Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING in ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING for the academic year 2010-2011 by

Under the guidance of

Lecturer Dept. of E&C Engg. H.K.B.K.C.E, Bangalore-45





This is to certify that the seminar entitled ´EMERGENCY LOCATER TRANSMITTER´ is a bonafide work carried out by MD. ZUBER ALAM (1HK07EC041) in partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and Communication of the

Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum during the year 2010. It is certified that all the corrections/suggestions indicated for the internal assessment have been incorporated in the report deposited in the departmental library. The seminar report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements in respect of project work prescribed for the Bachelor of Engineering Degree.

Signature of the Guide

Signature of the HOD

Signature of the Principal


(Prof. Hussain Ahmed)

(Dr. M V Chaitanya Kumar)

First and foremost I praise the Almighty God for his loving kindness and mercy, without God¶s grace nothing would have been possible. I acknowledged the support and love given to us by out Parents. In times of trouble when there was nobody to turn to, they were always there. I am grateful to the Chairman Mr. C. M. Ibrahim for having provided us with excellent facilities in the college during our course. I am thankful to the Administrator, Mr. Abdul Hameed S.A. who with single minded devotion and missionary zeal always motivated us to reach greater heights. I am indebted to the Principal, Dr. M.V. Chaitanya Kumar for facilitating a congenial academic environment in the college. I am grateful to our HOD, Prof. Hussain Ahmed for his kind support, guidance and motivation during the course of the seminar work. I would like to thank my guide Mrs. SUMAYYA FATHIMA for her valuable guidance, suggestions and encouragement throughout the seminar work. I would like to thank all the staff members of Electronics and Communication department and my friends who have directly or indirectly helped me with their valuable suggestion in the successful completion of this seminar.


The Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) is used to emit an emergency signal on 121.5 MHz, 243MHz and 406.025 MHz in the event of an aircraft crash. This signal will be picked up by the Search and Rescue Satellites (SARSAT) and processed. SARSAT then sends the information about the crash and location of the crash to the owner of the aircraft. The ELT has to withstand very stringent environment conditions. The system is available from number of reputed manufacturers at a cost of less than $5000 ELT known as emergency beacons, Distress radio beacons or Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon are tracking transmitters which aid in the detection and location of boats, aircraft, and people in distress. Strictly, they are radio beacons that interface with worldwide offered service of Cospas-Sarsat, the international satellite system for search and rescue (SAR).

2 What software is available? 5.2 1.1 Speech recognition process 3. Speaker independency 4. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Speaker Dependence Vs Speaker Independence 4.2 Terms and concepts 12 15 16 17 19 19 21 25 26 28 4.2 System Configuration 5.1 Speaker. The Technology 3. The limits of speech recognition 31 .1 1. Speech recognition 3.dependent word recognizer 5.5 What factors need to be considered when using speech recognition technology? 30 6.3 Problems Tools Applications 2 7 11 2.3 What technical issues need to be considered when purchasing this system? 28 5.CONTENTS 1.4 How does the technology differ from other technologies? 29 5. Working of the system 5.

Application 7.7.1 Health care 7.6 Hands-free computing 8.5 People with disabilities 7.3 Training air traffic controllers 7. Bibliography . Conclusion 9.2 Military 7.4 Telephony and other domains 34 34 35 38 39 39 39 41 42 7.



Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION ELTs are emergency transmitters that are carried aboard most general aviation aircraft in the U. This transmission is enabled automatically in the event of aircraft crash using G switch or by manual activation. is made possible through orbiting satellites of this system. Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) is a compact. a ship (with EPIRB) or an individual in distress (having activated PLB). The number of member states of the organization has grown to 42 as on February 2010 1. COSPAS-SARSAT is a worldwide SAR (search and rescue) system.0-megahertz frequencies (and for newer ELTs. these devices are designed to transmit a distress signal on 121. Russia and the US in system for the search of vessels in distress) and SARSAT (acronym for Search And Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking) is an international satellite based search and rescue system available day and night throughout the year. In the event of an aircraft accident. self contained radio transmitter carried on board airplanes to facilitate accurate location and timely rescue operation in event of any distress situation.1 COSPAS-SARSAT CONCEPT COSPAS (Russian words meaning . on 406 MHz). . With the use of ELTs the search and rescue teams can easily pin point the exact location of downed Aircraft. initially launched by Canada.S. France.5. Rapid detection and location of a downed aeroplane (using ELT). 243.

. Processing of old analogue technology beacons that transmit on 121. 76 LUTs (Local User Terminals) or ground receiving stations (55 for LEOSAR and 21 for GEOSAR) which process the satellite signals and relay them further 30 MCC (Mission Control Centers) for disseminating distress alerts for SAR services More than 9. Six LEOSAR (Low-attitude Earth Orbit) satellites in polar orbits at 850 km above the Earth s surface.00.5 MHz and 243 MHz was ended in February 2009. Five GEOSAR (Geo-synchronous) satellites providing continuous coverage between latitudes 70°N and 70°S.000 distress beacons operating on 406 MHz. Each has a view of about 3000 km radius.The complete system as on February 2010 comprises.

This data will be received by Search and Rescue Satellites (SARSAT) and sends back to Ground Station. 20 Km s.5MHz & 243 MHz when the unit is activated by the force of crash (using G-switch) or by cockpit mounted remote switch.1.The major disadvantage of the system is there is no specific information about the owner or the aircraft. 406 MHz Beacon system Operates on the latest Search and Rescue (SAR) frequency 406.2 Types of ELTs: Two frequency Beacon systems Transmits distress signal on 121.This can also be interfaced to Navigation System (GPS/ Loran etc) by which it will transmit last received Latitude and longitude data. This system facilitates an aural monitor to alert the pilot if it is accidentally activated. nationality. This unit does not take supply from aircraft.5MHz and 243 MHz. Accuracy of this system is limited to appx. Internal battery is included in this unit. . With this 406 MHz ELT accuracy can be as high as 500 meters.025 MHz in addition to the conventional 121. This ELT system transmits digital message about the aircraft serial number. operator designator etc. This information is decoded by ground computers and sends to Owner of the aircraft regarding the location . tail number.

The Indian system has been operational since 1989 and providing SAR services to users in India and its neighborhood. with huge land and coastal area. international specifications and regulations.5 MHz. a search is conducted to locate the crash site.5 MHz and optionally 243 MHz. 2. or it can be switched on manually. Upon impact the ELT unit is activated automatically. mountainous regions or dense forests can block or reflect the homing signal. These beacons are designed to operate automatically in a distress situation. processes and locates these signals. Originally the ELT was designed to be a low power (100 mW) radio transmitter which emits an amplitude modulated signal of carrier frequency 121. In a vast country like India. a new generation of beacons transmitting at . Often when a small aircraft crashes. The radio beacons are operated on 3 frequencies namely 121. and distributes to the concerned Rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC) for initiating SAR action. Hence these line of sight restrictions can cause lengthy delays in locating the aircraft. the use of Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) units became mandatory for all aviation aircraft in North America. However.5/243 MHz beacons were not designed to be used by a satellite-based system. It also provides necessary guidelines to Indian users particularly from aviation sector so as to have national and international compliance for safe travel and timely SAR support. This paper provides radio beacon characteristics.CHAPTER 2 RADIO BEACON SYSTEM Radio beacons used by maritime. providing homing signal to rescue forces. the importance of having effective search and rescue (SAR) is paramount. In the mid 1970s. the problem of locating a distressed site is especially challenging. The international Cospas-Sarsat system detects. India is a member of Cospas-Sarsat programme and provides space and ground system support to process and distributes distress messages picked-up from these beacons to users globally. making it difficult for the rescue plane to receive the transmission. specifically allocated for Search and Rescue (SAR) purposes.1 EVOLUTION With increasing numbers of private and commercial aircraft. As the old generation 121. and various developments that are taking place at national and international level. 243 MHz and 406 MHz. aviation and land users in distress are mandatory safety devices as per regulations by ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation) and IMO (International Maritime Organisation).

When the ELT is activated.406 MHz. ISTRAC operates 2 LEOLUTs (Low Earth Orbiting Local User Terminals). and is the point of closest approach of the satellite to the accident site. The United States. The performance of these beacons was found to be far superior to 121. which is embedded in the signal. It was proposed that satellites in 850 km polar orbits be equipped to receive the ELT transmissions. was introduced at the beginning of the Cospas-Sarsat project in 1979. Ships carry an Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) which basically performs the same function as the ELT. currently INSAT-3A. Hence the Search And Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system was initiated. Canada. With the range and the known position of the satellite. 1 GEOLUT (Geostationary Earth Orbiting Local User Terminal). which is received by an orbiting satellite. at Bangalore. and a Mission Control Centre situated in ISTRAC campus at Bangalore. The zero Doppler frequency shift occurs at the inflection point of the Doppler curve. ISRO also provides SAR payload on INSAT series of satellites (INSAT-2A/2B. Fig 1 gives a basic concept of the Cospas-Sarsat system. compared with a rescue plane. this frequency must be determined with as much accuracy as possible since the slope of the Doppler curve at this point is used to calculate the range from the satellite to the transmitting source. one each at Bangalore and Lucknow. The advantage offered by a satellite. to be used exclusively for satellite detection. is its extended field of view since each satellite pass covers thousands of square kilometers. the signal received at the spacecraft is Doppler shifted. the location of the emergency signal source can be estimated. . Consequently. The overall programme is known as COSPAS-SARSAT and has been in operation since 1983. This estimate is passed to the Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC) for initiating necessary SAR action. A repeater onboard the satellite relays the signal to a Local User Terminal (LUT) on the ground. as it sweeps out a path over SAR region of interest.5 MHz beacons. future INSAT-3D) as a part of GEOSAR space segment. Due to the relative motion between the satellite and the ELT unit. and France developed the SARSAT system while Russia (then Soviet Union) conceived an equivalent system called COSPAS. which processes the received signal and estimates the location of the ELT by analyzing the Doppler shift information. it transmits a signal.

which ensures the continuity of the System and its availability to all States on a non-discriminatory basis. have also associated themselves with the Programme and participate in the operation and the management of the System. Following the successful completion of the demonstration and evaluation phase started in September 1982. the Department of National Defence (DND) of Canada. the Ministry of Merchant Marine (MORFLOT) of the former USSR and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the USA. In January 1992. A number of States. On 1 July 1988. The System was then declared operational in 1985. the four States providing the space segment signed the International Cospas-Sarsat Programme Agreement.2. the government of Russia assumed responsibility for the obligations of the former Soviet Union. a second Memorandum of Understanding was signed on 5 October 1984 by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) of France. . Canada and France.2 International Co-operative Programme This satellite system was initially developed under a Memorandum of Understanding among Agencies of the former USSR. Non-Parties to the Agreement. USA. signed in 1979.

1 121.000 121.5 MHz signal characteristics. even though system performance would be constrained by the beacons' characteristics.5 MHz Cospas-Sarsat System was designed to serve the existing type of beacons. Distress Beacons The use of satellites to detect and locate special-purpose radiobeacons. The Table 1 provides a list of typical 121. either manually activated or automatically activated by an aircraft crash or maritime distress situation.5 MHz beacon is given in Fig 2. Most of these beacons are used aboard aircraft and they are required to meet specifications set by ICAO.3.5 MHz beacons has been greatly enhanced by the use of satellite detection and Doppler location techniques. Therefore 121. ICAO standards were not established with the aim of satellite reception of 121. reduces the time required to alert the appropriate SAR authorities and to provide location and/or identification of the distressed object. Parameters such as system capacity and location accuracy would be limited. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) recommend that ships and aircraft carry Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRBs) and Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) respectively.5 MHz beacons in use world-wide.5 MHz and 243 MHz Beacons It is estimated that there are about 650.5 MHz signals. No information is usually provided about the operator's identity.5 MHz beacons carried aboard aircraft can usually be activated both manually and automatically by shock (using a crash sensor or G-switch). 121. . Despite the limitations indicated above. A block schematic of 121. 3. the efficiency of 121.

frequency bias (i. which produce in-band interferers. There are many problems need to be solved for processing 121. When combined with the range of Doppler shifts of ± 3 kHz.1.5 MHz and 243 MHz beacons were not designed to be used by a satellite based system. most of the ELT signals received at the satellite fall over within the range of approximately 12 kHz. Several LUTs may independently report solutions for overlapping parts of the same pass over the beacon. and determining a single central frequency is a challenging task. to which is added transmitter. The signals. such as bias drift and sweep period. The signals generate not only carrier peaks but also sideband peaks.merge process is particularly difficult for 121. . satellite and LUT noise. Solutions attached to the sidebands are presumed to have the same. some beacons are phase incoherent with the modulation.1 Processing of 121.5 MHz (243 MHz) signals since the spectral properties of ELT/EPIRB signals vary considerably. As a result. pulsed modulated at a rate that sweeps from about 1600 Hz to 300 Hz. longitude. or close. The spectrum consists of a 121. or close. This modulation provides a rich sideband profile. The match. carrier instability and interference from other sources.5 MHz beacon signals The 121. Usually ELT units have carrier frequencies distributed over a range of ± 3 kHz. the total range of frequencies is extended to a bandwidth of 15 kHz. repeated 2-4 times per second. there are numerous other interferers.5/243 MHz transmissions. In addition. which add to the already crowded spectrum. The match-merge solutions produced by an MCC are primarily based upon the location and center frequency calculated by the LUTs. Each solution received by the MCC consists of estimates of latitude. solutions from different passes are also presumed to have the same. offset from the carrier frequency. locations and frequency biases. locations and frequency bias estimates as other solutions for the source on the same pass. adding to the spectrum complexity. are distinguishable only by the spectrum of the source and by the location and other parameters calculated by the LUT from its Doppler shift. which may originate from sources other than legitimate distress beacons. without Doppler shift) and possibly other parameters characterizing the signal. the MCC must not only match up these solutions from different LUTs. the individual spectra are very random in character. but also match them with solutions from the same sources on previous passes.e. For processing purposes.3. In the real environment.5 MHz carrier of a nominal 100 mW.

the instability of the carrier frequency oscillator. . the accuracy of location estimates is limited to a radius of 20 km. there are two problems which affect the performance of these ELT units. and an unfortunate interaction between the modulation and the carrier frequency oscillator which causes frequency pulling.5 MHz Beacon As far as accuracy of location estimates is concerned.Fig 2: Block Schematic of 121. Consequently.

which otherwise would not be able to provide any position information.406.3. . A block schematic of 406 MHz beacon is given in Fig.5 MHz beacons. using external or internal navigation receivers.2 406 MHz Beacons Frequencies in the 406.5 MHz beacons because of specific requirements on the stability of the transmitted frequency. A second-generation 406 MHz beacons have been introduced since 1997. The 406 MHz beacons have following merits over the 121. and the inclusion of a digital message.3. which allows the transmission of encoded data such as a unique beacon identification.5 MHz beacons: y Improved Doppler location accuracy and ambiguity resolution. The Cospas-Sarsat 406 MHz beacons have been specifically designed for use with the LEOSAR system to provide improved performance in comparison with the older 121.1 MHz band have been exclusively reserved for distress beacons operating with satellite systems. which allow for the transmission in the 406 MHz message of encoded position data acquired by the beacon from Global satellite navigation systems. They are more sophisticated than the 121. This feature is of particular interest for GEOSAR alerts.0 .

Consequently. Performance of the 406 MHz system depends on actual transmission characteristics of the beacons. However.001. while the high peak power increases the probability of detection. Most EPIRBs and ELTs include a 121. Frequency stability assures accurate location. These beacons transmit a 5 Watt RF burst of approximately 0.y y y Increased system capacity (i. the performance characteristics of the homing transmitter are not covered by the Cospas-Sarsat system specification. An auxiliary transmitter (homing transmitter) can be included in the 406 MHz beacon to enable suitably equipped SAR forces to home on the distress beacon. The carrier frequency is very stable and the pulse is phase-modulated with a digital message as shown in Table 2. capability to process a greater number of beacons transmitting simultaneously in field of view of satellite). and optionally.5 MHz homing transmitter in accordance with the requirements of IMO and ICAO. These particular features required by national administrations authorising the use of 406 MHz beacons. Beacons can be activated either manually or automatically by immersion or shock. Global coverage. The basic characteristics of 406 MHz beacons are given in Table 2. are not included in the Cospas-Sarsat specifications defined in Cospas-Sarsat document C/S T. which provides such information as the country of origin and the identification of the vessel or aircraft in distress. and Unique identification of each beacon System performance is greatly enhanced both by the improved frequency stability of the 406 MHz units and by operation at a dedicated frequency. The low duty cycle provides a multiple-access capability of more than 90 beacons simultaneously operating in view of a polar orbiting satellite and low mean power consumption. An important feature of 406 MHz emergency beacons is the addition of a digitally encoded message.e. position data derived from internal or external navigation receivers.5 seconds duration every 50 seconds. Cospas-Sarsat has developed a type approval procedure for 406 MHz .

As a result of the 121. which is defined in document C/S Phasing out 121. as illustrated in fig. National administrations should authorise only type approved 406 MHz beacons for use with the Cospas-Sarsat System.2. The list of manufacturers and type approved beacon models is given in the document Cospas-Sarsat System Data.5 MHz system limitations. This situation impacts on the efficiency of SAR operations and increases the workload of Rescue Co-ordination Centres. The total standard format burst lasts 440 ms (112 bits) while the total long format burst lasts 520 ms (144 bits). and because of the availability of the newer 406 MHz beacons with better . consists of a user identity code. The Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) provides an effective means of detecting and recognising the presence of one or more ELT signals over the 25 kHz frequency band. These bits are subject to error correction by 21 error correction bits (BCH error correcting code). In a standard message. The bit size may exhibit variation of upto 1%. The 61 bits in the protected data field. and a message field. Of the standard message bits.beacons. Cospas-Sarsat Website address is: http://www. 61 are known and fixed at the time of beacon manufacture. which identify the user and (optionally) give location information. the 88 message bits divided into fields. 3. The unmodulated preamble lasts for 160 ms. and then follows message bits. which can be used to transmit either an emergency code or other data. There are additional 6 bits. which is published periodically by the Cospas-Sarsat Secretariat and also available on Cospas-Sarsat Website. but this outdated technology which cannot be improved easily.5 / 243 MHz Beacons 121.1 radians.1±0. is the source of a very large number of false alerts (over 98% of all 121.1 Processing of 406 MHz beacon signals The structure of the message burst transmitted by the 406 MHz beacon consists of three distinct fields: an unmodulated preamble (for carrier synchronization).4. The data is encoded using Biphase-L Manchester phase modulation with a peak modulation of 1.cospas-sarsat. 3.007. The bit synchronization field consists of 15 data "1" bits. while the frame synchronization comprises the bit pattern 000101111.5 MHz Cospas-Sarsat alerts). The bit rate is 400 bits per second. followed by 60 ms sync sequence. a bit/frame sync.5 MHz beacons are available at a very low cost.

the Cospas-Sarsat specification provides for various coding options. is applicable to all types of beacons. which are divided in 2 groups of coding protocols: User Protocols and Location Protocols.5 MHz signals from 2008.001). .4 406 MHz Beacon Coding 3. different user groups have different needs. ELTs (aviation) or PLBs (personal use).performance. However. General 406 MHz beacon-coding formats are presented in Fig 4. hence the need for various coding protocols. which ensures that all 406 MHz beacons are compatible with the Cospas-Sarsat Space Segment.4. but do not allow for encoding beacon position data. The user protocols can be used for encoding the beacon identification and other data in the digital message transmitted by a 406 MHz distress beacon.1 Beacon Coding Protocols Cospas-Sarsat 406 MHz beacons can be used in different environments and for a variety of applications such as EPIRBs (maritime). The specification of the distress signal characteristics (document C/S T. it has lead to a request by the IMO and CAO Joint Working Group on SAR for a termination of the satellite processing of 121. 3. To satisfy these requirements.

4 (A & B). in addition to the beacon identification data. as indicated by the format flag: 0 (short message).3 General Requirements for User Protocols There are 6 different options for coding user protocols. 3.4. b) the method used to provide beacon identification data as required by the responsible administration. user protocols and location protocols) can be implemented using either the short message format or the long message format as given in Fig.The location protocols can be used for encoding beacon position data. . The choice of the protocol option to be used in a particular beacon type depends on: a) the user category (maritime. in the digital message transmitted by a 406 MHz distress beacon. aviation. 3. Protocols in both groups (i. Most of the user protocols are available only in the short message format. The national user protocol and the test user protocol can be coded either with the short or the long message format.2 Coding User Protocols This section defines the user protocol message formats which can be used to encode the beacon identification data and other data in the message transmitted by a 406 MHz distress beacon. selected by setting bit 25 (format flag) to 0 . The applicable user protocol type is selected by setting bits 37 to 39 according to the appropriate pattern. which are described in Fig 5. or personal). and c) the required resolution of encoded position data (only for location protocols). or 1 (long message).e.4.



.Radio call sign of six or fewer alphanumeric characters can be encoded in Maritime User Protocol.Radio call sign of up to seven characters (four alphanumeric and three digits) can be encoded in Radio Call Sign User Protocol.

The five protocol types available are: y y y y y User-location Protocol. . Five types of location protocols are defined for use either with the long message format or with the short message format. as well as the beacon identification data. Standard Location Protocol. as illustrated in Fig 6. in the digital message transmitted by a 406 MHz distress beacon.3. and National-Short Location Protocol.4 Coding Location Protocols This section defines the protocols which can be used for encoding beacon position data.4. National Location Protocol. Standard-Short Location Protocol.

ELTs or PLBs) should. Every administration requiring or allowing the use of 406 MHz beacons should make suitable arrangements for the registration of 406 MHz beacons.2.Coding Procedure The IMO and the ICAO require that administrations authorising the use of 406 MHz beacons make provisions for registering these beacons in a database register that is accessible by SAR services 24 hours a day.5. be registered.1 Country of Registration . therefore. Identification of the beacon user (ship.2 General Principles for Registering 406 MHz Beacons 3. All 406 MHz beacons (EPIRBs. aircraft or individual user. to take advantage of this feature. alternatively. 3.5. Beacon registration is valuable for the resolution of SAR cases.3. aircraft or individual user) helps SAR services to properly respond to a distress alert provided that the registration database contains the information listed below in Table-3. is not always maintaining the beacon registration database but could. This information provides important search planning data to allow the timely rescue of people in distress. However.36) must provide a link to the administration . the country code in the 406 MHz beacon message (bits 27 .1 Purpose of Beacon Registration One of the advantages of 406 MHz beacons is that each beacon is designed to transmit a unique message allowing its identification. As the administration authorising the use of the beacon. a register is needed to relate each beacon to a particular ship. use the service of another administration.5. and enforce their registration. Registration information also helps to resolve false alerts without diverting SAR resources.5 Beacon Registration 3.

3. and provide information about such arrangements to the beacon owner. the administration of the country of registration should arrange with CospasSarsat and appropriate SAR authorities that its country code be recognised as one associated with that particular database.5.3 Access to Registration Databases Administrations maintaining registration databases should provide the means for SAR services to obtain relevant information on a 24 hours.maintaining the beacon registration database.2. The country code should always enable SAR services to retrieve pertinent registration data through the point of contact associated with that country code.5 MHz Beacons . Examples of beacon registration cards are provided in document Handbook of Regulations on 406 MHz and 121.2 Control and Updating of Registered Information Administrations should provide the means for beacon owners to readily and expeditiously update information in the registration database. including de-registration of the beacon in the case of a change of ownership. Authorities maintaining or using databases should ensure that information supplied for beacon registration is treated as proprietary. A census of registered 406 MHz beacons should be undertaken by administrations at least every two years. seven days a week basis. If a registration database is implemented and maintained regionally by agreement between several countries.2. . which is annually updated by the CospasSarsat Secretariat. 3. and ensure that it is used only by appropriate recognised authorities. Owners of beacons are responsible for reporting any change in the registered information.4 Content of Registration Databases It is desirable that the appropriate information from Tables-3 be recorded in beacon registration databases or in other appropriate registers and be made available to SAR services in case of distress alerts.5.2. Administrations should also require a check of the beacon registration during mandatory periodic inspections of the beacon. 3.5. Administrations should also regularly verify the accuracy of the database information by contacting the beacon owners.

and will not degrade. the Cospas-Sarsat System. to ensure beacon compatibility with Cospas-Sarsat Space Segment and Ground Segment equipment. carriage regulations and the testing and type approving of 406 MHz distress beacons are the responsibilities of national authorities. However. Compliance with these requirements provides assurance that the tested beacon performance is compatible with.1 Objectives and Scope of Type Approval The issuing of performance requirements.3. .6. it is essential that beacons meet specified Cospas-Sarsat performance requirements.6 406 MHz Beacon Type Approval 3.

3. with the exception of temperature. sample messages should be provided for each applicable coding protocol as required by C/S T. However. do not take into account environmental conditions the beacon may encounter during normal use. the test report and other technical documentation (as specified in C/S T. and an outdoor functional test of the beacon transmitting to the satellite.007 Cospas-Sarsat 406 MHz Distress Beacon Type Approval Standard ).007 consist of a series of indoor laboratory tests in which the beacon does not transmit to the satellite.3 Cospas-Sarsat Type Approval Certificate After successful completion of Cospas-Sarsat type approval testing. user-location. after review and approval of the test results by Cospas-Sarsat.007.The Cospas-Sarsat type approval tests are designed to ensure that the signals transmitted by the beacons and their coding meet all applicable requirements of the Cospas-Sarsat specification for 406 MHz distress beacons (document C/S T.6. The beacon manufacturers should submit for Cospas-Sarsat type approval testing beacons coded with a test protocol of appropriate type and format (user-short or long.6. The tests described in C/S T. Cospas-Sarsat has defined the necessary tests and overall procedure which a manufacturer must follow to receive Cospas-Sarsat type approval (document C/S T.001). The verification of the different coding options within each type is not required. national location-short or long). All protocol types intended for use with the beacon should be verified. standard location-short or long. 3. .2 Cospas-Sarsat Type Approval Testing In order to ensure that beacons do not degrade the System and to ensure uniformity of testing. A CospasSarsat type approval certificate will be issued to the beacon manufacturer by the Cospas-Sarsat Secretariat.007) is submitted to the Secretariat. These tests primarily measure the electrical characteristics of beacon transmissions on 406 MHz and.

g. aeronautical (ELT) and personal (PLB) applications. radiolocating. Cospas-Sarsat reserves the right to revoke the certificate.7 Guidelines to Administrations 406 MHz beacon coding protocols have been developed to satisfy maritime (EPIRB). 3.g. administrations should also consider the recommendations of international organizations (e. 3. All measures should be undertaken to avoid possible duplication of beacon identifications. Administrations are urged to harmonise their requirements with those defined by other administrations or international organizations. Regardless of the application or protocol used.Should it be demonstrated subsequently that the production models do not meet the same standard as the type approved model. National administrations should also consider requirements. 2-step activation mechanism. environmental. 406 MHz beacons that have received Cospas-Sarsat type approval are listed in the Cospas-Sarsat System Data which is published periodically by the Secretariat. .6. Depending on the intended use of the beacon. and including a description of testing procedures in the beacon user manual. ICAO.4 National Type Approval Cospas-Sarsat encourages national administrations to adopt national requirements (e. activation.) for 406 MHz beacons. Administrations are responsible for the definition and control of beacon identifications registered in their national databases. etc. etc. ITU.).. which may contribute to reducing false alerts such as:    visual/audio indicators. IMO. the creation and maintenance of a registration database is very important.

However. bit 43 can be set to 0 and the content of bits 44 to 83 redefined as required. the national administration must ensure that the beacon 15 Hex ID is unique.1 GENERAL BLOCK DIAGRAM The system consists of the following items 1) Main ELT unit 2) Remote control panel for manual activation and indication of Transmission 3) Antennae 4) Coaxial cable for interconnections . When a beacon 15 Hex ID is assigned by the national administration of the country designated by the country code.Using the Cospas-Sarsat type approval certificate number may help ensuring that the serial number assigned by a manufacturer provides a unique beacon 15 Hex ID. independently of the country of registration indicated by the country code. CHAPTER 4 MECHANISM OF ELT 4. in that case.

.2. the system locates the beacon from its Doppler shift as received by the quickly-moving satellites. In order to provide the global positioning for the search and rescue (SAR). We require a system to provide the longitudinal and latitudinal positions which is named as GPS. 4. The instant the beacon's Doppler shift changes from high to low indicate the time when the bearing from the beacon to the satellite's ground track is 90 degrees.2. The Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) is used to emit an emergency signal regarding the crashed air craft.2 INTERNAL STRUCTRE OF ELT 4. the frequency received varies depending on the speed of the beacon relative to the satellite. The side of the satellite track is determined because the rate of change of the Doppler is faster when the Earth is turning towards the satellite track. The amount of Doppler is proportional to the range and bearing to the satellite.4. Basically. In order to provide the global positioning for the search and rescue (SAR).1 ROLE OF GPS IN ELT The Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) is used to emit an emergency signal regarding the crashed air craft. We require a system to provide the longitudinal and latitudinal positions which is named as GPS.2 Location by Doppler When the beacon has no GPS receiver.

Also. and remain silent for a few seconds. This prevents false alarms from VHF channels that affect a single satellite. Ground stations listen to each satellite as long as it is above the horizon. It uses just a simple. modern 406 MHz beacons transmit in bursts. However the notification time is much less than a day. . Multiple beacons are separated when a computer program performs a Fourier transform on the signal. This also conserves transmitter power. Doppler shift is used to locate the beacon(s). originally designed to aid air searches. and its success drove the desire to develop the improved 406 MHz system. The Russians developed the original system. Regrettably. two satellite passes per beacon are used. The original system is a brilliant adaptation to the low quality beacons. the second satellite pass almost doubles the average time before notification of the rescuing authority.In order to handle multiple simultaneous beacons. with no digital recorders or other complexities. This eliminates false alarms by using two measurements to verify the beacon's location from two different bearings. lightweight transponder on the satellite.

ACTUAL SYSTEM OPERATION GEO Satellites LEO Satellites Local User Terminal Mission Control Center Emergency Beacons Rescue Coordination Center .

CHAPTER 5 OPERATION On activation of an emergency beacon in event of grave and imminent danger to lives at risk. Alerts received by GEOSAR provide instantaneous message and may include distress location only if the beacon is one of the self location transmitting type. A distress is pinpointed in less than six hours in worst conditions and updated. if required. 5. During this stage the switch is in OFF state and ELT does not transmit any signals. the switch becomes ON and the ELT transmits distress signals regarding position and owner of the aircraft to the satellites.The acceleration of the flying aircraft is equal to the acceleration due to gravity. In addition to the Armed Forces along with Indian Coast Guard. After the validation process from 406 MHz beacons. the alert signals are received by the satellites. Kolkata and Mumbai. the alerts are relayed to another MCC or to appropriate Rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC). The area of responsibility extends over entire Indian territory as well as airspace over high seas encompassing FIRs of Chennai. district administration. When the air craft is falling the acceleration is exceeds acceleration due to gravity which tends to change the state of the switch i. it would include the Doppler shift computed position of the distress beacon. The ELT system is activated by the G-switch (gravity switch). every two hours. These perform bit error checking and correction and send the corrected signals to the mission control centers.e. Satellite sends these signals to the LOCAL USER TERMINALS (LUTs) . Then the alerts are routed to a Mission Control Centre (MCC) in the country that operates the LUT. Actual Search and rescue in most states is carried out by designated civil and military resources allocated for the purpose. civil organizations and their resources may be used for the SAR purposes. If the message is received by one of the LEOSARs. all other Central and State Government departments. The LUTs worldwide automatically receive the retransmitted signals from the satellites.1 WORKING OF ELT When an aircraft is crashed the ELT which is present in that aircraft transmits some distress signals to the satellite. Mission .LUTs tracks these signals and recovers them. The SAR service in India is organized by the Airports Authority of India in collaboration with the Ministry of Defence.

control centers match signals coming from the same source also improves accuracy by merging.5 MHz. Basic emergency frequencies of 121. In helicopters the unit is generally placed near the tail in a bracket and held by a Valero strap. By connecting a small whip antenna (auxiliary antenna) available at the unit. Continuous operation on 121. The transmitter may be designed to transmit on all the three distress frequencies (121.1 TRANSMITTER UNIT.Finally it transmits alert messages to the search and rescue (SAR) team. a digital message is transmitted on 406 MHz every 50 secs only for the first 24 hours of operation. 5.5 and 243 MHz are being used for homing in the final stages of the rescue only. . the transmitter can be deployed as a survival ELT.5 and 243 MHz at low power is maintained throughout after the activation. It filters the redundant data and identifies the identifies the appropriate recepient. The battery should generally be replaced every six years and is capable of operating the transmitter for close to 100 hours. The message may either be identification or may also include the airplane¶s position if interfaced with on board navigation equipment. the description here should be considered as general and illustrative only.2 TRANMITTER IN ELT The variety in design and operation of the specific distress beacons can be gauged by the number of manufactures that exceeds 32 as on date. 243 MHz and 406 MHz) or the old types may be upgraded to 406 MHz transmissions.2. ELT used for aeronautical applications is certified to withstand impact and crash. resistance to flame. 5. the transmitter can be activated either automatically when a crash occurs or manually by switch on the transmitter or on a remote panel in the cockpit. An external antenna is also installed near the tail. which are shown in the figure here. Therefore. Weighing around two kg. The front panel on the ELT has following provisions. This is to preserve the battery life as this transmission is at higher power. Once activated. for quick removal. G shocks (100 to 500 G) water tightness and extreme temperature ranges (-20° to 55° for more than 48 hours).

ON. ARMED. Three position switch. RESET & TEST yRed or amber visual indicator yBeeper ± not available on .3 REMOTE CONTROL PANEL . A panel in the cockpit with the following controls to monitor the status and control the ELT by the pilots is available.5.

5 Sec gives satisfactory results.5 MHz /243 MHz).5 /243 MHz should be selected to automatically cover the 49. 406 MHz ELT transmission is 450 mSec digital pulse every 50 Sec In 406 MHz ELT mode .2dB (35 dBm to 39 dBm) 6.1 Classification of the ELTs as per standards .all installations.75 sec followed by OFF period of 1. Minimum duty cycle 33% and maximum duty cycle of 66% Amplitude modulation factor shall be at least 0. 121. CHAPTER 6 Broad Specifications of ELT The transmitted Peak Effective Radiated Power (PERP) shall be not less than 75 mW at each carrier frequency (121.5 Sec lapse time between two digital pulses 406 MHz Transmitted power shall be 5W +/.85 ON power of 0.

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