 2000, UBC 1997, HOCA IYLJ6 and SBC [q97 use strength-level earthquake forces.

3.2 UBC 197 METHOD 3.2.1 Rigid Structures
In till' l nuorrn Building Code, till' l'k~lgn t,1I1"~ of ith o.;upp'\I-kd bouor-t t,l]]'" 11l1Lk·! Sl'ctlOIl 163-1.4 for nonbuildinj; structures 1hi...!-l'dlllil ,1SSlIml'''' that tanks with supported bottorns o: tl.it-bottorn tanh found ..d ato: belo« gr.ldl' <In.'inhercntlv rigId, vccord ingl~ , such structurcs are to lw dL'...i~l1l'd i,' n'<;j~l <c.... nic 1(11'(('S r evaluated using till' pro'l'd ure gil en In ~l'l uon I b \.J..3 tor rigid structures :'l'clh'll It"-i ...J abo spccifles Ih.1! the entire wl'ight ot the tall k incl uding its conten b ... ould be used in h the .,11.11 V ... I., The procedure IS outlined ,1S iollo\\'s:
1\

3.5 CONCRETE~PEDESTALWATER TOWERS
;-XCI Committee Report J71-9S1- presents detailed recommendations for materials, analysis, design and cunst r u -ti\)11 o l concrete pedestal elevated water stllr<l~l towers. Ihcse ...ructures g..:nerally consist of steel t stor age t.m ks supported b) 'l (vi ind rical reinforced concrete pedcsta I. Ihc report contains detailed recornmendations tor :;l'l ...mic dl'Slbll III such pedestals. It is recomrnondcd that the user refer to this docu mont for design 01 cc nc rete-pede ...ill .... t

t - 0.7l I \\

6

3.6 BURIED STRUCTURES
Sl'clil111 1622A.H llf
underground
till'

3.7 LOAD COMBINATIONS
buried

UK indkdtl'S th.it xtructurcs

exist (,11" de:'l~n lit -uc 1 structures -n either the !Be or l BC. Ihe '1/MI.\ "I:, ,I 1~ dl..,lgn ot hu I i~'d ~ITUdUI'l'''' ::;hould incI udc the cfft'd (11d \ narruc earth pre"sl.lrl'. Rl'~e<1r~h h,,:., l' howe. cr. "hl..1\\n that "1'1~mTl pressures do not control dlCsign IT11less the F'Pil k gll)ul1d accclcrn tion exceeds ubou t O.Jf';, \\ here h is the ,KLl'It>r,1[10!1 due hI gr.ll itv. r I'lTS. the de~jgn of bu~il'd tanks Ill(,ll(!d In I(n\ ILl'mlld('~,atl' setsnuc risk areas i..Ii kl'ly to be govcrned b\ statlc loading. ,\1"0, Ihe cftec l o[_~lli 11lll!11 ineanlies d lie I, ilocal :'U 111,111 scorns ure III have I i uk d Ilvt 011 tlu- prcd IIIiuns III 11lL' "l' i" mic re Spll!ll>l' ,1 r hu ril'd ...n rctu rl'~ i

!i1l.)II be dl',-lglll'd (or <ci-rnic rorces deter1l1l1ll'd b, a "ulblo1ntJall,J .lll,ll} ")S llsing st.indards apprIll I'd h\ till' building (lllkl<lJ. 11\)\\ ever, no gllidelines

3.7.1 General
The load combinations of IRe 20llU that are applicable to the dc.,;ign 01 general bu Tidmg structures .11"~' gin'n in l'ablc 3-1. l11c load corubma tions which Include seismic etk..::h are based lin f\SC[' 7-lIS, '\\ hilt: till' nun-seismic load combinations .H~ based on ,\C[ ~U)_lJ9. Table 3-2 gl\ ('0. ,1comparison (l( load combina tions ill the I t}')4 <H1d [ 91.)7 U lie. [hL' loa d combi n ali lIn~ II f 1')96 BOC /\ nnd 1997 SBe .iro ~h ~11 ill Tabll' 3-3. Ihe build i I1g codes do not give specific load combinenons th: t can be d irectlv used for desisn of liqu id-crm rai nIllg slruc tures for car thq ua ke loading Section 1605.2.2 of IliC 2(1lll1ll1dicdtes that lluid pressure (/-) should be added In the prescribed load combinations in accordance with

Table 3-1 Load Combinations

for Building Structures Per IBC 2000

Code Section

--

Strength

All LJ.2.1
ACI Y.2.2

I--

Loads'
([J)

Dead

cI ~

1\ \'

0)

~I

I Required
L
=

l.-iV ~ 1.7L

-

ti
+

Code -I)

q NO ·.

-

Dt.'ad, I 1\ e &-Wind (\ V)

(i) [' (ii) L' =

1..-1-0 + l.7l 0.75 (lAD + l.7t 1.7W)

(9-1J
(1.}-2)

(iii) L '"" ().Y[}.,., L.3W
I
I

(9-3)
(9-1)

ACI9.2.3 IBe 16DS.:?' 113(' I NY:;.:? ACI9.2..1

l)eild, l i\ (' & brthqut1 ke

tEl

(i) {'
(I iI) (
+---

= I.-IL'

+

1.7L
t

(ii) I' - 1.'2I.J .. I.Of + (f I. + I:S)

(l6-5)
(16-6)

'" O.Qn
I ·if)
:= I-

10r
1.71 L7L + 1.7H 1.711

I )e,lli, I

T\C ,,\::1,11"1h <md tr-r Prl'SSLII e

(I)

L'

C,round".1
t

(H)H

(Ii) I

iI
-

(1.)-1) (9--t)

lAD

+

(IIi) L' == O.9D \\ here [)
01

+

I red uc l'~ H (9-1 )

ACI CJ.2.'i

I De,ld, 11\ t' cl.r Fl uid Pressure
(nU~

(I) U ~ lAD ... 1.7/ (ii) I (iii) where lAD ... 1.71 • JAF 1AF I or L red uces F

u = O.9U +

I

I
ACI<I,2.7 Dead, Live and Effects from Oi f rerclll; ,11~ ..-ttlomen 1. Creep, Shl inkage. l'xf',lnsion uf Shrin b'~l'-C(lmpelh.ll ing Concrete, or I em pE'rd lure ('I)

li) U - lAD t 1.71. (ii) I' = [L7S (iAIl + I.-IT (iii) II=; I -t (D + T)

1"

1.7LI

(9-1) (9-:;) (ll.h)

I

t

D I. I..... !I F .111'/ r 'Q'rl',,'lIt n« d""S1llH '<I 't'r'lt r Ioads o: thcirc ,lrrcsl,,,,,t/III:\ d.r."t~ <In/'.\II /."(",,/ '·dl'lh'J,,'lA. " r, I' I o' 1\"'lSilt .uu! 1'''''","'!.',!r~,'1 <111.1.1",I!, III ~'i ((;r<'uII<III',ll.-r /'«·',Ilr,'/, I,> h' 'I"H,hn~II"1I1 ••• 0\"',),'111 m"I/'n",.IIr. p/ t1wrl d //i/ ,,1'/1.1, /)1,'0/ d.'II'II"·' (1111111'111",1111/1/,' 11111,IIlPl'IIPIIIt'i"III."

"I!"

II.' iI"'II1C/lf~,

,hC<lr"

"llol/

tiw...·,. /"',·'n,,,
Ipnd /11.1,)(,

<'fl. Not« .. f IS <1

(I/",H'III l'fl'.'';/1I1' wllh d

J.,

7

1 '"r/illII.!

(-,'111,

III

\ "".

,a/ /(III E

B 11 'l

Table 3-2 Comparison of Load Combinations

in the 1994 and 1997 USC for Building Structures

Combinatlon

-

Iqw USC (11:10'-;1.2,1':.121.2.7) 1.7L

J

11.)97 USC Ell No
(ll-l) (9-2)

Load Combinntlon

(1612.2,

J9IN.2)

(1.7:; (1.40 + l.7L + l.nv) 1 -+ III + / + [)* r------~--(9-1) 1,7, (I

_- un t-w
to

lAO + 1.71 O.71i (l ..JD + 1,7L + 1.71V) ~ l1.9D + 1.3W 1.1 [1.20 + l.ll£
t

(4-3)
( 12-.5)

1.7L + I. 7E)1

V, L + j;5) I

().911 +- 1.3 W lUO ~ lAP O.'l/J + 1.·1J[,

I I
(1(,2H.7.2)

(12-6)

1.1 (U.lJD + I.U£)

c----'

Sped'l 1 l.oad Combination
_

!

Special

Load Combination

(1612.4)

LOP + (l.~L + 3 (/'1)0) C
ll.~'n + 1(R JB) t

( 12-17)
( 12-18)
'--

-

1.'20 + f,L + 1.1)£., O.qD + 1,0£
'"

"/uJII/,r,lm r /,,/,1. It, :\i 1(1'1.1 UBC) bl (ill 11 UII I ,<I (' t fH Lq 3U _ l'Hl 1,)<1;L _ ."n/ll'/lml.,' IL,,,,( 11(,'" III. j'rN "It H' r\ [ = tllllh'lUflli., 1'1/<" / due IL' l~ r/I"I/"II':I I 11,'111 "{,,,", 1111<//11"/11'11 P ,,'/lIIblil/lf rr.llllldl/lH If .Il i<L, U, /L'r,,' 111111,llt!! 11/1L'1I 'Id"f 'IaN,' /6 \ J f /11.1,115 ,/"tlll<d III 1.,12.11 • ~l'i'I1II' L,lJ1l'< :; .w.i 4 V"'III, /",/j's 1,,>101/1 I'
11"1,,>11-,<' 1ll00il/1

R..

I _ pL i-I

r

.,'I,'m,

Table 3-3 Load Combinations Specified in SOCA and E'1Lialilln
i\ill, Code

-

sse for

Building structures" SBe 1t)lJ7*H

BULA
-

1'l9(-,"*
--

-l.4D + 1 7f

Equa ti, In N.)./Code
(9-1 )

-...__

1\(1318
(9-2)

L·W + J.7L ._0.75 (lAD + 1.7L± L71\~ 0.9D ± 13 ~.\,
(J.1 + 0511\) P+ L± Q[

u,7, (1, ..U) + 1.7/
(H[l
(I.
_I:

:: 1 7W)

\C131R
(9-3) ACI31R (1)

U\V

'2 + lJ.5A~) 0 + 05L ± 1.0Qr
lll.Y - 05rl,) D ± 1.0Q,

-_f----

SBC (21

SHe

(0.9 - 051\) D ± Q, (1.1 + ll.5I1,) D + L ± t'2R/5) Q/
(O.Q - U.SA,) 0

0.51-1) U + O.5L ± (2H/5) Q[

sse
(3)1'

(4)1

«I.Y - 11.5. \,)
P I
1\
\

fl ± (2R/'i)

Qj

SBe

± (2R/S) Q[

V =-

_ I /1,'.1 J. u! /,1".1, Llkel OJ lioc 1",1'/, -= £11'" I "~I.I'll"! toad«
=

or

[fj, d

'11 /'0'1'/ "I'IIIIJ1,~ <'I),'L 11.','1" Ilk ','1<,,-1111 ,-,'/111('.1 ,/'dlcmIIlLII (/61O.I.lOl" 8(1C,.\, 1t>()7, I . ., ,,' <;/lCI I{ - /o1"<!"'IIH' ."'ll'dl/1<I1/J<I" flil 1m r ItlJrU, l 4 ROGI. It U; 1 3 of "Be) •• 'i"I' 161 '.Il ),,10) - Vd Q.2ot . leI '>18 ,III.! :','(1 2 12 "f ASn ,-'15, ••• ~,( 1,,11'1.211,1.1 S,',I <l2 ~ I{ / H ~ q.) I 1.,'01'01 ".l'''II'')I'/r'''''~II'/i III column» :'111'1''''iliS .I1~UI/llj/llWII> lasvmi Jo,,,,,' I't'SlsIIII,' c1t'III"III, ",I,.-r,' (21\1';) ~ 1.0 l , Il,,'d Ij" l,o":,"I/"i,JJ[-.;/r,·,,,·./ IIILllliwl" 111/'/111.1,11,\" rls.<I,lfIll'd II' Sl'C L'lIr, Itt'I', 121H5) ~ 1,{)
5"1.,111/. ,{
It

"r hon ~1Iz11l1 '.,
'-If'

IIIIL 1."[<,,

B

Sed ion ~.1.]_ 01

1\1,1.1 curnbinal ion im 01\,in~ lilt' l'lll', b \)1 llurd pn<surc (f! .1nd llll' earthquake fl'l U.' (L). llu-retorc, lilt' 111,11111t'r 111 which r and E should l1l' combined ,md the 111,Hi 1,1ctIH" as-ociatcd with them
itv
.111\

\SeL 7_l)1"\ clut,.., nut "PVl

\:-,cr

7-Lm.

I ld\\"L'\

er, ~l'ction

2.3.2

of

3.7.2 Consideration for Environmental Durability
l\CI J::;O requires the rt~ll11\\ tng tlHI modifications to the load combine tiuns The second mod ificalion is no! applicable to those ILIaci Ct'll1bil1.1titl1l" th.l t include scism rcdfe,t:.. Modification
liquid

remain uncle,u

Scr

tion

tI ! .. oukl h

':1.2 '.1 \ I 11 H i nd iratcs I ha t till id prl'ssLJ re l'l' .ld~ ~'d 10 <111 lu.rd combi nations that involve

I-The

load [actor

tll

bu used for lateral

I I vc load (1 )....."ChUIl 'J.~.' II All 35()overrides the ,\0318 I rL'qulIL'llWnl b~ cla ri t., IIlg that r .. 101I1...1 .1I.1ck'd III .111 1 be gm'(.'rnin~ load COmbll1,lll11I1S, so 111,11 Ill",' effect Ill/., IV Dr f docs not red UCl' the t'tll'cl (lj I. GilSL'd on this, load combinations nmsbll'lll \\ i til \CI 1] s .ind ACT 350, exclud Illg the l,rfcct llf environmental d II rahllit, discussed ill Section 3.7.2 below, (\111 bl' lormuloted lor use with drffercnt codcs as ft)IIO\\'~: hl r IBC ~1l0l1: t: 1.211 !.lIE + ! 2f + V"'! + (,,'I + / = [1.{J[1± 1.1l/: + J.:?F L D.75(I.ID t 17/ + I.·IF t I Jo;7f 141 FOi UBC lLN7: I = L I[ J.211 + 1.01- t 1.3r ~ V Itt :-) J 1.1 JU.9D 1: IOl + J.~I J 1l.7'i(1.1l1+ 1.71 + !Af + 1 :i71 /1.4) hI. (lh-'i), 11K '2\lllO I~q. 1h-Il), ilK 2lHIU ( I q. (C;-2LAU 318

pressure, [-, is 1.7 rather them 1.-l. rhls valur- ot 1.7 mav be 0' crconscrvntiv c for some tanks, since thev are fille-d 10 thl' tllP (lnly during lea], tl'sting or because of

accidental overflow. Since leak testing u ..tlJIJ_\ occurs only once and ",i nee most tan ks arc equipped \\ ith ,1\ erflow p!pe:-, <orne designers have considered using the load factor ot 1.-1- in an atternpt to reduce tho amount nl required steel, which would I"l'511 It in k'~s <h rin kcl~t.' restraint, However, this publication SlJ~gcsts that tank dc"igns meet ACI 350 ami, therefore, recommends the U"C' ~ll ,1 load tuctor of 1.7 with f. Modification 2- The members musl be designed to meet the I"l'quired stren gth, L, increased b~ .l rn III tip lief called the em ironrnen t<ll d urability lactor (EDI·). Till' EDF \\ ill inerl'.lSl' the design IODds to pnw ide a 11101'L' conservati ve design II 1111L,S'i ..:racking.The increased requi rod strl'l1gth !< i.. gh L'11 bv:
Requirud
II

['l- lI2-;;), USC 1Y4/,
C'1.l12.-b), UI3C 1'.197' I q. (L! n t\C131h

..trength

- EDr x I

u

here the EDF equals: 1.3 tor flexu ral reinforcement

lor UJ3C 191)-1:
- J..l (n
U.,) [)
t

1.61 tor direct tension reinforcement Lq. ('1-2), LHC 194~ l.q. (9-1), L'BC i'N.,! 19, (<)-2), ACI 11::-1.1 for ~I\('.1 r beyond that of the capacity pnl\ ided by ACI 31~

±

I tF t £) I..!/ + I -If
+

L

O.iS(l An

1.71

+

1 -11

-+-

Ui7L 1

th c concrete
;1T"l~gi\'(.:'ll

For exnrnple, the strength equations basedon ,1:;; follows.

r ~1I' SRC
(Ll L

1"ll)7;
+ lFit\ JD-,- / + J.~[.j_ Q Eq (ll, SBC 1<1t;7 1,<\, (2) SBC 2()OU

(lJ.'l -ll SA )Ll t I,} t 1.1f

(_ - O.7"i{ I..JU,

1.71 + I 11

J.-

I.1l71 1..1-) r:q ('1-2),1\(1 31t>

Req'd strength ~ I.J {I @M" ~ 1.3 (1.4.;\In 2. Direct Tension Reinforcement

+ l.7MI

+

1.7Al,)

u = (1 2

Rl',j'd Strength ~ 1.65 U
I

II "I )L1 , 0.:;/ + I '21 'i () L = (II.Y us 1 )Ll 1: V t 1.21 t. = 0.7"( lAO T" 1.71 -t- l.·ll-' + J.~7) 1.4) 1he

Eq. (!i),\t.CE

1-''1'

(6)

vscr

7
7

~ 1.65 (1.4J

II -i-

1.711 + l.7T))

1'1- (9-2),

.vci n s

3. Stirrup Reinforcement 0V,~1.3(\I[

1997, the BOCA 1996 and SBC J <J47u'il' llu: 'itrl'n~th-I ..\ cl earthqua ke Inrce while the UBl Iyq-1 and I\CI 318 lise [hL' ~l'n ice-level earthqua ke force

me 2(100,Illl' UB(

-yl'J

-1-. Concrete Shea r and Compression Req'd Strcngth » 1.01)

N~ltl' that in the

binations, i ntl'rprl'lill il upplies to liquid-contaming structures. 111e desig-ner should carcfullv inv L",tig,1tl' the k l,ki cornblna lions that ,1 pp I} lu hi" / her :-;1tll.l ti~'11.

,,11:.('11(" of clcarlv defined 10<1.;1 COn1the load combirmliuns F.h ell above <Ire [he best inns 01 1\'l1<1 I is L UCiTII th ill the bui ldiug codcs a~

N o increase is req IIifed in load factors for concrete shear, [lund, or compression strength, so tha t proportioning member depths or thickness will be unchanged For flexure, the proposed iIlCII ..dSl' in load (actors results In a ' max imum load factor of 1.3 times 1.7 "'"2.21 for 11urrn OJ 11ive
9

and water and earth load and a minimum load factor of 1.,:1 times I -lun f\lf all dead load In conjunction with (ff filctllf~ prescribed in ACl 318, these new load factors result in flexural :';['1, iCl' load stresses in the reinforcement between ~-l and ~tl ksi, cunsis tent with allowab le s\ rt~:,;se"fllr worki og stress lk'sign in the current report by AC I Cnll1mUiC'l' ~.,o.

3-5.

Millillllllll Desigu LtlIldsfor Bllildill:.?s Illid Otller StnlCtures, ASCE 7-98 and A..SCF7-95 American Society
for Civil Engineers, New York.

3-6.

llf Liquid-Coli tnin IIlg C[}Hcrde Struc(ACT 350.3-01 J and COllmll..'IJlllrlj (ACT 350.3R· (1), ACI Committee 3'iO, American Concrete Institutc, Farmington Hills, MI, 2001.
Sl'lsmic DfSiSIl
11II'('S

3.8
1-1.

REFERENCES
in h'1'I 1111 ionv! BlllldillS
Council, P;:111~ hurch, C

3-7. Code, In ternationa VA, March 2000.
I Code

Guide (m' file A}lalysl~,
C()lIcre!e-redt'~tal
Wllh.'1'

Dcsi!{11 nnd Construction of Towers, Reported by AO
Concrete Institute,

Committee Farrrungton 3-1).

371, American H11.ls,.Ml, 1998.

3-2. 3-3.
3-4.

Ul1ift7T/II RlIIldill."; Code, I nternational Conference of Building Officials (lC80), Whittier, CA, 1997.

<jtlludard Bllildil1S Code. Southern
Congress International,

Huilding Code l3irminghilnl, At, 1997.

Mi ller, C. A. and Costantino, C. J., "t:;el.~lI/il'tuduced Earth PreS~lIl'e~ ill Buried Val/Its", A merican Societv of Mechanical En)!;incer:. (A5ME), PVP-Vlli. 271, 199-1., pro 3-11.

flu' BOCA. Nationo! Bllildll1'{ Code, Building Officiills and Code Adrninistrntors International, COLU1try Club Hills, IL, lLJQ6.

3-9.

Code Reqllirements for EIIl.';rVIIII/(>lltril Ellgilll'erilig Stl'llctlll't'S (ACJ 350-flJ) IIlId Connnentan; (AC! 350R-01J. Couuuittce 350, American Concrete
C~I!IlI'l'h

Institute, Farmington

Hills, MI,2001.

10

CHAPTER 4

Modeling and Analysis
I his cha pier gi\>es dota ih'd pruced ures for compu lation of seismic base shear .md PVC rt 1.1 fill ng moment of Iiq II idcllnt.lining structures tor d i (I oren I model cllLil'..'>. The SpI!Ctrum approach of seismic dl'<;i~n and the effects of vertical accelera tion s .111 d oa 1"1h P ressu rc .1I"t' <l bl1 includ ed.
Undisturbad

water surtacs

:r

£
1-

4.1 MODELING
The Iiquid-con ta i [1ln~ ~ true LII res ,1 re modeled USI n~ H ousner's method! I ~.', 111ismethod esscntia Ily assu !TIl'S that hvdrodynam I c CHl'Ct" due til seismic 111.1.-1 Ill)!, can he evaluated .ipproximatelv as the sum of tlu- following two parts: J. IIllpUISI\'I' part, which represents thl' portion (l[ the liquid whi; h moves in unison \\ i th the structure and, ") Convertivo part, which represents the effect of the ~lll~hil1g action (11 till' liquid.
Fi!_.:UfC4-1 shows till' l~ pical schema nr (If <l rec tangular lank with length I, width H .ind hl'jghl of liquid 1l. A simil.ir schematic i.; shown tor d ~-I n ular tan], of diameter 0

[J
I Z'

A

Oscillating water surface

fdma)C

7/0

Dor'=.

,.d";~

(a) FLUID MOTION IN TANK

FOR RIGID

(b) DYNAMIC MODEL WALL TANK

Fig. 4-2 Tank Dynamics
;1$ shown in Hg. -l-Z, For concrete tank." with rigid walls and roof, this results in a two degree-of-freedom system (Fig -1,-2].Both the impulsive and the convective componell ts hi!vc ,1 period assncia ted with them tha t (Ire generally fur" p.l rt. 1 he total approxi mate response of the system can be estimated by the square root of the sum of squares (SI;:"C;S)combine lion of the responses associated with the two periods, figure 4-3 shows the various mode shapes of recta 11 gular and circula r Iiq uid -con ta i 11 ing structures,

The in, pu lsivc weigh I of lrqllld II "I) is assumed to be ri~iJ h attached lo the structure at height Iii' while the conx cr tivo weigh t of 1iqui d (\ V ) is .ntachcd In the struct lire bv ~pl"ings oj finite stiftll('<;s and d,lfllping at height Ir,

Quiescenlliquid Free Surface

SECTION

SECTION

m=c1

m=2

m=3

l

~__ J
PLAN RECTANGULAi,

Il
TANK

(a) VERTICAL MODES

B

DIRECTION OF ANALYSIS

-

' 8
,
,I Modes

First Sloshing Mode

Second Slosl'1lng Mode

(b) SLOSHING MODES IN RIGIDTANKS

PLAN CIRCULAR TANK

(c) CIRCUMFERENTIAL MODES IN CIRCULAR TANKS

.... ~ : 8
\

~

~

,

Fig_ 4-1 Schematic

of Rectangular

and Circular Tank
11

Fig. 4-3 Vibration

4.2 IBC 2000 METHOD
The h,lSl' ~h('ilr eqUi1 tiun hl\'l'n in Chapter 3 is modified to include the i rnpulsiv l' and the can vective com ponen to; for Iiq tJ it! -run l,l ini ng <; true L L1f(,S as show 11 below.

4.2.3 Response Spectrum Method
The design response spectrum determined ,1S follows: 5, shown in Fig.

+b

can be

4.2.1 Base Shear

,

=

51'.'

. [(),6T ---r,:-

-r- ().-\.

] for T < T
for T1 < T < T, lorT

( III\\." +
- (_ I V
Total
b(l~L'

\1

+u

Impulsive Lum ective

s
'i

=

5" T
=

==h
T,

>T

shear

I,

\',

-+-

I where

0.25D,/5[1';

and T

== Sm/S[)<i

Pl'r Section 1622.25, l

.... Lll15, '"

C > ---

-

o.ss N

I

ThL' quantities

\-.\ ,1'\,

1\ and IV represent

the wall

wl..'igh l, root weigh I, lmpulsiv e weight of the fluid and the convective weight of thl' fluid, respectively. n11;' impul-

sive \\ l.'ight IN ,1llJ lllm L'Lli, e \\ l'i~ht IV can be determined as a Fraction llr till' tl)l,lJ liquid weight from Fig.-+-..J..l and -J.--1bI'm rl'dan~111M .1I1d circular tanks, respectiv elv, l'hc height ,1 t \\ hich the impulsive and conv ectivc ....eigh t~ , are ass umed 10 ac L GI n be deter rn ined from Fi gs . .+-5a a nd , ... 1)[, it)!' rectangular and circular tanks, respectively, The quanutics S, "mJ.s arc determined as described in SlYlillll 1.1.2, 1\ here I im porta nee tactor (I AC T<1 ie h Ib22.25 (2), I~ == respollsl' mod itie,l Lion factor (!BL Tab It' 1622.2" (I)) ,1Ild, T and arc th~' periods associated II ith the ,1SsUmed im pulsrv I:' and convecti ve motions of the structure . nd the fluid. respectively.

The above equations can be used to determine the respnlbe ordinate 5,,1tor impulsive motion using TI and 5... lor convective motion using Tc' The damping correspondillg to the convecti \'1.' motion is of the order of 0.5 to 2_un as (om pared t(15% assumed for impulsive motion. TIle spectr U III "how 11 ill fig. 4-6 is fur 5°" damping. Note tha t ACl 1"i0.3 recommends 0.5v" damping y., hen calculating the conv ective forces This requires multiply ing the design spectral acceleration coefficent S,,, bv a factor nf 1.5. Note lha t for I.. rge periods (1 (>2.4 sec) lie I 350.3 recommends modifying the design equations to better estimate the long- period exci ta bun effect. Based on these recommendations. the following equations should be considered \\ ith mc 20ll0:

1"0r1'<. ~4sec,

6S Sc =~Tj

r

4.2.2 Overturning Moment
The overturmng moment ,]t the base of the tank is deterrninod for the rrnpulsiv L' .md the convective components
,l'" t01\0\\'S'

Lm P ulsive

When site specific response ~pectnun an" used, the values of ", and S '1 shall not be less than 80% of the values obtained from the ~eneral procedure of Section 1615.1 (see Section 3.1.2 of this publication). In certain srtuations. ,1 site-specific respollse spectrum is required. Section 1615.2 gives prOI'iSIOJ1S for using the site-speci fir: response spec tru m. This spec tru m is tu be based on the maximum considered earthquake ground motion having ,12% probability of being exceeded in 5U) ears. lhe base shear i~ computed using values 5 i and S from the spectrum ,1S folll1w:,:
j,

I, ---5"1' ('" + \11 + \") i"1\ .,~, '/

"1

= height at which inertia

llf wall is assumed

I?

lmpulsix e

to net

V = -"(-(W) ( R ' The uv crturning rnornentsduc to impulsive] W/II)and ti I l' \ \-'\ 1, ) com pOllen ts should include the effect 01 b,,,.,1'pressure II here Ill'CL'~"',1Ty. A method for including the base prl'S"'U rc l~ gl\ en in \cr 1,<:;0.3 ~.
C011\ l'l

s,

C(lI1\

ective

Total base shear

If = \ \12 + \~c ~U.8 calculated

v,

using Section -1:.2.1

12

Dt'$JS!l of i rqllld,Cl'"l<lillmg

C(1llrrl'le Struc! lin'S jor Earthqunk« Forces

1.0 ~----------------------------------------------~

0.9
0.8 0.7

~I~ 06
~ 0.5

3E"1;t

0.4
0.3 0.2

0.1
0.0 ~--~~--~--~~--~--~~--~~--~--~~~~--~ 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

L

HL
(a) Rectangular Tanks

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7

Wc WL

C)I 3: ?:

....I

0.6 0.5

~I~ 0.4

oa

0.3

0.2 0.1

0.5

1.0

1.5 2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

o

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

75

8.0

HL
(b) Circular Tanks Fig. 4·4 Impulsive and Convective Weights for (a) Rectangular and (b) Circular Tanks (Adapted from Ref. 3-6)

13

0.8

.c: J: ~

ul

...J

0.7 0.6

Eb: 0.5
0.4

o 5 1.0 1.5 20 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0
L HL
(a) Rectangular Tanks

Ul .c:J:
~

0.7
...J

06 05 0.4

.EIZ

05

1 0 1.5 2.0

2.5

3.0 3.5

o

40

4.5

5 a 5.5

6.0 6.5 7.0

7.5

HL (b) Circular Tanks Fig. 4-5 Effective Height of Impulsive and Convective (Adapted from Ref. 3-6) Weights for (a) Rectangular and (b) Circular Tanks

14

50S

-1---O.4S0S

,

- --,--

,

T,

Period, T

Fig. 4-6 Design Response Spectrum, IBC-2000

li\ and 7 sl'rsmic ,Dill' tactor, which represents the maXIn1Lrnl l'ff('ctJ \'1:' peak ,'lYderdtion IEPA) corresponding to., "I te-specll ic gl"nund motion hell ing .1LJt)"" probe biJj t\ of not being C\Ct't'ded i Jl ,1 ::;0-1ear pl'riod f = !l11p'1rt.111C(' Iactor (r.lblc I h-K, L Be '(7). k = response mod i filil tion fih.:tor. UBC '9/ gives some R \',lILJc~ tor Jil]uid-C(1IlL.lining structures in Table 16-P. t\o", ~\'" IV ,1I1d IV represent the \\",11 weight, roor weighl, the irn flLl biv(' weight .ll1d Ihe cunvccti, e weigh I respl'l.!h elv, The impLlI~h e \\'eigh t H' <lJld conn'cti,'€, II L'lght 1\' C(I1l be determ incd ,l~ il fraction ot the total liquid \\ eigh lot fcctangul.lf ur circular tank from Fig. .j.-+a and .J.--ib,I'C"~1L'ctrvpI). Fhe J1l'i~ht at which till' irnpulsi, l' and, onv I.'cthe 1\ eight" .1rL' assumed to act can be determined from Figs . .J.-5,1.lnd .j.-'b for recta ugular r nd eiFCU Iar t,m k s. rcspecti 1,('1 r.
:0

t'"

4_3-2 Overturning Moment 4.3 USC '97 METHOD 4.3.1
assumes

Base Shear

j mpulsive

Section 3.2 of thi" publication gl\ es ,} proced urc thnt liquid-cuntaliling :'[J"udure" I,) bt'0SSl'11 tid 11) rigid. It dnes not .11101\ separate compu lations oJ impulsive and cunrccti\ e l'llmp(ltll:"n{;' of IIll' baSl' shed r. To better estimate the dl".;ign flll'( es, the goncral pf{lcL'Uure for base shear gh L'1l Iur bui Id ing structures (USC J 6::10.2)is used in combination with thcprmislonsllt A( r 1.30.3 ,dS follows: l'
L~ I
=0 --

A1 =
C

~~-(!V ) It RT '(
moment Mr

CI

Convecth e

1111,lim'cftUTl1ing h. - Iwigh[

= , \.{;+ '11,'
to act.

In

(IV.,\ ... 1'\ ~+ 1V ) .
the 1l1lpul"l\
I.'

M which

inertia of wall is assumed

In till' shnr] f1l'riod 1.1tlgo.c I I eed not be gre,1!I;'r t han

bo"e shear

mumen ts d LIt'toimpul"ive (IV Ii ) and should include the effect of base pressure where necessary. A method for including the base pressure is given in ACI Yill.:P~, I he ()\'crturning
("ul1\'ediw (\ V 11) l omponcnts

4.3_3 Response Spectrum Method
shill] In the long period 11 oj be 1('"" Ihan
rilllgl',

the rmpub;n'c

b.:lsl' shear

deter mined as follows:

The de<;ign response spectrum

sho« n in Fig. -4-7can be

Also, tor st ruct Ll rc...located d(1Sl' to !Ill' po ten ria1sources O/Cdrti1llu,l "c" in Sl'ismk Zonl'-4, lilt' impu I"i\ e base shear shall not b» les~ than

s
~

=:

C, I .;, [

sr + J J

lor T < T for T, < T <
(or

=:

2.; C

'1',

c s - -..!. -T
where

T > T,

t; = C
1otal
b.lsl'

/2.SC

shear

\I

= 'I V,-

I

II

T,

=:

(1.2 r;

r1w quantitcs l arid C depl'nd II pon the Zone Facmr /. ,md the soil prnflh- type, I he \ alues tor the"c para meters a IV gi I 1"/1 iJl To hIes )(,-(2 and IIl-R Il[ the I997 UI3C respec-

The above spectru m CC1 n be used to determi Ill' the rc~pons(' ordinal., S . tor impulsive motion using T and 5 r f,lr' corn ectivo motion using T , The spectrum is derr, ed for 5°" d,l111ping. porcofn't'ctivc rl'spoll~eil method similar
15

Pm I/olud

t ,'/m'lI/

1:,;.<," ll<lII EIl2J9 m

The parameters
c:
-...:::;;

C1 and C, lire determined
lrnpulsivc

as follows:

o

a;

"' iii
u

2.5 C,

c= rI
I l

L25S
1

]

<

u
u

C. In

'"

c=

1_25,) T' (

,
'$

Convective 2.75

1l.1l75 I~\\.S; C1

4.4.2 Overturning moment
Impulsiv e
Period. T

M(

:=

LIe, I Ie --I,I'v;, I)
UI\

COIW ec tiv ('
moment lvT, "" \

Fig. 4-7 Design Response Spectrum, UBC-1997
lo that described in Section -1:.2.3may be considered OSY.. damping and long-period excitation effect. for

Total overturning
III'!'

At; + M~
to act.

= height at which inertia of wall is assumed

The site-specific response spectru m is constructed lor ground motions that have a IUU.. maximum probability of cxceedence In SO )'l'.US fOI 1"" damping. . '1he im p ulsive a nd con vucti ve cornponcn ts of the base shear are determined using the spe-ctral values S.1 and 5 as follows: V_5 /f(v. \ 1R
0

The up Iift pressu rio',1 t the base can increase the overturning moments and effect the stability of the tank. Ihe overturning moments d lit' to impulsr, e (W /1/) and convectiv c (WJI -J com pOllen b shou Id inc I ud e the effect 0 f base pressure where necessary. A method for including \he base pressure is given III ACI 350.3'".
L

II

+W~+ W)

lmpulsive

4.4.3 Response Spectrum Method
The design force on the tank can also be determined from a design spectrum such as the one given in UDe -, or by usi ng the site-speci fic response specrru m. The si te-specific response spectrum is constructed for ground motions that have a 10°1» maximum probability of exceedence in 50 years tor 5",,, damping. The design base "hear i~ determined using the spectrum as follows: Irnpulsi ve Con vecti \'10'

v(

=~(W) R

c

Total base shear

vr 2:

\ 1,1 + I'~ / (

obtained by using: Section ..1..3.1

0.8

"I

4.4 UBC '94 METHOD 4.4.1 Base Shear
Impulsive

\=
.

ZIe,

u"

(II' )

(

Convectix e
\', = \ 11/ +

Total base shear

v.;

2: 0.075 Z [ WI

The impulsive weight Wand convective weight W, can be determined as a fraction of the total liquid weight of rectangular or circular tank from Fig. -l-la and -l-Ib, respectiv ely. The height at which the impulsix e ,md convectix e weights are assumed to act can be determined from FigsA-5a and 4-5b for rectangular and circular tanks, respectively,
16

The q ua n ti ties 5'1 and 5 are the imp ulsi \ e and convective spectra Iaccelerat ion coefficien ts which correspond to the impulsive and convective periods TI and T( from the simplified spectrum (Fig. -1.-8),The design spectrum is given in USC Fig. 16-3. The base shear computed using the site-specific spectrum is not permitted to be less than 90'%. of the value determined using the static force procedure given under Section 4.4.1, For convective response a method described in ACI 350.3 ma y be considered to better cs tima tc the effect of O.5"/" damping and long-period excitation effect.

4.5 BOCA AND SBC METHOD 4.5.1 Base Shear

=c
II

1(1\

il\l'/(+IV)

!II1p ulsive

C ,(l\ 1.2
Ur

C
C -,

'

., <
s

I

Com ective

1.5A
R ") - A ':._
_."i

Impulsive

-= 1.21\,:;; 1~ ! 1;2

R

ConI cctive

Total base shear II=-\

\I, + \ . Fig. 4-8 Simplified Response Spectrum, UBC~1994 n \Jl ta in i 11 g structures ha vi ng d i tferen t base cond i tions are gil en below. However, it is permitted to use any other ,'CI ti una I m e thod tha t j ncl udes a reasona b Ie distribution of mass and stiffness characteristics for deterrn ini ng the natur.1l period of the structure. As most concrete tanks are relative! y rigid, T mil}' be t.1 ken <1:' 0.3 seconds or less fOT the preliminary and approximate design calculations. It is recommended that for flexible base tanks, T sbould not exceed 1 second for anchored and lUlanchol'cd contained tanks, This limit should not exceed 2 seconds tor unanchored uncuntained tun k-, '111.:' lim its on lhe periods sllgges ted here; n are to prevent excessive deforrnation of tanks,

\\ hen:" II••lnd A Me the effec live peak acceleration coe...fficient and thl' cl feet ivc peak \ l'loci t\ -rclated a c..elera tion coefficient, fespt:'ctin'h '(::'PL'Sl!l'L'(111 161O.I.1l1fBOCA and Sec ti lin 1007. 1.5 (It S [lC) The \ .1Ilit'S of si te coefficient (5) and response mod itication factor (1\) should br- t,1 ken 110m apprupri.itc edition ot the 130C.\ or SBC codes

4.5,2 Overturning moment
1\11 =C~IUV, ..",\ ,\1 =C'r{W~h
-j

\"~IiN + IV 1/)

[ rnpulsivc

)

C unv ec ti v t'

4.6 ACI350.3-01

METHOD

Ihe provi sion ~of r\C 11'i0 1 ( are to be used in conjunc tion II ith Cha pter 21 (Special ['rln isions lor Seismic Design) of ACI 3"(l-Ol. l'hesc I-~nl\islon .. MI.' compatible with URC lLJ44. Noh- that AC1330-01 i:-o ba .. ed on ACI 318,-951' s for most of its dt'!'ign provisions and load combinations. Section ~J.2,1.7 of ACI 35(J-01 indicates that the environmental durahilit , factor (oS) defined in Section 9.2.8 need 110t be applied to load combinations that include earthquake l:tt("ts. Ihc load combinations applicable under \ <lfIOUS COdl'5 Me ,'2;1\ on in Chapter J {IIthb publication. \Vhl'rl' All 350-111is .ldopled tor u..e, the provisions of Chapter 21 along with ACI J50.3 and ACI ~18-95 are applicable. Note thnt ACI 350.1.1bo gh t?" recommendations for seisrn ic zone factors (2), and soil factors (5)/ which are mostlv con .. istent II ith UI3C 19'1-1, I he importance lactors of AC13503-UI dwgh en in Tablu-l-L AU 350,3-01 ,11,,0 ~h c" separate re.-;plm"L' rnudification factors R\\ I and R1,( for impulsiv C' and convectivo motions of the liquidcout.iirnng structure (Table ,t-2,)

4.7.1

Rectangular Tanks
the

The following equation can be used to determine impuish e period of a recta ngu 10:1 tank: r

r
I

=2lf
\

-


thickness cantilever walls:

\V

For fixed-base constant

III

cr, )

where lt = mean height (It) at which the inertia Iorce tank and Its contents is .1SSU rued to act, I, = wall thickness (in.), E = mod ulus elasrici ty of concrete (bl) X '" accelera ri on d lie to gra\ it;. (ft / !>I:'C') and K = s tiffness coeffici en t (kips / ft). '111e period associated with the convective component can be determined a~ follows:
till'

4.7 PERIOD
nIL'

l'q ll,l tions lor d eter m i[1ing t he im pulsi ve period T, and con I cct ill' period T of recta ngula r a nd circul ar Iiquid17

Pottluud l <'IIIL'I" """

<1111"" fHllQ

Table 4-1 Importance Tank Use

Factor, I (Table 4(c), Ref. 3-6)

Tanks containing naza rdous materials

(11

--

--

Factor I 1,5 1.25 1.0

Tanks that are intende d to remain usable. for emergency purposes after n earthquake; or tanks that are part of lifeline systems --

Table 4-2 Response

Modification

Factor, Rw (Table 4(d), Ref. 3-6)

I
Type of Structure (a) Anchored, flexible-base tanks (b) Fixed or hinged-base tanks (c) Unanchored, contained or uncontained tanks'" (d) Elevated Tanks
r I) (2)

RWI
On or Above Grade 4.5 2.75 2.0 Buried'" 4.5(2) 4.0 2.75

Rwe
1.0 1.0 1,0 1,0

I
, ,r"""IIIo1IIWWII
WIII/'/, ,;urfiltr /' III pr

()

R = .1.;1 /, Uu,,,,d,,,,,·

BlIrI"II'III~ I

,It;:J ~A

3.0
~"'IIH,j It'lt'l It'lItn"e

,1m,
/ure

1,,/<'11'
r

JI/I." 1111/\0'"111/ filiI!

·,,/'11 1"'IIII1t/I',IIII 1,,'II't'oI (1" ,lilt. Ih)t/iol "1111111,,/ tml~< <l!"l/m h' 1111,11n I('rr~ 28 "llIs'r t
1,

R

f{lHtllllllll-;'

when;

~

~,11l

be obtained

trorn rig, 4-q(a) for

,1

gi\('n
IJf

L/ H, of the l,1I1k. (L analvsis (fl)).
(<1) Non-sliding

lent;lh of tank in direction

Note that ACI "'SO') specifics a limit of 1.25 seconds on both anchored and unanchored maximum periods.

4.7.2 Circular Tanks
Sa e. I h 'fnllo\\'ingequ<1tions can be used to determine the impulsive period of fixed or hinged base circular tanks \\ ith orw ithout prestressing: 'l _ 2Jr
I-

k = 1.f4 A'£~ to::' ~ + 2C_1 <1' L' __ I L.;~ S ~ [ I,,~,

1

For anchored flexible tanks

(u,

1·01'

\\ here
W, =

unanchored flexible tanks

C

12

f'_l

H, \ 1',

12r and p = mass dl'nsll) Cit concrete (-1.66 lb-sl'c-'/ft'), I = thickness ut W<11l (in.), ,. = radius of tank (tt), E = modulus elasticiiy (11 concrete (Ih/In.'), C1, is given

C, = 10(, \ I

nr

in FI~.4-!t)in

terrns ot

fJ/H.

(b) Flexible Base. I he Iollowing equations can be used tu determine the impulsive pcnod T of flexible base circular prestressed tanks:

where A = cross-sectional area of cable/strand (in.?), E = modulus of elasticitv of cable/strand (1<51), ~ = angle of cable/strand with horizontal. L. = effective length of cabl -/strand taken ,1S sleeve length plus 35 times the diameter (in.), ...,= sp<1t.:ingbetween cable sets (in), ::) = spacing of elastorneric pads (In), G = shear modulus oi elastomeri pad (ksi), t thickness of elastorneric bearrng pad (in.), L, length of individual elastomeric pad (in.) and 'lIp = \\ id til of ela torncric pad in radial direction (in.), and k :; spring constant (kl ft2). The convective period TI lor both non-sliding and flexible base tanks can be determined lLSlng the (oll\)\ving equation:

=

=

" =\

~Jrll'

~OkJ

$;

I second for- anchored tanks and :: seconds fnr unanchored tanks

18

1.1

1.0 09

1=!
N

~ ,..... 0.8 0.7 0.6

0.5 1 0 1.5 20

2.5

3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5

6.0 6.5

7.0 7.5 8.0

L
HL
(a) Rectangular Tanks

0.85

O.B
0.75
..<

~

0.70
0.65

0.60 0.55

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

3.0 3 5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5

6.0 6.5

7.0 7.5 8.0

D HL
(b) Circular Tanks Fig. 4-9 Charts for Obtaining Factor

T for

2Jr

Computation

of Convective Period (Tc;) for (a) Rectangular and

(b) Circular Tanks (Adapted from Ref. 3-6)

19

017
0.16 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.12 0,11 950

0.67

1.50

2.50

3.50

4.50

5.50

6.50

7.50

8.50

D

HL
Fig. 4-10 Chart for Obtaining Factor C for Computation of Impulsive Period (T/) at a Non-Sliding Circular w Tank (Adapted from Ref 3-6)

1 he \ aluc of

T. rnav

2IT

be obtained

from Fig. -!-9(b) fur
=

0//1 of a tank for both ngid and flexible base tanks (0 diameter llj tank (iO, H height of liquid lfl)).

4.8 VERTICAL ACCELERATION
1 he effect 01 \'erlk"l accelcratiuns should be included in the design of tank compunents. ln the absence of more detailed analvsis, the Ill<l~n itude oi \ crtical acceleration is gClll'raJl) taken as two-thirds 01 the horizontal acceleration. The effects of vertu'a! acceleration as recllmmcndcd in ,\(1 .350.3 are computed as follows: '1he hvdrodynamic pn'ssun Pl'l toot height ot
r,'

root, wall and the joint between root and the wall. Note thai tanks with inadequate freeboard will experience uplift pressures on the roof due to liquid sloshing. Tanks in ::.eismic zones 3 and -+ and tanks designed for importance Iactnr greater than U) should either have adequa te freeboard dn" (Fig. -!-2a) or should. be designed for the forces d tit' to res tra ined slosh ill g and vertica 1acceleration effects. The sl osh in!; heigh t may be com pu ted by using the foil owing equations VI hich are based on concepts sun ila r to those givcn m ACI 350.3.

IBC 2000 Method
d
",,'

-J.d_(~)
1.4Tl 2

For Rectangular

Tanks

the tank is

d
~\here
1/\1

"

=

lAT.

~(DI
2

J

For Circular Tanks

=- IJ (/1

0))

lbs /tt, unit hydrostatic

pressure

Jt 1('\ el !I abov e ian], base Ii = magnitude of, crtira l ccceleration

UBC '97 Method
d
",,1.\

associated with the vertical period (T ) ot the structure and YL= specific \\'l'ihill or contained Iluld. The period associated \~ i th the vertical motion (TI) of the circular tank 1:; com pll tl'd <1:' fol1\wvs:

-S.!.....(/) 2: lATe
1.4T, 2

For Rectangular

Tanks

d _~(D)
"'"' d nll:to.

For Circular Tanks

UBC '94 Method

4.9 FREEBOARD
The anticlpatcd unrestrained ..,1sh ing height should be a ~(lmputl'd tn .iotcrminc cln) sloshing pressure on the tank 20

=- zc

('""I

1(~)

For Rcctangula r Tanks

For Ci rcular Tanks

Ot':;I,l!1i

01 Lliplid,C()lltnllllll\1

Gma,·t,-

Siruciuresfo:

Enrlllqllllke Forces

BOCA and SBC Method
II,
=:

1.2AI S (( ~ I.-IT ' ~I

.

FIll

Rectangular

Tank~

Table 4-3. Approximate Magnitude of Movement Required to Reach Minimum Active and Maximum Passive Earth Pressure (Ref. 4-4) Type of Backfill Active Dense Sand Medium-dense Sand Loose Sand
'1

tVH' Passive 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.001 0.002 0.004
='

l.~A ~ ( D , " , - LIT '
f

J...For Circular ,Ianks

4.10 EARTH PRESSURE
... ear computation and for design of walls or a partially or h Iull, buried] iqu id-containing structure. Thcelfectof ground wa ter, if an), should also be taken into consideration Active earth pressure IS caused as ,1 result of the structure moving ilW,lY from the ... rrounding ';0;1 while passive u rre~sLlrc results due to the structure moving into the surrounding soil (Fig. 4-11). 1able 4-J give;;; the approximate magnitude 111 movement required to reach the minimum acti H' and 111a xirnu m pass ino' prt'ss u re cond ition hI f • AC1350.3 stipulates that in computing the earth pressu re, the coefficient ut d) narnic laterul carth pressure k. at rest should be used unless it is determined that the structure detled!-. sufficiently to warrant use of actix e and passive pressure k and k", respectively. The coefficient k \ aries from LlA- D.b tor cohesionless soils and o.~- 0.8 for cohos: I'e soils!". The Tl'SlI I 1<1111 1)[ the seismic component of the earth pressure can be assumed to act at a height 0.6 tunes the earth heigh t above bast'. Note that the above simplification ut the earth pre5sure effe.:ts j.., based on the assumption that the liquidcontaining structure II ill not deflect enough to result in active or passive pressure due tn the seismic excitation. Whl'1l this is not the cast" lh uainic active and passive pre .... sure ...need to he calculated. References 4-4 and -l-t:; gi\'e the )';L1iddines for computing the dvnarruc active and P,lSSl\'C pressurcs.Jn situations where detailed active and P<1SS1\'C pressure computations tHC deemed necessarv, the lISL'r should also refer to Okabc (Rd. 4-7) and Mon~nobe and Matsuo (Ref, 4-1\).

= movement

at top of Willi and H

height of wall.

Eftcct

()i

l"arth pressu re shou ILlbe included both in the base

4.11 REFERENCES
-l-I: Housner, G. W., "The Dynamic Behavior of Water ranks," Bulletin oflhe Seism%gictlISD( ictyofAmerlctI, Vol. 53, No.2, 1963, pp. 381-387. Haroun, M. A. and Hausner, G W., "Seismic Design of Liquid Storage Tanks," /0111'1"'/ of the Technical Councils of Iill.' ASCE, Procedings of file American Societll of Civi! Engineers, ASCE, Vol. 107, o. TCI, 1994, pp.11.)1-207

~-2.

+-3.

Building

Code Rrquirement«

for Structural

COliC rete

(ACl318-95) and C01lfltlellfary(ACl318R-9S), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 1995,

..tA.

Clough, G. W., and Duncan, J. M., (1991), Chapter 6: Earth Pressures, in Foundation Engineenng Handbook, Second Edition, NY, pp. 223-235. Ebeling. R. 1\1. and Morrison, E. E. "The Seismic Design L)f W,1terfront Structures," NCEL Techmcal Report, TR-939, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA, 1993 Bowles, r. E., Tountuuion AlwlysisllJld McGraw-Hill, Inc., NY, 19R8.

+-.5.

-1--6. 4-7.

Design, 4th Ed.,

Okabe, S. (1926), "General Theory of Earth Pressure!'," iotlma/Japall Society {?fCivi! Engineering, Vol. 12, No. I. Mononobe, N., and Matsuo, H., (1929), "On the lJeterm ina bon of Ea rth Pressu res During Earthquakes," Proceedings World Engineering COllgress, 9.

4-8.

-E.U1b.1If1h.

Fig. 4-11 Active and Passive Earth Pressure due to Seismic Movement of Tank
21

/"'1 J 11111.1 L III< 'IJ

\''''''lill

mil [IL I

22

CHAPTER 5

Design of Components
5.2 DESIGN OF TANK WALLS 5.2.1 Wall Forces
Ihe walls ..hould be designed for the combined effects of static and d) narruc loads per the applicable load combinations gi\ ell in Chapter 3. The static loads include the dead load, live load, hydrostatic pressure and earth pressure. TI,e d) narnic load include the inertia of the elements, the h) d rodynarnic forces (impulsive and convectix e components of fluid motion) and d) narnic earth pressure. The inertia, impulsive and convective forces on the walls of rectangular and ci rcular tanks can be determined for d iffL'ff'n t codes as follows:

5.1 GENERAL
All components of liquid-containing structures such a... \\ .111 roof ..lab, base ..l.lil, [oints, baffle \\ alb and pipmg .., h tures must be desigued for the maximum effects of str -sses produced bv different apphcablc loads. This will 1'1lSUre till' intended 0\ cra l l pcrformc nce of the liquid-containing structure. The de"'lgn ot some of the components .. is not straightforward due to the complexity ot the stress distributic 11, particularly in [he case 01 circular tanks. In the absence (1t u more refined analvsis, approxi mate method .. gh en in th is cha pter may be ~,sed to design these components. Figure ::;-1 shows the hvdrodx narnic forces on walls and ha... slah of J tank due to earthquake ~roLlnd motion. e The hydrod\ narnic forces include the effect {If impulsive and convective motions of the contained liquid. Besides hydrodynamic lorn's, the t.1I1kclements are 10 be designed or their own inertia torces and tho orces transferred from other clernen ts,

IBC 2000 Method
P
=:"

.; 1
p~

1\

R

•1 IV < -"Pi \V W - RT \\
I

Roof Inertia

Irnpulsive

Sloshing Waves

Convective

UBC 1997 Method
[ J _ \\,--°\1

c, II.V
RT/

Wall lnertia

Roof Inertia

Impulsive

Fig, 5-1. Hydrodynamic Pressures Due to Ground Motion. 23

r =C~W
c

RT

l
L

Cnnn~ctive

Unit "Slice"

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURES

WALL INERTIA

IMPULSIVE PRESSURES

CONVECTIVE

PRESSURES
Liquid-

Fig. 5-2. Distribution of Hydrostatic, Inertia, Impulsive, and Convective Containing Structure (Adapted from Ref. 3-6)

Pressure on Wall of a Rectangular

where

n.l1e I ~ ~,~ ~ .-

CI

2

'1('[

"

j,n;

R
Zone 4

Impulsive

O.8ZN~ I < C~I
f{ -

c
l

= ~.2.5$

RT,

'r~ l c

Con vecti

\I:"

UBC 1994 Method
I' II

BOCA and SBC Method
Willlln~rtja Wan Inertia
Ruot Inertia Impulsive Can vccti ve lmpulsivc Impulsive Convective Convective

IV = 7,lC -~\ ",v
Ip

p
R

= zrc
= ZIC

In
I

11\'B_
I,

Roof 1nertia

r

1

v.~,
I' ':v

P =llC _'.
, l

IV

I~I\

24

-----L-------.:
Direction of
Tank Motion

(I)

\\',1

U inertia toree, -;-- (2) one-half the impulsive force,

p.

Trailing Fig. 5-3. Leading and Trailing

Half

Leading

Half
Tank

Half of a Rectangular

P, (3) one-half the convective force, P and (4) dynamic earth pressure', p[ against the buried portions of the tank, ,1S shown in Fig.5-4. Since earthquake forces arc reversible, both the leading and the lrai linh walls should be designed for the maximum effects, If Ihest' torces, Section 5.2.1l1ullines the procedure lor determining the inertia (PI')' impulsive (P,) and convective (Pc) forces on the wall depending upon the applicable building cod e .The dynamic ea rth press me ca n be d eterrni ned using

The forces at any height!f due to inertia, impul .... and ive 1.",)0\ ectivc motions are gh en as 101l0w,,: f~\

Reference 4-5.
5i\

=.,
-

{J
HI\ 1\'

(PI1 is b,l.... on \\ eIght 01 two walls) ed

5.2.2 Rectangular Tanks
TIll' d istribu tion of h ydrosta tic, lilt" rlid, iIII pu lsive and convective pressures 1111 ,1 rectangular wall are gi\'cn in rig. 5-2 For the purpose of design, the tank is divided into leading half and the trailing half portions .1<; shown in Fig . .5-1. It is assumed that the impulsive and convective forces '1r1' equally resisted by the leading and the trailing walls perpendicular to the direction of till' earthquake force. Thus, half of the total irnpulsiv l' and convective force is ,lssigned to each wall. The leading and the (ril i lil1~\\ alb perpendicular to the earthquake force are designed for the combined effects of

ate that convecti ve fore is out-of-phase with impule force because of the relatively large oscillation period of the contained Iiquid with respect to the tank motion. Therefore, square root of the sum of squares (SRSS) method should be used to combine the lrnpulsive and convective torccs. The dynamic earth pressure caused b) the movemerit of the tank can be directly added to the impulsive effects for design purposes. The vertica Iand horizontal bending and shear stresses in the walls rna) be determined using plate analysis given in Rd. 5-1. Walls parallel to the earthquake force are designed for in-plane forces due to (a) their own inertia and, (b) reactions from the roof and abutting walls.

5.. .3 2

Circular Tanks

In case uf Circular tanks, the earthquake base shear is transmitted partially by membrane (tangential) shear and partially by radial "hear that causes \ ertical bending. Actual distribution of stre scan onl} be calculated through ,1 finite element <111.1Iy5i. Cl ~50.3 indicates that ll% of the base shear can be assumed to be transferred through tangential shear for tanks with DIH of -1. The remaining 20"u will be transferred through vertica I bending. The maxi IIIurn tangeD tial shear occurs a t a pain t on ta nk VI' all

T
Intertia Impulsive Convective Dynamic earth pressure (see Ref. 4-5) Fig. 5-4. Design Forces on Walls Perpendicular

to the Earthquake 25

Force

oriented

degrees trorn the direction of earthquake, as Fi~. ~~:;, I (1 I determ ill i ng the ion.:es/ stresses in circular tan k 11,,11 ..., the tank is di, idl'd into leading half and the ira iling 11.11f portions ,1~ shown in Fig. 5-6, As far as dynamic load ... elf\.' (ol1ll'ntl'd, the,,:\ llndrical walls (Fig. 5-7) are designed for (,) 1 \ \ ,111 II1eft;.1 d istri bu !l'd un i form Iv a round the en tilt' circu terence, (b) one-half the impu Isi~ c force PI' applied s) rumen 1\',111\ ahnu t J 11 '1Il~11' e = 0 and acting inw ard on one-hal t uf the 1\ ,111and one-hal r P applied symmetrical a bout 8 = nand .1C t jn~ OlJ tl\' ,lfe! (1\1 the opposi te ha If 01 t he wall (c)onc-ha \t the conv cctive force P applied symmetricall V about ,111 ,mgle n = (1 and actmg inward on one-hal! ot lhe ,<\,,111and 1111L'-h,11t P, applied svrurnctrical about 0 == It and acting outward on the opposite halfof the wall, and (d) the dynamic earth pressure, P, at;ainst the buried portion of the tank. Section "i.2.1lJutlines the procedure tor determining the inertia (P 1\)' impulsive lP) and convective (PJ forces ,111 the WJII dopcnding llpOll the applicable code. nlC forces Pl\~' p. and P~~ determined at helcht 1/ above the base of the wall .are ~ (Sl'C Section 5.2.1). The horizon tal distribu ticn of the dynamic pressures ,1! hE'lghtl/ across the t,1I1k d iameter D may be determined
9[) ~11l1\1 11 In

The vertical bending and shear stresses in the walls can be computed llsmg shell analysis (sec Ref. 5-2). The hoop torces in cylindrical walls at allY lcvel t, from the base C,1n be determined by SRSS combination of the inertia, impulsive and convective stresses, .:IS follows:

Hoop stress: For circular t,l n ks \\ i lh flexible base, maximum forces Nj\!I N,i, and N can be determined for angle e = 0 (see Fig. 5-5), <IS follows:

N,\"

='
0:::

Pjl,/rr.

1\. 2P,J IT
\]L :=

16Pl j9rr

For non-flexible base tanks, the above equations should be mad i rled to accoun t for the eftects of restra i nts,

as 11l11o\,\'s:

5.3 DESIGN OF IMMERSED ELEMENTS
The immersed elements such as baffles, clarifier center \\ dis, aerators, piping and launders must be designed for the ~ffccts ~,f hvdrodvnamk forces. 11lC immersed elemen ts are subjected to ad ditiona I forcf't, due to the fact that the liquid surround ing them responds with them incroasmg their cffccti\'l' weight and the corresponding inertia force. The wcight of lilt uid per Iineil! foot of height of the

1', =

I~
rtf

1'.

2[',
= Ttl'

cosEl

p ---~~cosEl
9Ttr

16Pt

Distribution of

Direction of seismic force Base tangentiail

unit shear, q

Fig. 5-5. Shear Transfer

at Base (Adapted

from Ref. 3-6)

26

Direction of Tank Motton

.

..
Leading Half

Trailing Half

Fig. 5-6. Leadin.g and Trailing Half of Circular Tank

(a) Inertia Forces

(b) Impulsive

Forces

[c] Convective

Forces (d) Dynamic Earth Pressure

Fig. 5-7. Forces for Design of Circular Tank Walls

27

~l\

clement en b\

n'\-

I n'S~llmdll1g \\ ilh the immersed

element

is

5.5 OTHER COMPONENTS
For circular prestressed ta nks ~\ith anchored f1e"ible base, the strength nlscisrnic cables and their anchorages in lank wall .md fDlll1diltion sha 11be investigated for tensile force due tn base shear and overturning moment. r or flexible base tan ks, the ~tn."ngth of base pad shall be adcqua te lur ~hea r and compression clue to combined gr,1\ it~ and earthquake forces. The coefficient of friction (~I) between concrete and elastomcric pad mar not be taken greater than 50'" of its value, The effect of contained liquid 111<1)' be m'~lect{'d for computation of base pad frictional resistance. The effect uf \ ertica I acceleration that reduces the Irictional resistance between the base pad and concrete should be included. Fill" unanchored and contained flexible tanks, the strength of Ihe containment pad, its support structure and the t.1I1k wal] shall be designed for forces resulting from impulsi-, e and convective pressure. Where no \ ertical or diagonal ties are provided bel1\ een walls and footing, no tension is permitted due to uplift from earthquake overturning moment. In such situatlons. the overturning moment should be balanced bv \\ t'lght and "..idth of thl' structure with appropriate margin 01 slIfl'ty. For both anchored and unanchored and uncontained flexible base t,1I1k.<;, the relative displacement between the t.mk \\ alls ,1I1d th ' foundation due to combined load effect shall not exceed till' radial and tangential movement cap<lI..ily of the Welter stop to prevent leakage. Friction between the base pad and wall shall not be relied on to reduce lhe tangential displacernents Fur Ilexible base tanks using flexiblecontainment pad, the thickness of the pad and <;p~mgeIf used shall not be less th,111 1.5 Ml{'.S the computed horizontal displacement of the tank base lor hydrostatic and earthquake loading.

\ \' - rrayl1
where u
e added
"1(

\\eight I.. itio (1.25 fnr Ilat two dirnenn,11 elements \ Ibr,lting 110rm<l1 to their ,ni..; l llflc and 1.01111 L\ lindrical shapes)
01 liquid

'{
[1=

unit \\eighl

I 2pnljl'l'tl'd\\ldlh rl the clement or radius of the structure dt hl'lgh! where (;( i" determined

l'he l'fft'cli\ l' \\,t'I~ht or liquid responding with the element should be ,1ddl'd 10 the \\ "I~hllJI the clement and the \\cight of .1n~ liquid containedin the clernent /slruclu rl'{"uch as in C,'Sl' 01 ,1 center w ell) to dererrn ine the 111t.11 11\drodvnamic torce on it. Ilw immersed elements are abo subjected to a dr'l); force because Ill' the sl,)shin~ Llf the liquid. This torn' is dirccllv addcd to the hvdrodv namic force lind can be determined a.., tnll\)\\ s: I, ~l All when .. ' ,'ppIiL'd ,It the centroid ot the projected arva of the clement C, = dl'L1~ coefficient (use J \ alue (It 2 for platl'<;, I or l\ li nders) II = projected area ut till' :-0 ubrnergcd element II -= horizon t,]j sloshing \ ,,'locit)

= force

5.4 FOUNDATIONS
Foundations are III be cli.'..,iglll'd fur the combined effects lJI gri1\ il) ,111..1 lateral JUlye" (due to earthquake or wind) according 1(' lilt' applicable loud rombinanons gin::n In "h,lF IL'I 3. Note Ih,11anchored tank foundations must be deslgJll'd lur the up lift forc£, due to 0\ crt urning moment of till' earthquakr'. 1he bllSl' pressure is calculated bi includin~ till' dll.'ct o! 0\ erturninj; moment. The ov~rtLirning moment on 11lL' ank should include the effect of liquid t lo~hin~ o nd hvdrudv n.uuic pressu re In (else of unanchored flexible b,lSL' t,lIlh.s. there i.. 110 uplift on the foundation, ,111d the t.1I1k \\ .11] 111.1\ on" transfer horizontal !'>hc.lI·til the footing. In Ihis <;iiuahon, the mov ement ot the wall !"elali\ e to the foundation and the shear at contact pomt be!V,'l'CIl the \\ all .md till' f(ll1til1~ could control the dl·..,lgn. The ox l'r,lll inlcgrih pt till' tank shall be ensured b) prm id Lng.1ti,'qtltlte margi ns of salcty <lgainsl both slid ing ,1I1d ll\ crturning \ f the tank

5.6 REFERENCES
:;-1
!i-2

1,-{'l'toIlSll/flr C(J/I("rctc Tanh, !\e\ [sed 51n Ed., Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL 60077, IQ9B. CIrcular COl/ad£' TllIlks l'vIHwlIl Prcslrc"sillg, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, [L 60077, 1993. AWWA Standard for Circular Prestressed Concrete \\ a tcr Tonks with Clrcum Ierential Tendons, \l sl/AWWADlI5-g;:;,

5-3

28

CHAPTER 6

Detailing
seismic risk !L'\ cl and the ruresponding level of Jl't'liling for the structure, l able 6-2 provides "..,ummary of the sections in Chapter 21 01 AC131(>l. that arc applicable for earthquake design and detailing of structural components in regions of in termediate or high seismic risk for structures <bsignL'd to \ arious seismic performance or design categories lkJ:.HISl' of their inherent ['Jgidity and to pres ern le,lj.,:,lgl', 111,111) 11quid-containing concrete structure" 111<1\ be designed to remain ciJs[ic during i1 o:.l'lsmic event, Th"e current codes allow Limited inelastic action in liquidcon to ining structures (reflected in ... allet R values for such m structures) \\ hell compared In buildings, Therefore, it can be argued that codes till not expect the same .1I11011nt of ductility trom liquid-containing structures a:. lhev do in caseot bllilding:-, Although this would mean that ,~tringent dddiling prescribed in ACl318 for buildings in hi~hsl'ismi(' regions should not apply to hquid-rontaining structures, it is prudent tll provide such detailing to ensure structural pcrformanc c 'l~ai!1~t ,my unexpected events 1)1' situations.

6.1 GENERAL
FilTthq 1I<1es call i nduce larp;l' f'l1rc.l':-' in structu res tha t Me k able! to remain elastic during the ground l'\.(llo1tIOI1, Since it is gl'm'fally nut feasible to dL'..,ign ..,! ructurcs I\)r such large fl,ru's: the current earthquake dL'sign philosoph) allows structures to respond in the inelastic range through controlled damage and dcformatrun at predetermined lora tiuns, The idea is tur the Slnldlll'l' In dissip"ll' lhe L'\'ll'SS earthq U.1ke l'n<-'r);), thmllgh ductile inelastic excursions. In order tllr the structure II) bl'h,1\ L' ill this manner wuhout collapse, il h.l!-o to be detailed properly to provide the required redistribuhon and ductilitv It is tor this reason that detailing becomes an csscntlal part of design <l~i1ins! earthq lid !.;l'S, The seismic d e ta i l i ru; of rei nfurced concrete building structures is gc,wr~lI\' taken from Chapter 2111f I\CI 318 1'11(" .irious model building codes (lBC 100U, UBC I YQ7, BOCA 19%, SI3l' ]YlJ7, U IK ] 'l9-1)l'ither refer to Chapter ~1 of 1\0 31HIli' "dllpt till' specific provisions of ACI 318 with modifications. The "ei..,l11lc detailing requirements in ACt 11S are related lo the trpl' of structural svster», seismic risk level ill the site, Il'\'d of enl.'rg) dissipatron assumed ill the computation of design seismic forcL's, and OCCUP,lIlcy of the ...ructure, lhe seismic risk levels arc classified clS low. t moderate ,1I1d high. In order to determine the necessarv detailins tor a " structure, till' dl'sibJ1el" m.l~ have to use till' applicable model building cod.' In conjunction with the appropriate edition of A 131~ that is referenced b, till' 1l111.kl code, I'I11.' designer will determine the Seismic Zone in case "I L nc. the SCI";Il1!C Performance C,kgM\' (SI'C) in case ot BOCA and SBC and Seismic Dc;;ign C,lh.!gorV (SOC) in case of me. These parameters <1Tl' indic,lti\l: of and related ttl the seismlc risk level shown in Table 6-1. Thus Table 6-1 should be used In .isccrt.un the appropriate

6,2 DETAILING BASED ON AC1318-99
Reference 6-1 ~i\'es requirements and illustrative figures seism« ddmlmg of reinforced concrete structural elements such as beams, columns, walls. diaphragms. slabs, footings, piles and caissons based on AC[ 318-91.), Some of these tab I",!,>nd figures ilh istrating design and detailing o( a \\ .1lis are reprod uced here (sp(' rabies 6-1 through 6-5 and Figures (,-1 1111(,1 6-::n. The overriding requirments uf ACI 330-01 Me shown wherever applicable.
011

6.3 REFERENCE
(i-I

Sd";/Il/c Vdllilillg l~f COllc)'e/!' Buiidmg», I'ortlilnd ment Association, Skokie. II 60077,2()(lO,

Ce-

29

/'

III/I

t

(t

1/1

1/

",,1.1/1<"

t Rll"

Table 6·1 Seismic Risk Terminology

Code. Standard. or Resource Document -BOCA National Building Code ( 1q93 1996. 1999)

-- f--

Level of Seismic Risk or Assigned Seismic Performance Category (SPC) or Seismic Design Category (SOC) Low Moderate High

-

Standard BUilding Code (1994, 1997 1999) ASCE 7·93. 7·95 NEHRP (1991,1994) . Uniform BUilding Code (1991. 1994, 1997)

SPC A. B
-

-

SPCC

SPC D. E

-

Seismic Zone 0, 1

Seismic Zone 2

Seismic Zone 3. 4

International BUilding Code (2000) ASCE 7-98 NEHRP (1997)

-

--

SaCA.

B

soc c

sac

D. E. F

Table 6-2 Sections of Chapter 21 10 Be Satisified

'

Component Besrstlnq Earthquake Effect

Level of Seismic Risk or Assigned Seismic Performance Category (SPC) or Seismic Design Category (SDC) Intermediate High

Frame members
r------

-

--

(21.2.1.3) 21.10
None None None None

(21.2.1.4) 21.2-21.5 21.2.21.6 21.2,21.7 21.2. 21.8 21.2,219

Structural walls and coupling beams Structural diaphragms and trusses Foundations Frame members not proportioned to resist forces induced by earthquake motions
-

r-

In ,Iddilam

tu rt 'I um-rn, 11t~,'I

hapu-rs

1 1:- .md 22.

30

Table 6·3 Web Reinforcement

Requirements

Sect. No. The required amounts of vertical and horizontal web reinforcement depend on the magnitude of the design shear force Vo· • For ,~ ~

Fig. No.

i\

\ {' .
~ 0.0015 for No.6 bars or larger

Vertica, remf ratio> 0.0012 for No 5 bars or smaller

Horizontal rein!. ratio 20.0020 for No.5 bars or smaller ~ 0.0025 for No.6 bars or larger • For

\I "

:> A

Pv? 0.0025 (0.003 per AC! 350-01) Pn 2: 0.0025 (0.003 per ACI 350-01) Reinforcement spacing each way shall not exceed 18 in. (12 in. per ACI350-01) Reinforcement provided ior shear strength shall be continuous and shall be distributed across the shear plane. For ~,

L'"

J.' :

21.6.2.1 6·1

r--

~

All continuous reinforcement in structural walls shall be anchored or spliced in accordance with the provisions for reinforcement In tension in 21.5.4.

-

> 2A".

----

-----

\f.

--

-

-

two curtains of reinforcement must be provided.

--

21.6.2.2 ------------r--------4
21.6.2.3

s
(12
In.

< 18"
For v, < A Vert. reint. rauo

per AC! 350-01)
f:: ...0.0012 ~0.0015 Horiz. reinf. ratio ~ 0.0020 ~ 0.0025

for for for for

No.5 or smaller No.6 or larger No.5 or smaller No.6 01 larger

ForV,,-.A,\f; I\?> 0.0025 (0.003 per ACI350-01) (In > 0.0025 (0.003 per ACI 350-01) For V, > 2Ac> \ Provide two curtains of reinforcement Anchor and splice bars per 21 .5.4 All other reinforcement not shown for clarity

r; .

Figure 6-1 Web Reinforcement

Requirements

31

Table 6-4 Shear Strength Requirements

Sect. No. The nominal shear strength V~ of structural wails shall not exceed:

Fig. No.

\~,= /\
where
0.

(a
1.5

\f' + PllfJ

(21-7) 21.6.4.1

i

for h ~Ir

=
-

..

2.0 for hi'> --

2.0 - -----+--------1 21.6.4.2
21.6.4.3

ex varies linearly between 3.0 and 2.0 for h" If" between 1.5 and 2 O. In Eq. (21-7), the value or h •.!! used for determining Vn for segments of a wall shall be the larger of the ratios for the entire wall and the segment of wall considered. Walls shall have distributed shear reinforcement In two orthogonal _ directions~n the plane of the wall.~/r .. ..::; 2.0, Pv~ p,,' Nominal shear strength of all wall piers sharing a common lateral force shall not be assumed to exceed,

------

--------I------_____,

SA

\f,

where A..,. is the

total cross-sectional area, and the nominal shear strength of anyone of the individual wall piers shall not be assumed to exceed lOA
I'

21.6.4.4

\,1',
--

--

where AcJ' IS the cross-sectional area of the pier considered.

Nominal shear strength of honzontal wall segments and coupling

-

-

-

--

--

beams shall be assumed not 10 exceed,

I0 \

\

f',

where A

'P IS

the

21.6.4.5

cross-sectional area of a horizontal wall segment or coupling beam.

Table 6-5 Rein#orcement

Details where Boundary

Elements are Not Required

Sect. No. Where special boundary elements are not required by 21.6.6.2 21,6.6.3, the following shall be satisfied:
01

Fig. No.

• Boundary transverse reinforcement shall satisfy 21.4-4.1 (c). 21.4.4.3, and 21.6.6.4(c) if the longitudinal reinforcement ratio at the wall boundary is greater than 4001fy' The maximum longitudinal spacing of transverse reinforcement In the boundary shall not exceed 8 in. 21.6.6.5 • Horizontal wall reinforcement terminating at the ends of structural walls Without boundary elements shall have a standard hook engaging the edge reinforcement or the edge reinforcement shall be enclosed In U-stirrups having the same size and spacing as, and spliced to, the horizomat reinforcement when \~, ~ 6-2

ft, .\!c'.

32

For

v; <:! Acv Jf;.

Standard hook at ends of horizontal reinforcement engaging edge reinforcement or U-stlrrups spliced to horizontal reinforcement with same size and spacing as honzontal reinforcement

x

-~

r
,

tw

.1

,.
Asb P

tw


a
I

7J
~

.,/

= area of long
In A:.b

reint

r-. ,.
~

·1

7)
.~

= ASb/Acb

>

400/fy

Ie


s 14"

~

lIa.


".
4


~
ASh <:!


III

s 14"

x
~

O.09shcf'c/fyh

1".

,
'"

Ss

{0.25

II

x tw 6 x long, db s, or 8"


~
",'

..
I
v

ACb

= tw(2x

+ a)

Concentrated longitudinal reinforcement at wall ends
Figure 6-2 Reinforcement Details where Boundary Elements

Uniformly distributed longitudinal reinforcement
are Not Required

33

/',il'lllIno! (,'11/<'111 1~",<",11('" f H21'

34

CHAPTER 7

Example 1: Design of Rectangular Concrete Tank
7.'
INTRODUCTION
\ \' a II (hie kncss - I~i110 Height of liqu ill = S it (Ref. 5-1 conservatively 10 ft of liquid lwigh l) Concretu strength E; = 3,83-1 ksi) assumes The cx.unple Tect.ll1gul.lr 1.1'1 :,IH1\\ n in ri~o 7-1 is h' k be des il:>!1t'J t 11 r L',l rthqua ke turces in Ihe N-s d irection. lilt' tank io., located in the \'h':-;tcrn Lnited St<ltc~ (longitude -= 1=':1', latitude 41') ,md contains non-haza rdous materia] I'hc dl'5i~n o! this tan k [ur non-scisrrur ILIad combinations i~gi\ en ill Rd. 5-1. 1he tollowing approxlmate ster-l rcinfurcemcnt was dl'\l'rI1 uncd:

= 4,Ono
=

p:;! (it',

=;

1"0 lb/ ft',

RemtorcelllC'nt strength

60,dllO psi

Illn~/..,hnrt wal ls
IIl:.idl'/Oll lsidc
f<1l"oJ \

7.2.2 Seismic Design Data (IBe 2000 Design)
crucal
0!o. :; @ l) in. For tho ¢\'l'll location !Be Sectum 1615.1: (Inngitude= 123", la titudc (lBCFigI615) (11K Fig. ] (15) =- .:1,1''),per

5

0...1.

7.2 DESIGN DATA 7.2.1 General

s ~ Ul
f
<I

nne T,lble
- I. I
=

!615.1.1)

(lBCTabk·161S.1.2(1))

I \\ I'lgh l ul con tamed hquid \Vl'ight
= 7U Ib/ll

l.h
=

nsc Table
2

1615.1.2(2))

Seismic cocfficicn! R

(11K Table 16=':=':.2.5(1)

Dr

moist sod = lUll lbl

fl

lmporta nee l'artor = 1 (This tank is not
d

(me Table

1621.2.5(2)) facility)

PcHt of a public utility

18"

iJN
- .10' - 0"
rr+

t
21' - 6"

8' - 0" L

I~

31' - 6"

~I T
35

15' J

0'

2' - 0"

Figure 7-1 Example Rectangular Tank

--------

/'( 1I1,11I,ll'

111I111

I. " Iii

,HI

Ill) 1'1

7.3

SEISMIC LOAD ANAL VSIS

1 h~'period associated w ilh lho convective component (T ) can be determined as IUI10W,,:
T = - -\ L

7.3.1 Weight
i

2n

fI

(lor

,llld

I~"j.; in N-S direction)

/..

T W IV

e;

0.66, 18.5 = 2.~ sec, 18.5 ft for analysis in J\-S direction)

\\ '= I)- ,I [J .Jl) an d .

(I

\\

=

IV =

2K3

X

tH.'=; fi x 70 x 1, UllO
kips

7.3.3

Base Shear
lmpulsix e

IV. = O..J.CI " 2tJ"i.", =-lH.f W - 0.51 ,,29::;
j

Com ective C
I

!"Ill.(, kip ...

= -----'.:: .)'!1 <

,,/

'

I

R

- Rl~
x

S'1
'N

=

F.l S ~ = 1. .1

1.0 = I. J

\V~=(l
1 _. 'l~

s
h,
fl - Ll.

II .::::

F, 5 I = l.h x 11A = O.6.J.

'J-:l

<Jill

_'

II

/1

=

0 .,6 -

h=
I,

0.37)( S -

j

II It

= 0.56 x H = -1511
Period

:_, ,= ~S~l1 = 0.41

?

.'

7.3.2

For S ,= 0.73 and 5'1 = 0.42, from Table ...lbHJ.3(l) and 1616.3(2) of [BC 2.00[],Seismic Design Categorv SDC = D

c ~ 0.73 x 1.0 = 0.37 S; O.-i2x I
./ 2.

2. x 0.27

= O.7H

Use 0.37

\\-\Vj\+\\

+1\

",,22::;1-0-+

1-l-J.7=1697

kips

l

0.73 ~ I =2

=0

~ 0.-l2 x 1 107'" ll.3/:5 =t ,J 2 x 2..fl

USt' 0.075

when' II =; mean Jll'i~h! .It \\ hich the inertia til n k and I Is contcn 1<; i... II med lu act, ,1"'S I,

force

l,f

lilt,

Vr=C<;/(W11
s:

t\V~tWJ)

=

(22':; x 5-"- 14-1-.7x1) '22S+ 1.f-l.7J in.

-l.2

I(

(137 C!25 + (] + l+1.7) '"' 136.8 kips

'",IS

v

=

C~( We )= 0.D75 x 150,6 = 11.1 kips

l

/ - 3,Hl-l bi

Total base shear V, == \ V?

+ V == 137.3
L"

kips

7.3.4

Overturning Moment
Impulsive Convective

36

/\1 =C

(\VI Jr'1

-I

\V h +1\'11)

0.17(22::; M
l

x 'i

+ U + ].J.-l.7

xl)

"77 tt-kips

7.4 DESIGN OF WALLS PERPENDICULAR TO THE DIRECTION OF ANALYSIS
I-or dutcrnnning thu fnTcL'shtfl'''Sl'S 111 the tank walls, the tank is di \ ided into lead ing half and the trailing hal i pili tions .1S shown in Fig. ::;-3. . Wl'tghtnflong\\'"ll.,= . \\ "II Inertia, 3(1 x ]()">( 1. 'i x 1'i0 1.000
X

((H

11)

0.[175 x I 'iIJ.fl x ,1.:;
moment /11

= 'iO.?, tt-klps

Totdl overturning

=
=

/vl; + AI: ,74 lt-kips

2

=

135ktp;,.

7.3.5 Overall Stability Check
• Slid ing (Neglect backfill!

Impulsive Vv'elght lIt" I,mk \\ ithout It,..contents V\',111... ,2 -, 22 I
225 kips

force, I ' = C /W, ~
= 0.37 x l--W.7 = 53.4 kios
r

l' = ~\V R

0.;

omJ

x 2 x I'i0

=211 kips
=
=.

C Ln1\ ecti ve force,

Weight

01

contents

2.1.I'i_1ips k
731 kips
1(1

l' - 5["1) W

1;:

,

=C
'>(

1'\' = U.ll7:; x ISIl.6 = 113 kips

l otul \H.'ighl

Both the lead ing and the lr"ilrng wall will be subjected the combined

db.:-t~ (1) wall inertia force, (l(
l'

r. T (2) une-

F actor

IIj S,Hl'L\

.

=

117x?Jl~_ 137

=. 1.1

O.K.

hall the irnpulsi \

torcr,

P

and, (1) onc-ha]

f the convective

tnrce
/--f

fJ , as ... ow n in rig. 7-2. h
L'J.

• lh ertui ni ng

Overturning
[J • . 'l'SISIIl1f,

moment
l1loml'11

-=

S7lJ rt-kips

,

0.002 -= I (\ x J")

-

=

0.000017 < 1).{102tor rned ium sand

," t -= "'11 X _"'- = 8 ,I)-t It- ki I '1' IpS

2

r-,,(tor

\1

( s<llc[\":o

8U-Jl -

:;74

= j 1, ,.l,

O.K.

(see Table 4-3 and Section 7.5). 'I herefure, no active M passive pressure is anticipated on the walls due til ncglif:lbiL' deforrnation of the tank, The dynamic ('Ll rth nnd ground vv .:I te I' pressurt' J t rest arc neglected in this exam plc (SCl.' I~d. -Vi for dctai led .malvsis of dvnamic earth pressure). [ he pressu rc d istrl b LI tiun on the wa II is C<1 kula ted as foiluws (see Fig. 7-2):

O.016Pr

O.086Pc

O.5Pw

O.109PI Figure 7-2 Forces on Wall Perpendicular to the Direction of Analysis

O.039PC

37

Ratio Df length of short ".111 to height oj liquid
jl

lollI, .

(,I,

1~I~lN, _ l2fll)X
21-F

!I H,

]

-=II

c

2lJ $

=1;(1

-,

TI1l' rnument, <hear <Ina deflection

due to the above

IIlITes are deterrn ined usi ng Rei 5-1. The 1110men t and

r.

d"flt'dion coefficients <lrQ taken I rom Chapter 3 and the ~hl'.H" coefficients MC' taken from Chapter 2 of this reference for the specific ]llilding and end cunditions of the walls, Thcc(l('riicicnts for the long wall arc determined for
[1
11

(

= .J.and _ - 2.5 bv interpolahnn,
II r

as t()llo\\~: load 150 = 88

l.ong wall subjec ted to triangular

Ai., cnetfici en t for vcrtica 1 5 teel For cum ective torn.',
AI coefficien( tor horizontal steel

Deflection co('fficienl

p _p

1(6H, -l:U" )x Y III
2U'

j

26
0,5
= 0.38

Shear coefficient-bottom Sheaf coefficient-side Lllng wall subjected to uniform load

"

,\ I, cocff cicn I for vc r Heal stec I l'
•n

= Jl

[-J.xli

6X-l5!-[(O;.:;H ::! ><. H'

12x4,3)xO,,]
o )

= -!3'i = 348 = 98 = 1.0 1.68

- = l.l..

nt}p

AI cm:ffici('nt

for horizontal

steel

!Jl'fll'ctinn

coefficient

Shear C"oefiicient'-buttol1l Shear coefficiellt-:-;idc Design
50 x 1/O(]O

moment
=

per

JBe

Eq, 16-5, See Chapter

3,

U
=

1.2LJ +

l.or

+ 1.2F

2 x 311 x 10

84 psf

= O,9D + 1.0£ + J.2F

I l.

IIN x 53.4 X 1, oco -----:'....!l.J.p:. 28.5

~1

r

E corresponds to the effects of earthquake force cornputed in Table 7-1. t-: corresponds to the effects of static hydroslillk fluid pn:s5ur(' computed III Ref, 5-1.
Maximum hydrodynamic moments from fable 7-1,

'1· I up or iquid
0

=:

ll.OI6P

..0.

-

D,ll I b x 53A x 1, _8,~
") _

noa = JL.n pst .,)
__ . = b,;:I pst

Vl'rtitai direction,

Md.\ A1},

= ".2 ft-kips (74.4 in.vkips] per lineal foot

f Iorizonta] direction,
=

4.6 ft-kips (55.2 in-kips) moments

per Iineal foot

Bultumui

.

II all

rJ.(13Q{' -

tUl39 x 11.3 x UlOO 28.5

Maximurn

hydrostatic

from Ref. 5-1,

Vertical direction,

fop of 1iquiri R.1t1l1 of Il.'llgth

=:

(l.1l~611 = 1.J.psi

M".

=

108.6 in-kips

pcr linea I foot

or long

\\",11

LII

height of liquid (LJSl' -+.0)

b
II

30

== J.7~

Horizon tal d irection, I\J, = 65.7 irr-kips per lineal foot

38

r

Table 7-1 Design Forces on Long Wall due to Earthquake Forces Loading Inertia

I

--

I

I Pressure,
Top Bot

q (psI)

Uniform + Triangular

0
30 30
8

Impulsive

+
~

=
~

I
I

Uniform - Triangular

0
34
34

Convective

SRSS2

~

=-

U
34

-

0.0 174
8

30 204

0.0 -18.5 8 150 88 0.5

15.5 8

Heig hi h (tt) r---M. Coeff. My Coeff.
Shear Coeff. -Bottom
r--'
-i-

10
4

-

Design Coefficients'

-

a
I

8 435

~3
~8

435

150 88 0.5 0.4 26.0

f-

+

348 1.0
1.7

1 .0 1 .7 9 8.0T

T 1.0
I
2,51 1.64 0.94

348

-Side Coeff. -

1.7 98,0

Deflection

98.0

Md" (tt-kips) Mfy (ft-kips) Shear (k) Bot. Ide flection (in.)

3. 65

2,92 0.84
1.43

--r-----n--R 0.66
0,24 0.41

r

. '0.8 0.84

Wall Forces and Deformations

l
I

0.4 26.0

1,67
-

-

0.98 0.70

-f

0,97 0.78 0.28

-0.18 -0,' 1 -0.08 -0.06 -0.00015
,>ll\W plates,

0.79 0.67 0.20 0-42 0.0009

6.2

4.6
1.8 2.4

0.0061

--+

0.00089

--

f-

0.56 0.0014

0.97 ~48 0.0023 0.001 a

0.009

D"~lgn "Jdfi<J"l1h are t.ikcn trum I{l'l '>-1 tor dittercnt loadinl1 patterns .md l'lld cundmons IVI - ,\r ,,'d/lfll'lll. 11'<'''.' '!f,', II" "IJI I OliO 0\1 \1 L1,,'fill/t')11 , I"""!'''', 'llI~ltt 'I [JUIl '::/,,'lIr SI,..", ("fl1:U, III l'rt"'UYL' "1I~11t Prth 11l'1I lJL'llrdloll'tl 111<1,'/11 '1","".m' "."1)1/1' II nOIJ[). ,I'h,'", U f 1 f11" JI I ",,,10' (IMt "'11""<11\ L' [orcc is out ot phase \\ ith be,1 h merna .1I1d mipulsn " rorres "\l~~·d (" cornbuu- thc meruo ,In''I1l\pUI~tl~' {OILl'~ II ith th,' (1I1l\'c'l'lIn' iorces 1 hl'l'c",rl',

/ <)~I)

qb2 ~ ill 1.'1", ,lHd

!I ~

11.2.

;.{jtl.Jre root eli til<' sum vi ~qll.lr~'" (51~S")method

1otal rnomen!- using the abov e load combination,

A!

=

1.1 X lDt:i.6 + 74A:: 215.6 in.-kip;,
X

Vertical d rrection,
AI
;=

AI" 1 X 744
+

= \.1

At:;,7 + 55.1 = [40.6 in.-kirs

1.2xO

12x it)S,(,

11141 in-kips

Srec] provided
M

HI uizon ttl I d ircction, M"y = 1.1 x [) + 1 x "i5.2
Using ACI J I H load

= 21 "i.6 iu-kips

(No. 5

@

9 in.) i" sutficien

I to

take care of

in the \ ertical direction.

t

1.1 x 63.1:= 13.l..0 in-kips

rombination,
1..+)

Steel provided (No. 5 @ 12 in.) b sufficien! to take carl' M,. = I-tO (, in.vkips in the horizontal direction.

or

L = 0.7:;0 AD ... 1.71 + 17* F + I.S7[j 1.1t-:f + I J1[

39

I' Irl/II/Jd

I

"1<'111 \

'<' /' 1/1.,.

LIP

J 'I

7.5 DESIGN OF WALLS PARALLEL TO THE DIRECTION OF ANALYSIS
II is ,1ssl1nlL'd I h,ll till' tutn i b,lSl' .... hear I'l'''I''ll'd b\ tho two \\'<111", iv ill be equllily

SJ1L'a r clcforrnatlon Iotal deformation

'"

40, llOH

69

= 0.0015

Ln.

= !l.OIl2 in,

7.6 DETAILING
Rl'lllllllli

"t 1\i1hth

l

I 20

1

I

or

pvr
4-

me 21111[I, ("C'l'
+ 1.2f 2/
c-

Chapter

3)

1,0r l.m

tJ.<JTi + I.OL:

\ " "" 1 ,0 x (,9 '" (1) k I)'''' i'.l1mm,ll she.ll' strength ]'121 \L I 31 S-CJ9

u -.)

rOI

- [1 'i

ll.S5x21.5x

IRx 12(::\, -l

uno 1. oon

-r~.[)0287x{i(),I]O[lJ

~ 1-l2K.7 lip"

>-.. f19 kips

l'cr ,\('11,<;0-\] I, tilt' ~tl'l'lrcintorcerncnt

l'-o.

11'.1)<' each f.Kl'

s €I'

is {l.ilrn Tlu rctore,

r

required

each

should be increased III i'\ll.5
@ 9111.

I [I ill.
/1,

Si IlCt:'

r

h

less than 2, p =- P . Therefore,

is more th, n L1liellLJ J lc III !lu \l' rl ica I d irection. fill' steel rau () I' I'll \ ided t:- more th.1n O.lJlll 2. in thl' \ ertica I din'Llil -n and 11.()(J2(1m the horizontal di rcction .1:required
nu\.jlllLl!ll
ILlI'

I'he seismic torces and the corresponJmg reinforc~ment reqlli rcmen I" in this exa mplc arc sma Il compMed to the requirements under other load and serviceabihtv conditions, This ind icate's lhat this particular tank is likely to remain nearly clastic or distress (rcC' in the event of a d"">oipl earthquake, !Iowev cr, based on the SOC 0 associa ted to this structure, detailing correspond ing to high seismic risk will apply per Table 6-] (sec Chapter 6). Based on this, it is prudent to locate the splices aWol) from the potential pi <15 tic hmge zones neil r the bo t tom of the W a IIs (Figure 7J}. rhl' Class B splice length for No. ') ba rs per 12.2 of ACI 311:i-lJIJ is 18.5 in. The required development length of the 1\'0. "dowels in the h<15('slab and foundation is -I..f in. These l'nmpu ta ti uns are shown in Ref. 5- [. The req uirerncnts of Table 6-3 are ;'(1 tisfied for in. plano \,\all design. The steel prov ided along with spacing ""ltisrief, Section 2! .6.2.1 of \CI J 18 (Table 6-3)_ Per Section 21.6.2 ..\ all contin uous reinfl1rccmel1t in structural walls should be anc hnred or spliced in accordanre with the prn\ isions l'( rei 11lorcement in tension (21.S,,!). SinL'E:'-here is neg[ igible ,ni<1i load on the wa lis (less t than n.2{' ), bounda rv elell1cnts are no! required (21.6.6.2 or n.1i fij), BllundEl~ transverse rein lorccment sha II sat. isl) 21.-1.4,1 (c), 21.'1.4.3 and 21.6.6.4(c) if the longitud inal reinforcement ratio .1 [ the wall boundarj is less than -lUO/ f, ('I able 6-5). Longitudina! reinforcement ratio,

111,> cnnchnon

\

<,

\

{'

(\C[

21.6.2.1 and

vlso, tJ1('~pi1l_ing provided meets thl' 18m per ACi31S and the 12m. 1ll.1'\IIlHI111 "p,h:in)'; requl rcrnent Pl'I' J\C1 350
,~P'lllJ1grl"1 LIi rernent

14.3, T.lbll'f,-l).

-lO()

lV.lll deformation, 1 x--_ x 1.5 x 20 ' 1,tD4
llJ

f'

= --

400

60,OUO

= U.OObh7

> 0.0038

Therefore, transverse reinforcement stipulated abov, (Table 6-5) do 110t apply, Where
t('rmlll<lLing

requirements reinforcement

= 11S,!12.f kIps/in SIWoH :-ot iIflll"';s = I 2f-/
l \

\' r > Ill'l

\1' ' [he

horizontal

0.·1 x 3,H1-J-x 1.5x20x12 1.2
X

10

at the end" of structural walls without buundnr, elt-ments shoed! have a stilndard hook cngaging the ... gc rl.'inforcement d (Table 6·';, Sertion 21.6.6.5), Si [lCP V < '\
I\

r

.th i <; detai [ is not

fCqU

i red. However,

it i<; remmmended that thi:- detail be considered so that the rcinforcernont is d teet ive i11 resisting "hear forces and Ihe potential nf buckling of vertical edge reinforcement is minimized.

40

:-'u.!- In 9 ill.

<,

~

T
I
Figure 7-3 Detailing of Wall


4

~

~

V''''·'
'\0.
~jl'l

10 ill.

__.",.

~
4


911l.

.....

..

7.7 BASE SHEAR USING UBC 1997
eismic source 1\ pc
known .sL'l~mksource

USlIlg

~L'dIOll

I1l34.3 tor flat-bottom

rigid tanks,

v
H with sill' located W krn from
(r'lblL'~ 16-Tand Ill-C)
it

=O.7C,IW

= n.7

x 0.44 x I x 5211.3 = 1(,0.3 kips

Soi I prof le type -

(fable 16·))

Note that IV include« the welgh+ of tank and contained liquid.

As inti ica tt'd in Sccf on 3.:2..2
Response modification For Z factor, I~ 2.9 (T<1blc16-1')

l)(

ell aP [l'r], U Be 1997 allows

= 0...1, and
C-"

soil profile I~ IX' D, I able
[(,-Q

the use of alternate procedure such as the one given in ACI 15().:3.The guide] ines 100'1l~l' t)J this method in conjunction with UBC 1<J97are given in hapter 4 (See Section 43).

=

O.+IN

c = D.6.f

Table 16-R factors

From Tables J6-S and 16-f, the near-source .\ = I and N I, n~"'pl'L'li\ .'h. t

I'
1

=

=
:=

C~I_(IV +w +w) I~ r l\ K I

lmpulsivc

c

v

_9.Mx 1 (22:; + lJ T I-t-.!.7) = 302.2 kins
2 '-)xO.27
r

41

/", IIIlIP,I CO/It'll!

I",'

III! 111

II!

I<J

In thl' ...hl 1ft pl'rh lei r.ingc, the im ~'tl t \ l' base shear "hall be b 11l1lited b\ \ _2
'l(_

I (1\
I!

~ ~\ + 1\ ) =0 I-lO....l kips < 302.2 kips,

0.07:; Z 1 \tV

='

0.1l7' xO.--I-l )( "i2.0.1 == 15.6 kips < 1-1-<:1.:1 kips

I<

Us..' \
l

'kips
C(H1\

v = (l.4x
ectiv
l'

lxlJ.94 (1"'0.6) 2.7S

= 20.6 kips

lU \

llW)

c:=

1 x (],t'l-t
-

x1 _ --(l-.ll 11) Ill-' kil'" = 2.9x2,8 .'

Note that ACll"'O,3 rccorn mends usin. ,.., C
T

=

6~ lor T,2

r ;::: .4 ...;'( and R \c = 1 lor convective motion. 2 1
6x I.' C"",--=1.1; 2.8

7,8 BASE SHEAR USING UBC 1994
Thv prtn isions l)1 \Cl ,.1:;01 \\.ere ~ssel1tlally developed to be \'\ Imp,l tible \\ ith lJ Be jllLll as discussed in Chapter::. 1
,lnd -I,. 111l'l'l'Illre, no Intcrpll:'lMinns
iC,1111.1I1

v
L

=

0.4 x Lx!. 1r:; 1"0.6) :; 69.2 kips 1..0

t

or eXlensions

\\ Pf0

made in ilppl

of \C \ 1:;n.3 with this building code.
In

1\1f the (:'!I1k k)"lll'd

Seisrru .. Zl1IlC-f, Z = 0.4 (Table lo-l) ('1,1b k' 16-J)

7.9 BASE SHEAR USING BOCA AND SBC
'-.l'l"mic Hazard Expo~urC' CWllP ::;;1
:i1'1"1ll

Si tt' cl1dfkll'\1

t,

5 - 1 'l

ic Coefficients. i\ ,I = 0.2

~d"1llic importance lactur - i (Table t-I, Non h,v:tn)ou'"
Respol1"C !nod IiIl,l lion LlCt{ 1 R \ r,

material)
='

2.7"

A,

== 0.3
=

~T.lb1c 1·2)

Based on A = 0.3 and ~ei~mic hazard CXp0511rl' group Scis 111ic perform» nee catego ry "PC = n
Site wetfiL:icnt::;;

I,

zle (\\ V..
R\

1.,
t-

(Soil Prot ile 1 ypc S,_)

\

+lV

-+-

W)

Impulsivc

RC"pL)Jl:-oe

Modification

Pactor

R

=

3 (Table

9.2.7.5,

\SeE 7-95)

v,

Conn'c live

v = C,

(1"\1'1

lV~ + IV,)

lmpulsive Com cctive

c-

~.7') tur
'"t1 ,-,~ - f

r
l11

c,

I T

lm pulsive

\' =C'l(WCJ

-

T

.

Convective

2.s~
Sill(
l'

=

1.5 x 0.3 = 0,15
3

I

T

C - 2.7::;

R

1.25>: I.<:; = OYJ.! 2.!;'

42

USt'

C, = l1.2"
1.2/1':; NJ

7.10 BASE SHEAR COMPARISON
1.2 x ~,1 x .1 :)
1 x 2.,)
0::

c,
,

lUll:)

Codl'

BelS'" Shear (kips) 11,197 117.3
140.4

lBC 2000
UBC

-'---------1

- () ..J.l(22"i + 0 + 1-4.7) - 1"9 kips
1.16 kip"

UBC 1':)94
1\('1 J5Ll3 I:IOCt\ 19Y1l/::iBC 1997

l-t{J,3* 1hl. ,.
Fi4.b

SCT\

St'n ice Level icc Level

15').(, kip"

',p\t' th.i! \ - J-N , "ips .ind 1(,1:1 "(P' an "'·1"1 in> lc'vl'II'aSL' shears Ih,l! ,1fl' multrplied bv .1 tartur ,If l.-lwlll'n combined ",il1g the I"JJ combmanons hL\ "'1 In L h ...ptvr 1 t." ,1C't~·rmin,· the d~~ign fnr~l' in ~ memhor, Th ...b"sl' ,hl'ar~cumputed for IB( 211(l(J,..FlC lY'l7 and SllC! l 11tX,\ are slr e ngth 1('\ d and .Hl' multiplied bv a tactor otLtt iothl' load corn bi n,1tions.

43

1'", I,m,' ~

I

"

\ -,"

t"

rJ

_,d

44

CHAPTER 8

Example 2: Design of Circular Concrete Tank
8.1 INTRODUCTION
The 1:'>"'1Inp1e circular tank shown 111 I 19. b-l j" to be dL'''lgnl'd for carthqu.rko tUILl'''. he lank I" located in the \\ e--ter n L nitcd St,lte" (longuude = 12~ , liltlltlde 41 ') and contnms non-hazardous matcn.il. Ihc 1E lgn Ior non..... sersrmc load combination ... {It thi ... It nk gi\ en 111 Ret. "i-2 n--ults in 111l'IllllllWlllg ..,1L·cJrcmt irc crnent:

8.2 DESIGN DATA 8.2.1 General
Partiallv buried non-flexible b.isc tank with rigid ba ... ' arul hingl'd connection betw een th .. wall and the L ' root slab, \\ eight o( COil il ined liquid t \\ l'ighl (It rno:... soil t
~(l.

= ('5 lb/ft

= qt)

Ib/lt

h " Hill. (UllttUI11

l"i

It)

\{o "i f(il H in. (Top 13 It) :-Jo 61(1 12 ill.

\.\ <111thickness

=:

1h In.
=

I !t..·lght pi liquid
l_

26 fl

oncrete str 'Ilgth = 4,LlOll P... i (.l' - I () Ib/il, L = 3,K14 ksi)
Rl'llltllr

erncut strength

6l), lUll

pSI

i'.:ll

!\ " Sin. (Top 1 i It)

1"
~r;'-(] .

Figure 8-1 Example Circular Tank

45

8.2.2

Seismic Design Data (IBe 2000 Design)

8.3.2
Fllj'

Period
base (Section 4..7.2),

1'111 ,l;1\ en h: ..tum (111ll,!;ltud(' "" 1::'3', latitude lIni l'l'l" Ille
~l'l

= -'l- 1 '),

non sliding

hun 1(, Iii.!. llBe !,jg, 161'))

T _ 2IT r(1)/

(lBCFig.1615l (IBe T,lble L615.1 IJ

I ,I
j"
l'

0:=

1.1

(IlJCI"bll' 161').1.:2) llBClable
/\ ._.,

"" 1,6
(l1('lllcil'lli

1£11:;.1,2)
J

c -JOe
, '1\

\

l»: 12r
t :: 16 in.,
h

Scisrnic

(mC

l'able

6 ")'1.25(1))

lrnportancc

raelnr

-t;

I

(This tank is not ,1p.Ui III

(11K' Table 1622.2.:;(2)) public utility facility)

r :: mass
,-"

den sitv of concrete (.:I,6b lb- .... / ft 'J, l'c!

H = .;J.1i ft,

e

l

\

= D.I H lor

Q_ IT
Ib

,

=

;;.5 (Fi .... .t-l 0). ,.",

8.3 SEISMIC LOAD ANALYSIS 8.3.1 Weight

r,

== !0 x O. l-t_; \ --, = 0.25 12. x 4.5
',I"

to I = 0.25 x 12. \ J,83.Jc x 1, DOO = 10-4.7 rOid/ sec 26 4,66

I I"P)1l

rig. -J.-J(b) lor H
IV

P

1;,
1.3
tOT

- .= l1.06 Sl'C 10·+.7

'Jlt

ei rcular

t,lI1t-.~,

' ' \t, = 0.35 and \\' j J 1:.lxY\llX26 x l x I,DOn

W/

(rll C<111 be determined
(J.b"

Ihe period assucia ll'd with lhc convectix e component as follows:

IV

=

es

ill,7SI kips

2rc Frnm Fig. o!-9(b), --:;:

=

0.65 for

H; = 3.5

D

IV - [1.35 x W,7':; I

~,7f)i kips
c,

\AI

-e.

n.ns x
1.14

ll},7,1

h,9Hti kips

T~ - \],65 v 90 "" 6.2 sec

x «)2.(17 <J());(. 20 x l :;0 -+ x I lltlll
'>;,

=

. 1.6(11:)kips

8.3.3

!Base Shear
Impulsive

W,.
"

3.14 xl)2,67=. --

I x 1'ill

·1 'X l, DOll

-e

I Ul2. "IpS

I.',

'

vI:

= c:'-1.., 'W) ~ c

Convec tivc

(assurnc l tt thickness of ...ab) l

The roof b supported bv 12 interior columns \\ hich help carry the slab \'l'rlk,ll load, fill" ertical load transfcrrcd tu the 1,\ .l!b is small, NI lie that Ita If of the column weight .... hould be added tIl the roof IVt'ight fOI< lateral load analv ...is. 'fill' column \\cight (assume 11'1 diameter columns) wi It ,1Jd another HOki ps lo the roof In:,ight. Therefore. total mot weight = UJl2 ; H(I 0:=. 1,091 kips.

511, = F"S,

=

1.1 x 1.0 = 1.1

S,\T' = i-'"S, = 1.6 x IIA = D.tW
C; ~I" -

=-" 3~
')

-07'" \I, - , .,

S"I =

1.':>MI

2

:: lJ.43

46

FOIS, =().73andS ,=LlAl,twm able'i1616.3(l)and 16t6.1(21 lllBe 200l\, .. l'i<'I11I1:: [)c"lhnCah ..gorySDC = D ' l ': 0.7.3 x I 0 2

\11. V,

'=

468 kips

= 0. ")7 ~ 0 ..Ll x I = :;.58
:2 0.0(:,

:=

./1, 68 LF + (.. H18)2
= =

J,7 45 kips 1,74S kips

Use 0.37

<'{D""ot 2,.117 Use V f

J,LJ50kips>

1,950 kips

8.3.4
C=

Overturning Moment
vI - C" (WI\
\'1
Ii\\

(1.73 x 1 = 1.,,/ _ (Hi xl 1 .,- < 2 2. h2

'=

0.U..:."I U"I.''0 ,.ll3S p'

+ IV 11~ + I VIII)
D
II
_I

v

=C, (IV 11 )
01 -

= ('I (IV,\ .....IV
- 1131 (1,olllJ
-I-

IV)
1,(I'!2 3,7(,c,) 2,392 kips

. _ hom Flg-J.":J(h), II = 0.17S x

H,

=15, ft

H

=O,375J.nd

II
_L

H,

=0.54

2(i

= 9.75

Iota 1hi! Sl' Since T,
'>

..,11(\11

\'T - " V"' + F 1 = 2A05 kips AI

II
=:

Il"i4 x 26 = 1C+.0It

4- bl'L., (SL'C..ection -L2.3)

C./(f"",/I",

+ W~ItR + IV,'I,) + (1,1l92 x 2H)
x

(,S,

I

t:

=--

h x 1l.--l3
\).2

=O.D6,

~

l1.37[(I,6l)\.} x 14) - 33,223 It-kips

+ (3,763

x 9.75)]

\\ ith f~'1l = 1 101' com cctivc
ACI 1511.3 (T<lble -1-2),

M,
motion pr..'r

=

C" (IV, IT ) = 0.(35)( 6,98~

1-1- 3,.+2-1-tt-kips =

M . - \ ."1,1; + !viC = 33Atlll tt-kips
rCI

C~ ""

0.ll67 x I

::: O.n67

'"> (1

03')

ACI 33113, M
11,:-\['4 it-kips

= 0.1I67 x (),9HR x 14 ::: 6,555 It-kips

.\1

v - C, (lV~)

::0

0 lJh7 x 6,988 -= 46t1 J"ip~

For simphcitv, till' base shear and overturning moment computed using rae :WOU without 1\CI 3503 modification" will be used Ior res! 01 design,

8.3.5
Lsi ng R.... sponsc Spl" lrurn method (St'l tinn -l.2.3),

Overall Stability Check
backfi ll) 1,609 ki ps \\' .... ight ('1 tank without its contents

• Slid 101-'; (Nt'glectin).!,

T
I,

\Valls

=

nzr,

RllOf
=

= 1,012 kips

11.118 sec

Smce • '!

< T ,.,!::i,:::'"

[O,6f ( 7
(1.-1 =

+).4 .

l

Columns

=

160 kips

B.1S(' slab - 3.1-1 x 9b.67 x 2 x 150/(-+ x 1000)= 2,202 kips

Contents

= 3. j.J

x

lJ(l' X ~b

x 6":i/-lOOD

=

10,751 kips

s

= tl.73 x
r

[Y 60.118 + 1 0.06
X

051

Total \wight

= 15,7:3-+

kip"

NL'gll'ct soil \, l'ight on toolinf, overhang
Coefficient Base shear

051

o zs

<.:

0 ,7

oi friction = (1,7

= :!,405 kips
ctv •
«

= U.26 (1.(,[J9 + 1,{)92 + 1,7111)

1,681 kips

rtf or r'de

ot ~<1

0.7 x --S, 734 l :? 405

= -r ,

f

6

0, K

47

lIJ.m./

l . 1/,

\,

,I

I ,lJ

/ /;)

J<)

• ( h'l'I'ILIrn ingl )\'\"rtLlrnll1~ 111l1J1ll'1lI -

3J,4(}() lt-kips
X

1\('0.;10.;11 n~ moment -

I ;,7i·1

45 - 70K,rJ30 I t-"IP"

\I -

O.8V
itf

us x 2,405 .
3.1-1-x.,['i

== 1'),1:)klj"l<;/ft

..

ll

1.1 ur,

711i'i,(13U
~,lfd\= i3

4(10

==

21 2 O.K.

\l0l11i11;;11

shear o.;tl'l'!1f!;th= Au tex

\f',

+

P

j)

Eq (21 ~7), ,\CT 31 S-I:,Ig L Sl' for II
(.!..

8.4

DESIGN OF WALLS

CJ

c

-

j

<"l

I he cnrthqu.rkc base 11,',1] i.., tran ... iltcd m parti"iI) h rnernbrane (tangential) l1l'<l1 and pari ial lv b\ radial ... ear h that c au-c ....\ crlical bl'J1dil1~. \ll ~"i(1.1 ica tes that HU"" ind (If t Ill' L~a';t' .;hl',l r ~'<11l bl' as... III ed to be transferred o u through l<ln~t'nti.ll !'ht'al fOI tanks With OfF! IlI..J.. The rcnlilinIl1g 2Ll"" \\ ill be transtcrrcd through \ ertical bend mg. The ~hT\ i mum I.lngentlcll shear occurs ,1t ,I point on tank w,111 oriented yO degrl'e ... Irom tilt' direction (It earthquake, .1'; show 11 m Fig H~2.
CI!lilrjbullon 0' base shear

"

For No. P

l) (0

R in. un ['<1\.:11ace, f

=

2x 1.0 x 12 8x16x 12 -=U.t115b

~w"= 0.85 x 12 x 16l(3 x \ .,l,nOO)
... (LJ.OIS6 x 60,OllO)
=

I/

1,000 O.K.
111

IR3.7 kIps/it»

13.6 klpsfft than adequate

;-..10_6 H in. is also more @ direction.
T h e steel
tl1l' \

the vertical

ra tio prov j ded is III ore Iha n lHlO 12 in C'rtJC.11 d iJ"l'L'1 ion ., nd 11.U02 j 11 til e h onzon ta I
,10.;

direction
DlrOCUOI1 setsmre

required fnr lhe condition

V < A,

\f'<

or
fDtC"f!

9.0Sii!!' lang,en Ilill unIt shear. q

( \ CI 21.6.2.1). ,\ l... , the spaci ng P I'()\ id ed meets o till' 1 S i11 111 11iIn lim rl'l] uirc men I. The rei n forcernent i p ['[1\ id vd ,1 lso ...11 isfies ACI 3.50 req u iremcn ts , (fl. ~ lJ Oll] and maximin sp.King =-12 in.)

8.4.2 Design of Walls for Out-at-Plane Loading
Figure 8~2 Shear transfer at base

Pl;'r HK 201111{-..l'L' Chapter
Rl'l]lIl

i) 1 2Dr I)

fed .... trenath

("l'l' (. Pl'!"

11,'pt"'1

i,

L l,jhiL

1.0t

r-

1 2[

For the portion of \'\'.1115 loaded pcrpcnd icu lar to their plane, the effects of eMI hqua ke rorces and hydroS[,1 tic forces will be combined based on the most critical IU.Id combinations: L . -:= O.7S( 1.40 + 1.7L, 1.7 ~
-r

j

UI7E f 1.4)

\l! 11H ,111d Al I 1'10 (:-.el Required "trl'ngth
l.fl7f/1A)

Chapter

1),

-= J.1F +

Lor
+ 1.()i\;J t

L! - 1.7,,( IAD + 1.71 • 1 7" F +

\ lumen t 1\ 1 - I ,M ! rom

hydrostatic

IO.lding.

8,4.1 Design of Walls for In-Plane Loading
negligible for inplane \\ ,,11dl':-'lb'll, rcq lined st l: 11,1:'; is U = 1.Ur Iur th hoth t IK and \ll 11~ load combinations. fill' she.". stress j rorn lwd rosia tk i(1rcCS acts in a radia Idirection, olild i~not ,ldd~'d III tIll' in-plane sheaf of the wall
1

(Ref. "i·2). '\Jole that thi .. reference assumes full

1\1[ =- 10,-1-16 fHb/ft height of

contained liqu id.
For deterrn ining the ou t-of-p lane 11ll1111cn t d u e to ea rthquake force ...A-l .fhc tan k is divided into ll'ading half and the trailing half purtlons .1S shown in fig. ')-6. \s d iscu ... ed in Cha pter 5, the cylindrica I walls s (hg. :;·7) are designed Fnr (a) \\ .111 inertia dlstributed uniformlv Mound the entire circumference. (b) one-half Ihl' impulsive illl"Cl' PI' applied svmmdrlcalh about an ,1 ngle fJ = (1 and acti n~ in\\ cud on one-ha I f u f the \\ a II a nd one-half P applied ~\ rnnretrical about 8 = 11: and acting outward 011 the dPPll...,itl' half of the wall (c) one-half the convecti, l' rurce P applled~" mrnetrical!v about an angle

~inCl:: the died

,)t both

/1 and

r arc

SIll'.l1 V

"
r

1.01 -= ?AOS

"II)S (in-plane)

\1".1111< 11'''11 I

'f "'"

11,,11 .~ ~ lllll'kr

'I

48

H-= IIand acti n~ 1Il ward on one-half of the wall and one-ha If I' 'lppl il,d..,\ 1ll!l1l'h IL,ll .ibout U = n and acting outward on till' opposrtc halt of the wall; and (d) tho dynarnicearth and ~nll1nd \\ .111'1 pre ...sure .lg.1in<;t the trailing half of the buried portion of th(' t,)I1k,

At top liquid
I'

level,

[hlt>-h,
- /'

'~1 1(6

21,

I:!XII)><26,]
_I>

2X:!h

= (1.02371'

P =- ~, \\
,I

C;

I

T~

,\

C, 1\ \ - IU7 x UilN

= 5q;

kips

lP

r=

"

"h

"

/\

I lV, = C IV _ 0,37 x IU92 _.IO~ J...il~:"
Q.01.1SPC

Il11pUIsi\'L',

11 =' - W = CI\\
r

SI
I~

Figure 8-3 Forces on wall perpendicular of analysis

to the direction

.

Pressun
(1111 \ L'l

I.

11 \\

all due to inertia

= -IiI

=

th e,
Pressure due to impulsive
L

Itt

H),I) x IOll(l '3 14 45

c::

~I:J

ps

f

(uniform) force, lxO.lH.H'
It/'

" " I tV N. PIV/1'
(Sl'l'

and 1\

.md the pn ........ dislr ibution on ure
Pl'I'

1'10110111 ,)1

\,"111

=

2P"
nr

U1S0=

I

('0,,0

the ",<,II Me calcu latcd

:;1',1 ion t;.2.J

,b

f(llhm s

Fig. 1i-3)

= -In.6 k/ It

2 xlUlJ-l x 1,3lll xl. OUO J. I'"' 4t; = 670 psf (maxim lim @

e = 0)

I' ,
hll

I'

211,

Top ot liquid

2xOllll48P,

--

-

co ..6

impulsive

lurcc,
hll

III'

r.

l'

t HI

I

[1(1/1

121t

1

1/

t!

2 x O,l104Hx 1 ~92 x 1. ono = -- -~.14'><.4'i

=

80.7 PS)

.

(maximum
l-'x:Y, hx')-r;

@ H:; 0)

/'

16xlltH-l-S p
<l

238 1.14x4'i

1 ODO ~~~.2psf
@

(maximum
= -11.11

e = 0) e = U)

16x U.l1237 P,
l)X"r

CIlstl == 70.8 p5f (maximum
@

I

I

f/

I'

[1

~I'

11 «

,., [

II"

2[.

J,

1).Ll14~/)

111l' above pressure I1I'l'd .. In b • determined at di ffcr1..'111 values of and applied to lhe Il>,ldll1g and till' trailing wall .. ttl determine the add itional hoop stresses and out-ofplane moment-, rill's!,' stresses and moments can be more ,1lYllr,ltl'l) computed lIsil1~ shell anah sis,

e

49

/"'rllll,1<1

l,tIlU'111 \'''<'(IIIIWIJ fLP 1'1

\!\lll' lhar cunnl tl) 110 dC'sign aids clre <wadable to dL'!l'rmint' Ih(' hoop ~11-l'S'iL'~ and out-of-planc moments d Lit' tn tilL' ,1b,l\ e Ioads ror ~h,11J1lWtanks (0)> H) the out1 t 1-pI,lIle LWlldin,c; ('tll'L't:; are -'111,111 and loan be neglected.

<lpproximalt': 'I slmpy

out-of-plnl1l'
j

maximum

moment

assuming

supported

W<1II

=

240xlOxlB --28 -- = 1-'" f t- kiIpS ,::'..-.)

8.4.2.1 Approximate Method
U"Ulg \l
Jl

Moment D H :04, ~t1"I"

per unit length M I
:=

,r .1,

pprm,l matron fur l.tnk '\ ith

=

2)('1,543 1.14 x 45.67'

_'. 21~~rt-ki ps ' fL

01 b~bl' ..hear L"'11 [1t' ,""<.;uml'd to be lr,1n .. fl.'rr('d lhrou~h nuhll-pl,llll' bcndin~.

A!" = LJ x lOA + 21.5 = 35 ft-kirs/ft uIldl'r static Illild combinaliul1s (Ref. 5-2).
NIl. 6 @ R in. (A '" 0.66 in.~) vertical inside face i::. adequate.

> 23 ft-kips
on

Apprm,im,ltc :: lJ,2x2A05 -

foro'")_"k :0 _·tll

.tC'illlg (Ill

Il"ldiil~ and lr, ding

IYdll~

2

Ip"

reinforcement

Assurn iog this for.'\_' \-\ iliad <It ,111 JpprO\lmate resultd11[ Iwight {ll 10 fl (\\"l'ightl'd -l\"t~r'1gL' It and 11,.),total

Dr

The user should check other loading conditions given in Ref. ~·2 in cornbina lion with earthquake ID<Jding to verifv the adcqu<lC)' at C.\tl'Tn<l! vertical reinforcement.

--~

_}
I

J

- "~' J I .
" I
u'


13'

I

l\"'. u I!
;M.jrt,.

I

I I

-f
I I

I I

I

~~r-

,
J

~B'

15'

Figure 8-4a Detailing

of wall

c
50

I'
~

J

of wall with fixed base

Figure 8~4b Detailing

D['''(~ll

of I.Iqllld-COII

111III ill;\ COllcret.' S! fIlC/lln'S ior Elly/llqllOke

forces

'otl' thai dvnamic earth pressure effects are not in~luded in this example. Reference '01:-5 should be consulted \\ hen determining these >ffL'd~.

8.5 DETAILING
Based on the SD( I ,s I) iatcd with this structure, detailing corresp, md Illg III high seisrn ic risk will apply per Table h-I (sec Chapt ·rl1). Based on this, it i... prudent to locate the splices .w/a) from the potential plastic hinge zones, The Cla:-... B splice ICIl~th should be prm idcd for both No 6 vertical bars ,1S well as 1\:0.8 and No . .;I horizontal bars p('r 12.2 of AU 3-18-'14. 1111.' required development length of the No.6 and No, 7 dowels in the base slab is 18 in.

The requ irernenrs of Table 6-3 are satisfied for in-plane wall design. The steel provided along with spacing satisfies "eclion 21 6.2.1 of ACT 318 Crable 6-3). The reinforcement prox ided also satisfies minimum requirements of .\Cl 3'i0 (p"JU= 0.003 and maximum spacing = 12 in.). Per Section 21.6.2.311f ACT1\8-99, all conti nuous reinforcement in struclural wall should be anchored or spliced in accordance wi th the provisions of reinforcement in tension (21.5.4). Figure 8-4.1 shows the detailing of the wall with hinged base A tank with fixed base detail as shown in Figure 8-4b 111-1\' be more appropriate for l'. sc ot construction and also to lim it crack opening a t the base (1i wa ll. The desi gner will ha VI:.' to analyze the tank and determine the appropriate reinforcement required for this condition.

51

52

Notation
:=

(lKK \ Il)CJt1, ::.BC ltN7) cross-sectional area llt base (,1l-lc, strand, or conv cntional reinforcement. in" (111111 ) 10'1 f'dh e poak v elocitx -rclated ,kceleration
d{eclh·l' peak acceleration (HOCA 1996,!:iBC 1'197) -Icm 'Ill, in (01111'

11)1
i, I A k

:=:

one-half 01 projected \\ idlh or radius of

=
=
(

immersed

1\
I L L

inside length of ,1 re I.'llgular tank perpendicular tll till' direction 1I11h~ oarthqu.ikc force, ft (m) scisnuc r('spon"e coctf Il'111 PC! me 2000 (C = irnpulsiv l' coefficient, C = cunvcctive ,'{ 1l' 1fi L ien I) acceleration dependent scrsrmc llll'ti icicnt
(UIK 1997)

height (inside d irncnsion), ft (m) Importance Factor (lBC 200{), USc.. 1997, UBC lL)9.J, BOCA 1996, ~BC 1997, AC11511.3) =- spring constant 01 the tank wall support "ystl'm, [b/ft' (kPa) = oefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest flexural <;tiffnes:-.ot tank wall, Ib/ft2 (kPa) == inside length or d rectangular tank parallel to the direction of the earthquake force, ft (m) = length of indiv idual elastorneric bearing pads,
II all

=
-

m, (rnrn) ctiO;!ctiv(' [eL1):1,thof cable in. (111m)

01" strand taken as the sleeve length plus 35 times the strand diameter,

L

If

n
t
[

\ l'hKily dependent sci ... il oefficicnt tUBe m J 'N7) coefficient tor detcrrnininj; the fundamental rrequcncy of circular tank (sec Fig. -l-10) = 1rveboa I'd (s\llshing IWlght) 111l'clSlI red from the IILJuid surface at rest, tt t111) - inside diameter lit circular tank, ft (Ill) =. modulus ot 1"Ia~li~-it\ 01 concrete, Ib/in. (MPa)
:::: modulus of clasti Il~III cable, WI1't" strand, or conventional reinforcement, lh/In.' (t\lP.l)

AI AI, \1

0'

=

=
=
=
<=
:::0

M, M,

r
I G

=
='

.\" :v
N

=

sill·l·l1l'1ficil'l1t based un IRC 2:0un site coefficient bused on IBe :wun .s1ll'.Hmodulus, Ib/in. (:-'[[\1) shear 11111dul us ol clastoiner« bearing pad, Ib/in. (1\11'<1) acceleration due to gr,,\ It\ (1.2.17 ft/sec',
l)H07

N,

mm/"l'~ )

Nl\~

1/

hL'I~h t ,111\ luch (he inert ta lurce 01' tank and its contents is "sstlmed 10 act, lL(rn) '" hei t::h I f rom base oi \\".111to the ccn tor 01 the ul11\ l'cli\ e force, (I (Ill) - hl'l~ht lrorn b",,' 11 1\ ,ll! tll lhc center of impulsive iorce, f( (rn) height from h,ISl' lIf the wall to the center of ~r,1\ it, III the lank roof, tt (Ill) IWlght trurn the b.tse of 1\ .111to the center of im-rtia ot the tank ..hell, IL (rn) = dl'slgn depth or stored lrq uid, it (m)

- me.in

i\1

=

t'
/' I', =

erturning moment due to convective force, h-Ib (k -m) overturning moment due to impulsive force, tt-Ib (k om) total m .. rturning moment b.lsed on SRSS combination of impulsiv C <111d convective moments, fHb (kN-m) nominal moment strength, ft-lb (kN-mJ required moment strength, ft-lb (kN-m) ncar source factors (L IK 1\)97) hllOP force in circular tanks at [eye! y due to the convcctiv l' .omponent, pounds per foot of \\ all height, fbi ft (k '111) hoop inrcc in circular tanks at level y due to the impulsive component, pounds pef foot of wall height.Ib ft (kN/m) inertia force in circular tanks at level !I, pounds per foot of \\<1]1 hei~ht. Ibl ft (ll\J 1m) total effective hoop force in circular tank", at lcvcl v, pounds pef foot of wall hd~ht, lb/Ft (kN/m) hydrostatic pressurl' at level v <lbO\ e the base of the tank, Ib/lt1 (kPil) unit lateral dynamic com ecuvc pres~llIe distributed horizontallv at le\"l'III,lb/ft~ [kf'a) unit lateral dynamic impulsive pressure distributed horiznntallv at level n, lb /ft- (kP.,)

53

,'"rl

/,llhl

, <'1'/,

III \ .. ,'

1,III,lJ/

t 1'21')

I' ,
/' p

P I' /'

If

n.;

s
s..

"
5

Ii

., "
•I

= uni I 1.1Il,]",,1 inertia rorce due to w'111 dead weight dr-ilnbuted hOl'i7.1)111<111) at level 1/, Ib/ ft~ (kPa) II 11,111.1tcra! (I III vee t i\ " IIIrn' associa led \~ i th IV, lb (kNl 1,11('r,11 UII1\ eel h l' lorce d uc to I V P1;,'!]' unit Iwi l';ht III the tan k w.ill occurring at lev el II, ~'()' 1,d" ~'~ I fl 01 \\',111 ht'ig-ht, lb 'ft (kN! m) - ,Ii ],l'PIL earth prL'SSllll', lb (ki'.) = tut.il i.Jll'I.11 impulsive torce associated with tV, lb (kN) latera I inWI.lI':'11 C [(11"Ct' due 10 \'\'/ per unil heightll) the tank \\'.111 at liquid [\!\,0! If, pounds ~ll'rII (I(w,111 ht.'i~hl, Ib/ll (kN/l11) - inertia rOT"(~l' of the ,1(:o.'iL'l'<llltl); roof 01 \\ eight IVw Ib (kNl later.,l inert i,1 (orce of the .icccleratlng \\ all llf "wig-hi 1\ ll" Ih (kNl lateral i nertia turce per unit height of the tank wall occu rring <It Il" "I If, pounds per ft of w<111 height, lb IkN/m) - Ul11 ( .. hL'M lorcc in circular tanks, Ib/ ft (kN / 111) :: unil max ilTI 11 111 shear !111'Cl' 111 C 1n.ular tanks, Ill/ fl (kN I T1l) unit hvd rostati, torce ,11 k'\'l'1) above the tank base ['1,. Y (H _II) I, Ibl ft2 (kPa) dtl'Ll of horiz, lllt,l! scism ic (lll'C~ inside radius ul circul.u tank, (Ill) response mud ifiratiun [,lct(lr, (N tor the COl1H'diH' component of the accelerating liquid: R\, tOI the impulsiv e component) SOl) lactor Dr s,nl profile t\ pl' (THC ?OOO, L Be jLJ97,U13C ILJL).}. HOCr\ 14%, SBe ItJ97, \Cl350,J) h~nl'l'a Ii/l'd des i~n spcct raj response acce leraLion corrcsponcling to ,1 given natural period, /', (S, corresponds tIll ,md S corresponds to T,) = ccnter-t, i-cenu-r spilcing between individ ual basl' c,111iL'loop- Ill. (mm) design spt'drili rl'spon"l' acceleration at "hurt l~l'noJ per IBe 2110t1 design spectral 1\'S)111]1";,' acceleration ill I sorund pl'!' me 2Lltlll m<1\1I1lUnl (unsidl'rt,d 1',1"thqu,l kc spectral response arcclorntion at short pcriud PC! [Be 2000 maximum ctlllsidered earthquake spectral response acre k' rati (111 J t 1 second per mc 2000 center-to-center ~p,lCing of clastomcric bearing r.,dt-, ill. (Ill m) = the rna pped spectral accelerations for -hort

=

thickness of elastomeric bcanng pads, in. (rnrn) awrilge wall thickness, in. (mm) = fundamental period, ~ec, = 0.2 T := 0.2S II/SO": = natural period \l[ the fi1'~l(rrmvcctive) mode of slushing. sec. fundamental period of tank and its con tents, sec,

=
ii II \I \ V,
,(I

S 'l/S!l~ 11<111.11'<11 eriod p

'"

::0

::0

::0

W"

IV

=

=

n

'" =
==

z
a

Ii
y

'" = = =

=
=

p

=

::0

= =

peri tul fwr I

"

the mapped spectr.rl accelera lions fur 1 second period Pl'T ilK 20l 111

ec 2lll 10

of vibration of, ertlcal llquld motion, sec. magnitude of vertical acceleration associated with f \" ft/sec2 1m/see.!) total horizontal base shear, lb (kN) convective base shea 1', lb (kN) impu lsive base shear, Ib (kNl total bast' shear based ,)II SRSS combmation Of irnpu Isive and convectiv e bast' shear, Ib (kJ\I) width of elastorncric bearing pad, in, (mm) effective seismic weight of the structure, lb (kN) weight of the convective component of the stored liquid, lb (kN) weight of the impulsive component of the stored liquid, lb (kN) total mass of the stored liquid, Ib (kN) wcightllf tan k and conta incd liquid, lb (kN) weig-ht of wd, Ib (kN) total wl'jght, Ib (kN) weight of the tank walls (shell), lb (kN) level at which wall is being investigated (measured from tank base), ft (Ill) zone fa ctor (U Be 1997, UEe 1CJ:g~) added wci.r;ht ratio for immersed elCI11Cll ts angle of base cable or strand with horizontal, deg unit mass of concrete> (1:;0 Ibltt', 2356 kN/m for normal-weight concrete) unit mass 01 container] liquid, Ibl It (kN/m1) unit moss of water (h2.41Ib/ft" Y,80i kl\,J/ m 0) strength reduction fi1do]' (ACI '11H) coefficient fClr determining T, tor circular tanks (sec Fig, cl--9) mass density nf concrete (4,€i61b·sl'c-/W, 2.4-0 kN -sl'e'! m I for nor rna I-weigh t concrete) mass density of the contained liquid (r. = Ig), lb-sec-Zft' (kN-sec'/m{) mass dcnsi ty of wa te r (1,94 Ib-sec2/ ft I' 1,0 kN ·scc'/ml) membrane (hoop) stress III wall of circular tank at ll','cl!}, Ib/in' (MPa) circular frequency of the impulsive mode, rad/!'ec

s

54

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