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see Charan (Iran). This article may need to be wikified to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Please help by adding relevant internal links, or by improving the article's layout. (January 2012) Click [show] on right for more details. [show] Chra (plural Charans; Hindi:; Gujarati:) is the term for a caste living in the Gujarat and Rajasthan states of India. According to Shrimada Bhagwata Skand (3.a.10 Slok 728) Charans were created along with other divine forms such as Yaksha, Gandharvas, Kinnara, Sidhdhas, Apsara, etc. and lived with them in Heaven. Members of this caste are known for their high literary sense, deep loyalty towards the society and cleverness and unflinching readiness for martyrdom in war. Sircar, Sanja (2006). "Narrative "Lore" and

Legend from Saurashtra (India) Gems Waiting to be polished" (PDF). Asian Folklore Studies 65: 323337. 0.pdf. The caste is also identified with the surnames "Adha", "Gadan", Kaviraj, Barhath / Barhat and Gadhavi / Gadhvi{ujjwal}. Members of this caste are considered to be divine by a large section of society.[1] Women of the caste are adored as mother goddesses by other major communities of this region including Rajput kings.[1][2] The goddesses Karani, Bahuchra,and Sonal are well-known examples of Charan deities. In the medieval era, it was considered a matter of prestige and pride for a rajput king to keep a charan in his court.They were good poets and better soldiers.[3] Kings and landlords gave them grants of villages, and various kings also gave them Lakh Pasavs, large gifts equivalent to 100,000 rupees that usually consisted of elephants, money, and ornaments. The kings would also invite them to occupy a place in the

Royal Courts. Indeed, a Rajput's regard for a Charan was uppermost. Because of their ability to compose poems instantaneously, another popular way of addressing members of the Charan caste is "Kaviraj", which literally means "king among poets". Charans are considered to be the only thakurs other than the rajputs. Charans were always posted in the front lines of attacks in the armies. In between social order of the Rajputs and the status of the Brahmans there is a caste of Charans which is well known for their Loyalty towards the society. Charnas have the martial traits similar to Rajputs and scholarly traits similar to Brahmins. G. N. Sharma in Social life in medieval Rajasthan[4] Contents [hide]

1 Social structure 2 Values and belief o 2.1 Self-immolation o 2.2 Food and drink

3 Charani literature 4 Relationship with other communities 5 History of Charans o 5.1 Prehistoric period o 5.2 Ancient period (1000BC-1000 AD) o 5.3 Medieval period (1000 AD - 1800 AD) 6 References

[edit] Social structure The word Charan and Charans have different meaning. According to Adhyatmic the Charan represent the foot of Saint aur God. If we say Charan Kamal the word kamal means the softness of God"s foot, but the Charans' caste system is based on written genealogy. A Charan will accept all the other Charans as equals even if they do not know each other and have radically different economic or geographic status.[5] They are divided into four sections. Each section has several sub-sections and subsections have several stocks. Males and females of the same stock are considered brothers and sisters, and thus marriage within a

stock is strictly forbidden. Similarly, marriages outside the Charan community are not allowed. Instead of four sections, many authors consider 23 divisions a more fundamental way division comprising four [Pahada]s which literally means mount peaks, sixteen sakhas and three chals. The four sections mentioned before are just based on geographical identity and may overlap with many of the divisions under 23 divisions. As per 23 divisions the four Pahadas are (1) Nara (2) Chorada (3) Chuva and (4) Tumbel, three chals are (1) Ausura (also spelled Avsura), (2) Maru and (3) baati. Charan of one Pahad are considered brothers and sisters and cannot intermarry. As per these divisions Nara charan usually mary with Ausura, Chorada with Maru and Chuva with Baati. Tumbel don't have exclusive chaal to marry from and hence they are referred as half-Pahada. Tumel usually marry from any of the other three Pahadas and Chaals. Rest of the community is divided into sixteen sakhas (known as Sakhiyas), which literally means sections. They usually marry with other sections as well as three Chaals and three and half Pahadas. Large part of the 16 sakhiyas is

living in Rajasthan. As per Bombay Gazetteer[2] four sections and their sub-sections are mentioned below. Tumbel[Tumer]:The Tumer (also spelled Tumbel) are believed to originate from Sindh. The clans of Tumers are:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Mudhuda Seda Sindhiya Gelwa Rudach Bhan


Also called Parajias, from the Kachchh district of Gujarat, the Kachhelas have three clans: 1. Chanwas (72) 2. Choradas (52) 3. Naras (66) 4. Kesariya [This surname belongs to 16 sakhiyas]

5. Aalgya [This is a surname of Chunva pahada] 6. Paaliya [This is a surname of Nara pahada] 7. Soya [This is a surname of 16 sakhiya] 8. Keedia [This is a surname of Nara pahada]


The Marus are from Marwar in Rajasthan. They have 20 clans and more than 300 stocks: 1 Ashiya 2 Adha (Arha, this is a clan of Sandu) 3 Barhat(includes Roharia, Bithu as brothers) 4 Badhva (19) 5 Baratrohdia (12) 6 Bati (13)[ This is Chaal of Chunva pahada] 7 Boxa 8 Budhda 9 Bitu 10choda(chola)

11Deval 12 Detha (brothers of Souda / Sauda Barhat, Descendents of Maa Barvadi ji from Gujarat) 13Dhadhania (11) 14Dadhvadia (19) 15Gelva (6) 16Gadan(Harmada) 17Varnsurya 18Jula (Zula) (31) 19Jadiya(dahej) 20Jhiba 21Khadia/Khidia(khiria)(36) [This is the surname of Chorada pahada] 22Kharol (2) 23Kiniya (The members of this sub-caste are known as the descendants of goddess Karni Mata) 24Kaviya 25Kharal 26lalas 27Mahud/ Muhad 28Mishan(The Renowned poet of this surname was shri Surmallji Mishan, born in Rajashthan who wrote a huge epic named

"VANSH BHASKAR"incarnation of the Sun and his heirs) 1. Mahiya 2. Mada (2) 3. Mahiyaria (11)[This is the surname of Nathu Singh Mahiyaria a great poet.who said "Andaagal Chetak Rayoo Andagal Hindbhaan Yoh toh Votaa me

Daagal Maharan hen Mah Bhagwat Singh j came ou after v for the time an asked Kavivar comment 1. Mahedu [This is the surname of 16 sakhiya and also brother to Kesariya] 2. Nadhu (29)

3. Pandarsinga 4. Ratnu (1) 5. Rohadiya 6. Samor 7. sindiayach (bhacharliyaand Bhada inclusive in 16 sakhiya] 8. Sandu (8) 9. Sau 10. Siyal (0) 11. Silga 12. Soda (33) 13. Tapariya 14. Ujjwal (clan of Sindayach) 15. Vacha (they are brother to Adha & mahiya) 16. Vija (1) 17. Varasda [This is the surname of charan and also brother to Zula ] 18. Vithu 19. Mod 20. Hada(10)


1. Langavadra 2. Langa

3. 4. 5. 6.

Leela Kunchala Khalel Narela

[edit] Valu belief

Charans re loyalty and Their respe is "Jay Ma the mother which is al used by ma of the Cha community each other. female Cha actually re Mataji (mo goddesses) blessings t

other, so as hailing the

[edit] Selfimmolatio

The Chara highly fear communiti readiness t immolate k tragu. It wa that anyon the blood o would mee [2] Self-imm known as t practiced b whose dem not been m consisted o blood of so of one's fam calling dow vengeance upon the o

whose obs necessitate sacrifice.

Self immo performed variety of r One Gadha practised s immolation wild hare. was Punai is a temple a small vil Zarpara in Kachchh d Gujarat. W was collec for her live wild hare c running fro huntsman a into her lap huntsman d that she giv Punai Mata

telling him hare was s refuge and now provid would hon responsibil death. The overpower so she perf immolation

This type o was greatly The mothe Bahuchara the three m important m goddesses in Gujarat) Charan wo cut off one breasts wh by membe Koli caste. entrance of every villa

western Gu guardian st (known as which wer perpetuate of Charan women wh performed prevent rob carrying of of the villa even robbe under the r sanctions o The British governmen put a ban o performing 1808 onwa neverthele of it kept o during a la the later pe However, independen

encounters instances o

Many time Gandhi ann that he wo death in or change the those who him. This c resembles of tragu; h tragu perfo Charans us much more and the rea were not a far reachin of Mahatm is worth no however, t Mahatma G born and b the part of the Charan is dominan

[edit] Food

Their food habits rese of warrior "The Rajpu Charans us eating opiu drinking li Opium and also widely substances Rajputs of

[8][citation needed

do not eat cows and h who do in disregard. respected l A husband will not dr from the sa milk soiled counterpar milk from (cow) sym

those who should be c as siblings Indian inde in 1947, a a male buf constituted part of the of Navratri celebration often used presided ov Charan wo Animal sac illegal now and moder Charans no perform an sacrifices a religious ri do they en drinking of liquor as a value. On t vegetarian

become a h valued life social mov the mid nin sixties led (mother go Sonal Ma, Kaviraaj S Detha and Haridanji D poet Dula Merubha.M Gadhavi, P Bapu and o focused on animal sac discouragi of liquor a and encour modern ed This move great succe socio-econ reform of t community

[edit] Cha literature

Literature are an inte the identity Charans. A genre of lit known as C literature.[1 Dingal lite Dingal lan largely due caste.[4][12] generally a modern Ra literature b the works Misran, wh the Charan Zaverchan divides Ch sahitya (lit thirteen su

Songs gods and g (stavan) 2. Songs heroes, sai (birdavalo 3. Descri (varanno) 4. Rebuk great kings use their p (upalambh 5. Mocke treachery o (thekadi) 6. Love s 7. Lamen warriors, p friends (ma kavya) 8. Praise beauty, sea and festiva 9. Descri weapons

10. Songs lions, hors buffalo 11. Saying and practic 12. Ancien 13. Songs anguish of of famine a

Other class of Charani Khyatas (c Vartas and (stories), R epics), Vel Krishan Ru Doha-Chh (verses).[4][ Adha, Kes Karanidan Ishwar Dan zula kuvav zula was th was the pa krishna . h

dignified p the literary mediaeval Rajrupak b Surajpraka Karanidan Hariras by are exampl verses. An Charani lit thecharaj, mother's w Other mino aaraniyu a which are for worshi eminent po Hinglajdan Baldevdan Dr.Omend Kavia of S Jaipur,who contributed literature in times .

[edit] Rela with other communit

Charan enj cordial rela with most communiti had great i with the R community warriors). historian Q describes t relationshi Rajput and "The Char esteemed a companion Rajput, sha opium and loaf in adv receiving h extravagan prosperity. followed h

chief on ho the thickes where poet his deed of Rajput the ten on the carnage". .

Charans ar known to s to the king Rajputs, so which othe not do bec feared to a anger of th James Tod that "Their (Charans) truths, som unpalatabl masters. M resolutions under the l satire." In amnesty as

community the truth co Charans th led to mass persecution

The other c with whom have very relationshi Ahir/Yada community considered descenden Krishna. P most of the farmers an Charans re using the w "mama" w "brother of mother".

[edit] Hist Charans

[edit] Preh period

According Shrimada B Skand (3.a 728) Chara created alo other divin such as Ya Gandharva Sidhdhas, and lived w Heaven.[15] to Padma P King Prith the Charan Himalaya t gave to the Kingdom ( Telinga Ki present day Telangana

[edit] Anc (1000BC-1

King Naha honored th with large land grants AD to 128 Brahmanan who is one prominent Swaminara Communit Ashiya Ch Khann vill District, R His origina Ladudanji. earlier Swm Communit Brahmanan Khann vill

[edit] Med period (10 1800 AD)

(1509 to 15 Rana Sang popularly k Rana Sang ruler of ch mewar from 1527 .He o aakhet whe elephent lo temper and towards ra seeing this mahiyaria also accom maharana r her sister d baisa an in goddess K the elephan around and

was safe .A coming to Sanga told that in the saw a hand elephants h that's the m got saved. knowing th the hand o that "Sund rana sanga Haridasji M act as rular for three d reward and of "Panchl Sundar bai hands are w by "Mahiy today. The temple is a Bhilwara d pond there miracle an

believe can desises. Ka Nathu Sing Mahiyaria to be amon best poets of Mewar. written am of poetry, p dingal. Ka to keep a p pencil ever pocket and thought ca mind he w His books Shatak, V Chunda S Haadi Sha Jhalamaa are still ad Dr.Rajende the first pr India was o great admi

kaviwar. W got indepe elections w commence a coinciden when Kavi singh Mah going to ca the then M Bhagwat S coming ou room after vote showi of ink on h asked kavi comment s on the occa Charan kav Nathusingh Mahiyaria brilliance s ""Andaaga rayo, Anda Hindbhaan shamil whe

huai mahra HINDU H MEANS H BHAN ME sun.Hindu said for M Pratap. Th is "Chetak Maharana were your fought for throughout and never and were s throughout and you be descendan spot on yo

At the adv Century, contempor Mirabai, P was in the Ratan Sing of Merta. H

another fam from the M region of R During the attack on M Barhat wit sons sacrif life to save from the M lieu of thei the King g villages in descendan Barhat. In day the Vi known as R Adha Dura as Dursaji, of the med He born at Pali distric Rajasthan died at Pan 1651. Durs believed to

a maternal goddess K Historian r him for his sing praise Maharana archenemy in the cour Akbar. Op also a famo A golden s Dursaji sta Achalgadh Abu. Durs the mother Karni (betw and 1537) as the majo Rathod and communiti region. She supposed t helped Rao ruler of Ra occupy the

Bikaner. H at Deshnok Bikaner.

Thaku Varnsurya referred to Bapji mean Ji,the fathe {JAGIRDA seven villa KOTDA, P and born in village,now district. He Maharaja SINGH RATHOR 1843) of Jodhpur(er MARWAR providing d logistics su the King w at the fort o at war with

of Marwar successful the thrown Maharaja M showed im and payed to Jugto Ji including t villege of P (now know which was a territory thousand bighas.Ma Singh also Jugto Ji B Rank of Thakur,T King wou honor whe Thakur jo the royal c leg(symbo elephant, Kotra and

honors an known as important Kurabs w equivalent kill ( know Maaf"). K Rathors, th of Parlu, w relinquish village.Wh refused, w by the Kin immediate send five h horsemen t village by village was and later h Jugto ji Ba death of hi thakur the royal chat structure b at the site o

which can the Kaga S Ghat(Place Jodhpur ci Charan in one. The b Man Singh written by historian (n by Rajasth Granthaga states all th precisely.[1

Varns Bherudan of Thakur Varnsuray task to kill minister of Maharaja M Marwar (Jo hundred R his comma accomplish and returne

This was p only situat charan was command Rajputs.Th mentioned Vansh Bha by Sooryam the famous Bundi,how criticized t showing hi towards Bu

A saintly C woman Ma from Gujar whom Sau Barhat are mother of Sauda, hel Hamir, usi funds to su with 500 h in the reco Chittor.[4] A

victory, Ra gave the ti to Baruji a 12 villages Soniyana,A Paaner are ones. The S officially d 'Barhat ji' f Rajput clan [1] There h many chiv Saudas wh down their Mewar.

Jaisa j Keshav ji S with Maha the Battle o and becam Naru j worshippe Hindus and achieved m the gate of

Temple, U Udaipur w and Ruhull to destroy of Muslim Aurangzeb for him we tended by where his b other, a few and tended is where hi

Charan Kh Dadhiwadi Dharta) sav of Prince J of udaipur Naruka Ra attempted the prince.

Following quotations Charans ta

book of Dr Sharma.[4]

In the Haldighati place in 15 Rana Prata Mewar and Singh of A of the Mug Akbar,char Rama Sand unpreceden In the AD, Narha fighting in Sur Singh Singh of K In the of Dharma Jagmal Kh his end as warrior. In the when Durg the rescue

Charan San Mishan Ra distinguish as martyrs of their lan One of Battle of M respect wa VISHAL R OTHER 11 at Ambard 1620 AD w Sultan. Jha Meghani h act of brav "ANNAM [Heads tha bowed]. Ev there are 1 pillars [pal Vishal Rab who fough 600 person Sultan's ar

bowing the of Gujarat Valabh Garni in Sa Babara} w by Gaekwa 1840 AD f to one of h Childhood relationshi Kesariya h widow am equivalent her needs f as he could insult done shopkeepe Vadodara c was there f horses and specious d He had sai cannot acc insult of a crooked sh

keep this a jewellery t your child with respec need more how. I am Kesariya o amreli para on child be Gaekwad a Valabha K bowed to h Valabha K to help him the amoun revenue[K all Saurash Gaekwad. event of re revenue fro state, the K Jamnagar h with Vitho Suba of am Suba invol

Kesariya fo recovery fr state and to Jamanagar Valabha K giving him shoes [Mo Charan Mishan Bh Asal Dhan Kanau wer chosen bra who escort Akbar thro to Shambh Dhanr (1801 AD) Rama (182 been recor known trad of that peri Alha c selter to th Rao Veera Mangilani

rao Chund taken over Kingdom f Inda(Parih Alha chara only selter Army and Rao Chund efforts Ind married the Rao Chund mandor in rathore, Al now Know ALAWAT Marwar Jo grete contr Rathore Ki were holdi important p Marwar. Dhana Rabana Sa Village had his friend A

who was K Kundani [J Saurashtra was held b for not pay kori as am between th Khachar w Dhanabha amount to friends pre

There are r gifting vill glorious m service, the Palanpur R Itihas (p. 2 accounts o village Ma Royal Cha organised M Army of A and helped to stabilise Nawab of

Again ther several suc in the state Rajasthan literature o and Mewa evidences were gifted acts of bra War..

[edit] Refe

^ a b Sh Shroff R. G Vahivanca Gujarat: A Genealogis Mythograp American F (281): 246 doi:10.230 JSTOR 53 2. ^abcd Bombay G Bombay: G

Central pre pp. 21422 3. ^ Abu Ain-e-Akba 4. ^abcd N. (1968). Medieval R Lakshmi N Educationa pp. 9496. 5. ^ Thom (1991). "C Gujarat: C Music and Change". Ethnomusi 381391. doi:10.230 JSTOR 85 6. ^ Mr. Book. 1817 7. ^ Spod "On the Or Gandhi's P Methodolo

Heritage o Gujarat". T Asian Stud 372. doi:10 JSTOR 29 8. ^ Sing (1982). We Orient Pap OCLC 107 9. ^abH Goddesses Gender in USA: Oxfo Press. pp. 2 10. ^ "Ma Devi Asha Matanama Kachchh, I Archived f on 2007-08 http://www g/5QwfGa 2006-12-2 11. ^abM (1943). Ch

Charani Sa Ahmedaba 12. ^ a b Sm (1974). "A to languag historical d Rajasthan" Studies 9 ( doi:10.101 012841. 13. ^ "Sou Rajasthani Britannica the origina 14. http://www g/5TM2kT 2007-11-1 14. ^ Jame Annals and Rajasthan in 1829-32 pp. 500. 15. ^abcG (2005-06-2

of Charans Charan Cu Organizati from the o 01-16. http://web. /20070116 wcharan.or ml. Retriev 16. ^ Brah Biography 17. ^KA (1997-01-0 Indian Lite Anthology known as s was born i kuvava vill bhakt of lo was kavi h Rukmani h h only villa all are say .there are 3

in idar talu sabarktha Sahitya Ak ISBN 8126 18. ^ Mah Singh Ji R Rajasthani Granthaga

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