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CFD ANALYSIS TOWARDS OPTIMIZING THE PARAMETERS OF VORTEX TUBE
K.SARATHKUMAR E. Mail:email@example.com Second year mechanical KCG College of technology. Chennai Mobile no: 9786375113 P.IYAPPAN E. Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Second year mechanical PSNA college of Engg.Dindigul Mobile no: 9003882559
National level technical symposium Regency Institute of Tech., Pondicherry
1. The cutting tool failure due to thermal shocks is because improper cooling. So to stop the failure of cutting tools due to thermal shocks and rust formation the quality of tools must be improved. vortex tube. 2 . It contains the following parts: one or more inlet nozzles. This happens because of the continuous contact of liquid coolant on the surface of cutting tools. Temperature distribution across the axial direction of the vortex tube is being studied and has been proved that the sub zero temperatures are obtained for cooling. a vortex chamber. Other than that rust formation is an important thing to be considered. Due to which there is failure in cutting tools may occur due to wear. as shown in Fig. Because of these reasons the tool gets failed. the gas escapes with a higher temperature. Hilsch Vortex Tube (HVT) and Ranque compared to the inlet temperature. So a vortex tube could be employed for cooling purposes. the gas has a lower temperature Vortex Tube (RVT). improper handling of tools or due to thermal shocks. there is a need for efficient means of production which has led all manufacturing companies to run the machines continuously. In the present study CFD is used as a tool for obtaining optimal design of INTRODUCTION: In the increasingly globalised economy due to the mass production there is continuous running of machines which leads to the failure in cutting tools.2. and pressure gradient. When high pressure gas (6 bars) is tangentially injected into the vortex chamber via the inlet nozzles. The industries are going for replacement of failed tools with new ones without analyzing the cause of failure and rectifying them. CFD techniques are used to simulate the phenomenon of flow pattern. Because of these reasons the tool gets failed. Other than that rust formation is an important thing to be considered. thermal separation. while at the cold exhaust. VORTEX TUBE: The Vortex Tube (VT) cooler is a device that generates cold and hot gas from compressed gas. The cutting tool failure due to thermal shocks is because of improper cooling. On the contrary by providing vortex cooling system which makes the tool free from the above said failures. At the hot exhaust. These failures of cutting tool are due to improper handling of tools or due to thermal shocks. a swirling flow is created inside the vortex chamber. a hot-end control valve and a tube. a cold-end orifice.ABSTRACT In today’s complex manufacturing processes. This happens because of the continuous contact of liquid coolant on the surface of cutting tools.
the boundary conditions are listed below 3 .IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM: In the case of RHVT temperature of air at both cold and hot outlets are taken as the broad area of interest in this project. Varying the pressure at inlet can be easily done with the aid of a pressure regulator.1. the following assumptions are made The temperature variation is three dimensional The material properties are constant(Isotropic) Room temperature is assumed to be maintained at 270C BOUNDARY CONDITIONS For the computational domain shown in fig 3. L/D ratio should be in a range such that the stagnation point is within the tube. the critical parameters that affect the outlet temperatures are L/D ratio and cold end diameter. So increase in the length of tube enhances the temperature separation up to the condition that stagnation point is within the length of tube. For lower values of L/D ratios the swirl intensity extends beyond the length of hot end exit of the tube.1 package with the help of Gambit preprocessor. A thorough study or recent literary reviews implies that. PROBLEM STATEMENT Analysis of temperature distribution across three dimensional model of Ranque Hilsch Vortex Tube(RHVT) using Fluent 6.1 ASSUMPTIONS In order to analyze the problem. Optimization of dimensional parameters of RHVT would give better performance. In such circumstances both the inlet pressure and dimensional parameters should be considered. The three dimensional model is shown in figure 3. Also secondary circulation flow in vortex tube has its influence on temperature separation.
The performances of all the cases of vortex tubes based on CFD and thermal analysis made in the FLUENT 6. L/D ratio = 20 mm.136 MPa HOT END Hot gas fractio=20. They are grouped into three types based on the dimensions varied. the compressed air from the nozzle enters the vortex generation chamber and gets expand. L/D ratio = 20 mm. The types of vortex tubes taken for analysis are Type1 RHVT with cold outlet diameter Dc=6 mm. The L/D ratio is varied as 5. 50. 20 and 25mm. L/D ratio = 25 mm Type2 RHVT with cold outlet diameter Dc=7 mm. 60. L/D ratio = 25 mm PARAMETERS STUDIED The inlet pressure and the velocity of air entering the vortex chamber are kept constant and the dimensional parameters (Dc and L/D) are varied. cold end diameter (Dc) =6mm for various L/D ratios.INLET NOZZLE Pressure. Pc =0. Pin =0. L/D ratio = 25 m Type3 RHVT with cold outlet diameter Dc=8 mm. L/D ratio = 10 mm.5422 MPa COLD END Pressure. L/D ratio = 05 mm. This is the case 4 . Tin =300 K RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The thermal behavior of vortex tubes of various dimensions has been taken into consideration. L/D ratio = 05 mm. TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION ACROSS THE VORTEX TUBE Type I: Initial CFD analysis has been carried out for RHVT of diameter D=12mm. 10. L/D ratio = 10 mm. L/D ratio = 20 mm.1 are to be presented in this chapter. 40. L/D ratio = 05 mm. By varying the hot gas fraction the temperature of outlet air both at hot and cold ends are noted. Then three dimensional model of the vortex tube with optimum design has been investigated by varying hot (mh) and cold gas fractions (mc). 80% Temperature. The temperature of the air at the cold outlet for various dimensions of vortex tube is the area of interest in this project. L/D ratio = 10 mm.
This is shown in the following figure 5 . RESULTS OBTAINED FOR THE VARIOUS TYPES OF Dc VALUES L/D RATIO 5 10 15 20 TYPE1 7 -8 -17 -12 TYPE2 10 -2 -10 -5 TYPE3 12 5 -7 -5 TYPE1 59 65 76 74 TYPE2 62 74 85 79 TYPE3 60 66 71 68 COLD GAS TEMP(C) HOT GAS TEMP(C) TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE(C) TYPE1 52 73 93 86 TYPE2 52 76 95 84 TYPE3 48 61 78 73 COMPARISION OF VORTEX TUBES Here the results obtained from the CFD analysis are compared for all the three cases to choose the optimum design parameters for a 12 mm diameter vortex tube. Type II : Secondly CFD analysis has been carried out for RHVT of diameter The analysis shows that for a RHVT of Dc=7 mm the D=12 mm. cold end diameter (Dc) =8 mm for various L/D ratios. The analysis shows that. For each L/D ratio individual contour diagrams for static temperature has been obtained and the values are tabulated. Dc=7 mm shows the higher difference in temperature.where airflow patterns and the temperature distribution are to be analyzed. for a RHVT of Dc =6mm the minimum cold end temperature of -17oCand a maximum hot end temperature of 76oCcan be obtained. cold end diameter (Dc) =7 mm for various L/D ratios as in the previous case. Type III: Finally CFD analysis has been carried out for RHVT of diameter D=12 mm. The graph illustrate that in all the cases the L/D ratio of 20 has made the greater temperature difference over the other ratios. But among the three cold end diameter used. The analysis shows that for a RHVT of Dc=8 mm the minimum cold end temperature of -70C and a maximum hot end temperature of 710Ccan be obtained. minimum cold end temperature of 100C and a maximum hot end temperature of 850C can be obtained.
gets lower. Here we use RHVT for the purpose of cooling cutting tool. The analysis shows that the forced and free vortex components up to the stagnation point. With this optimum design. the cold gas temperature CONCLUSION From the CFD analysis conducted for vortex tubes of various dimensions. 40. 50. So as far as our case is concerned Dc of 6mm and L/D of 20 are optimum.1. The static temperature contours obtained for a hot gas fraction of 40% proves that if the hot fraction increases. For a specific RHVT of Dc=6 mm and L/D=20(optimized values from earlier analysis). 60. the minimum cold gas temperature achievable is -170C and is obtained for RHVT of cold end diameter of 6 mm and L/D ratio of 20. Therefore choosing Dc depends on the application. In this case the air entering the system never leaves the cold outlet directly. 70 and 80 percentages. a minimum cold gas temperature of -310C is obtained at 80% 6 .But the maximum hot gas temperature of 850C is attained by using Dc=7 mm as shown in the following figure. EFFECTS OF HOT GAS FRACTION Vortex tube performance varies when hot gas fraction has been varied. Hot gas fractions have been varied as 20. This has been proved in CFD with the help of FLUENT 6. an investigation has been carried out. The point at which the axial velocity goes negative is called stagnation point. After reaching the stagnation point the temperature separation takes place and there it takes negative direction towards cold end. VELOCITIES AND FLOW PATTERN The core flow takes place at stagnation point at an axial distance from the inlet. 30.
Fundamentals of Compressible Flow with Aircraft & Jet Propulsion .M. Chung. Cambridge university press.hot gas fraction. New Age International Publishers.J. This optimum design of vortex tube can be used for various industrial cooling applications.Yahya. 2. Computational Fluid Dynamics-T. 7 . REFERENCES 1.S.
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