U. S.

Department of A g r i c u l t u r e S o i l Conservation Service Engineering Division Design Branch

DESIGN N T NO. 15% OE Subject: Submerged Weir Flow

Weir flow over a drop spillway i s e i t h e r f r e e flow o r submerged flow. Free (unsubmerged w e i r ) flow e x i s t s when t h e t a i l w a t e r s u r f a c e i s a t o r below t h e c r e s t of t h e weir. Submerged weir flow e x i s t s when t h e t a i l water s u r f a c e i s above t h e c r e s t of t h e weir. The depth of submergence i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n e l e v a t i o n between t h e downstream water s u r f a c e and t h e c r e s t of t h e weir. For f r e e flow conditions t h e discharge through t h e weir i s independent of t h e t a i l w a t e r e l e v a t i o n and t h e depth a t t h e weir i s u s u a l l y taken as c r i t i c a l depth, For submerged weir flow, t h e discharge may o r may not be independent of t h e t a i l w a t e r e l e v a t i o n . When t h e depth of submergence i s 0.7 of t h e c r i t i c a l depth o r l e s s , t h e discharge i s u s u a l l y taken a s equal t o t h e f r e e discharge. For g r e a t e r submergence, t h e d i s charge i s determined by both t h e headwater and t a i l w a t e r depths ( s e e Fig. 1).

/

r n Grade Line
Energy

Fig. 1

H

1

= Specific
=

energy head a t c r e s t of weir, ft

H2

Submergence over t h e c r e s t = d i f f e r e n c e i n e l e v a t i o n between t a i l w a t e r and c r e s t of weir, f t

*Prepared by H. J. Goon of t h e Design Unit, Design Branch, H y a t t s v i l l e , Maryland.

Figure 3. The d a t a i n d i c a t e a wide band of values of R f o r given values of t h e submergence r a t i o . Sheet 3 of ES-207). may be solved by cut-and-try methods. cfs/ft Q s -' c f s / f t L -. I f p r e c i s e r e s u l t s a r e necessary. when H.4. Drop Spillways. ES-207. f t c o e f f i c i e n t f o r f r e e flow Discharge f o r f r e e flow = C L H ~ c f s~ ~ ~ Qf . a search of l i t e r a t u r e f o r discharge d a t a from a p p r o p r i a t e weirs o r a model study i s required. Example 1. page 3.L C Qf qf =. . Sheet 2. . 2. ES-207. H1 can be e x p l i c i t l y evaluated from ( s e e Example 2 ) . c f s qS Discharge f o r submerged flow p e r f o o t l e n g t h of weir = The discharge f o r submerged flow i s taken a s Qs = R Qf qs = R qf where R i s assumed t o be a f u n c t i o n of submergence r a t i o -. Therefore. . tween R and - This f i g u r e was prepared by analyzing a v a i l a b l e t e s t d a t a of submerged flow over s e v e r a l types of weirs and e a r t h embankments. a r e given. and H2 a r e given. p r e c i s e r e s u l t s should not be expected from Figure 3. ES-207 i n t o a form such t h a t H.4 i s reproduced on Sheet 1 of ES-207. e i t h e r Sheet 1 o r Sheet 2 ma$ be used t o determine qs. ES-207. gives t h e r e l a t i o n beH2 H. can be e x p l i c i t l y evaluated. it is d e s i r a b l e t o The transformed graph i s given i n Sheet 2 of transform t h e graph of Sheet 1. H1 can not be e x p l i c i t l y evaluated from Sheet 1. Thus 1 when H1 and qS a r e given. Observe t h a t when % and H2 a r e given. Although H. Sheet 1 i s used t o determine Hz ( s e e . 3. when q and H. L Qs E Discharge f o r submerged flow.4. H- Figure 3.Discharge f o r f r e e flow p e r f o o t l e n g t h of weir = E = Length of = Discharge weir.17 of NEH-11.

determine Hz Values of "2 1 Energy Grade Line /-I7 I I rCrest Elevation H1 E Specific energy head at crest of weir.4 U.( REFERENCE NEH-11 Drop Spillways Page 3.9 Values of H2 ~1 1. cfs/ft. qs = Discharge for submerged flow per foot length of weir.DESIGN UNIT ES . cfs/ft.1 H~~ 0.Submergence over the crest = Vertical distance between tailwater and crest of weir. S.8 0.73 .17-Figure 3. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STANDARD DWG.207 S H E E T 2 OF 3 DATE 3 . SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE ENGINEERING DMSION .Relation Between Submergence and Discharge SP'LLWAYS:Given HI and qs. qf z Discharge for free flow per foot length of weir. ft. ft. H 2 . NO.= 3.

determine HI REFERENCE NEH-11 Drop Spillways Page 3.DESIGN UNIT ES.73 . DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STANDARD DWG. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE ENGINEERING DIVISION . NO. S.4 U.SP'LLWAYS:Given H2 and CIS.17-Figure 3.207 S H E E T L OF 3 DATE 3 .

H1 qs . H2 Qf =3. C = 3.207 S H E E T 3 OF 3 DATE 3 . 2 0 ) ~ / = 5 0 7 c f s ~ ~ Ekample 2 Given: A drop spillway with submerged flow Length of weir. ES-207) H2 REFERENCE NEH-11 Drop Spillways Page 3. Qs Determine: Solution: = 480 cf s Submergence over the c r e s t .. ~ / = 3 .17-Figure3. H1 = 4 2 f t .1 L H .71 J .DROP SPILLWAYS: Relation Between Submergence and Discharge _ C C Given: A drop spillway with submerged flow Discharge c o e f f i c i e n t . DEPARTMENT OF AGRICLTLTLTRE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE ENGINEERING DIVISION .1 S p e c i f i c energy head.3 c f s / f t . Q.DESIGN UNIT ES. U.0 Length o f weir.8 0 19 25. NO. 1 ( 1 9 ) ( 4 .Qs = 4 = .73 . L = 1 9 f t Discharge. L = 19 ft Discharge. H2 = 2. = 480 c f s Submergence over t h e c r e s t .4 STANDARD DWG.1.46 f t Determine: Solution: S p e c i f i c energy head. S. ( s h e e t 2.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful