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Elective Geography 2192

Food Consumption GCK

Food Consumption

Trends since 1960

Reasons for Variation

Impacts of Variation

Responses to Variation

Difference in DC and LDC Increasing Levels of Food Consumption Changing Food Preferences (DC) Changing Food Preferences (LDC)

Affordability and Economic Power

Starvation

International Organisations

Accessibility to food Supply

Malnutrition

Government Responses

Stability of food supply

Obesity

Food Producers in LDC

Technological Advances

Sources | MSHS Elective Geography/Geography (Geography of Food Notes), Earth our home Text Book

Elective Geography 2192


Food Consumption GCK

Trends in Food Consumption since the 1960s


Differences In Food Consumption In DCs and LDCs
Developed Countries: - Generally consume more food per capita - Richest 20% of the worlds population consumes nearly half the worlds meat and fish - Many countries in North America and Europe exceeds 3400 kCal per person per day - Efforts to increase supply of food has generally increase food consumption worldwide - However rate of increase is different in different regions Less Developed Countries: - Generally consume less food per capita - Poorest 20% of the worlds population consumes only 5% of the worlds meat and fish - Many countries in Africa is lower than 2200 kCal per person per day - In East Asian regions, there is an increase of 964 kCal per person per day from mid-1960s to 1990s - But, in Sub-Saharan African regions, this only increased by 137 kCal per person per day during the same period. Increase in consumptions of larger varieties of food: - People become more exposed to different types of food from around the world which may influence the food preferences of these people - E.g. in Asia, people are consuming more bread and potatoes instead of traditional rice staples. - These exposure to a wider variety of food causes the formation of Fusion Food which refers to food modified from existing food from different places to cater to different tastes or developed from combination of food ideas from around the world - E.g. The successful creation of the California Roll sushi introduced in USA in California to suit the taste of Americans.

Increasing Levels of Food Consumption

Changing Food Preferences (DC)

Increase in consumptions of Healthy Food: - People become more health conscious and are moving away from high-fat products - E.g. In USA, proportion of fats consumed from meat has fallen from 33% to 26% between 1950s and 2000 - More people also consume foods that are found to have certain health benefits - E.g. In USA, consumption of olive oil doubled between 1995 and 2005 as it was found to reduce the risk of heart diseases - More people consume organic food as it has no pesticides and chemicals as they are more educated and health conscious - In UK, sale of organic food tripled over the last 5 years Decrease in consumption of Carbohydrate: - Carbohydrates, obtained from staple food, provide people with energy. - Staple food takes up a large proportion of peoples diet in LDC - Due to increase in availability of non-staple food, the consumption of traditional stables (roots and tubers such as sweet potatoes, yams and cassava) decreased reduction carbohydrate intake.

Changing Food preferences (LDC)

Increase in consumption of non-staple food: - People consume more non-staple foods such as meat and fish. - This trend is more common in urban areas in LDCs - This lead to increase of protein and fat proportion in peoples diet. - E.g. in China, percentage of adults consuming high fat dies increase from 33% to 61% between 1991 and 1997. - This could be due to the rise of fast food restaurants in LDCs - E.g. in Philippines, the number of fast food restaurants increased by 10% from 2003-2004 and in 2004, 54% of people there eat fast food at least once a week.

Sources | MSHS Elective Geography/Geography (Geography of Food Notes), Earth our home Text Book

Elective Geography 2192


Food Consumption GCK

Reasons for Variation in Food Consumption


Affordability and Economic Power
- The Ability to afford food is dependent on a persons purchasing power - Generally, people in DC have more purchasing power than people in LDC allowing them to get access to a wider variety and sufficient food - There are still poor people in DCs who have low purchasing power and thus do not have enough food though there is ample supply - Due to low purchasing power, people in LDCs are unable to get enough food to meet their daily needs. Globalisation: - This allows increase exposure and access to a greater variety of food - E.g. if a Japanese food stall were to open in Singapore, with strong advertisements and marketing campaigns, this may lead to higher demand for such foods and encourage other Japanese food stalls to open branches in the region - Thus increasing access to such foods Trade: - Presence of trade barriers such as government policies and regulations which limit trade between countries can limit a countries access to food supply - E.g. during the a Gulf War, UN prohibited countries from trading with Iraq leading to a food shortage within Iraq

Accessibility to Food Supply

Transport Facilities: - Availability of such facilities and their networks can influence the distribution of food - In LDCs, due to fewer transport roots, people living in remote areas may not be able to gain access to food supply

Food Outlets: - Access to food may also be hindered due to lack of places selling food. - In DCs, food outlets such as supermarkets are very common providing access to food supply - In LDCs, there are fewer shops in rural areas and food outlets are usually found in urban areas

Stability of Food Supply

Natural Factors: - In addition to having strong purchasing power, a country - Droughts, floods, hurricanes needs to maintain its food and volcanic eruption can wipe supply stable out entire harvests and cause severe food shortage - This will allow a country to ensure food security (the - E.g. Hurricane Katrina situation where people are destroyed much farmland and able to obtain sufficient food livestock when it hit the US of acceptable quality) - Diseases can also disrupt food supply such as Bird Flu which - Food security can be achieved from producing their own food caused 20million poultry to be and buying from other destroyed resulting in a countries at the same time shortage of eggs and poultry - Countries that have access to agro-technology can produce more food for their food security and a source of income - This includes machine, sprinklers, chemical fertilizers and pesticides technologies

Human Factors: - War and conflicts among nations may destroy livestock and crops and cause farmers to abandon their fields - This causes less food to be produced, threatening food security - E.g. The Second Congo War forced 1.2 million people in Sudan out of their home, preventing them from tending to their fields and herds

Technological Advances

- Though most countries have (including LDCs) have access to these technologies with the advent of Green Revolution, most of the Sub Saharan African countries still do not have access

Sources | MSHS Elective Geography/Geography (Geography of Food Notes), Earth our home Text Book

Elective Geography 2192


Food Consumption GCK

Impacts of Variation in Food Consumption


Starvation
- Occurs when a person consume less than 1000 kilocalories each day - On average, males require 2500 kilocalories and females require 2100 kilocalories each day - Starvation causes the body to burn muscle tissue for energy which causes the body to become thin and over time cause organ failure and eventually death - Occurs when a person consumes an imbalanced amount of nutrients - Common in rural areas of LDCs where harvest may be poor and people have low purchasing power and thus consume less nutrients - Also caused by eating disorders (Such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia) triggered by psychological factors - About 25000 people die of starvation each day, 16000 of which are children - Most are from the rural areas in LDCs Especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where 70% of the population suffer from starvation - Small proportion of the poor in urban areas in LDCs and DCs also suffer from starvation - This can severely weaken a persons body, making it less resistant to common illnesses and left unattended to for a prolonged period of time can damage internal organs and eventually cause death - Lack of certain vitamins and minerals can also lead to various diseases such as anaemia which results from a lack of iron and causes shortage of oxygen to the body, weakened immune system, listless and tire easily - It is estimated that about 400 million people in the world are obese and the numbers are rising - This can lead to health related issues like high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease and is one of the leasing causes of health problems in the DCs

Malnutrition

Obesity

- Considered obese when a persons body fat is more than one third his weight - Mainly affects people in the DCs and on a larger scale as compared to that in LDCs - This is as calorie intake by people in DCs are generally higher than that in LDCs - However due to growing affluence of cities in recent times in LDCs, obesity and its related illnesses have become more common in LDCs

Sources | MSHS Elective Geography/Geography (Geography of Food Notes), Earth our home Text Book

Elective Geography 2192


Food Consumption GCK

Responses of Variation in Food Consumption


International Organisations
- Measures such as emergency famine relief, agricultural research and media campaigning were put in place to tackle widespread starvation and malnutrition - A food summit was held in 1996 to discuss ways to end hunger and representatives committed themselves to reduce the number of hungry people in the world by 2015 - International organisations such as UN, Red Cross and Amnesty International developed various programmes to provide food for the people suffering due to lack of food - E.g. the United Nations World Food programme has implemented the Food-for-Work projects in Somalia where people are paid in terms of food to build important farming facilities(irrigation channels and roads) - This way the people not only receive food but also improve their countrys farming infrastructure and develop other skills which can help them make a living - However, despite the work of international organisations, there is still a large number who are suffering from lack of food as it is difficult to eradicate these problems on a global scale Stock Piling: - This ensures a more stable food supply and food security during emergencies by setting aside and storing food - Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) recommends countries to stock pile enough food to last its population about 3 months - Stored food is released to make up for the shortage during times of crop failure or unforeseen circumstances disrupting food supply, hence, the disruption of food supply is minimal - Stock piling is more common in DCs as they are able to buy extra food and build storage facilities - DCs and large food companies may also practice stock piling to control food supply in the market by restricting the amount of food available, enabling the prices of food to be maintained or even raised, thus helping profit-driven farmers and large food companies to earn more money - Stock Piling is less common in LDCs as they may not be able to afford the costs, and hence, food supply may not be stable as it mainly depends on the annual harvest for their food supply - Hence more profits can be earned from producing these crops, attracting many farmers in LDCs to produce them - E.g. Coffee is consumed in many parts of the world especially in DCs, thus attracting many food producing countries to move towards planting coffee to meet increasing demands

Government Responses

Food Subsidies: - Some governments provide subsidies such as free food or discounts on food for the poor to help them obtain access to basic food supplies - E.g. the government in UK provides free school lunches to children from low-income families - Food Subsidies can create a heavy burden on governments as a large amount of money and effort is required especially in LDCs which can be achieved only after a long time - These programs has been criticised for causing the poor to be dependent on the government for help and not enabling them to break out of the poverty cycles and that the money can be better spent on educating the young so that they will be equipped better paying jobs

Food Producers in LDCs

- Many people in LDCs depend on Food production for their livelihood and according to FAO, it accounts for about 9% of national income and more than half the jobs in LDCs - Trade has allowed food producers in LDCs to earn more profits by selling their products overseas, hence, much of the food crops grown in LDCs depend on worldwide demand - DCs are willing to pay more money for nonstaple food crops as most do not grow them

Sources | MSHS Elective Geography/Geography (Geography of Food Notes), Earth our home Text Book