IB  Session   May  

2012 16  

Physics  HL  Syllabus  (2009)    
Marc  Wierzbitzki  
Including  notes  on  HL  Option  E  (Astrophysics)  and  H  (Relativity)  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

 

TABLE  OF  CONTENT  
1.1  THE  REALM  OF  PHYSICS   1.2  MEASUREMENT  AND  UNCERTAINTIES   1.3  VECTORS  AND  SCALARS   2.1  KINEMATICS   2.2  FORCES  AND  DYNAMICS   2.3  WORK,  ENERGY  AND  POWER   2.4  UNIFORM  CIRCULAR  MOTION   3.1  THERMAL  CONCEPTS   3.2  THERMAL  PROPERTIES  OF  MATTER   4.1  KINEMATICS  OF  SIMPLE  HARMONIC  MOTION  (SHM)   4.2  ENERGY  CHANGES  DURING  SIMPLE  HARMONIC  MOTION  (SHM)   4.3  FORCED  OSCILLATIONS  AND  RESONANCE   4.4  WAVE  CHARACTERISTICS   4.5  WAVE  PROPERTIES   5.1  ELECTRIC  POTENTIAL  DIFFERENCE,  CURRENT  AND  RESISTANCE   5.2  ELECTRIC  CIRCUITS   6.1  GRAVITATIONAL  FORCE  AND  FIELD   6.3  MAGNETIC  FORCE  AND  FIELD   7.1  THE  ATOM   7.2  RADIOACTIVE  DECAY   7.3  NUCLEAR  REACTIONS,  FISSION  AND  FUSION   8.1  ENERGY  DEGRADATION  AND  POWER  GENERATION   8.2  WORLD  ENERGY  SOURCES   8.3  FOSSIL  FUEL  POWER  PRODUCTION   8.4  NON-­‐FOSSIL  FUEL  POWER  PRODUCTION   8.5  GREENHOUSE  EFFECT   8.6  GLOBAL  WARMING   9.1  PROJECTILE  MOTION   9.2  GRAVITATIONAL  FIELD,  POTENTIAL  AND  ENERGY   9.3  ELECTRIC  FIELD,  POTENTIAL  AND  ENERGY   9.4  ORBITAL  MOTION   10.1  THERMODYNAMICS   10.2  PROCESSES   10.3  SECOND  LAW  OF  THERMODYNAMICS  AND  ENTROPY   11.1  STANDING  (STATIONARY)  WAVES  
   

4   5   7   8   9   11   12   14   15   21   22   23   24   26   29   31   34   36   39   41   42   46   46   47   48   53   55   58   58   60   62   64   65   66   68  
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Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

11.2  DOPPLER  EFFECT   11.3  DIFFRACTION   11.4  RESOLUTION   11.5  POLARIZATION   12.1  INDUCED  ELECTROMOTIVE  FORCE  (EMF)   12.2  ALTERNATING  CURRENT   12.3  TRANSMISSION  OF  ELECTRICAL  POWER   13.1  QUANTUM  PHYSICS   13.2  NUCLEAR  PHYSICS   14.1  ANALOGUE  AND  DIGITAL  SIGNALS   14.2  DATA  CAPTURE;  DIGITAL  IMAGING  USING  CHARGE-­‐COUPLED  DEVICES  (CCDS)   E1  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  UNIVERSE   E3  STELLAR  DISTANCES   E4  COSMOLOGY   E5  STELLAR  PROCESSES  AND  STELLAR  EVOLUTION   E6  GALAXIES  AND  THE  EXPANDING  UNIVERSE   H1  INTRODUCTION  TO  RELATIVITY   H2  CONCEPTS  AND  POSTULATES  OF  SPECIAL  RELATIVITY   H3  RELATIVISTIC  KINEMATICS   H4  SOME  CONSEQUENCES  OF  SPECIAL  RELATIVITY   H5  EVIDENCE  TO  SUPPORT  SPECIAL  RELATIVITY   H6  RELATIVISTIC  MOMENTUM  AND  ENERGY   H7  GENERAL  RELATIVITY   H8  EVIDENCE  TO  SUPPORT  GENERAL  RELATIVITY  

69   70   71   72   75   76   78   80   84   88   90   93   99   102   107   110   113   113   114   117   119   121   122   125  

 

 

 

 

 

3  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

1.1  The  realm  of  physics  
 
  1.1.1   Assessment  statement   State  and  compare   quantities  to  the  nearest   order  to  magnitude.   Teacher’s  notes       Comparison  between  orders  of   magnitude  can  easily  be  made   because  working  out  the  ration   between  two  powers  of  ten  is   just  a  matter  of  adding  or   subtracting  whole  numbers.  The   diameter  of  an  atom,  10-­‐10,  does   not  sound  that  much  bigger  than   the  diameter  of  a  proton  in  its   nucleus,  10-­‐15,  but  the  ratio   between  them  is  105  or  100,000   times  bigger.  This  is  the  same   ration  as  between  the  size  of  a   railway  station  and  the  diameter   of  the  Earth.     Distance:  
1026   1021   1017   1011   109   107   105   102   10-­‐2   10-­‐4   10-­‐6   10-­‐10   10-­‐12   10-­‐15   Radius  of  observable   Universe   Radius  of  local  galaxy   Distance  to  nearest  star   Distance  from  Earth  to  Sun   Distance  from  Earth  to  Moon   Radius  of  Earth   Deepest  part  of  the  ocean  /   highest  mountain   Tallest  building   Length  of  fingernail   Thickness  of  piece  of  paper   Wavelength  of  light   Diameter  of  hydrogen  atom   Wavelength  of  gamma  ray   Diameter  of  proton  

1.1.2  

State  the  ranges  of   magnitude  of  distances,   masses  and  times  that   occur  in  the  universe,  from   smallest  to  greatest.  

Distances:  from  10–15  m  to  10+25   m  (sub-­‐nuclear  particles  to   extent  of  the  visible  universe).   Masses:  from  10–30  kg  to  10+50   kg  (electron  to  mass  of  the   universe).   Times:  from  10–23  s  to  10+18  s   (passage  of  light  across  a   nucleus  to  the  age  of  the   universe).  

  Mass:  
1052   1042   1030   1025   1021   1018   109   104     102   10-­‐2   10-­‐7   10-­‐10   10-­‐14   10-­‐22   10-­‐27   10-­‐30   Total  mass  of  observable   Universe   Mass  of  local  galaxy   Mass  of  Sun   Mass  of  Earth   Total  mass  of  oceans   Total  mass  of  atmosphere   Laden  oil  super  tanker   Elephant   Human   Mouse   Grain  of  sand   Blood  corpuscle   Bacterium   Haemoglobin  molecule   Proton   Electron  

  Time:  
1018   1017   1014   109   107     105   100   10-­‐3   Age  of  the  universe   Age  of  the  Earth   Age  of  species  –  homo   sapiens   Typical  human  lifespan   1  year   1  day   One  heartbeat   Period  of  high-­‐frequency   sound  

 

 

4  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

10-­‐8   10-­‐13   10-­‐15   10-­‐19   10-­‐23  
 

Passage  of  light  across  a   room   Vibration  of  an  ion  in  a  solid   Period  of  visible  light   Passage  of  light  across  an   atom   Passage  of  light  across  a   nucleus  

1.1.3  

State  ratios  of  quantities   as  differences  of  orders  of   magnitude.   Estimate  approximate   values  of  everyday   quantities  to  one  or  two   significant  figures  and  /or   to  the  nearest  order  of   magnitude.  

1.1.4  

For  example,  the  ratio  of  the   diameter  of  the  hydrogen  atom   to  its  nucleus  is  about  105,  or  a   difference  of  five  orders  of   magnitude.    

See  1.1.1  

See  1.1.2  

   

1.2  Measurement  and  uncertainties  

 
  1.2.1       Assessment  statement   State  the  fundamental   units  in  the  SI  system.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  need  to  know  the   following:  kilogram,  metre,   second,  ampere,  mole  and   kelvin.     Kilogram   Metre   Second   Ampere   Mole   Kelvin   (Candela)   Fundamental  units  are  the  SI   units  stated  above.  Derived  units   are  combinations  of  SI  units,  such   !"#$"% as  𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 =        
!"#$%&

1.2.2  

Distinguish  between     fundamental  and  derived   units  and  give  examples  of   derived  units.   Convert  between  different   For  example,  J  and  kW  h,  J  and   units  of  quantities.   eV,  year  and  second,  and   between  other  systems  and  SI.   State  units  in  the  accepted   Students  should  use  m  s–2  not   SI  format.   m/s2  and  m  s–1  not  m/s.   State  values  in  scientific   For  example,  use  nanoseconds   notation  and  in  multiples   or  gigajoules   of  units  with  appropriate   prefixes.   Describe  and  give     examples  of  random  and   systematic  errors.  

1.2.3   1.2.4   1.2.5  

1.2.6  

1.2.7  

Distinguish  between   precision  and  accuracy.  

A  measurement  may  have  great   precision  yet  may  be  inaccurate   (for  example,  if  the  instrument    

Repeating  readings  does  not   reduce  systematic  errors.   Sources  of  random  errors  include   the  readability  of  the  instrument,   the  observer  being  less  than   perfect  and  the  effects  of  a   change  in  the  surroundings.   Sources  of  systematic  errors   include  and  instrument  being   wrongly  calibrated,  the  observer   being  less  than  perfect  in  the   same  way  every  measurement,  …   An  accurate  experiment  is  one   that  has  a  small  systematic  error,   whereas  a  precise  experiment  is   5  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   has  a  zero  offset  error).  

IB  Session  May  2012   one  that  has  a  small  random   error.     Repeat  the  readings  to  reduce   random  human  error.     For  multiplication  and  division,   the  number  of  significant  digits   in  a  result  should  not  exceed  that   of  the  least  precise  value  upon   which  it  depends.   The  number  of  significant  figures   in  any  answer  should  reflect  the   number  of  significant  figures  in   the  given  data.  

1.2.8   1.2.9  

Explain  how  the  effects  of   random  errors  may  be   reduced.   Calculate  quantities  and   results  of  calculations  to   the  appropriate  number   of  significant  figures.  

1.2.10   State  uncertainties  as   absolute,  fractional  and   percentage  uncertainties.   1.2.11   Determine  the   uncertainties  in  results.  

Students  should  be  aware  that   systematic  errors  are  not   reduced  by  repeating  readings.   The  number  of  significant   figures  should  reflect  the   precision  of  the  value  or  of  the   input  data  to  a  calculation.  Only   a  simple  rule  is  required:  for   multiplication  and  division,  the   number  of  significant  digits  in  a   result  should  not  exceed  that  of   the  least  precise  value  upon   which  it  depends.   The  number  of  significant   figures  in  any  answer  should   reflect  the  number  of  significant   figures  in  the  given  data.     A  simple  approximate  method   rather  than  root  mean  squared   calculations  is  sufficient  to   determine  maximum   uncertainties.  For  functions   such  as  addition  and   subtraction,  absolute   uncertainties  may  be  added.  For   multiplication,  division  and   powers,  percentage   uncertainties  may  be  added.   For  other  functions  (for   example,  trigonometric   functions),  the  mean,  highest   and  lowest  possible  answers   may  be  calculated  to  obtain  the   uncertainty  range.  If  one   uncertainty  is  much  larger  than   others,  the  approximate   uncertainty  in  the  calculated   result  may  be  taken  as  due  to   that  quantity  alone.    

  For  functions  such  as  addition   and  subtraction,  absolute   uncertainties  may  be  added.  For   multiplication,  division  and   powers,  percentage  uncertainties   may  be  added.   For  other  functions  (for  example,   trigonometric  functions),  the   mean,  highest  and  lowest   possible  answers  may  be   calculated  to  obtain  the   uncertainty  range.  

1.2.12   Identify  uncertainties  as   error  bars  in  graphs.   1.2.13   State  random  uncertainty   as  an  uncertainty  range   (±)  and  represent  it   graphically  as  an  “error   bar”.   1.2.14   Determine  the   uncertainties  in  the   gradient  and  intercepts  of   a  straight-­‐line  graph.  

 

Error  bars  need  be  considered     only  when  the  uncertainty  in   one  or  both  of  the  plotted   quantities  is  significant.   Error  bars  will  not  be  expected   for  trigonometric  or  logarithmic   functions.   Only  a  simple  approach  is     needed.  To  determine  the   uncertainty  in  the  gradient  and   intercept,  error  bars  need  only   be  added  to  the  first  and  the  last   data  points.  

 

 

6  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

1.3  Vectors  and  scalars  

 
  1.3.1   Assessment  statement   Distinguish  between   vector  and  scalar   quantities,  and  give   examples  of  each.   Determine  the  sum  or   difference  of  two  vectors   by  a  graphical  method.   Teacher’s  notes   A  vector  is  represented  in  print   by  a  bold  italicized  symbol,  for   example,  F.   Multiplication  and  division  of   vectors  by  scalars  is  also   required.     A  quantity  that  has  magnitude   and  direction  is  called  a  vector   quantity  whereas  one  that  has   only  magnitude  is  called  a  scalar   quantity.    

1.3.2  

 

1.3.3  

Resolve  vectors  into   perpendicular   components  along  chosen   axes.  

For  example,  resolving  parallel   and  perpendicular  to  an   inclined  plane.  

 

   

 

 

7  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

2.1  Kinematics  
 
  2.1.1   Assessment  statement   Define  displacement,   velocity,  speed  and   acceleration.   Teacher’s  notes   Quantities  should  be  identified   as  scalar  or  vector  quantities.   See  sub-­‐topic  1.3.     Displacement:  the  distance   moved  in  a  particular  direction   Velocity:  the  rate  of  change  of   displacement   Speed:  the  rate  of  change  of   distance   Acceleration:  the  rate  of  change   of  velocity   An  instantaneous  value  of  speed,   velocity  or  acceleration  is  one  at  a   particular  point  in  time.     An  average  value  of  speed,   velocity  or  acceleration  is  taken   over  a  period  of  time.   The  equations  for  uniformly   accelerated  motion  can  only  be   applied  if  the  acceleration  is   constant.  They  are  as  follows:    

2.1.2  

Explain  the  difference   between  instantaneous   and  average  values  of   speed,  velocity  and   acceleration.  

 

2.1.3  

Outline  the  conditions   .   under  which  the  equations   for  uniformly  accelerated   motion  may  be  applied.  

2.1.4  

Identify  the  acceleration   of  a  body  falling  in  a   vacuum  near  the  Earth’s   surface  with  the   acceleration  g  of  free  fall.  

 

2.1.5  

Solve  problems  involving     the  equations  of  uniformly   accelerated  motion.  

2.1.6  

Describe  the  effects  of  air   resistance   on  falling  objects.  

Only  qualitative  descriptions   are  expected.  Students  should   understand  what  is  meant  by   terminal  speed.  

  When  we  ignore  the  effect  of  air   resistance  on  an  object  falling   due  to  gravity  we  say  that  the   object  is  under  free  fall.  Free  fall   is  an  example  of  uniformly   accelerated  motion  as  the  only   force  acting  on  the  object  is   gravity.  In  the  absence  of  air   resistance,  all  falling  objects  have   the  same  acceleration,   independent  of  their  mass.     Example:  A  car  accelerated   uniformly  from  rest.  After  10s  it   has  travelled  200m.     Average  acceleration:     1 𝑠 = 𝑢𝑡 + 𝑎𝑡 !   2 1 200 = 0 ∗ 10 + 𝑎 ∗ 10!   2 𝑎 = 4     Instantaneous  speed  after  10s:     𝑣 ! = 𝑢 ! + 2𝑎𝑠   ! 𝑣 = 0 + 2 ∗ 4 ∗ 10   𝑣 = 8.9   Air  resistance  eventually  affects   all  objects  that  are  in  motion.  Due   to  air  resistance  objects  can  reach   terminal  velocity.  This  is  a  point   by  which  the  velocity  remains   constant  and  acceleration  is  zero.         8  

 

Marc  W.     2.1.7   Draw  and  analyse   distance–time  graphs,   displacement–time   graphs,  velocity–time   graphs  and  acceleration– time  graphs.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   Students  should  be  able  to   sketch  and  label  these  graphs   for  various  situations.  They   should  also  be  able  to  write   descriptions  of  the  motions   represented  by  such  graphs.  

IB  Session  May  2012  

2.1.8  

2.1.9  

Calculate  and  interpret  the     gradients  of   displacement–time  graphs   and  velocity–time  graphs,   and  the  areas  under   velocity–time  graphs  and   acceleration–time  graphs.   Determine  relative     velocity  in  one  and  in  two   dimensions.  

 

 

If  two  things  are  moving  in  the   same  straight  line  but  are   travelling  at  different  speeds,   then  we  can  work  out  their   relative  velocities.    

   
2.2  Forces  and  dynamics  

 
  2.2.1   2.2.2   Assessment  statement   Calculate  the  weight  of  a   body  using  the  expression   W  =  mg.   Identify  the  forces  acting   on  an  object  and  draw   free-­‐body  diagrams   representing  the  forces   acting.   Determine  the  resultant   force  in  different   situations.   Teacher’s  notes       The  weight  of  a  body  is  the   gravitational  force  experienced   by  that  body.    

2.2.3  

Each  force  should  be  labelled  by   name  or  given  a  commonly   accepted  symbol.  Vectors   should  have  lengths   approximately  proportional  to   their  magnitudes.  See  sub-­‐topic     1.3.     The  resultant  force  is  the  overall   force  acting  on  an  object  when  all   individual  forces  have  been   added  together.    

2.2.4  

State  Newton’s  first  law  of   motion.  

 

2.2.5   2.2.6    

Describe  examples  of   Newton’s  first  law.   State  the  condition  for   translational  equilibrium.  

     

    ‘An  object  continues  in  uniform   motion  in  a  straight  line  or  at  rest   unless  a  resultant  external  force   acts.’  All  it  says  is  that  a  resultant   force  causes  acceleration.       If  the  resultant  force  on  an  object   is  zero  then  it  is  said  to  be  in   9  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   translational  equilibrium.     A  correct  statement  of  Newton’s   second  law  using  momentum   would  be  ‘the  resultant  force  is   proportional  to  the  rate  of   change  of  momentum.’  ‘The   resultant  force  is  proportional  to   the  acceleration.’  ‘The  resultant   force  is  equal  to  the  product  of   the  mass  and  the  acceleration.’   If  a  mass  of  3kg  is  accelerated  in   a  straight  line  by  a  resultant   force  of  12N  then  the   acceleration  must  be  4m  s-­‐2  since   F=ma.     Linear  momentum  is  defined  as   the  product  of  mass  and  velocity.   It  is  a  vector.  The  change  or   momentum  is  called  the  impulse.    

2.2.7   2.2.8  

Solve  problems  involving     translational  equilibrium.   State  Newton’s  second  law     of  motion.  

2.2.9  

Solve  problems  involving   Newton’s  second  law.  

 

2.2.10   Define  linear  momentum   and  impulse.   2.2.11   Determine  the  impulse   due  to  a  time-­‐varying   force  by  interpreting  a   force–time  graph.  

 

2.2.12   State  the  law  of   conservation  of  linear   momentum.   2.2.13   Solve  problems  involving   momentum  and  impulse.   2.2.14   State  Newton’s  third  law   of  motion.   2.2.15   Discuss  examples  of   Newton’s  third  law.  

 

   

  ‘The  total  linear  momentum  of  a   system  is  of  interacting  particles   remains  constant  provided  there   is  no  resultant  external  force.’     ‘When  two  bodies  A  and  B   interact,  the  force  that  A  exerts   on  B  is  equal  and  opposite  to  the   force  that  B  exerts  on  A.’  

Students  should  understand   that  when  two  bodies   A  and  B  interact,  the  force  that   A  exerts  on  B  is  equal  and   opposite  to  the  force  that  B   exerts  on  A.  

       

 

 

 

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Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

2.3  Work,  energy  and  power  

 
  2.3.1   Assessment  statement   Outline  what  is  meant  by   work.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  be  familiar   with  situations  where  the   displacement  is  not  in  the  same   direction  as  the  force.     Work  is  done  when  a  force   moves  its  point  of  application  in   the  direction  of  the  force.  If  the   force  moves  to  right  angles  to  the   direction  of  the  force,  then  no   work  has  been  done.     𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘  𝑑𝑜𝑛𝑒 = 𝐹𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃   It  is  a  scalar  quantity.     The  total  work  done  is  the  area   under  the  force-­‐displacement   graph.    

2.3.2  

Determine  the  work  done   A  typical  example  would  be   by  a  non-­‐constant  force  by   calculating  the  work  done  in   interpreting  a  force– extending  a  spring.  See  2.3.7.   displacement  graph.  

2.3.3   2.3.4   2.3.5   2.3.6  

Solve  problems  involving   the  work  done  by  a  force.   Outline  what  is  meant  by   kinetic  energy.   Outline  what  is  meant  by   change  in  gravitational   potential  energy.   State  the  principle  of   conservation  of  energy.  

       

  The  energy  that  an  object  has  as   a  result  of  its  motion.    

 

2.3.7  

List  different  forms  of   energy  and  describe   examples  of  the   transformation  of  energy   from  one  form  to  another.  

 

2.3.8  

Distinguish  between   elastic  and  inelastic   collisions.  

Students  should  be  familiar   with  elastic  and  inelastic   collisions  and  explosions.   Knowledge  of  the  coefficient  of   restitution  is  not  required.  

2.3.9    

Define  power.  

   

Overall  the  total  energy  of  any   closed  system  must  be  constant.   Energy  is  neither  created  nor   destroyed,  it  just  changes  form.   There  is  not  change  in  the  total   energy  in  the  Universe.   -­‐ Kinetic  energy   -­‐ Gravitational  potential   -­‐ Elastic  potential  energy   -­‐ Electrostatic  potential   -­‐ Thermal  energy   -­‐ Electrical  energy   -­‐ Chemical  energy   -­‐ Nuclear  energy   -­‐ Internal  energy   -­‐ Radiant  energy   -­‐ Solar  energy   -­‐ Light  energy   A  collision  in  which  no   mechanical  energy  is  lost  is   called  an  elastic  collision.  Most   collisions  are  inelastic  because   kinetic  energy  is  transformed  to   other  forms  of  energy.  If  you  are   asked  whether  a  collision  is   elastic  or  inelastic,  calculate  the   kinetic  energy  before  and  after   the  collision   Power  is  defined  as  the  rate  at   which  energy  is  transferred.  This   11  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   is  the  same  as  the  rate  at  which   work  is  done.     We  define  efficiency  as  the  ratio   of  useful  energy  to  the  total   energy  transferred.  It  is  often   expressed  as  a  percentage.      

2.3.10   Define  and  apply  the   concept  of  efficiency.   2.3.11   Solve  problems  involving   momentum,  work,  energy   and  power.  

 

 

   
2.4  Uniform  circular  motion  

 
  2.4.1   Assessment  statement   Draw  a  vector  diagram  to   illustrate  that  the   acceleration  of  a  particle   moving  with  constant   speed  in  a  circle  is   directed  towards  the   centre  of  the  circle.   Apply  the  expression  for   centripetal  acceleration.   Teacher’s  notes      

    The  acceleration  of  a  particle   travelling  in  circular  motion  is   called  the  centripetal   acceleration.  The  force  needed  to   cause  the  centripetal  acceleration   is  called  the  centripetal  force.     The  acceleration  of  any  object   moving  at  constant  speed  in  a   circle  is  given  by:   𝑣 ! 𝑎 =   𝑟 The  centripetal  acceleration  is   required  for  an  object  to  move  in   a  circle  at  constant  speed.     Centripetal  force:  𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎 =
!! ! !

2.4.2  

2.4.3  

Identify  the  force   producing  circular  motion   in  various  situations.  

Examples  include  gravitational   force  acting  on  the   Moon  and  friction  acting   sideways  on  the  tyres  of  a  car   turning  a  corner.  

 

2.4.4  

Solve  problems  involving   circular  motion.  

Problems  on  banked  motion   (aircraft  and  vehicles  going   round  banked  tracks)  will  not   be  included.    

  (Ball  at  the  end  of  a  string,  swung   vertically)   Example:  A  car  of  mass  1500kg  is   travelling  at  constant  speed  of   20ms-­‐1  around  a  circular  track  of   radius  50m.  The  resultant  force   12  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   that  must  be  acting  on  it  works   out  to  be:     1500 20 ! 𝐹 = = 12000𝑁   50 The  centripetal  force  does  not  do   any  work.  

   

 

 

 

13  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

3.1  Thermal  concepts  
 
  3.1.1   Assessment  statement   State  that  temperature   determines  the  direction   of  thermal  energy  transfer   between  two  objects.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  be  familiar   with  the  concept  of  thermal   equilibrium.     Hot  and  cold  are  just  labels  that   identify  the  direction  in  which   thermal  energy  will  be  naturally   transferred  when  two  objects  are   placed  in  thermal  contact.   Thermal  energy  naturally  flows   from  hot  to  cold.  Eventually,  two   objects  would  be  expected  to   reach  the  same  temperature  –   thermal  equilibrium.       The  molecules  have  kinetic   energy  because  they  are  moving.   To  be  absolutely  precise,  a   molecule  can  have  either   translational  kinetic  energy  (the   whole  molecule  is  moving  in  a   certain  direction)  or  rotational   kinetic  energy  (the  molecule  is   rotating  about  one  or  more  axes).   The  molecules  have  potential   energy  because  of  the   intermolecular  forces.  If  we   imagine  pulling  two  molecules   further  apart,  this  would  require   work  against  intermolecular   forces.     The  macroscopic  point  of  view   considers  the  system  as  a  whole   and  sees  how  it  interacts  with  its   surroundings.  The  microscopic   point  of  view  looks  inside  the   system  to  see  how  its  component   parts  interact  with  each  other.    

3.1.2   3.1.3  

State  the  relation  between   the  Kelvin  and  Celsius   scales  of  temperature.   State  that  the  internal   energy  of  a  substance  is   the  total  potential  energy   and  random  kinetic   energy  of  the  molecules  of   the  substance.  

T/K  =  t/°C  +  273  is  sufficient.   Students  should  know  that  the   kinetic  energy  of  the  molecules   arises  from  their   random/translational/   rotational  motion  and  that  the   potential  energy  of  the   molecules  arises  from  the  forces   between  the  molecules.  

3.1.4  

Explain  and  distinguish   between  the  macroscopic   concepts  of  temperature,   internal  energy  and   thermal  energy  (heat).  

3.1.5  

Define  the  mole  and  molar   mass.  

Students  should  understand   that  the  term  thermal  energy   refers  to  the  non-­‐mechanical   transfer  of  energy  between  a   system  and  its  surroundings.   In  this  respect  it  is  just  as   incorrect  to  refer  to  the   “thermal  energy  in  a  body”  as  it   would  be  to  refer  to  the  “work   in  a  body”.    

3.1.6  

Define  the  Avogadro   constant.  

 

Mole:  the  mole  is  the  basic  SI  unit   for  ‘amount  of  substance’.  One   mole  of  any  substance  is  equal  to   the  amount  of  that  substance   that  contains  the  same  number  of   atoms  as  0.012kg  of  carbon-­‐12.     Molar  Mass:  The  mass  of  one   mole  of  a  substance  is  called  the   molar  mass.  A  simple  rule   applies.  If  an  element  has  a   certain  mass  number,  A,  then  the   molar  mass  will  be  A  grams.     The  number  of  atoms  in  0.012kg   or  carbon-­‐12  (6.02x1023)  

   
    14  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

3.2  Thermal  properties  of  matter  

 
  3.2.1   Assessment  statement   Define  specific  heat   capacity  and  thermal   capacity.   Teacher’s  notes       Thermal  capacity:  The  energy   required  to  raise  the  temperature  of   an  object  by  1K.  (C)     Specific  heat  capacity:  The  energy   required  to  raise  a  unit  mass  of  a   substance  by  1K.  (c)   e.g.  When  a  car  brakes,  an  amount  of   thermal  energy  equal  to  112500J  is   generated  in  the  brake  drums.  If  the   mass  of  the  brake  drums  is  28kg  and   their  specific  heat  capacity  is  460.5J   kg-­‐1  K-­‐1,  what  is  the  change  in  their   temperature?     From  𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐Δ𝑇  we  find:   𝑄 112500 Δ𝑇 = = = 8.7°𝐶   𝑚𝑐 28 ∗ 460.5   e.g.  A  piece  of  iron  of  mass  200g  and   temperature  300°C  is  dropped  into   1.00kg  of  water  of  temperature  20°C.   What  will  be  the  eventual   temperature  of  the  water?  (Take  c   for  iron  as  470  and  for  water  as   4200)     Let  T  be  the  final  unknown   temperature.  The  iron  will  also  be  at   this  temperature,  so     Amount  of  thermal  energy  lost  by   the  iron   = 𝑚! 𝑐! (300 − 𝑇)   and  the  amount  of  thermal  energy   gained  by  the  water   = 𝑚! 𝑐! (𝑇 − 20)   Conservation  of  energy  demands   that  thermal  energy  lost  =  thermal   energy  gained:   𝑚! 𝑐! (𝑇 − 20) = 𝑚! 𝑐! (300 − 𝑇)   àT=26°C  Note  how  the  large   specific  heat  capacity  of  water  leads   to  a  small  increase  in  the   temperature  of  water  compared  with   the  huge  drop  in  the  temperature  of   iron.     A  solid  is  made  up  of  particles  that   are  arranged  in  a  solid  3D  shape.   There  is  a  strong  force  of  attraction   between  the  particles.  If  the  solid   was  to  be  heated  the  particles  would   gain  more  energy  and  start  to   vibrate  more  vigorously.    

3.2.2  

Solve  problems   involving  specific  heat   capacities  and  thermal   capacities.  

 

3.2.3  

Explain  the  physical   differences  between  the   solid,  liquid  and  gaseous   phases  in  terms  of   molecular  structure  and   particle  motion.  

Only  a  simple  model  is   required.  

 

 

15  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

  In  a  liquid  the  particles  are  free  to   move  around.  A  liquid  will  mould   itself  to  the  shape  of  the  container  it   is  in.  There  is  still  a  force  of   attraction  between  the  particles.    

In  a  gas  the  particles  are  free  to   move  around.  The  particles  have  a   lot  of  energy  so  they  move  quickly.   Collisions  between  the  molecules   and  the  sides  of  the  container  are   responsible  for  the  pressure  a  gas   exerts.  There  is  almost  no  force  of   attraction  between  the  molecules  in   a  gas.      

 

3.2.4  

Describe  and  explain  the   process  of  phase  changes   in  terms  of  molecular   behaviour.  

Students  should  be  familiar   with  the  terms  melting,   freezing,  evaporating,  boiling   and  condensing,  and  should   be  able  to  describe  each  in   terms  of  the  changes  in   molecular  potential  and   random  kinetic  energies  of   molecules.  

  Kinetic  theory  can  be  used  to  explain   what  happens  when  a  substance  is   heated.  To  change  from  a  solid  to  a   liquid  the  particles  must  gain   sufficient  kinetic  energy  to  overcome   the  forces  between  them  and  break   away  from  their  fixed  positions.   While  the  substance  changes  state  its   temperature  does  not  change.  Once   the  phase  change  has  been   completed  the  particles  begin  to  gain   more  kinetic  energy  and  the   temperature  of  the  substance   increases  again.  As  the  boiling  point   is  reached  the  particles  gain  enough   kinetic  energy  to  completely   overcome  the  intermolecular  forces   and  escape  into  the  gaseous  state.      

 

 

16  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

3.2.5  

3.2.6  

Explain  in  terms  of   molecular  behaviour   why  temperature  does   not  change  during  a   phase  change.   Distinguish  between   evaporation  and  boiling.  

 

  The  input  energy  is  used  to  break  or   create  bonds  and  so  the  energy  is  not   turned  into  kinetic  energy  of  the   particles.     Evaporation  is  the  change  of  state   from  liquid  to  gas  that  occurs  below   the  boiling  point  of  that  liquid.  In  a   liquid,  a  small  amount  of  the   molecules  have  enough  kinetic   energy  to  leave  the  surface  of  the   liquid  and  become  a  gas.  As  the  high-­‐ energy  molecules  leave  the  liquid,   the  temperature  of  the  remaining   liquid  falls.     Rate  of  evaporation  depends  on:   -­‐ The  surface  area  of  the  liquid.  As   molecules  leave  from  the  surface  of   the  liquid  only,  a  bigger  surface  area   will  mean  a  greater  rate  of   evaporation.     -­‐ The  temperature  of  the  liquid.  If  the   liquid  is  warmer  then  more   molecules  will  have  sufficient   kinetic  energy  to  escape.     -­‐ The  pressure  of  the  air  above  the   liquid.  If  the  pressure  is  higher  more   kinetic  energy  will  be  required.     -­‐ The  movement  of  air.  If  there  is  a   drought  across  the  liquid  the  rate  of   evaporation  will  increase.       Boiling  occurs  when  the  whole  liquid   is  heated  to  its  boiling  point.  All  the   molecules  have  sufficient  kinetic   energy  to  turn  into  a  gas.     The  thermal  energy  required  to  melt   a  unit  mass  of  material  at  its  melting   point  is  called  the  specific  latent  heat   of  fusion  and  the  termal  energy   required  to  vaporize  a  unit  mass  at   its  boiling  point  is  called  the  specific   latent  heat  of  vaporization.  Thus  to   melt  or  vaporize  a  mass  m,  we   require  a  quantitiy  of  thermal  energy     𝑄 = 𝑚𝐿!  𝑎𝑛𝑑  𝑄 = 𝑚𝐿!     respectively.  The  units  are  J  kg-­‐1.   e.g.  An  ice  cube  of  mass  25g  and   temperature  -­‐10°C  is  dropped  into  a   glass  of  water  of  mass  300g  and   temperature  20°C.  What  is  the     17  

 

3.2.7  

Define  specific  latent   heat.  

 

3.2.8  

Solve  problems   involving  specific  latent   heats.  

Problems  may  include   specific  heat  calculations.  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

3.2.9  

Define  pressure.  

 

3.2.10   State  the  assumptions  of   the  kinetic  model  of  an   ideal  gas.  

 

temperature  eventually?  (c=2200,   L=334)     Let  this  final  temperature  be  T.   Ignoring  thermal  energy  lost  by  the   glass  itself,  water  will  cool  down  by   losing  thermal  energy.  This  thermal   energy  will  be  taken  up  by  the  ice  to   increase  its  temperature  from  -­‐10°C   to  0°C  (thermal  energy  required   25*10-­‐3*2200*10),  melt  the  ice  cube   into  water  at  0°C  (thermal  energy   required  25*10-­‐3*334*103)  and   increase  the  temperature  of  the   former  ice  cube  from  0°C  to  the  final   temperature  T.     Thus,  0.3 ∗ 4200 ∗ 20 − 𝑇 = 25 ∗ 10!! ∗ 2200 ∗ 10 + 25 ∗ 10!! ∗ 334 ∗ 10! + 20 ∗ 10!! ∗ 4200 ∗ T   Solving  for  T  gives  T=11.9°C.         e.g.  Thermal  energy  is  provided  at  a   constant  rate  of  833J  s-­‐1  to  1kg  of   copper  at  the  melting  temperature.  If   it  takes  4  minutes  to  completely  melt   the  copper,  find  the  latent  heat  of   fusion  of  copper.       The  thermal  energy  needed  to  melt   1kg  of  copper  is  L,  the  specific  latent   heat  of  fusion.  In  4  minutes  the  heat   supplied  is  833*60*4=200kJ,  as   m=1kg,  L=200kJ  kg-­‐1.   Pressure  is  the  normal  force  per  unit   area.  The  pressure  in  a  gas  results   from  the  collision  of  the  gas   molecules  with  the  walls  of  its   container  (not  from  collisions   between  molecules)   Kinetic  theory  uses  the  model  of   small  particles  bouncing  around  to   describe  the  properties  of  gases  and   matter.     Assumptions:     -­‐ Matter  consists  of  large  numbers  of   tiny  particles   -­‐ Particles  are  in  constant  motion   moving  in  straight  lines  and  thus   have  kinetic  energy     -­‐ All  collisions  between  particles  and   the  sides  of  the  container  are  elastic   -­‐ There  are  no  forces  of  attraction  or   repulsion  between  the  particles   -­‐ The  average  kinetic  energy  per   particle  is  proportional  to  the  Kelvin   temperature  of  the  gas   -­‐ Molecules  move  with  a  range  of   speeds     18  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

3.2.11   State  that  temperature  is   a  measure  of  the  average   random  kinetic  energy  of   the  molecules  of  an  ideal   gas.   3.2.12   Explain  the  macroscopic   behaviour  of  an  ideal  gas   in  terms  of  a  molecular   model.  

 

-­‐ The  volume  of  the  molecules  is   negligible  compared  with  the   volume  of  the  gas  itself   -­‐ Molecules  exert  no  forces  on  each   other  or  the  container  except  when   in  contact   -­‐ The  duration  of  collisions  is  very   small  compared  with  the  time   between  collisions   -­‐ The  molecules  obey  Newton’s  laws   of  mechanics   Temperature  is  a  measure  of  the   average  kinetic  energy  per  particle   of  an  ideal  gas.  

Only  qualitative  explanations   Pressure  law:  Macroscopically,  at  a   are  required.  Students   constant  volume  the  pressure  of  a   should,  for  example,  be  able   gas  is  proportional  to  its   to  explain  how  a  change  in   temperature.  Microscopically  this   volume  results  in  a  change  in   can  be  analysed  as  follows:   the  frequency  of  particle   -­‐ If  the  temperature  of  a  gas  goes  up,   collisions  with  the  container   the  molecules  have  more  average   and  how  this  relates  to  a   kinetic  energy  –  they  are  moving   change  in  pressure  and/or   faster  on  average   temperature.   -­‐ Fast  moving  molecules  will  have  a   greater  change  of  momentum  when   they  hit  the  walls  of  the  container   -­‐ Thus  the  microscopic  force  from   each  molecule  will  be  greater   -­‐ The  molecules  are  moving  faster  so   they  hit  the  walls  more  often   -­‐ For  both  reasons,  the  total  force  on   the  wall  goes  up,  thus  the  pressure   increases.       Charles’s  law:  Macroscopically,  at  a   constant  pressure,  the  volume  of  a   gas  is  proportional  to  its   temperature  in  Kelvin.  This  can  be   analysed  as  follows:   -­‐ A  higher  temperature  means  faster   moving  molecules   -­‐ Faster  moving  molecules  hit  the   walls  with  a  greater  microscopic   force   -­‐ If  the  volume  of  the  gas  increases,   then  the  rate  at  which  these   collisions  take  place  on  a  unit  area   of  the  wall  must  go  down   -­‐ The  average  force  on  a  unit  area  of   the  wall  can  thus  be  the  same   -­‐ Thus  the  pressure  remains  the  same     Boyle’s  law:  Macroscopically,  at  a   constant  temperature,  the  pressure   of  a  gas  is  inversely  proportional  to   its  volume.  This  can  be  analysed  as   follows:   -­‐ The  constant  temperature  of  a  gas     19  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

means  that  the  molecules  have  a   constant  average  speed   -­‐ The  microscopic  fore  that  each   molecule  exerts  on  the  wall  will   remain  constant   -­‐ Increasing  the  volume  of  the   container  decreases  the  rate  with   which  the  molecules  hit  the  wall  –   average  total  force  decreases   -­‐ If  the  average  total  force  decreases   the  pressure  decreases  

             

 

 

 

20  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

4.1  Kinematics  of  simple  harmonic  motion  (SHM)  
 
  4.1.1   Assessment  statement   Describe  examples  of   oscillations.   Define  the  terms   displacement,  amplitude,   frequency,  period  and   phase  difference.   Teacher’s  notes       An  example  of  a  SHM  would  be  a   mass  oscillating  between  two   springs  or  a  pendulum  for  small   angles  of  osciallation.     Displacement:  The  instantaneous   distance  of  the  moving  object   from  its  mean  position.   Amplitude:  The  maximum   displacement  from  the  mean   position.     Frequency:  The  number  of   oscillations  completed  per  unit   time  The  SI  measurement  is  the   number  of  cycles  per  second  or   Hertz.     Period:  the  time  taken  for  one   complete  oscillation.     Phase  difference:  This  is  a   measure  of  how  “in  step”   different  particles  are.  If  moving   together  they  are  in  phase.  It  is   measured  in  either  degrees  or   radians.  A  phase  difference  of  90°   is  a  quarter  out  of  cycle.     Simple  harmonic  motion  is   defined  as  the  motion  that  takes   place  when  the  acceleration  of   the  object  is  always  directed   towards,  and  is  proportional  to,   its  displacement  from  a  fixed   point.  This  acceleration  is  caused   by  a  restoring  force  that  must   always  be  pointed  towards  the   mean  position  and  also   proportional  to  the  displacement   from  the  mean  position.     The  constant  of  proportionality   between  acceleration  and   displacement  is  often  identified   as  the  square  of  a  constant  w   which  is  referred  o  as  the  angular   frequency.  a  =  −w2x  

4.1.2  

The  connection  between   frequency  and  period  should  be   known.  

4.1.3  

Define  simple  harmonic   motion  (SHM)  and  state   the  defining  equation  as     a  =  −w2x  .  

Students  are  expected  to   understand  the  significance  of   the  negative  sign  in  the   equation  and  to  recall  the   connection  between  w  and  T.  

4.1.4   4.1.5    

Solve  problems  using  the     defining  equation  for  SHM.   Apply  the  equations      

   

 

21  

Marc  W.     𝑣 = 𝑣! 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑡  ,   𝑣 = 𝑣! 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑡,  𝑣 = ±𝜔 (𝑥! ! − 𝑥 ! ),  𝑥 = 𝑥! 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑡,  𝑥 = 𝑥! 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑡   as  solutions  to  defining   equations  for  SHM.     Solve  problems,  both   graphically  and  by   calculation,  for   acceleration,  velocity  and   displacement  during   SHM.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

4.1.6  

 

 

   
4.2  Energy  changes  during  simple  harmonic  motion  (SHM)  

 
  4.2.1   Assessment  statement   Teacher’s  notes   Describe  the  interchange     between  kinetic  energy   and  potential  energy   during  SHM.     In  a  SHM  the  total  energy  is   interchanged  between  kinetic  and   potential  energy.  If  no  resistive  force   acts  on  the  motion  the  total  energy  is   constant  and  is  said  to  be  undamped.   Potential  energy  increases  as  we   move  away  from  the  equilibrium   position  and  kinetic  energy   decreases.  EP  can  be  expressed  as  a   sine  curve,  EK  as  a  cosine  curve.    

4.2.2  

4.2.3  

Apply  the  expressions   for  the  kinetic  energy  of   a  particle  undergoing   SHM,  for  the  total  energy   and  for  the  potential   energy.   Solve  problems,  both   graphically  and  by   calculation,  involving   energy  changes  during   SHM.  

 

 

 

 

 

         

 

 

22  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

4.3  Forced  oscillations  and  resonance  

 
  4.3.1   Assessment  statement   State  what  is  meant  by   damping.   Teacher’s  notes   It  is  sufficient  for  students  to   know  that  damping  involves  a   force  that  is  always  in  the   opposite  direction  to  the   direction  of  motion  of  the   oscillating  particle  and  that   the  force  is  a  dissipative  force.   Reference  should  be  made  to   the  degree  of  damping  and  the   importance  of  critical   damping.   A  detailed  account  of  degrees   of  damping  is  not  required.     Damping  is  a  force  that  is  always  in   the  opposite  direction  of  the  motion   of  the  oscillating  particle  and  the   force  is  dissipative.    

4.3.2  

Describe  examples  of   damped  oscillations.  

4.3.3  

State  what  is  meant  by   natural  frequency  of   vibration  and  forced   oscillations.  

 

This  happens  on  cars  in  their   suspensions,  when  it  vibrates  the   damper  tries  to  reduce  the  number   of  oscillations,  to  reduce  the   possible  effects.  On  a  piano  the   pedals  reduce  the  oscillations  of  the   springs  of  the  piano.  One  pedal   reduces  the  damping  and  one  cuts   the  oscillations  completely.     The  natural  frequency  is  the   frequency  that  an  object  will   oscillate  at  if  it  is  moved  from  its   equilibrium  position  and  then   released.  Objects  can  also  be  made   to  oscillate  by  an  external  force,   which  is  known  as  forced   oscillation.    

4.3.4  

4.3.5  

Describe  graphically  the   variation  with  forced   frequency  of  the   amplitude  of  vibration  of   an  object  close  to  its   natural  frequency  of   vibration.   State  what  is  meant  by   resonance.  

Students  should  be  able  to   describe  qualitatively  factors   that  affect  the  frequency   response  and  sharpness  of  the   curve.       Resonance  occurs  when  a  system  is   subject  to  an  oscillating  force  at   exactly  the  same  frequency  as  the   natural  frequency  of  oscillation  of   the  system.     Musical  instruments:  Many  musical   instruments  produce  their  sounds   by  arranging  for  column  of  air  or  a   string  to  be  driven  at  its  natural   frequency  which  causes  the   amplitude  of  the  oscillation  to   increase.   Vibrations  in  machinery:  When  in   operation,  the  moving  parts  of   machinery  provide  regular  driving   forces  on  the  other  sections  of  the   machinery.  If  the  driving  frequency   is  equal  to  the  natural  frequency,   the  amplitude  of  a  particular   vibration  may  get  dangerously  high.   E.g.  at  a  particular  engine  speed  a   truck’s  rear  view  mirror  can  be  seen   to  vibrate.    

4.3.6  

Describe  examples  of   resonance  where  the   effect  is  useful  and  where   it  should  be  avoided.  

Examples  may  include  quartz   oscillators,  microwave   generators  and  vibrations  in   machinery.  

   
    23  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

4.4  Wave  characteristics  

 
  4.4.1   Assessment  statement   Describe  a  wave  pulse  and   a  continuous  progressive   (travelling)  wave.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  be  able  to   distinguish  between   oscillations  and  wave  motion,   and  appreciate  that,  in  many   examples,  the  oscillations  of   the  particles  are  simple   harmonic.   Students  should  understand   that  there  is  no  net  motion  of   the  medium  through  which  the   wave  travels.     A  continuous  wave  involves  a   succession  of  individual   oscillations.  A  wave  pulse  involves   just  one  oscillation.    

4.4.2  

State  that  progressive   (travelling)  waves   transfer  energy.  

4.4.3  

Describe  and  give   examples  of  transverse   and  of  longitudinal  waves.  

4.4.4  

4.4.5  

Describe  waves  in  two   dimensions,  including  the   concepts  of  wavefronts   and  of  rays.   Describe  the  terms  crest,   trough,  compression  and   rarefaction.  

Students  should  describe  the   waves  in  terms  of  the  direction   of  oscillation  of  particles  in  the   wave  relative  to  the  direction   of  transfer  of  energy  by  the   wave.  Students  should  know   that  sound  waves  are   longitudinal,  that  light  waves   are  transverse  and  that   transverse  waves  cannot  be   propagated  in  gases.    

Light,  sound  and  ripples  on  the   surface  of  a  pond  are  all  examples   of  wave  motion.  They  all  transfer   energy  from  one  place  to  another,   they  do  so  without  a  net  motion  of   the  medium  through  which  they   travel  and  they  all  involve   oscillations  of  one  sort  or  another.   The  oscillations  are  SHM.     Transverse  waves:    Oscillations   are  at  right  angles  to  the  direction   of  energy  transfer.  E.g.  water   ripples,  light  wave     Longitudinal  waves:  Oscillations   are  parallel  to  the  direction  of   energy  transfer.  E.g.  sound  waves,   compression  waves  down  a   spring.     Wave  fronts  highlight  the  parts  of   the  wave  that  are  moving  together.     Rays  highlight  the  direction  of   energy  transfer.     The  top  of  the  wave  is  known  as   the  crest,  whereas  the  bottom  of   the  wave  is  known  as  the  trough.  A   point  on  the  wave  where   everything  is  ‘bunched  together’   (high  pressure)  is  known  as   compression.  A  point  where   everything  is  ‘far  apart’  (low   pressure)  is  known  as  a   rarefaction.     Displacement:  This  measures  the   change  that  has  taken  place  that   has  taken  place  as  a  result  of  a   wave  passing  a  particular  point.   Zero  displacement  refers  to  the   mean  position.     Amplitude:  This  is  the  maximum   displacement  from  the  mean   position.  If  the  wave  does  not  lose   any  of  its  energy  its  amplitude  is   constant.     Frequency:  This  is  the  number  of   oscillations  that  take  place  in  one   second.  The  unit  used  is  Hertz.       Period:  This  is  the  time  taken  for     24  

 

4.4.6  

Define  the  terms   displacement,  amplitude,   frequency,  period,   wavelength,  wave  speed   and  intensity.  

Students  should  know  that   intensity  is  proportional  to   amplitude2.  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   one  complete  oscillation.  It  is  the   time  taken  for  one  complete  wave   to  pass  any  given  point.     Wavelength:  This  is  the  shortest   distance  along  the  wave  between   two  points  that  are  in  phase  with   one  another.  For  example,  the   distance  from  one  crest    to  the   next  crest  on  a  water  ripple.     Wave  Speed:  This  is  the  speed  at   which  the  wave  fronts  pass  a   stationary  observer.     Intensity:  The  intensity  of  a  wave   is  the  power  per  unit  area  that  is   received  by  the  observer.  The   intensity  of  a  wave  is  proportional   to  the  square  of  its  amplitude:   𝐼   ∝ 𝐴!   Displacement-­‐time:  Represents   the  oscillation  for  one  point  on  the   wave.  All  the  other  points  on  the   wave  will  oscillate  in  a  similar   manner,  but  they  will  not  start   their  oscillation  at  exactly  the   same  time.     Displacement-­‐position:   Represents  a  ‘snap  shot’  of  all  the   points  along  the  wave  at  one   instant  of  time  At  a  later  time,  the   wave  will  have  moved  on  but  it   will  retain  the  same  shape.       The  graphs  can  be  used  to   represent  longitudinal  and   transverse  waves  because  the  y-­‐ axis  records  only  the  value  of  the   displacement.  It  does  not  specify   the  direction  of  this  displacement.     There  is  a  simple  relationship  that   links  wave  speed,  wavelength  and   frequency.  It  applies  to  all  waves.   The  time  taken  for  one  complete   oscillation  is  the  period  of  the   wave,  T.  In  this  time,  the  wave   pattern  will  have  moved  on  by  one   wavelength.  This  means  that  the   speed  of  the  wave  must  be  given   by:     𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝜆 𝑣 = =   𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑇 ! since   = 𝑓   ! 𝑣 = 𝑓𝜆  

4.4.7  

Draw  and  explain   displacement–time   graphs  and  displacement– position  graphs  for   transverse  and  for   longitudinal  waves.  

 

4.4.8  

Derive  and  apply  the   relationship  between   wave  speed,  wavelength   and  frequency.  

 

 

 

25  

Marc  W.     4.4.9   State  that  all   electromagnetic  waves   travel  with  the  same   speed  in  free  space,  and   recall  the  orders  of   magnitude  of  the   wavelengths  of  the   principal  radiations  in  the   electromagnetic   spectrum.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

   
4.5  Wave  properties  

 

 
  4.5.1   Assessment   statement   Describe  the   reflection  and   transmission  of   waves  at  a  boundary   between  two  media.   Teacher’s  notes   This  should  include  the   sketching  of  incident,   reflected  and   transmitted  waves.     In  general,  when  any  wave  meets  the   boundary  between  two  different  media  it  is   partially  reflected  and  partially  transmitted.    

4.5.2  

State  and  apply   Snell’s  law.  

4.5.3  

Explain  and  discuss   qualitatively  the   diffraction  of  waves   at  apertures  and   obstacles.  

  Reflection:  in  this  case  the  law  of  refraction   applies:  incident  angle  =  reflected  angle  when   measured  from  the  normal.     Refraction:  in  this  case  the  wave  is  refracted   towards  the  normal  (when  slowing  down)   and  away  from  the  normal  (when  getting   faster)   Students  should  be  able   Snell’s  law  (an  experimental  law  of  refraction)   to  define  refractive   states  that  the  ratio     sin 𝑖 index  in  terms  of  the   = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡   ratio  of  the  speeds  of  the   sin  (𝑟) wave  in  the  two  media   for  a  given  frequency.  The  ratio  is  equal  to  the   and  also  in  terms  of  the   ratio  of  the  speeds  in  the  different  media   angles  of  incidence  and   sin 𝑖 𝑣! =   refraction.   sin  (𝑟) 𝑣! The  effect  of  wavelength   When  waves  pass  through  apertures  they   compared  to  aperture  or   tend  to  spread  out.  Waves  also  spread  around   obstacle  dimensions   obstacles.  This  is  known  as  diffraction.   should  be  discussed.   Diffraction  becomes  relatively  more   important  when  the  wavelength  is  large  in   comparison  to  the  size  of  the  object.  The   wavelength  needs  to  be  of  the  same  order  of   magnitude  as  the  aperture  for  diffraction  to  be     26  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   noticeable.    

IB  Session  May  2012  

 

4.5.4  

Describe  examples  of   diffraction.  

 

4.5.5  

State  the  principle  of     superposition  and   explain  what  is  meant   by  constructive   interference  and  by   destructive   interference.  

4.5.6  

4.5.7  

State  and  apply  the     conditions  for   constructive  and  for   destructive   interference  in  terms   of  path  difference  and   phase  difference.   Apply  the  principle  of     superposition  to   determine  the  

  E.g.  ocean  waves  diffract  through  the  harbour   opening  and  spread  out,  closely  spaced  tracks   on  a  CD  or  DVD  create  the  rainbow  pattern   because  light  is  diffracted.     Diffraction  provides  the  reason  why  we  can   hear  something  even  if  we  cannot  see  it.     Superposition:  When  two  waves  of  the  same   type  meet,  they  interfere  and  we  can  work  out   the  resulting  wave  using  the  principle  of   superposition.  The  overall  disturbance  at  any   point  and  at  any  time  where  the  waves  meet  is   the  vector  sum  of  the  disturbances  that  would   have  been  produced  by  each  f  the  individual   waves.     Constructive  interference:  Takes  place  when   the  two  waves  are  in  phase.  There  is  zero   phase  difference  between  them.     Destructive  interference:  Takes  place  when   the  two  waves  are  exactly  out  of  phase.     See  above.     Constructive  interference  occurs  when  two   waves  are  exactly  in  phase,  which  means  that   the  path  difference  is  zero.     Destructive  interference  occurs  when  two   waves  are  out  of  phase.    

 

 

27  

Marc  W.     resultant  of  two   waves.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

                     

 

 

 

 

28  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

5.1  Electric  potential  difference,  current  and  resistance  
 
  5.1.1   Assessment  statement   Define  electric  potential   difference.   Teacher’s  notes       Electric  potential  difference  is   defined  as  the  energy  difference   per  unit  charge  in  an  electric  field.     Electric  potential  energy:  The   energy  that  a  charge  has  as  a   result  of  its  position  in  an  electric   field.     To  move  a  charge  in  an  electric   field,  work  must  be  done.  The   change  in  electric  potential   energy  (work  done)  is  the   potential  difference.    

5.1.2  

Determine  the  change  in   potential  energy  when  a   charge  moves  between   two  points  at  different   potentials.  

 

5.1.3  

Define  the  electronvolt.  

5.1.4  

Solve  problems  involving   electric  potential   difference.  

5.1.5  

Define  electric  current.  

5.1.6  

Define  resistance.  

  When  a  charge  moves  from  A  to  B   it  gains  electrical  potential   energy.  Work  must  be  done  to   move  the  charge.     Change  in  p.d.  =  Force  X  distance   =  F  x  d  =  Eq  x  d  where  E  is  the   electric  field  strength     The  electronvolt  is  the  energy   that  would  be  gained  by  an   electron  moving  through  a   potential  difference  of  1  volt.       e.g.  Calculate  the  speed  of  an   electron  accelerated  in  a  vacuum   by  a  p.d.  of  1000V.   KE  of  electron  =  V  x  e  =  1000  x  1.6   x  10-­‐19  =  1.6  x  10-­‐16J   0.5mv2=1.6  x  10-­‐16J   v=1.87x107  m/s   It  is  sufficient  for  students  to   Current  is  defined  as  the  rate  of   know  that  current  is  defined  in   flow  of  electrical  charge.  If  a   terms  of  the  force  per  unit   current  flows  in  just  one  direction   length  between  parallel   it  is  known  as  direct  current.  A   current-­‐carrying  conductors.   current  that  constantly  changes   direction  is  known  as  an   alternating  current.     Current  flows  through  an  object   when  there  is  a  potential   difference  across  the  object.     Students  should  be  aware  that   Resistance  is  the  mathematical   R  =  V/I  is  a  general  definition  of   ratio  between  potential  difference     29  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   resistance.  It  is  not  a  statement   of  Ohm’s  law.  Students  should   understand  what  is  meant  by   resistor.  

IB  Session  May  2012   and  current.  If  something  has  a   high  resistance,  it  means  that  you   would  need  a  large  potential   difference  across  it  in  order  to  get   a  current  to  flow.  We  define  a  new   unit,  the  ohm,  to  be  equal  to  one   volt  per  amp.     A  device  with  constant  resistance   (in  other  words  an  ohmic  device)   is  called  a  resistor)   𝑙 𝑅 = 𝑝   𝐴 The  resistance  of  a  wire  (at   constant  T)  depends  upon  its   length,  the  cross  sectional  area   and  its  resistivity.  The  resistivity   of  a  material  tells  us  how  well  a   material  conducts.     Ohm’s  law  states  that  the  current   flowing  through  a  piece  of  metal   is  proportional  to  the  potential   difference  across  it  providing  the   temperature  remains  constant.    

5.1.7  

Apply  the  equation  for   resistance.  

 

5.1.8  

State  Ohm’s  law.  

 

5.1.9  

Compare  ohmic  and  non-­‐ ohmic  behaviour.  

For  example,  students  should   be  able  to  draw  the  I–V   characteristics  of  an  ohmic   resistor  and  a  filament  lamp.    

5.1.10   Derive  and  apply   expressions  for  electrical   power  dissipation  in   resistors.  

 

5.1.11   Solve  problems  involving   potential  difference,   current  and  resistance.  

 

If  current  and  p.d.  difference  are   proportional  the  device  is  said  to   be  ohmic.  Devices  where  current   and  p.d.  are  not  proportional   (filament  lamp,  diode)  are  said  to   be  non-­‐ohmic.     Since  potential  difference:   𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦  𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒   𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒  𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑑 And  current:   𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒  𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑑   𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒  𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 Multiplying  current  x  p.d.:   𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦  𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒   𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒  𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 This  energy  difference  per  time  is   the  power  dissipated  by  the   resistor,  All  this  energy  is  going   into  heating  up  the  resistor.     P  =  V  x  I(P  =  I2  x  R)   e.g.  A  1.2  kW  electric  kettle  is   plugged  into  the  250V  mains   supply.  Calculate  the  current   drawn  and  its  resistance.     I  =  1200  /  250  =  4.8  A   R  =  250  /  4.8  =  52  Ohm  

   
    30  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

5.2  Electric  circuits  

 
  5.2.1   Assessment  statement   Define  electromotive   force  (e.m.f.).   Teacher’s  notes       The  total  energy  difference  per  unit   charge  is  called  the  electromotive  force   (e.m.f.).  However,  it  is  not  a  force  but   an  energy  difference  per  charge   measured  in  volts.  In  practical  terms,   e.m.f.  is  exactly  the  same  as  potential   difference  if  no  current  flows.     When  a  battery  supplies  a  current  to   an  external  circuit  it  gets  warm.  This  is   due  to  the  battery  having  a  small   internal  resistance.    

5.2.2  

Describe  the  concept  of   internal  resistance.  

 

  The  e.m.f.  of  the  supply  is  the  sum  of   the  potential  dropped  across  the   internal  resistor  and  the  external   resistor.     e.m.f.  =  Ir  +  IR     When  a  6V  battery  is  connected  in  a   circuit  some  energy  will  be  used  up   inside  the  battery  itself.  In  other   words,  the  battery  has  some  internal   resistance.  The  total  energy  difference   per  unit  charge  around  the  circuit  is   still  6V,  but  some  of  this  energy  is  used   up  inside  the  battery.  The  energy   difference  per  unit  charge  from  one   terminal  to  the  other  is  less  than  the   total  made  available  by  the  chemical   reaction  in  the  battery.     5.2.3   Apply  the  equations  for   This  includes  combinations   resistors  in  series  and  in   of  resistors  and  also   parallel.   complete  circuits  involving   internal  resistance.    

Resistors  in  series:  Rt  =  R1  +  R2  +  …    

      31  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

5.2.4  

Draw  circuit  diagrams.  

Students  should  be  able  to   recognize  and  use  the   accepted  circuit  symbols.  

Resistors  in  parallel:     1 1 1 = + + ⋯   𝑅! 𝑅! 𝑅!

5.2.5  

Describe  the  use  of  ideal     ammeters  and  ideal   voltmeters.  

5.2.6  

Describe  a  potential   divider.  

 

5.2.7  

Explain  the  use  of   sensors  in  potential   divider  circuits.  

Sensors  should  include  light-­‐ dependent  resistors   (LDRs),  negative   temperature  coefficient   (NTC)  thermistors  and   strain  gauges.  

  A  current  measuring  meter  is  called  an   ammeter.  It  should  be  connected  in   series  at  the  point  where  the  current   needs  to  be  measured.  A  perfect   ammeter  would  have  zero  resistance.   This  means  that  no  potential  difference   is  dropped  across  them.     A  meter  that  measures  potential   difference  is  called  a  voltmeter.  It   should  be  placed  in  parallel  with  the   component  or  components  being   considered.  A  perfect  voltmeter  has   infinite  resistance.     Two  resistors  ‘divide  up’  the  potential   difference  of  the  battery.  You  can   calculate  the  ‘share’  taken  by  one   resistor  using  from  the  ratio  of  the   resistances  but  this  approach  does  not   work  unless  the  voltmeter’s  resistance   also  is  considered.     A  variable  potential  divider  is  often  the   best  way  to  produce  a  variable  power   supply.  When  designing  the  potential   divider,  the  smallest  resistor  that  is   going  to  be  connected  needs  to  be   taken  into  account:  the   potentiometer’s  resistance  should  be   significantly  smaller.     A  light  dependent  resistor  (LDR)  is  a   device  whose  resistance  depends  on   the  amount  of  light  shining  on  its   surface.  An  increase  in  light  causes  a   decrease  in  resistance.     A  thermistor  is  a  resistor  whose  value   of  resistance  depends  on  its   temperature.  Most  are  semi-­‐ conducting  devices  that  have  a   negative  temperature  coefficient   (NTC).  This  means  that  an  increase  in   temperature  causes  a  decrease  in   resistance.     Both  of  these  devices  can  be  used  in   potential  divider  circuits  to  create   sensor  circuits.  The  output  potential   difference  of  a  sensor  circuit  depends   on  an  external  factor.     Another  possible  sensor  is  a  strain   gauge  whose  output  voltage  depends     32  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

5.2.8  

Solve  problems   involving  electric   circuits.  

Students  should  appreciate   that  many  circuit  problems   may  be  solved  by  regarding   the  circuit  as  a  potential   divider.  Students  should  be   aware  that  ammeters  and   voltmeters  have  their  own   resistance.  

on  a  small  extension  or  compression   that  occurs  which  results  in  a  change  of   length.      

                 

 

 

 

33  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

6.1  Gravitational  force  and  field  
 
  6.1.1   Assessment  statement   State  Newton’s  universal   law  of  gravitation.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  be  aware  that   the  masses  in  the  force  law  are   point  masses.  The  force   between  two  spherical  masses   whose  separation  is  large   compared  to  their  radii  is  the   same  as  if  the  two  spheres  were   point  masses  with  their  masses   concentrated  at  the  centres  of   the  spheres.     It  is  called  ‘universal’  gravitation   because  at  the  core  of  this  theory   is  the  statemtn  that  every  mass   in  the  Universe  attracts  all  other   masses.  The  value  of  the   attraction  between  two  point   masses  is  given  by  an  equation:     𝐺𝑚! 𝑚! 𝐹 =   𝑟 ! Important:     -­‐ the  law  only  deals  with  point   masses   -­‐ the  masses  in  the  equation  are   gravitational  masses,  not   inertial  masses   -­‐ there  is  a  force  acting  on  each   of  the  masses,  these  forces  are   equal  and  opposite   -­‐ the  forces  are  always  attractive   -­‐ the  forces  only  become   significant  if  one  or  both   objects  involved  are  massive   -­‐ the  interaction  between   spherical  masses  turns  out  to   be  the  same  as  if  the  masses   were  concentrated  at  the   centres  of  the  spheres   The  gravitational  field  is  defined   as  the  force  per  unit  mass.   Gravitational  field  strength  is  the   force  per  unit  mass  on  a  particle   in  a  gravitational  field.     Field  strengths  are  vectors  and   therefore  the  gravitational  field   due  to  one  or  more  point  masses   can  be  found  by  vector  addition.     The  gravitational  field  strength   at  the  surface  of  a  planet  must  be   the  same  as  the  acceleration  due   to  gravity  on  the  surface.     Field  strength  is  defined  to  be   !"#$% = 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛  (𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎)   !"## 𝐺𝑚! 𝑚! 𝐹 =   𝑟 ! 𝐹 𝑔 =   𝑚 Combining  this  gives:   𝐺𝑀 𝑔 = !   𝑟 For  the  earth:  M  =  6.0  x  1024kg   r  =  6.4  x  106m   6.67  𝑥  10!!! 𝑥  6.0  𝑥  10!" 𝑔 =     6.4  𝑥  10! ! 𝑔 = 9.8  𝑚𝑠 !!    

6.1.2  

Define  gravitational  field   strength.  

 

6.1.3  

Determine  the   gravitational  field  due  to   one  or  more  point  masses.  

 

6.1.4  

Derive  an  expression  for     gravitational  field  strength   at  the  surface  of  a  planet,   assuming  that  all  its  mass   is  concentrated  at  its   centre.  

6.1.5  

Solve  problems  involving   gravitational  forces  and  

 

 

 

34  

Marc  W.     fields.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

    6.2  Electric  force  and  field    
  6.2.1   Assessment  statement   State  that  there  are  two   types  of  electric  charge.   Teacher’s  notes       Two  types  of  charge  exist  –   positive  and  negative.  Equal   amounts  of  positive  and  negative   charge  cancel  each  other.  Matter   that  contains  not  charge  ,  or   matter  that  contains  equal   amounts  of  positive  and  negative   charge,  is  said  to  be  electrically   neutral.     A  very  important  experimental   observation  is  that  charge  is   always  conserved.  Charged   objects  can  be  created  by  friction.   In  this  process  electrons  are   physically  moved  from  one   object  to  another    -­‐  in  order  for   the  charge  to  remain  on  the   object,  it  normally  needs  to  be  an   insulator.     Charge  can  be  added  or  removed   from  an  object  but  it  cannot  be   destroyed.  The  quantity  of   electric  charge  is  always   conserved.     A  material  that  allows  the  flow  of   charge  through  it  is  called  an   electrical  conductor.  If  charge   cannot  flow  through  a  material  it   is  called  an  electrical  insulator.  In   solid  conductors  the  flow  of   charge  is  always  as  a  result  of  the   flow  of  electrons  from  atom  to   atom.     Coulomb’s  law  is  used  to   calculate  the  force  of  attraction   or  repulsion  between  two  point   charges.     𝑘𝑞! 𝑞! 𝐹 =   𝑟 ! This  can  also  be  stated  as:   𝑞! 𝑞! 𝐹 =   4𝜋𝜀! 𝑟 ! Where  𝜀!  is  the  permittivity  of   free  space.     If  there  are  two  or  more  charges   near  another  charge,  the  overall   force  can  be  worked  out  using   vector  addition.     Electric  field  strength  is  defined   as  the  force  experienced  per   coulomb  by  a  small  test  charge  in   an  electric  field.     35  

6.2.2  

State  and  apply  the  law  of   conservation  of  charge.  

 

6.2.3  

Describe  and  explain  the   difference  in  the  electrical   properties  of  conductors   and  insulators.  

 

6.2.4  

State  Coulomb’s  law.  

Students  should  be  aware  that   the  charges  in  the  force  law  are   point  charges.  

6.2.5  

Define  electric  field   strength.  

Students  should  understand  the   concept  of  a  test  charge.  

 

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   𝐹   𝑞! Field  strengths  are  vectors  and   therefore  the  electric  field  due  to   one  or  more  point  charges  can  be   found  by  vector  addition.     𝐸 =

6.2.6  

Determine  the  electric   field  strength  due  to  one   or  more  point  charges.   Draw  the  electric  field   patterns  for  different   charge  configurations.  

 

6.2.7  

These  include  the  fields  due  to   the  following  charge   configurations:  a  point  charge,  a   charged  sphere,  two  point   charges,  and  oppositely  charged   parallel  plates.  The  latter   includes  the  edge  effect.   Students  should  understand   what  is  meant  by  radial  field.  

 

  In  a  radial  field  the  field  lines   diverge  radially  outward  from  a   point  source  or  converge  radially   inwards  towards  a  point  source.  

6.2.8  

Solve  problems  involving   electric  charges,  forces   and  fields.  

 

 

 

   
6.3  Magnetic  force  and  field  

 
  6.3.1   6.3.2   Assessment  statement   State  that  moving   charges  give  rise  to   magnetic  fields.   Draw  magnetic  field   patterns  due  to   currents.   Teacher’s  notes     These  include  the  fields  due   to  currents  in  a  straight  wire,   a  flat  circular  coil  and  a   solenoid.     An  electric  current  can  cause  a   magnetic  field.    

 

 

 

36  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

 

6.3.3  

Determine  the  direction   of  the  force  on  a   current-­‐carrying   conductor  in  a  magnetic   field.  

Different  rules  may  be  used   to  determine  the  force   direction.  Knowledge  of  any   particular  rule  is  not   required.  

  When  a  current  carrying  wire  is  placed   between  the  poles  of  a  magnet  it   experiences  a  force.  This  causes  the   wire  to  move.    

  The  direction  in  which  the  wire  will   move  can  be  predicted  using  Fleming’s   Left  Hand  rule:  

6.3.4  

Determine  the  direction   of  the  force  on  a  charge   moving  in  a  magnetic   field.  

 

  A  single  charge  moving  through  a   magnetic  field  also  feels  a  force  in   exactly  the  same  way  that  a  current   feels  a  force.  In  this  case,  the  force  is   proportional  to:   -­‐the  magnitude  of  the  magnetic  field  B   -­‐the  magnitude  of  the  charge  q   -­‐the  velocity  of  the  charge  v   -­‐the  sine  of  the  angle  between  the   velocity  and  the  field   𝐹 = 𝐵𝑞𝑣𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃   Since  the  force  on  a  moving  charge  is   always  at  right  angles  to  the  velocity  of   the  charge  the  resultant  motion  can  be   circular.       37  

 

Marc  W.     6.3.5   Define  the  magnitude   and  direction  of  a   magnetic  field.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

6.3.6  

Solve  problems   involving  magnetic   forces,  fields  and   currents.  

 

The  magnetic  field  strength,  B,  is   defined  as  follows:     𝐹 𝐵 =   𝐼𝐿𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 A  new  unit,  the  tesla,  is  introduced.  1T   is  equal  to  1NA-­‐1m-­‐1.   The  direction  that  the  North  pole  of  a   small  test  compass  would  point  if   placed  in  the  field  (N  to  S)    

                 

 

 

 

38  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

7.1  The  atom  
 
  7.1.1   Assessment   statement   Describe  a  model  of   the  atom  that  features   a  small  nucleus   surrounded  by   electrons.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  be  able  to   describe  a  simple  model   involving  electrons  kept  in   orbit  around  the  nucleus   as  a  result  of  the   electrostatic  attraction   between  the  electrons  and   the  nucleus.     The  atomic  (nuclear)  model  describes  a   very  small  central  nucleus  surrounded  by   electrons  arranged  in  different  energy   levels.  The  nucleus  itself  contains  protons   and  neutrons  (collectively  called  nucleons).   All  of  the  positive  charge  and  almost  all  the   mass  of  the  atom  is  in  the  nucleus.  Overall   an  atom  is  neutral.  The  vast  majority  of  the   volume  is  noting  at  all  –  a  vacuum.     One  of  the  most  convincing  pieces  of   evidence  for  the  nuclear  model  comes  from   the  Geiger-­‐Marsden  experiment.  Positive   alpha  particles  were  fired  at  a  thin  gold   leaf.  The  relative  size  and  velocity  of  the   particles  meant  that  most  of  them  were   expected  to  travel  straight  through  he  gold   leaf.  The  idea  was  to  see  if  there  was  any   detectable  structure  within  the  gold  atoms.   The  amazing  discovery  was  that  some  of   the  alpha  particles  were  deflected  through   huge  angles.      

7.1.2  

Outline  the  evidence   that  supports  a   nuclear  model  of  the   atom.  

A  qualitative  description   of  the  Geiger–Marsden   experiment  and  an   interpretation  of  the   results  are  all  that  is   required.  

They  were  surprised  that  some  of  the   alpha  particles  were  deflected  as  they   passed  through  the  gold.  From  this  they   deduced  that  the  atom  was  made  up  of  a   small  positively  charged  nucleus   surrounded  by  space.      

 

 

 

39  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

7.1.3      

7.1.4  

7.1.5  

7.1.6  

  Evidence  for  electron  energy  levels  comes   from  emission  and  absorption  spectra.  The   existence  of  isotopes  provides  evidence  for   neutrons.       Outline  one  limitation     The  problem  with  this  theory  was  that   of  the  simple  model  of   accelerating  charges  are  known  to  lose   the  nuclear  atom.   energy.  If  the  orbiting  electrons  were  to   lose  energy  they  would  spiral  into  the   nucleus.     Also,  this  model  does  not  explain  the   emission  and  absorption  spectrum.       The  model  does  not  account  for  how  the   protons  and  neutrons  stay  together  in  the   nucleus.     Outline  evidence  for   Students  should  be   Evidence  for  electron  energy  levels  comes   the  existence  of   familiar  with  emission  and   from  emission  and  absorption  spectra.     atomic  energy  levels.   absorption  spectra,  but   An  energy  level  of  0  corresponds  to  the   the  details  of  atomic   electron  escaping  from  the  atom.  Electrons   models  are  not  required.   attached  to  an  atom  have  negative  energy   Students  should   levels.     understand  that  light  is   not  a  continuous  wave  but   is  emitted  as  “packets”  or   “photons”  of  energy,  each   of  energy  hf.   Explain  the  terms     Nuclide:  The  name  given  to  a  particular   nuclide,  isotope  and   species  of  atom  (one  whose  nucleus   nucleon.   contains  a  specified  number  of  protons  and   a  specified  number  of  neutrons)   Isotope:  Elements  that  contain  the  same   number  of  protons  but  a  different  number   of  neutrons.     Nucleon:  Protons  and  neutrons  are   collectively  called  nucleons.   Define  nucleon     A:  Nucleon  number  –  Number  of  nucleons   number  A,  proton   (protons  +  neutrons)  in  the  nucleus   number  Z  and  neutron   Z:  Proton  number  –  also  called  atomic   number  N.   number,  equal  to  number  of  protons  in  the   nucleus   N:  Neutron  number  –  Number  of  neutrons   in  the  nucleus     N  =  A  –  Z      

 

 

40  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

7.1.7  

Describe  the   interactions  in  a   nucleus.  

Students  need  only  know   about  the  Coulomb   interaction  between   protons  and  the  strong,   short-­‐range  nuclear   interaction  between   nucleons.  

  The  protons  in  a  nucleus  are  all  positive.   Since  like  charges  repel,  they  must  be   repelling  one  another  all  the  time.  This   means  there  must  be  another  force   keeping  the  nucleus  together.    We  know  a   few  things  about  this  force:   -­‐ It  must  be  strong   -­‐ It  must  be  very  short-­‐ranged  as  we  do   not  observe  this  force  anywhere  other   than  inside  the  nucleus   -­‐ It  is  likely  to  involve  the  neutrons  as  well   The  name  given  to  this  force  is  the  strong   nuclear  force.    

   
7.2  Radioactive  decay  

 
  7.2.1   Assessment  statement   Describe  the   phenomenon  of  natural   radioactive  decay.   Teacher’s  notes   The  inclusion  of  the   antineutrino  in  beta−decay  is   required.     Radioactive  decay  is  a  random   process  and  is  not  affected  by   external  influences.  Some  nuclei  are   more  stable  than  others.  When  an   unstable  nucleus  disintegrates  to   acquire  a  more  stable  state,   radiations  are  emitted.    
Beta   Yes   102  per  mm   travelled   A  few  mm   aluminium   Medium   Less  than  one  m   Behaves  like  a   negative  charge   About  108  m/s   Gamma   Yes   1  per  mm   travelled   10cm  lead   High   Effectively   infinite   Not  deflected   Speed  of  light  

7.2.2  

Describe  the  properties   of  alpha  and  beta   particles  and  gamma   radiation.  

Property   Effect  on   photographic  film   Appropriate   number  of  irons   produced  in  air   Typical  material   needed  to  absorb   Penetration   ability   Typical  path   length  in  air   Deflection  by  E   and  B  fields   speed  

Alpha   Yes   104  per  mm   travelled   10-­‐2  mm   aluminium,  piece   of  paper   Low     A  few  cm   Behaves  like  a   positive  charge   About  107  m/s  

 

7.2.3  

Describe  the  ionizing   properties  of  alpha  and   beta  particles  and   gamma  radiation.  

 

7.2.4  

Outline  the  biological   effects  of  ionizing   radiation.  

Students  should  be  familiar   with  the  direct  and  indirect   effects  of  radiation  on   structures  within  cells.  A   simple  account  of  short-­‐term  

All  three  radiations  are  ionizing,   which  means  that  as  they  go  through   a  substance,  collisions  occur  which   cause  electrons  to  be  removed  from   atoms.  Atoms  that  have  lost  or  gained   electrons  are  called  ions.  When   ionisations  occur  in  biologically   important  molecules,  such  as  DNA,   mutations  can  occur.     At  the  molecular  level,  an  ionisation   could  cause  damage  directly  to  a   biologically  important  molecule  such   as  DNA.    This  could  cause  it  to  cease   functioning.  Molecular  damage  can     41  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   and  long-­‐term  effects  of   radiation  on  the  body  is   required.  

IB  Session  May  2012  

7.2.5  

Explain  why  some  nuclei   are  stable  while  others   are  unstable.  

An  explanation  in  terms  of   relative  numbers  of  protons   and  neutrons  and  the  forces   involved  is  all  that  is   required.  

7.2.6  

State  that  radioactive   decay  is  a  random  and   spontaneous  process   and  that  the  rate  of   decay  decreases   exponentially  with  time.  

7.2.7  

Define  the  term   radioactive  half-­‐life.  

Exponential  decay  need  not   be  treated  analytically.   It  is  sufficient  to  know  that   any  quantity  that  reduces  to   half  its  initial  value  in  a   constant  time  decays   exponentially.  The  nature  of   the  decay  is  independent  of   the  initial  amount.    

result  in  a  disruption  to  the  functions   that  are  taking  place  within  the  cells   that  make  up  the  organism.  As  well  as   potentially  causing  the  cell  to  die,  this   could  just  prevent  cells  from  dividing   and  multiplying.  If  malignant  cells   continue  to  grow  then  this  is  called   cancer.     The  stability  of  a  particular  nuclide   depends  greatly  on  the  numbers  of   neutrons  present.     -­‐ For  small  nuclei,  the  number  of   neutrons  tends  to  equal  the  number   of  protons   -­‐ For  large  nuclei  there  are  more   neutrons  than  protons   -­‐ Nuclides  above  the  band  of  stability   have  too  many  neutrons  and  will   tend  to  decay  with  either  alpha  or   beta  decay.     -­‐ Nuclides  below  the  band  of  stability   have  too  few  neutrons  and  will  tend   to  emit  positrons.     Radioactive  decay  is  a  random   process  and  is  not  affected  by   external  influences.  

The  time  taken  for  the  number  (or   mass)  of  radioactive  nuclei  present  to   fall  to  half  its  value.  This  length  of   time  is  constant  at  any  point  in  time    -­‐   showing  that  radioactive  decay  is   exponential.    

7.2.8  

Determine  the  half-­‐life  of     a  nuclide  from  a  decay   curve.  

7.2.9  

Solve  radioactive  decay   problems  involving   integral  numbers  of  half-­‐ lives.  

 

 

 

   
7.3  Nuclear  reactions,  fission  and  fusion  

 
  7.3.1   Assessment  statement   Describe  and  give  an   example  of  an  artificial   Teacher’s  notes       Artificial  transmutation  is  the   process  whereby  a  nucleus  is     42  

 

Marc  W.     (induced)  transmutation.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   artificially  made  from  another   nucleus.  It  is  different  from   regular  radioactivity  in  that  the   reaction  is  not  spontaneous;  it  is   made  to  happen.   When  nitrogen  gas  was   bombarded  by  alpha-­‐particles  it   was  found  that  there  were  two   products:  oxygen  gas  and   positively  charged  particles.     !" ! !" ! !𝑁 + !𝐻𝑒 → !𝑂 + !𝑃  

7.3.2  

Construct  and  complete   nuclear  equations.  

 

 

7.3.3    

Define  the  term  unified   atomic  mass  unit.  

   

In  order  to  compare  atomic   masses  we  often  use  unified  

 

43  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

7.3.4  

7.3.5  

7.3.6  

mass  units,  u.  These  are  defined   in  terms  of  the  most  common   isotope  of  carbon,  cabon-­‐12.  One   unified  mass  unit  is  defined  as   exactly  one  twelfth  the  mass  of  a   caron-­‐12  atom.  Essentially,  the   mass  of  a  proton  and  the  mass  of   a  neutron  are  both  1u.     Apply  the  Einstein  mass– Students  must  be  familiar  with   If  an  object  increases  in  energy,   energy  equivalence   the  units  MeV  c  −2  and  GeV  c  −2   then  its  mass  also  increases.  The   relationship.   for  mass.   relationship  between  mass  and   energy  is  described  by  Einstein’s   famous  equation:     𝐸 = 𝑚𝑐 !   When  energy  is  released,  there  is   also  a  decrease  in  mass  of  the   products.     In  Einstein’s  equation,  1kg  of   mass  is  equivalent  to  9x1016J  of   energy.  Since  mass  and  energy   are  equivalent  it  is  sometimes   useful  to  work  in  units  that  avoid   having  to  do  repeated   multiplications  by  the  speed  of   light.  A  new  possible  unit  for   mass  is  thus  MeV  c  −2.  If  1  MeV  c   −2  worth  of  mass  is  converted   you  get  1MeV  worth  of  energy.     Define  the  concepts  of     Mass  defect:  The  difference   mass  defect,  binding   between  the  mass  of  a  nucleus   energy  and  binding  energy   and  the  masses  of  its  component   per  nucleon.   nucleons.     Binding  energy:  The  amount  of   energy  that  is  released  when  a   nucleus  is  assembled  from  its   component  nucleons.  It  comes   from  a  decrease  in  mass.  The   binding  energy  would  also  be  the   energy  that  needs  to  be  added  in   order  to  separate  a  nucleus  into   its  individual  nucleons.     Binding  energy  per  nucleon:  A   useful  measure  of  the  stability  of   a  nucleus  is  its  binding  energy.   This  is  the  energy  that  needs  to   be  supplied  to  remove  a  nucleon   from  the  nucleus.  Nuclides  that   have  the  largest  binding  energy   per  nucleon  are  therefore  the   most  stable.     The  total  binding  energy  divided   by  the  total  number  of  nucleons.     Draw  and  annotate  a   Students  should  be  familiar  with  binding  energies  plotted  as   graph  showing  the   positive  quantities.   variation  with  nucleon   number  of  the  binding   energy  per  nucleon.  

 

 

44  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

7.3.7   7.3.8  

Solve  problems  involving   mass  defect  and  binding   energy.   Describe  the  processes  of   nuclear  fission  and   nuclear  fusion.  

  Nucleons  in  iron  have  the  most  binding  energy,  so  they  are  the  most   stable.  Nuclides  therefore  become  more  stable  if  they  change  in   mass  closer  to  that  of  the  mass  of  iron.  Therefore  nuclides  heavier   than  iron  tend  to  break  apart  (fission)  and  nuclides  lighter  than  iron   tend  to  join  (fuse)  with  other  light  nuclides.             Fission:  Fission  is  the  name  given   to  the  nuclear  reaction  whereby   large  nuclei  are  induced  to  break   up  into  smaller  nuclei  and   release  energy  in  the  process.  It   is  the  reaction  that  is  used  in   nuclear  reactors  and  atomic   bombs.  A  typical  single  reaction   might  involve  bombarding  a   uranium  nucleus  with  a  neutron.   This  can  cause  the  uranium   nucleus  to  break  up  into  two   smaller  nuclei.     Fusion:  Fusion  is  the  name  given   to  the  nuclear  reaction  whereby   small  nuclei  are  induced  to  join   together  into  larger  nuclei  and   release  energy  in  the  process.  It   is  the  reaction  that  fuels  all  stars.      

7.3.9  

Apply  the  graph  in  7.3.6  to     account  for  the  energy   release  in  the  processes  of   fission  and  fusion.   7.3.10   State  that  nuclear  fusion  is     the  main  source  of  the   Sun’s  energy.  

7.3.11   Solve  problems  involving   fission  and  fusion   reactions.    

 

Fusion  is  the  name  given  to  the   nuclear  reaction  whereby  small   nuclei  are  induced  to  join   together  into  larger  nuclei  and   release  energy  in  the  process.  It   is  the  reaction  that  fuels  all  stars.    

 

45  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

8.1  Energy  degradation  and  power  generation  
 
  8.1.1   Assessment  statement   State  that  thermal  energy   may  be  completely   converted  to  work  in  a   single  process,  but  that   continuous  conversion  of   this  energy  into  work   requires  a  cyclical  process   and  the  transfer  of  some   energy  from  the  system.   Teacher’s  notes       In  principle,  thermal  energy  can   be  completely  converted  to  work   in  a  single  process,  nut  the   continuous  conversion  of  this   energy  into  work  implies  the  use   of  machines  that  are   continuously  repeating  their   actions  in  a  fixed  cycle.  Any   cyclical  process  must  involve  the   transfer  of  some  energy  from  the   system  to  the  surroundings  that   is  no  longer  available  to  perform   useful  work.     Students  should  understand   Any  cyclical  process  must  involve   that,  in  any  process  that   the  transfer  of  some  energy  from   involves  energy   the  system  to  the  surroundings   transformations,  the  energy   that  is  no  longer  available  to   that  is  transferred  to  the   perform  useful  work.  This   surroundings  (thermal  energy)   unavailable  energy  is  known  as   is  no  longer  available  to   degraded  energy,  in  accordance   perform  useful  work.   with  the  principle  of  the  second   law  of  thermodynamics.     It  is  expected  that  students  will  be  able  to  construct  flow  diagrams   for  various  systems  including  those  described  in  sub-­‐topics  8.3  and   8.4.  

8.1.2  

Explain  what  is  meant  by   degraded  energy.  

8.1.3  

Construct  and  analyse   energy  flow  diagrams   (Sankey  diagrams)  and   identify  where  the  energy   is  degraded.  

8.1.4  

Outline  the  principal   mechanisms  involved  in   the  production  of   electrical  power.  

Students  should  know  that   electrical  energy  may  be   produced  by  rotating  coils  in  a   magnetic  field.  In  sub-­‐topics  8.2   and  8.3  students  look  in  more   detail  at  energy  sources  used  to   provide  the  energy  to  rotate  the   coils.  

  In  all  electrical  power  stations   the  process  is  essentially  the   same.  A  fuel  is  used  to  release   thermal  energy.  This  thermal   energy  is  used  to  boil  water  and   to  make  steam,  which  is  used  to   turn  turbines  and  the  motion  of   the  turbines  is  used  to  generate   electrical  energy.  Transformers   alter  the  potential  difference.    

   
8.2  World  energy  sources  

 
  8.2.1   Assessment  statement   Identify  different  world   energy  sources.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  be  able  to   recognize  those  sources    
Renewable   Hydroelectric   Photovoltaic     Non-­‐renewable   Coal   Oil  

 

 

46  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   associated  with  CO2   emission.   Students  should  also   appreciate  that,  in  most   instances,  the  Sun  is  the   prime  energy  source  for   world  energy.  

IB  Session  May  2012  

Solar  heaters   Wind   Biofuels  

Natural  gas   Nuclear    

8.2.2  

Outline  and  distinguish   between  renewable  and   non-­‐renewable  energy   sources.   Define  the  energy   density  of  a  fuel.  

 

8.2.3  

Energy  density  is  measured   in  J  kg–1.  

Most  of  the  energy  used  by  humans   can  be  traced  back  to  energy  radiated   from  the  Sun,  but  not  quite  all  of  it.   Possible  sources  are:   -­‐ The  Sun’s  radiated  energy   -­‐ Gravitational  energy  of  the  Sun  and   the  Moon   -­‐ Nuclear  energy  stored  within  atoms   -­‐ The  Earth’s  internal  heat  energy   Renewable  source  of  energy  are  those   that  cannot  be  used  up,  whereas  non-­‐ renewable  source  of  energy  can  be   used  up,  cannot  easily  be  replaced  and   will  eventually  run  out.     Energy  density  provides  a  useful   comparison  between  fuels  and  is   defined  as  the  energy  liberated  per   unit  mass  of  fuel  consumed.     𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦
 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦  𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒  𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚  𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙   𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠  𝑜𝑓  𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙  𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑

8.2.4  

Discuss  how  choice  of   fuel  is  influenced  by  its   energy  density.   State  the  relative   proportions  of  world   use  of  the  different   energy  sources  that  are   available.  

The  values  of  energy  density   of  different  fuels  will  be   provided.   Only  approximate  values  are   needed.  

  Fuel  choice  can  be  particularly   influenced  by  energy  density  when  the   fuel  needs  to  be  transported:  the   greater  the  mass  of  fuel  that  needs  to   be  transported,  the  greater  the  cost.  

8.2.5  

8.2.6  

Discuss  the  relative   The  discussion  applies  to  all   advantages  and   the  sources  identified  in  sub-­‐ disadvantages  of  various   topics  8.2,  8.3  and  8.4.   energy  sources.  

See  sections  below  +  common  sense.    

 

   
8.3  Fossil  fuel  power  production  

 
  8.3.1   Assessment  statement   Outline  the  historical  and   geographical  reasons  for   the  widespread  use  of   fossil  fuels.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  appreciate  that   industrialization  led  to  a  higher   rate  of  energy  usage,  leading  to   industry  being  developed  near   to  large  deposits  of  fossil  fuels.     As  the  industrial  revolution   spread,  the  rate  of  energy  usage   greatly  increased  and  industry   tended  to  develop  near  to   existing  deposits  of  fossil  fuels.   Infrastructure  was  created  to   allow  coal  and  other  fossil  fuels   to  be  easily  transported  as  the   47  

 

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   higher  rates  of  energy  usage   demanded  the  use  of  fuels  with  a   high  energy  density.  This   encouraged  the  growth  of   industries  near  the  raw   materials.      

8.3.2  

8.3.3  

Discuss  the  energy  density   of  fossil  fuels  with  respect   to  the  demands  of  power   stations.   Discuss  the  relative   advantages  and   disadvantages  associated   with  the  transportation   and  storage  of  fossil  fuels.  

Students  should  be  able  to   estimate  the  rate  of  fuel   consumption  by  power  stations.    

Advantages:     -­‐ Very  high  energy  density   -­‐ Easy  to  transport   -­‐ Still  cheap  compared  to  other   sources   -­‐ Can  be  built  anywhere  with   good  transportation  links   -­‐ Can  be  used  directly  at  home  to   provide  heating   Disadvantages:   -­‐ Combustion  products  can   produce  pollution,  acid  rain,   contain  greenhouse  gases   -­‐ Extraction  of  fossil  fuels  can   damage  the  environment   -­‐ Non-­‐renewable  
Fuel   Coal   Nt.  gas   Oil   Typical  E   35%   45%   38%   Maximum  E   42%   52%   45%  

8.3.4  

State  the  overall  efficiency   of  power  stations  fuelled   by  different  fossil  fuels.  

Only  approximate  values  are   required.  
 

8.3.5  

Describe  the     environmental  problems   associated  with  the   recovery  of  fossil  fuels  and   their  use  in  power   stations.  

-­‐ Combustion  products  can   produce  pollution,  acid  rain,   contain  greenhouse  gases   -­‐ Extraction  of  fossil  fuels  can   damage  the  environment   -­‐ Non-­‐renewable  

   
8.4  Non-­‐fossil  fuel  power  production  

 
  8.4.1   Assessment   statement   Describe  how  neutrons   produced  in  a  fission   reaction  may  be  used   to  initiate  further   fission  reactions  (chain   reaction).   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  know  that   only  low-­‐energy  neutrons  (~1   eV)  favour  nuclear  fission.   They  should  also  know  about   critical  mass.     In  each  individual  reaction,  an   incoming  neutron  causes  a  uranium   nucleus  to  split  apart.  The  fragments   are  moving  fast.  In  other  words  the   temperature  is  very  high.  Among  the   fragments  are  more  neutrons.  If   these  neutrons  go  on  to  initiate   further  reactions  then  a  chain   reaction  is  created.  Critical  mass:   minimum  mass  for  chain  reaction  to   occur.     The  design  of  a  nuclear  reactor  needs   to  ensure  that,  on  average,  only  one   neutron  from  each  reaction  goes  on   to  initiate  a  further  reaction.  If  more   reactions  took  place  then  the  number     48  

8.4.2  

Distinguish  between   controlled  nuclear   fission  (power   production)  and   uncontrolled  nuclear  

Students  should  be  aware  of   the  moral  and  ethical  issues   associated  with  nuclear   weapons.  

 

Marc  W.     fission  (nuclear   weapons).  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

8.4.3  

Describe  what  is  meant   by  fuel  enrichment.  

 

of  reactions  would  run  out  of  control.   If  fewer  reaction  took  place,  then  the   number  of  reactions  would  be   decreasing  and  the  fission  process   would  soon  stop.     Naturally  occurring  uranium   contains  less  than  1%  of  uranium-­‐ 235.  Enrichment  is  the  process  by   which  this  percentage  composition  is   increased  to  make  nuclear  fission   more  likely  (to  about  3%).    

8.4.4  

Describe  the  main   energy  transformations   that  take  place  in  a   nuclear  power  station.  

8.4.5  

Discuss  the  role  of  the   moderator  and  the   control  rods  in  the   production  of   controlled  fission  in  a   thermal  fission  reactor.  

8.4.6  

Discuss  the  role  of  the   heat  exchanger  in  a   fission  reactor.  

  Water  is  heated  by  heat  energy  created  through  nuclear  fission   Energy  is  lost  to  surroundings   Steam  turns  a  turbine  (heat  to  kinetic)   Energy  is  lost  (friction)   Turbine  powers  a  generator   Energy  is  lost  (friction,  heat,  sound)   Energy  is  transformed  into  electrical  energy   Three  important  components  in  the   design  of  all  nuclear  reactors  are  the   moderator,  the  control  rods  and  the   heat  exchanger:   -­‐ Collisions  between  the  neutrons   and  the  nuclei  of  the  moderator   slow  them  down  and  allow  further   reactions  to  take  place   -­‐ The  control  rods  are  movable  rods   that  readily  absorb  neutrons.  They   can  be  introduced  or  removed  from   the  reaction  chamber  in  order  to   control  the  chain  reaction.       The  heat  exchanger  allows  the   nuclear  reactions  to  occur  in  a  place   that  is  sealed  off  from  the  rest  of  the   environment.  The  reactions  increase   the  temperature  in  the  core.  This   thermal  energy  is  transferred  to   water  and  the  steam  that  is  produced   turns  the  turbine.   -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐  

8.4.7  

Describe  how  neutron   capture  by  a  nucleus  of     uranium-­‐238  (238U)   Plutonium-­‐239  is  also  capable  of  sustaining  fission  reactions.  This   results  in  the   nuclide  is  formed  as  a  by-­‐product  of  a  conventional  nuclear  reactor.  A   production  of  a  nucleus   uranium-­‐238  nucleus  can  capture  fast  moving  neutrons  to  form     49  

 

Marc  W.     of  plutonium-­‐239   (239Pu).  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

8.4.8  

8.4.9  

Describe  the   importance  of   plutonium-­‐239  (239Pu)   as  a  nuclear  fuel.   Discuss  safety  issues   and  risks  associated   with  the  production  of   nuclear  power.  

8.4.10   Outline  the  problems   associated  with   producing  nuclear   power  using  nuclear   fusion.  

8.4.11   Solve  problems  on  the   production  of  nuclear   power.   8.4.12   Distinguish  between  a   photovoltaic  cell  and  a    

uranium-­‐239.  This  undergoes  beta-­‐decay  to  neptunium-­‐239,  which   undergoes  further  beta-­‐decay  to  plutonium-­‐239.  Reprocessing  involves   treating  used  fuel  waste  from  nuclear  reactors  to  recover  uranium  and   plutonium  and  to  deal  with  other  waste  products.  A  fast  breeder   reactor  is  one  design  that  utilizes  plutonium-­‐239.     It  is  sufficient  for  students  to   A  fast  breeder  reactor  is  one  design   know  that  plutonium-­‐239   that  utilizes  plutonium-­‐239.  It  is   (239Pu)  is  used  as  a  fuel  in   capable  of  sustaining  fission   other  types  of  reactors.   reactions.     Such  issues  involve:   -­‐ If  the  control  rods  were  all   •  The  possibility  of  thermal   removed,  the  reaction  would   meltdown  and  how  it  might   rapidly  increase  its  rate  of   arise   production.  Completely   •  Problems  associated  with   uncontrolled  nuclear  fission  would   nuclear  waste   cause  an  explosion  and  thermal   •  Problems  associated  with  the   meltdown  in  the  core.  The   mining  of  uranium   radioactive  material  in  the  reactor   •  The  possibility  that  a  nuclear   could  be  distributed  around  the   power  programme  may  be   surrounding  area  causing  many   used  as  a  means  to  produce   fatalities.     nuclear  weapons.   -­‐ A  significant  amount  of  material   produced  will  remain  dangerously   radioactive  for  millions  of  years.   The  current  solution  is  to  bury  this   waste  in  geologically  secure  sites.     -­‐ The  uranium  is  mined  from   underground  and  any  mining   operation  involves  significant  risk.     -­‐ The  transportation  of  the  uranium   from  the  mine  to  a  power  station   needs  to  be  secure  (same  for   transportation  of  waste).   -­‐ By-­‐products  of  the  civilian  use  of   nuclear  power  can  be  used  to   produce  nuclear  weapons.   It  is  sufficient  that  students   Fusion  reactors  offer  the  theoretical   appreciate  the  problem  of   potential  of  significant  power   maintaining  and  confining  a   generation  without  many  of  the   high-­‐temperature,  high-­‐ problems  associated  with  current   density  plasma.   fission  reactors.  The  fuel  used,   hydrogen,  is  in  plentiful  supply  and   the  reaction  (if  it  could  be  sustained)   would  not  produce  significant   amounts  of  radioactive  waste.     The  reaction  requires  creating   temperatures  high  enough  to  ionize   atomic  hydrogen  into  a  plasma  state   in  which  electrons  and  photons  are   not  bound  in  atoms  nut  move   independently.  Currently  the   principal  design  challenges  are   associated  with  maintaining  and   confining  the  plasma  at  sufficiently   high  temperature  and  density  for   fusion  to  take  place.         Students  should  be  able  to   describe  the  energy  transfers   Photovoltaic  cell:  Converts  a  portion   of  the  radiated  energy  directly  into  a     50  

Marc  W.     solar  heating  panel.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   involved  and  outline   appropriate  uses  of  these   devices.  

IB  Session  May  2012  

potential  difference.     Active  solar  heater:  Designed  to   capture  as  much  thermal  energy  as   possible.  The  hot  water  that  it   typically  produces  can  be  used   domestically  and  would  save  on  the   use  of  electrical  energy.    

8.4.13   Outline  reasons  for     seasonal  and  regional   variations  in  the  solar   power  incident  per  unit   area  of  the  Earth’s   surface.  

8.4.14   Solve  problems   involving  specific   applications  of   photovoltaic  cells  and   solar  heating  panels.   8.4.15   Distinguish  between   different  hydroelectric   schemes.  

 

  Scattering  and  absorption  in  the   atmosphere  means  that  often  less   energy  arrives  at  the  Earth’s  surface.   The  amount  that  arrives  depends   greatly  on  the  weather  conditions.     Different  parts  of  the  Earth’s  surface   will  receive  different  amounts  of   solar  radiation.  It  will  also  vary  with   the  seasons  since  this  will  affect  how   spread  out  the  rays  have  become.      

Students  should  know  that  the   different  schemes  are  based   on:   •  water  storage  in  lakes   •  tidal  water  storage   •  pump  storage.  

Water  storage  in  lakes:   Tidal  water  storage:   Pump  storage:  

8.4.16   Describe  the  main     energy  transformations   that  take  place  in   hydroelectric  schemes.  

  The  source  of  energy  in  a   hydroelectric  power  station  is  the   gravitational  potential  energy  of   water.     -­‐ As  part  of  the  water  cycle,  water   can  fall  as  rain.  It  can  be  stored  in   large  reservoirs  as  high  up  as  is   feasible   -­‐ Tidal  power  schemes  trap  water  at   high  tides  and  release  it  during  a   low  tide.   -­‐ Water  can  be  pumped  from  a  low   reservoir  to  a  high  reservoir.     Gravitational  PE  of  water  à  KE  of     51  

 

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Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

8.4.17   Solve  problems   involving  hydroelectric   schemes.   8.4.18   Outline  the  basic   features  of  a  wind   generator.  

 

water  à  KE  of  turbines  à  electrical   energy.    

8.4.19   Determine  the  power   that  may  be  delivered   by  a  wind  generator,   assuming  that  the  wind   kinetic  energy  is   completely  converted   into  mechanical  kinetic   energy,  and  explain   why  this  is  impossible.   8.4.20   Solve  problems   involving  wind  power.   8.4.21   Describe  the  principle   of  operation  of  an   oscillating  water   column  (OWC)  ocean-­‐ wave  energy  converter.  

  The  area  swept  out  by  the  blades  of  the  turbine  =  𝐴 = 𝜋𝑟 !   In  one  second  the  volume  of  air  that  passes  =  vA   So  mass  of  air  that  passes  the  turbine  in  one  second  =  vAp   (where  p  is  the  density  of  air)   ! ! ! Kinetic  energy  available  per  second  =   𝑚𝑣 ! = 𝑣𝐴𝑝 𝑣 ! = 𝐴𝑝𝑣 !   ! ! ! à  Power  available.   In  practice,  the  kinetic  energy  of  the  incoming  wind  is  easy  to  calculate,   but  it  cannot  all  be  harnessed  –  in  other  words  the  wind  turbine  cannot   be  100%  efficient.  A  doubling  of  the  wind  speed  would  mean  that  the   available  power  would  increase  by  a  factor  of  eight.         Students  should  be  aware  that   energy  from  a  water  wave  can   be  extracted  in  a  variety  of   different  ways,  but  only  a   description  of  the  OWC  is   required.  

8.4.22   Determine  the  power    

We  model  the  waves  as  squares  to  simplify  the  mathematics.  Consider    

 

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Marc  W.     per  unit  length  of  a   wavefront,  assuming  a   rectangular  profile  for   the  wave.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

a  wave  of  Amplitude  A,  speed  v  and  wavelength  𝜆.    

8.4.23   Solve  problems   involving  wave  power.  

 

 

 

 

8.5  Greenhouse  effect  

 
  8.5.1   Assessment  statement   Calculate  the  intensity   of  the  Sun’s  radiation   incident  on  a  planet.   Teacher’s  notes     As  the  distance  of  an  observer  from  a  point  source  of  light  increases,   the  power  received  by  the  observer  will  decrease  as  the  energy   spreads  out  over  a  larger  area.  A  doubling  of  distance  will  result  in  the   reduction  of  the  power  received  to  a  quarter  of  the  original  value.   ! 𝐼 =     !!! ! The  intensity  of  the  received  radiation  is  inversely  proportional  to  the   square  of  the  distance  from  the  pint  source  to  the  observer.    This  is   known  as  the  inverse  square  law.       The  proportion  of  power  (or   energy)  reflected  compared  to  the   total  power  (energy)  received.   𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙  𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑  𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 =   𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙  𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡  𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 Students  should  know  that  the   The  albedo  of  snowy  surfaces  is   Earth’s  albedo  varies  daily  and   about  0.85  –  indicating  that  this  typ   is  dependent  on  season  (cloud   of  surface  reflects  85%  of  the  sun’s   formations)  and  latitude.   radiation  back.  The  global  annual   Oceans  have  a  low  value  but   mean  albedo  of  the  Earth  is  30%   snow  a  high  value.  The  global   (so  ~70%  of  the  radiation  reaching   annual  mean  albedo  is  0.3   the  Earth  is  absorbed).   (30%)  on  Earth.  

8.5.2  

Define  albedo.  

8.5.3  

State  factors  that   determine  a  planet’s   albedo.  

8.5.4  

Describe  the   greenhouse  effect.  

Short  wavelength  radiation  is  received  from  the  sun  and  causes  the      

 

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IB  Session  May  2012  

8.5.5  

Identify  the  main   greenhouse  gases  and   their  sources.  

8.5.6  

Explain  the  molecular   mechanisms  by  which   greenhouse  gases   absorb  infrared   radiation.  

8.5.7  

Analyse  absorption   graphs  to  compare  the   relative  effects  of   different  greenhouse   gases.  

surface  of  the  Earth  to  warm  up.  The  Earth  will  emit  infrared  radiation   (longer  wavelengths  than  the  radiation  coming  from  the  sun  because   the  Earth  is  cooler).  Some  of  this  infrared  radiation  is  absorbed  by   gases  in  the  atmosphere  and  re-­‐radiated  in  all  directions.  The  net   effect  is  that  the  upper  atmosphere  and  the  surface  of  the  earth  are   warmed.  The  greenhouse  effect  is  a  natural  process  without  which  the   temperature  of  the  Earth  would  be  much  lower.     The  gases  to  be  considered  are   Methane  CH4:  Principal  component   CH4,  H2O,  CO2  and   of  natural  gas  and  the  product  of   N2O.  It  is  sufficient  for  students   decay,  decomposition  or   to  know  that  each  has  natural   fermentation.     and  man-­‐made  origins.   Water  H2O:  The  small  amounts  of   water  vapour  in  the  upper   atmosphere  have  a  significant   effect.     Carbon  dioxide  CO2:  Combustion   releases  carbon  dioxide  into  the   atmosphere  which  can  significantly   increase  the  greenhouse  effect.     Nitrous  oxide  N2O:  Livestock  and   industries  are  major  sources  of   nitrous  oxide.  Its  effect  is  significant   as  it  can  remain  in  the  upper   atmosphere  for  long  periods.     Students  should  be  aware  of   These  gases  absorb  infrared   the  role  played  by  resonance.   radiation  as  a  result  of  resonance.   The  natural  frequency  of   The  natural  frequency  of  oscillation   oscillation  of  the  molecules  of   of  the  bonds  within  the  molecules   greenhouse  gases  is  in  the   of  the  gas  is  in  the  infrared  region.  If   infrared  region.   the  driving  frequency  (radiation   from  Earth)  is  equal  to  the  natural   frequency  of  the  molecule,   resonance  will  occur.     Students  should  be  familiar   with,  but  will  not  be  expected   to  remember,  specific  details  of   graphs  showing  infrared   transmittance  through  a  gas.  

8.5.8  

Outline  the  nature  of   black-­‐body  radiation.  

Students  should  know  that   black-­‐body  radiation  is  the   radiation  emitted  by  a  “perfect”   emitter.  

The  perfect  emitter  will  also  be  a   perfect  absorber  of  radiation.  A   black  object  absorbs  all  of  the  light   falling  on  it.  For  this  reason  the   radiation  from  a  theoretical  perfect   emitter  is  known  as  black-­‐body   radiation.    

 

 

 

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Marc  W.     8.5.9   Draw  and  annotate  a   graph  of  the  emission   spectra  of  black  bodies   at  different   temperatures.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College    

IB  Session  May  2012  

8.5.10   State  the  Stefan– Boltzmann  law  and   apply  it  to  compare   emission  rates  from   different  surfaces.   8.5.11   Apply  the  concept  of   emissivity  to  compare   the  emission  rates  from   the  different  surfaces.   8.5.12   Define  surface  heat   capacity  Cs.  

 

 

Surface  heat  capacity  is  the   energy  required  to  raise  the   temperature  of  unit  area  of  a   planet’s  surface  by  one  degree,   and  is  measured  in  J  m–2  K–1.  

  The  Stefan-­‐Boltzman  law  links  the   total  power  radiated  by  a  black   body  (per  unit  are)  to  the   temperature  of  the  black  body:   𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙  𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟  𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑   ∝ 𝑇 !   𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙  𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟  𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 𝜎𝐴𝑇 !   Emissivity  is  a  number  (from  0  to  1)   measuring  how  well  a  surface  emits   radiation.  Good  emitters  have  an   emissivity  close  to  1  (black  body   emissivity  =  1)   Surface  heat  capacity  is  the  energy   required  to  raise  the  temperature   of  unit  area  of  a  planet’s  surface  by   one  degree,  and  is  measured  in  J  m– 2  K–1.   𝐶
! = 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦   ∆𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒  𝑒𝑡𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒  𝑥  𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒  𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎  

8.5.13   Solve  problems  on  the   greenhouse  effect  and   the  heating  of  planets   using  a  simple  energy   balance  climate  model.  

Students  should  appreciate  that   See  left,  important.     the  change  of  a  planet’s   temperature  over  a  period  of   time  is  given  by:  (incoming   radiation  intensity  –  outgoing   radiation  intensity)  x  time  /   surface  heat  capacity.   Students  should  be  aware  of   limitations  of  the  model  and   suggest  how  it  may  be   improved.  

   
8.6  Global  warming  

 
  8.6.1   Assessment  statement   Describe  some  possible   models  of  global  warming.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  must  be  aware  that  a   range  of  models  has  been   suggested  to  explain  global   warming,  including  changes  in   the  composition  of  greenhouse   gases  in  the  atmosphere,   increased  solar  flare  activity,   cyclical  changes  in  the  Earth’s   orbit  and  volcanic  activity.   It  is  sufficient  for  students  to  be        

8.6.2    

State  what  is  meant  by  the  

An  enhancement  of  the   55  

Marc  W.     enhanced  greenhouse   effect.   8.6.3   Identify  the  increased   combustion  of  fossil  fuels   as  the  likely  major  cause   of  the  enhanced   greenhouse  effect.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   aware  that  enhancement  of  the   greenhouse  effect  is  caused  by   human  activities.   Students  should  be  aware  that,   although  debatable,  the   generally  accepted  view  of  most   scientists  is  that  human   activities,  mainly  related  to   burning  of  fossil  fuels,  have   released  extra  carbon  dioxide   into  the  atmosphere.   For  example,  international  ice   core  research  produces   evidence  of  atmospheric   composition  and  mean  global   temperatures  over  thousands  of   years  (ice  cores  up  to  420,000   years  have  been  drilled  in  the   Russian  Antarctic  base,  Vostok).  

IB  Session  May  2012   greenhouse  effect  caused  by   human  activities.     Although  it  is  still  being  debated,   the  generally  accepted  view  is   that  the  increased  combustion  of   fossil  fuels  has  released  extra   carbon  dioxide  into  the   atmosphere,  which  has  enhanced   the  greenhouse  effect.    

8.6.4  

Describe  the  evidence  that   links  global  warming  to   increased  levels  of   greenhouse  gases.  

8.6.5  

Outline  some  of  the   mechanisms  that  may   increase  the  rate  of  global   warming.  

8.6.6  

Define  coefficient  of   volume  expansion.  

8.6    .7  

State  that  one  possible   effect  of  the  enhanced   greenhouse  effect  is  a  rise   in  mean  sea-­‐level.  

8.6.8  

Outline  possible  reasons   for  a  predicted  rise  in   mean  sea-­‐level.  

One  piece  of  evidence  that  links   global  warming  to  increased   levels  of  greenhouse  gases  comes   from  ice  core  data.     Isotopic  analysis  allows  the   temperature  to  be  estimated  and   air  bubbles  trapped  in  the  ice   cores  can  be  used  to  measure  the   atmospheric  concentrations  of   greenhouse  gases.  The  record   provides  data  from  over  400,000   years  ago  to  the  present.  The   variations  of  temperature  and   carbon  dioxide  are  very  closely   correlated.   Students  should  know  that:   Not  only  does  deforestation   •  Global  warming  reduces   result  in  the  release  of  further   ice/snow  cover,  which  in  turn   CO2into  the  atmosphere,  the   changes  the  albedo,  to  increase   reduction  in  number  of  trees   rate  of  heat  absorption   reduces  carbon  fixation.   •  Temperature  increase  reduces   Temperature  increase  reduces   the  solubility  of  CO2  in  the  sea   the  solubility  of  CO2  in  the  sea   and  increases  atmospheric   and  thus  increases  atmospheric   concentrations   concentrations.     •  Deforestation  reduces  carbon   fixation.   Students  should  know  that  the   The  coefficient  of  volume   coefficient  of  volume  expansion   expansion  records  the  fractional   is  the  fractional  change  in   change  in  volume  per  degree   volume  per  degree  change  in   change  in  temperature.     ∆𝑉 temperature.   𝛾 =   𝑉! ∆𝑇   Between  0°C  and  4°C,  the   coefficient  of  volume  expansion   for  water  is  negative.  This  means   that  if  the  temperature  of  water   is  increased  within  the  range  of   0°C  to  4°C  this  will  cause  a   decrease  in  volume.  When  ice   that  is  floating  on  seawater   melts,  the  overall  water  level  is   predicted  to  initially  decrease.     Ice  that  is  on  land,  however,  is   not  displacing  water  and  when  it   melts  it  will  increase  the  sea   level.     Students  should  be  aware  that   See  above  for  explanation.     precise  predictions  are  difficult   to  make  due  to  factors  such  as:     56  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

8.6.9  

Identify  climate  change  as   an  outcome  of  the   enhanced  greenhouse   effect.  

8.6.10   Solve  problems  related  to   the  enhanced  greenhouse   effect.   8.6.11   Identify  some  possible   solutions  to  reduce  the   enhanced  greenhouse   effect.  

8.6.12   Discuss  international   efforts  to  reduce  the   enhanced  greenhouse   effect.  

•  anomalous  expansion  of  water   •  different  effects  of  ice  melting   on  sea  water  compared  to  ice   melting  on  land.     “Most  of  the  observed  increase  in   globally  averaged  temperature   since  the  mid-­‐20th  century  is   very  likely  due  to  the  observed   increase  in  anthropogenic   [human  caused]  greenhouse  gas   concentrations.”  (IPCC)   Problems  could  involve  volume     expansion,  specific  heat   capacity  and  latent  heat.   Students  should  be  aware  of  the   Look  left,  should  all  be  common   following:   sense.     •  greater  efficiency  of  power   production   •  replacing  the  use  of  coal  and   oil  with  natural  gas   •  use  of  combined  heating  and   power  systems   (CHP)   •  increased  use  of  renewable   energy  sources  and  nuclear   power   •  carbon  dioxide  capture  and   storage   •  use  of  hybrid  vehicles.   These  should  include,  for   IPCC:  Hundreds  of  governmental   example:   scientific  representatives  from   •  Intergovernmental  Panel  on   more  than  a  hundred  countries   Climate  Change   regularly  assess  the  up  to  date   (IPCC)   evidence  from  international   •  Kyoto  Protocol   research  into  global  warming   •  Asia-­‐Pacific  Partnership  on   and  human  induced  climate   Clean  Development  and  Climate   change.     (APPCDC).   Kyoto  Protocol:  This  is  an   amendment  to  UN  Framework   Convention  on  Climate  Change.   By  signing  the  treaty,  countries   agree  to  work  towards  achieving   a  stipulated  reduction  in   greenhouse  gas  emission.  USA   and  Australia  have  not  signed.     APPCDC:  Founding  partners  are   Australia,  China,  India,  Japan,   Korea,  US.  They  have  agreed  to   work  together  to  meet  goals  for   energy  security,  air  pollution   reduction  and  climate  change  in   was  that  promote  sustainable   economic  growth  and  poverty   reduction.    

     

 

 

 

57  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

9.1  Projectile  motion  
 
  9.1.1   Assessment  statement   Teacher’s  notes   State  the  independence  of     the  vertical  and  the   horizontal  components  of   velocity  for  a  projectile  in   a  uniform  field.   Describe  and  sketch  the   trajectory  of  projectile   motion  as  parabolic  in   the  absence  of  air   resistance.     A  ball  that  is  thrown  up  in  the  air  is   moving  horizontally  and  vertically   at  the  same  time  but  the  horizontal   and  vertical  components  of  the   motion  are  independent  of  one   another.  Assuming  the  gravitational   force  is  constant,  this  is  always  true.     Proof  of  the  parabolic  nature  of  the  trajectory  is  not  required.  

9.1.2  

9.1.3  

Describe  qualitatively  the   effect  of  air  resistance  on   the  trajectory  of  a   projectile.   Solve  problems  on   projectile  motion.  

9.1.4  

  Horizontal:  There  are  no  forces  in  the  horizontal  direction,  so  there  is   no  horizontal  acceleration.  This  means  that  the  horizontal  velocity   must  be  constant.     Vertical:  There  is  a  constant  vertical  force  acting  down,  so  there  is  a   constant  vertical  acceleration  (g  due  to  gravity).       The  path  is  no  longer  parabolic.  The   maximum  height  and  range   decrease.  The  angle  at  which  the   projectile  impacts  the  ground   steepens.       Problems  may  involve     projectiles  launched   horizontally  or  at  any  angle   above  or  below  the  horizontal.   Applying  conservation  of   energy  may  provide  a  simpler   solution  to  some  problems   than  using  projectile  motion   kinematics  equations.  

   
9.2  Gravitational  field,  potential  and  energy  

 
  9.2.1   Assessment  statement   Define  gravitational   potential  and  gravitational   potential  energy.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  understand  the   scalar  nature  of  gravitational   potential  and  that  the  potential   at  infinity  is  taken  as  zero.   Students  should  understand   that  the  work  done  in  moving  a   mass  between  two  points  in  a       Gravitational  potential:  scalar   quantity  (V),  the  work  done  per   unit  mass  in  bringing  a  small   point  mass  from  infinity  to  a  point   (always  negative)   Gravitational  potential  energy:   the  work  done  in  moving  a  mass   58  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   gravitational  field  is   independent  of  the  path  taken.    

IB  Session  May  2012   form  infinity  to  a  point  in  space   (independent  of  path  taken)   𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘  𝑑𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝐺𝑀 𝑉 = =−   𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑡  𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑟 The  units  are  J  kg-­‐1.  

9.2.2  

9.2.3  

State  and  apply  the   expression  for   gravitational  potential  due   to  a  point  mass.   State  and  apply  the   The  change  in  potential  per  metre.  Gravitational  field  strength  is  the   formula  relating   negative  of  the  potential  gradient.   gravitational  field   strength  to  gravitational     potential  gradient.  

9.2.4   9.2.5  

Determine  the  potential   due  to  one  or  more  point   masses.   Describe  and  sketch  the   pattern  of  equipotential   surfaces  due  to  one  and   two  point  masses.  

 

 

 

9.2.6  

State  the  relation  between     equipotential  surfaces  and   gravitational  field  lines.   Explain  the  concept  of   escape  speed  from  a   planet.    

9.2.7  

9.2.8  

Derive  an  expression  for   the  escape  speed  of  an   object  from  the  surface  of   a  planet.  

Students  should  appreciate  the   simplifying  assumptions  in  this   derivation.  

  There  is  a  simple  relationship   between  field  lines  and  lines  of   equipotential  –  they  are  always  at   right  angles  to  one  another.     The  escape  speed  of  a  rocket  is   the  speed  needed  to  be  able  to   escape  the  gravitational   attraction  of  the  planet.  This   means  getting  to  an  infinite   distance  away.     1 𝐺𝑀𝑚 𝑚𝑣 ! =   2 𝑅 So     𝑣 =   2𝐺𝑀   𝑅

 

 

59  

Marc  W.     9.2.9   Solve  problems  involving   gravitational  potential   energy  and  gravitational   potential.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College      

IB  Session  May  2012  

   
9.3  Electric  field,  potential  and  energy  

 
  9.3.1   Assessment  statement   Define  electric  potential   and  electric  potential   energy.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  understand  the   scalar  nature  of  electric   potential  and  that  the  potential   at  infinity  is  taken  as  zero.   Students  should  understand   that  the  work  done  in  moving  a   point  charge  between  two   points  in  an  electric  field  is   independent  of  the  path  taken.       Electric  potential:  The  work  done   per  unit  charge  in  bringing  a   positive  test  charge  from  infinity   to  a  point  in  an  electric  field.     Electric  potential  energy:  Energy   that  a  charge  has  due  to  its   position  in  an  electric  field.     If  the  total  work  done  in  bringing   a  positive  test  charge  q  from   infinity  to  a  point  in  an  electric   field  is  W,  then  the  electric   potential  at  that  point  V  is   defined  to  be:   𝑊 𝑉 =   𝑞 𝑄 𝑉 =   4𝜋𝜀! 𝑟 If  several  charges  all  contribute   to  the  total  potential  at  a  point,  it   can  be  calculated  by  adding  up   the  individual  potentials  due  to   the  individual  charges.  The   electric  potential  at  any  point   outside  the  charge  conducting   sphere  is  exactly  the  same  as  if   all  the  charge  had  been   concentrated  at  its  centre.    

9.3.2  

State  and  apply  the   expression  for  electric   potential  due  to  a  point   charge.  

9.3.3  

9.3.4  

State  and  apply  the   formula  relating  electric   field  strength  to  electric   potential  gradient.   Determine  the  potential   due  to  one  or  more  point   charges.  

 

 

 

 

60  

Marc  W.     9.3.5   Describe  and  sketch  the   pattern  of  equipotential   surfaces  due  to  one  and   two  point  charges.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

9.3.6  

State  the  relation  between   equipotential  surfaces  and   electric  field  lines.  

 

9.3.7  

Solve  problems  involving   electric  potential  energy   and  electric  potential.  

 

 

 

 
    61  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

9.4  Orbital  motion  

 
  9.4.1   Assessment  statement   State  that  gravitation   provides  the  centripetal   force  for  circular  orbital   motion.   Derive  Kepler’s  third  law.   Teacher’s  notes       Gravitation  provides  the   centripetal  force  for  circular   orbital  motion.   Expressing  the  above  in  formulae   𝐺𝑀𝑚 𝑚𝑣 ! =   𝑟 ! 𝑟 ! 𝐺𝑀 = 𝑣 𝑟   𝑣 = 𝐺𝑀   𝑟

9.4.2  

 

Since  a  satellite  does  one  orbit  in   time  T,     𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑚𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 2𝜋𝑟 𝑣 = =   𝑇 𝑇 Substituting:   2𝜋𝑟 ! 4𝜋 !  𝑟 ! 𝐺𝑀 = 𝑟 =   𝑇 𝑇 ! ! As  G,  M  and  4𝜋  are  all  constants,  
 ! ! !!

= 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡  

9.4.3  

Derive  expressions  for  the   kinetic  energy,  potential   energy  and  total  energy  of   an  orbiting  satellite.  

 

  Kinetic  energy:   1 𝑚𝑣 !   2 From  above:   𝐺𝑀   𝑟 1 𝐺𝑀𝑚 =>    2 𝑟 Potential  energy:   𝐺𝑀𝑚 −   𝑟 Total  energy:   Total  energy  =  Kinetic  energy  +   Potential  energy   1 𝐺𝑀𝑚 𝐺𝑀𝑚 1 𝐺𝑀𝑚 − =−    2 𝑟 𝑟  2 𝑟 𝑣 =

 

 

62  

Marc  W.     9.4.4   Sketch  graphs  showing  the   variation  with  orbital   radius  of  the  kinetic   energy,  gravitational   potential  energy  and  total   energy  of  a  satellite.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

9.4.5  

Discuss  the  concept  of   “weightlessness”  in  orbital   motion,  in  free  fall  and  in   deep  space.  

 

9.4.6  

Solve  problems  involving   orbital  motion.  

 

  If  the  lift  cables  beak  and  the  lift   (and  passenger)  accelerate  down   at  10m  s-­‐2,  the  person  would   appear  to  be  weightless  for  the   duration  of  the  fall.  Given  the   ambiguity  of  the  term  weight,  it   is  better  to  call  this  situation  the   apparent  weightlessness  of   objects  in  free  fall  together.     In  a  space  station,  the   gravitational  pull  on  the   astronaut  provides  the   centripetal  force  needed  to  stay   in  the  orbit.  This  resultant  force   causes  the  centripetal   acceleration.  The  same  is  true  for   the  gravitational  pull  on  the   satellite  and  the  satellite’s   acceleration.  There  is  no  contact   force  between  the  satellite  and   the  astronaut  so,  once  again,  we   have  apparent  weightlessness.      

               

 

 

 

63  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

10.1  Thermodynamics  
 
  Assessment  statement   10.1.1   State  the  equation  of  state   for  an  ideal  gas.     The  three  ideal  gas  laws  can  be   combined  together  to  produce   one  mathematical  relationship:   𝑝𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡   𝑇 This  constant  will  depend  on  the   mass  and  type  of  gas.  If  we   compare  the  value  of  this   constant  for  different  masses  of   different  gases,  it  turns  out  to   depend  on  the  number  of   molecules  that  are  in  the  gas    -­‐ not  their  type.  In  this  case  we  use   the  definition  of  the  mole  to  state   that  for  n  moles  of  ideal  gas:   𝑝𝑉 = 𝑎  𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑎𝑙  𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡   𝑛𝑇 This  constant  is  called  the  molar   gas  constant  R.     à  pV=nRT   10.1.2   Describe  the  difference   Students  should  be  aware  of  the   An  ideal  gas  is  one  that  follows   between  an  ideal  gas  and  a   circumstances  in  which  real  gas   the  gas  laws  for  all  values  of  p,  V   real  gas.   behaviour  approximates  to   and  T  and  this  cannot  be   ideal  gas  behaviour.  Students   liquefied.  Real  gases,  however,   should  also  appreciate  that   can  approximate  to  ideal   ideal  gases  cannot  be  liquefied.   behaviour  providing  that  the   intermolecular  forces  are  small   enough  to  be  ignored.  For  this  to   apply,  the  pressure/density  of   the  gas  must  be  low  and  the   temperature  must  be  reasonably   high.     For  an  ideal  gas,  there  are  no   intermolecular  forces,  collisions   between  particles  are  elastic  and   particles  are  considered  to  be   points  (small  size).     10.1.3   Describe  the  concept  of   the  absolute  zero  of   temperature  and  the   Kelvin  scale  of   temperature.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  be  aware  that   an  ideal  gas  is  one  that  has  the   equation  of  state  PV  =  nRT  and   that  this  equation  also  defines   the  universal  gas  constant  R.  

10.1.4   Solve  problems  using  the   equation  of  state  of  an   ideal  gas.  

  The  linear  relationship  can  be  extrapolated  back  to  -­‐273K,  known  as   absolute  zero.  At  absolute  zero,  a  body  would  not  have  any  volume.       e.g.  What  volume  will  be   occupied  by  8g  of  helium  (mass   number  4)  at  room  temperature   (20°C)  and  atmospheric  pressure   (1x105Pa)     64  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   n=8/4=2  moles   T=20+273=293K   𝑛𝑅𝑇 2𝑥8.314𝑥293 𝑉 = = 𝑝 1𝑥10! = 0.049𝑚 !  

   
10.2  Processes  

 
  Assessment  statement   10.2.1   Deduce  an  expression  for   the  work  involved  in  a   volume  change  of  a  gas  at   constant  pressure.   Teacher’s  notes    

  For  a  gas  in  the  cylinder  expanding  by  a  small  distance  dx   𝑑𝑊 = 𝐹𝑑𝑥   and     𝐹 = 𝑃  𝐴   𝑑𝑊 = 𝑃  𝐴  𝑑𝑥   and     𝐴  𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑉   𝑑𝑊 = 𝑃  𝑑𝑉  
!! 𝐴𝑑𝑉

  10.2.2   State  the  first  law  of   thermodynamics.   Students  should  be  familiar   with  the  terms  system  and   surroundings.  They  should  also   appreciate  that  if  a  system  and   its  surroundings  are  at   different  temperatures  and  the   system  undergoes  a  process,   the  energy  transferred  by  non-­‐ mechanical  means  to  or  from   the  system  is  referred  to  as   thermal  energy  (heat).  
!!

Thermodynamic  system:  Most  of   the  time  when  studying  the   behaviour  of  an  ideal  gas  in   particular  situations,  we  focus  on   the  macroscopic  behaviour  of  the   gas  as  a  whole.  In  terms  of  work   and  energy,  the  gas  can  gain  or   lose  thermal  energy  and  it  can  do   work  or  work  can  be  done  on  it.  In   this  context,  the  gas  can  be  seen   as  a  thermodynamic  system.     Surroundings:  If  we  are  focusing   our  study  on  the  behaviour  of  an   ideal  gas,  then  everything  else  can   be  called  its  surroundings.       First  law:   The  first  law  is  simply  a  statement   of  the  principle  of  energy   conservation  as  applied  to  a   system.  If  an  amount  of  thermal   energy  ∆𝑄  is  given  to  a  system,   65  

 

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   then  one  of  two  things  must   happen  (or  a  combination  of   both).  The  system  can  increase  its   internal  energy  ∆𝑈  or  it  can  do   work  ∆𝑊.    

10.2.3   Identify  the  first  law  of   thermodynamics  as  a   statement  of  the  principle   of  energy  conservation.   10.2.4   Describe  the  isochoric   (isovolumetric),  isobaric,   isothermal  and  adiabatic   changes  of  state  of  an   ideal  gas.  

 

Stated  above.    

In  each  process,  the  energy   transferred,  the  work  done  and   the  internal  energy  change   should  be  addressed.  Students   should  realize  that  a  rapid   compression  or  expansion  of  a   gas  is  approximately  adiabatic.  

Isochoric:  constant  volume   Isobaric:  constant  pressure   Isothermal:  constant  temperature   Adiabatic:  no  thermal  energy   transfer  between  gas  and   surrounds  

10.2.5   Draw  and  annotate     thermodynamic  processes   and  cycles  on  P–V   diagrams.   10.2.6   Calculate  from  a  P–V     diagram  the  work  done  in   a  thermodynamic  cycle.   10.2.7   Solve  problems  involving     state  changes  of  a  gas.  

See  above.    

 

The  area  under  the  graph   (between  the  lines  of  change  in  a   cycle)  represents  the  work  done.      

   
10.3  Second  law  of  thermodynamics  and  entropy  

 
  Assessment  statement   10.3.1   State  that  the  second  law   of  thermodynamics   implies  that  thermal   energy  cannot   spontaneously  transfer   from  a  region  of  low   temperature  to  a  region  of   high  temperature.   Teacher’s  notes       No  heat  engine,  operating  in  a   cycle,  can  take  in  heat  from  its   surroundings  and  totally  convert   it  into  work.     No  heat  pump  can  transfer   thermal  energy  from  a  low-­‐ temperature  reservoir  to  a  high-­‐ temperature  reservoir  without   work  being  done  on  it.   Heat  flows  from  hot  to  cold   objects.     The  entropy  of  the  universe  can     66  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   never  decrease.     Entropy  is  a  property  that   expresses  the  disorder  in  the   system.     When  thermal  energy  flows  from   a  hot  object  to  a  colder  object,   the  overall  entropy  has   increased.     Water  freezes  at  0°C  because  this   is  the  temperature  at  which  the   entropy  increase  of  the   surroundings  (when  receiving   the  latent  heat)  equals  the   entropy  decrease  of  the  water   molecules  becoming  more   ordered.  It  would  not  freeze  at  a   higher  temperature  because  this   would  mean  that  the  overall   entropy  of  the  system  would   decrease.    

10.3.2   State  that  entropy  is  a   system  property  that   expresses  the  degree  of   disorder  in  the  system.   10.3.3   State  the  second  law  of   thermodynamics  in  terms   of  entropy  changes.   10.3.4   Discuss  examples  of   natural  processes  in  terms   of  entropy  changes.  

 

A  statement  that  the  overall   entropy  of  the  universe  is   increasing  will  suffice  or  that  all   natural  processes  increase  the   entropy  of  the  universe.   Students  should  understand   that,  although  local  entropy   may  decrease,  any  process  will   increase  the  total  entropy  of  the   system  and  surroundings,  that   is,  the  universe.  

                         

 

 

 

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Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

11.1  Standing  (stationary)  waves  
 
  Assessment  statement   11.1.1   Describe  the  nature  of   standing  (stationary)   waves.   11.1.2   Explain  the  formation  of   one-­‐dimensional  standing   waves.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  consider   energy  transfer,  amplitude  and   phase.   Students  should  understand   what  is  meant  by  nodes  and   antinodes.     A  standing  wave  will  be  formed  if   waves  of  the  same  amplitude  and   frequency  travelling  in  different   directions  interfere.    

11.1.3   Discuss  the  modes  of   vibration  of  strings  and  air   in  open  and  in  closed   pipes.  

The  lowest-­‐frequency  mode  is   known  either  as  the   fundamental  or  as  the  first   harmonic.  The  term  overtone   will  not  be  used.  

  Node:  Points  along  the  wave  that   are  always  at  rest.   Antinode:  Points  along  the  wave   where  maximum  movement   takes  place.   The  lowest-­‐frequency  mode  is   known  either  as  the  fundamental   or  as  the  first  harmonic.  

 

 

 

11.1.4   Compare  standing  waves   and  travelling  waves.  

Stationary  wave    
All  points  on  the  wave  have  different   amplitudes.  The  maximum  amplitude  is   2A  at  the  antinodes.  It  is  zero  at  the   nodes.  

Travelling  wave  
All  points  on  the  wave  have  the  same   amplitude.  

 

All  points  oscillate  with  the  same   frequency.   Wavelength  is  twice  the  distance  from   one  node  to  the  next  node.  

All  points  oscillate  with  the  same   frequency.   Wavelength  is  the  shortest  distance   along  the  wave  between  two  points  

 

 

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Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

 

All  points  between  one  node  and  the  next   node  are  moving  in  phase.   Energy  is  not  transmitted  by  the  wave,   but  it  does  have  energy  associated  with   it.    

that  are  in  phase.   All  points  along  a  wavelength  have   different  phases.   Energy  is  transmitted  by  the  wave.    

11.1.5   Solve  problems  involving   standing  waves.  

 

   
11.2  Doppler  effect  

An  organ  pipe  (open  at  one  end)   is  1.2m  long.  Calculate  its   fundamental  frequency.  The   speed  of  sound  is  330ms-­‐1.   ! L=1.2m  à   = 1.2𝑚   ! 𝜆 = 4.8𝑚   𝑣 = 𝑓𝜆   330 𝑓 = = 69𝐻𝑍   4.8

 
  Assessment  statement   11.2.1   Describe  what  is  meant  by   the  Doppler  effect.   Teacher’s  notes       A  change  in  frequency  of  a  wave   due  to  a  moving  source  or   observer.  The  Doppler  effect  is   the  name  given  to  the  change  of   frequency  of  a  wave  as  a  result  of   the  movement  of  the  source  or   the  movement  of  the  observer.    

11.2.2   Explain  the  Doppler  effect   by  reference  to  wave  front   diagrams  for  moving-­‐ detector  and  moving-­‐ source  situations.  

 

 

11.2.3   Apply  the  Doppler  effect   equations  for  sound.  

 

The  frequency  of  a  car’s  horn  is   measured  by  a  stationary   observer  as  200Hz  when  the  car   is  at  rest.  What  frequency  will  be   heard  if  the  car  is  approaching   the  observer  at  30ms-­‐1  (speed  of   sound  is  330ms-­‐1).   𝑓! = 200𝐻𝑧   𝑓! =?   𝑣! = 30𝑚𝑠 !!   𝑐 = 330𝑚𝑠 !!    

 

 

69  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

11.2.4   Solve  problems  on  the   Doppler  effect  for  sound.   11.2.5   Solve  problems  on  the   Doppler  effect  for   electromagnetic  waves   using  the  approximation   𝑣 Δf = 𝑓   𝑐

Problems  will  not  include   situations  where  both  source   and  detector  are  moving.   Students  should  appreciate  that   the  approximation  may  be  used   only  when  v  <<  c.  

30 330 𝑓! = 220𝐻𝑧   See  above  for  an  example   problem.     1− 𝑓

! = 200

1

 

11.2.6   Outline  an  example  in   which  the   Doppler  effect  is  used  to   measure  speed.  

Suitable  examples  include   blood-­‐flow  measurements  and   the  measurement  of  vehicle   speeds.  

Unfortunately,  the  above   equations  do  not  apply  to  light  –   the  velocities  cannot  be  worked   out  relative  to  the  medium.  It  is,   however,  possible  to  derive  an   equation  for  light  that  turns  out   to  be  in  exactly  the  same  form  as   the  equation  for  sound  as  long  as   two  conditions  are  met:   1. The  relative  velocity  of  source   and  detector  is  used  in  the   equation   2. This  relative  velocity  is  a  lot   less  than  the  speed  of  light.     Radar  detectors  can  be  used  to   measure  the  speed  of  a  moving   object.  They  do  this  by   measuring  the  change  in  the   frequency  of  the  reflected  wave.    

   
11.3  Diffraction  

 
  Assessment  statement   11.3.1   Sketch  the  variation  with   angle  of  diffraction  of  the   relative  intensity  of  light   diffracted  at  a  single  slit.   Teacher’s  notes       Diffraction  is  a  wave  effect.  The   objects  involved  have  a  size  that  is   of  the  same  order  of  magnitude  as   the  wavelength  of  visible  light.    

11.3.2   Derive  the  formula  𝜃 = !     ! for  the  position  of  the  first   minimum  of  the   diffraction  pattern   produced  at  a  single  slit.  

  We  can  treat  the  slit  as  a  series  of   secondary  wave  sources.  In  the   forward  direction  (𝜃=0)  these  are   all  in  phase  so  they  add  up  to  give   a  maximum  intensity.  At  any  other   angle,  there  is  a  path  difference   between  the  rays  that  depends  on   the  angle.  The  overall  result  is  the     70  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   addition  of  all  the  sources.  The   condition  for  the  first  minimum  is   that  the  angle  must  make  all  of  the   sources  across  the  slit  cancel  out.    

11.3.3   Solve  problems  involving   single-­‐slit  diffraction.  

 

 

 

   
11.4  Resolution  

 
  Assessment  statement   11.4.1   Sketch  the  variation  with   angle  of  diffraction  of  the   relative  intensity  of  light   emitted  by  two  point   sources  that  has  been   diffracted  at  a  single  slit.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  sketch  the   variation  where  the  diffraction   patterns  are  well  resolved,  just   resolved  and  not  resolved.    

11.4.2   State  the  Rayleigh   criterion  for  images  of   two  sources  to  be  just   resolved.  

Students  should  know  that  the   criterion  for  a  circular   ! aperture  is  𝜃 = 1.22   !  

11.4.3   Describe  the  significance   of  resolution  in  the   development  of  devices   such  as  CDs  and  DVDs,   the  electron  microscope   and  radio  telescopes.  

 

  For  a  slit,  the  first  minimum  is  at   ! the  angle:  𝜃 = ;  for  a  circular   ! aperture,  the  first  minimum  is  at   ! the  angle:  𝜃 = 1.22 .   ! If  two  sources  are  just  resolved,   then  the  first  minimum  of  one   diffraction  pattern  is  located  on   top  of  the  maximum  of  the  other   diffraction  pattern.  This  is  known   as  the  Rayleigh  criterion.     CDs  and  DVDs:  The  maximum   amount  of  information  that  can  be   stored  depends  on  the  size  and  the   method  used  for  recording   information.   Electron  microscope:  Resolves   items  that  cannot  be  resolved   using  a  light  microscope.  The   electrons  have  an  effective   wavelength  that  is  much  smaller   than  the  wavelength  of  visible   light.     Radio  telescope:  The  size  of  the   dish  limits  the  maximum   resolution  possible.  Several  radio   telescopes  can  be  linked  together   in  an  array  to  create  a  virtual  radio   telescope  with  a  greater  diameter     71  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   and  with  a  greater  ability  to   resolve  astronomical  objects.     Late  one  night,  a  student  was   observing  a  car  approaching  from   a  long  distance  away.  She  noticed   that  when  she  first  observed  the   headlights  of  the  car,  they   appeared  to  be  one  point  of  light.   Later,  when  the  car  was  closer,  she   became  able  to  see  two  separate   points  of  light.  If  the  wavelength  of   the  light  can  be  taken  as  500nm   and  the  diameter  of  her  pupil  is   approximately  4mm,  calculate  how   far  away  the  car  was  when  she   could  first  distinguish  two  points   of  light.  Take  the  distance  between   the  headlights  to  be  1.8m.     When  just  resolved:     𝜆 𝜃 = 1.22   𝑏 5𝑥10!! 𝜃 = 1.22   0.004 !! 𝜃 = 1.525𝑥10   Since  the  angle  is  very  small:   1.8 𝜃 =   𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 1.8 𝑥 = = 12𝑘𝑚   1.525𝑥10!!

11.4.4   Solve  problems  involving   resolution.  

Problems  could  involve  the   human  eye  and  optical   instruments.  

   
11.5  Polarization  

 
  11.5.1   Assessment  statement   Describe  what  is  meant   by  polarized  light.   Teacher’s  notes       Any  EM  wave  is  said  to  be   unpolarised  if  the  plane  of   vibration  varies  randomly   whereas  place-­‐polarised  light  has   a  fixed  plane  of  vibration.  A   mixture  of  polarized  light  and   unpolarised  light  is  partially   plane-­‐polarised.  If  the  plane  of   polarisation  rotates  uniformly  the   light  is  said  to  be  circularly   polarised.    

11.5.2  

Describe  polarization  by   reflection.  

This  may  be  illustrated  using   light  or  microwaves.   The  use  of  polarized   sunglasses  should  be  included.  

A  ray  of  light  incident  on  the   boundary  between  two  media   will,  in  general,  be  reflected  and   refracted.  The  reflected  ray  is   always  partially  plane-­‐polarized.   If  the  reflected  ray  and  the    

 

 

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Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   refracted  ray  are  at  right  angles  to   one  another,  then  the  reflected   ray  is  totally  plane-­‐polarised.  The   angle  of  incidence  for  this   condition  is  known  as  the   polarising  angle.     Brewster’s  law  relates  the   refractive  index  of  medium  2,  n,  to   the  incident  angle:   𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃! 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃! 𝑛 = = = 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃!   𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃! 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃! A  polariser  is  any  device  that   produces  plane-­‐polarized  light   from  an  unpolarised  beam.  An   analyser  is  a  polariser  used  to   detect  polarised  light.     The  intensity  of  light  is   proportional  to  the  amplitude   squared.     𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑  𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦  𝐼 ∝ 𝐸 !   𝐼 ∝ 𝐸! ! 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ! 𝜃   Malus’s  law:   𝐼 = 𝐼! 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ! 𝜃   I  is  the  transmitted  intensity   𝐼!  is  the  incident  intensity   𝜃  is  the  angle  between  the  plane   of  vibration  and  the  analyser’s   preferred  direction   An  optically  active  substance  is   one  that  rotates  the  plane  of   polarisation  of  light  that  passes   through  it.  Many  solutions  are   optically  active.    

11.5.3  

State  and  apply   Brewster’s  law.  

 

11.5.4  

Explain  the  terms   polarizer  and  analyser.  

 

11.5.5  

Calculate  the  intensity  of   a  transmitted  beam  of   polarized  light  using   Malus’  law.  

 

11.5.6  

Describe  what  is  meant   by  an  optically  active   substance.  

Students  should  be  aware  that   such  substances  rotate  the   plane  of  polarization.  

11.5.7  

Describe  the  use  of   polarization  in  the   determination  of  the   concentration  of  certain   solutions.  

 

11.5.8  

Outline  qualitatively  how     polarization  may  be  used   in  stress  analysis.  

  A  polarimeter  is  a  device  that   measures  𝜃  for  a  given  solution.  It   consists  of  two  polarisers  (1   polariser  and  1  analyser)  that  are   initially  aligned.  The  optically   active  solution  is  introduced   between  the  two  and  the  analyser   is  rotated  to  find  the  maximum   transmitted  light.     Glass  and  some  plastics  become   birefringent  when  placed  under   stress.  When  polarised  white  light   is  passed  through  stressed   plastics  and  then  analysed,  bright   coloured  lines  are  observed  in  the   regions  of  maximum  stress.    

 

 

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Marc  W.     11.5.9   Outline  qualitatively  the   action  of  liquid-­‐crystal   displays  (LCDs).  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   Aim  8:  The  use  of  LCD  screens   in  a  wide  variety  of  different   applications/devices  can  be   mentioned.  

IB  Session  May  2012  

11.5.10   Solve  problems  involving   the  polarization  of  light.  

 

  1. Polarising  filter  film  with  a   vertical  axis  to  polarise  light  as   it  enters   2. Glass  substrate  with  ITO   electrodes.  The  shapes  of  these   electrodes  will  determine  the   shapes  that  will  appear  when   the  LCD  is  turned  on.     3. Twisted  liquid  crystal   4. Glass  substrate  with  common   electrode  film  with  horizontal   ridges  to  line  up  with  the   horizontal  filter   5. Polarising  filter  film  with  a   horizontal  axis  to  block/pass   light   6. Reflective  surface  to  send  light   back  to  viewer.  (in  a  backlit   LCD,  this  layer  is  replaced  with   a  light  source)    

                                 

 

 

 

74  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

12.1  Induced  electromotive  force  (emf)  
 
  Assessment  statement   12.1.1   Describe  the  inducing  of   an  emf  by  relative  motion   between  a  conductor  and   a  magnetic  field.     When  a  conductor  moves   through  a  magnetic  field,  an  emf   is  induced.  It  depends  on:   -­‐ The  speed  of  the  wire   -­‐ The  strength  of  the  magnetic   field   -­‐ The  length  of  the  wire  in  the   magnetic  field   12.1.2   Derive  the  formula  for  the   Students  should  be  able  to   Electrical  force  due  to  emf:   𝑉 emf  induced  in  a  straight   derive  the  expression  induced   𝐹! = 𝐵 ∗ 𝑞 = ∗ 𝑞   conductor  moving  in  a   emf  =  Blv  without  using   𝐼 Magnetic  force  due  to  movement   magnetic  field.   Faraday’s  law.   𝐹! = 𝐵 ∗ 𝑞 ∗ 𝑣   So   𝑉 𝐵 ∗ 𝑞 ∗ 𝑣 = ∗ 𝑞   𝐼 𝑉 = 𝐵𝑙𝑣   As  no  current  is  flowing,  the   emf=potential  difference   𝑒𝑚𝑓 = 𝐵𝑙𝑣   12.1.3   Define  magnetic  flux  and     Magnetic  flux:  A  measurement  of   magnetic  flux  linkage.   the  amount  of  field  lines  passing   through  an  area,  at  right  angles   to  that  area.     𝜙 = 𝐵𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃   B  =  magnetic  field  strength   A  =  area  (square  metres)   𝜃  =  angle  between  flux  and  line   normal  to  area     1Wb  (weber)  =  1Tm2     Magnetic  flux  linkage:  A  measure   of  the  number  of  turns  of  wire   ‘linked’  to  (passing  through)   magnetic  flux.  (flux  linkage  =  flux   x  number  of  turns)   12.1.4   Describe  the  production  of   An  emf  is  induced  in  a  conductor  whenever  flux  is  cut.  If  the   an  induced  emf  by  a  time-­‐ magnetic  flux  ∆𝜙  is  perpendicular  to  the  surface,  the  magnetic  flux   changing  magnetic  flux.   passing  through  the  area  ∆𝐴  is  defined  in  terms  of  the  magnetic   flied  strength  B  as  follows:   ∆𝜙 ∆𝜙 = 𝐵∆𝐴 → 𝐵 =   ∆𝐴 The  alternative  name  for  ‘magnetic  field  strength’  is  ‘flux  density’.  If   the  area  is  not  perpendicular,  but  at  an  angle  to  the  field  lines:     𝜙 = 𝐵𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃     ∆! !"∆! Since  𝜀 = 𝐵𝑙𝑣  and  𝑣 =  à  𝜀 =   Also,  𝑙 ∆𝑥 = ∆𝐴  à  𝜀 =
∆! !∆! ∆!

Teacher’s  notes    

12.1.5   State  Faraday’s  law  and   Lenz’s  law.  

Then,  𝐵 ∆𝐴 = ∆𝜙  à  𝜺 =   ∆𝒕 In  words,  the  emf  induced  is  equal  to  the  rate  of  cutting  of  flux.  If  the   conductor  is  kept  stationary  and  the  magnets  are  moved,  the  same   effect  is  produced.     Faraday’s  law:  The  induced  emf   in  a  circuit  is  equal  to  the  rate  of   change  of  flux  linkage  through     75  

∆! ∆𝝓

 

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   the  circuit.    

IB  Session  May  2012   𝜀

= −𝑁

12.1.6   Solve  electromagnetic   induction  problems.  

 

  The  minus  sign  indicates  that  the   emf  is  always  induced  so  as  to   oppose  the  change  causing  it   (Lenz’s  law)   Lenz’s  law:  ‘The  direction  of  the   induced  emf  is  such  that  if  an   induced  current  were  able  to   flow,  it  would  oppose  the  change   which  caused  it.’    

∆𝜙     ∆𝑡

   
12.2  Alternating  current  

 
  Assessment  statement   12.2.1   Describe  the  emf   induced  in  a  coil  rotating   within  a  uniform   magnetic  field.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  understand,   without  any  derivation,  that   the  induced  emf  is  sinusoidal   if  the  rotation  is  at  constant   speed.    

12.2.2   Explain  the  operation  of   a  basic  alternating   current  (ac)  generator.  

  The  coil  of  wire  rotates  in  the  magnetic  field  due  to  an  external  force.   As  it  rotates  the  flux  linkage  of  the  coil  changes  with  time  and  induces   an  emf  causing  a  current  to  flow.  A  coil  rotating  at  constant  speed  will   produce  a  sinusoidal  induced  emf.  Increasing  the  speed  of  rotation   will  reduce  the  time  period  of  the  oscillation  and  increase  the   amplitude  of  induced  emf.    

12.2.3   Describe  the  effect  on   the  induced  emf  of    

Students  will  be  expected  to   compare  the  output  from  

  Changing  the  frequency  will  affect   the  time  between  peaks  and  the  emf     76  

Marc  W.     changing  the  generator   frequency.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   generators  operating  at   different  frequencies  by   sketching  appropriate   graphs.  

IB  Session  May  2012  

(amplitude  peaks).  For  example,  it   the  frequency  is  doubled,  the  period   will  be  halved  and  the  emf   (amplitude)  will  be  doubled:  

12.2.4   Discuss  what  is  meant  by   the  root  mean  squared   (rms)  value  of  an   alternating  current  or   voltage.  

Students  should  know  that   the  rms  value  of  an   alternating  current  (or   voltage)  is  that  value  of  the   direct  current  (or  voltage)   that  dissipates  power  in  a   resistor  at  the  same  rate.  The   rms  value  is  also  known  as   the  rating.  

  If  the  output  of  an  a.c.  generator  is   connected  to  a  resistor  an   alternating  current  will  flow.  A   sinusoidal  potential  difference   means  a  sinusoidal  current.    

  The  graph  shows  that  the  average   power  dissipation  is  half  the  peak   power  dissipation  for  a  sinusoidal   current.     𝐼! ! 𝑅 𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒  𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 =   2 Thus  the  effective  current  through   the  resistor  is  called  the  root  mean   square  or  rms  current.     𝐼! 𝐼!.!.!. =   2 The  rms  value  is  also  known  as  the   rating.   12.2.5   State  the  relation   between  peak  and  rms   values  for  sinusoidal   currents  and  voltages.  

12.2.6   Solve  problems  using     peak  and  rms  values.   12.2.7   Solve  ac  circuit  problems      

     

 

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Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

for  ohmic  resistors.   12.2.8   Describe  the  operation  of   The  value  of  output  potential  difference  can  be  changed  by  changing   an  ideal  transformer.   the  runs  ratio.  A  step-­‐up  transformer  increases  the  voltage,  whereas  a   stet-­‐down  transformer  decreases  the  voltage.    

 

12.2.9   Solve  problems  on  the   operation  of  ideal   transformers.  

 

 

 

   
12.3  Transmission  of  electrical  power  

 
  Assessment  statement   12.3.1   Outline  the  reasons  for   power  losses  in   transmission  lines  and   real  transformers.   Teacher’s  notes       • Resistance  of  the  windings  of  a   transformer  result  in  the   transformer  warming  up.   • Eddy  currents  are  unwanted   currents  induced  in  the  iron   core.  The  currents  can  be   reduced  by  laminating  he  core   into  individually  electrically   insulates  thin  strips.   • Hysteresis  losses  cause  the   iron  core  to  warm  up  as  a   result  of  the  continues  cycle  of   changes  to  its  magnetism   • Flux  losses  are  caused  by   magnetic  ‘leakage’.  A   transformer  is  only  100%   efficient  if  all  of  the  magnetic   flux  that  is  produced  by  the   primary  links  with  the   secondary.     • The  wires  cannot  have  zero   resistance.  This  means  they   must  dissipate  some  power.     • Over  large  distance,  the  power   wasted  would  be  very   significant.     • A  very  high  potential   difference  is  much  more   efficient  but  very  dangerous  to   the  user.       Use  step-­‐up  transformers  to   increase  the  voltage  for  the     78  

12.3.2   Explain  the  use  of  high-­‐ voltage  step-­‐up  and  step-­‐  

Students  should  be  aware  that,   for  economic  reasons,  there  is  

Marc  W.     down  transformers  in  the   transmission  of  electrical   power.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   no  ideal  value  of  voltage  for   electrical  transmission.  

IB  Session  May  2012   transmission  stage  and  then  use   step-­‐down  transformers  for  the   end  user.     (power  dissipated  is  𝑃 = 𝐼 ! 𝑅  à   if  the  current  is  large  then  the   power  dissipated  will  be  large)    

12.3.3   Solve  problems  on  the     operation  of  real   transformers  and  power   transmission.   12.3.4   Suggest  how  extra-­‐low-­‐   frequency  electromagnetic   fields,  such  as  those   created  by  electrical   appliances  and  power   lines,  induce  currents   within  a  human  body.   12.3.5   Discuss  some  of  the   possible  risks  involved  in   living  and  working  near   high-­‐voltage  power  lines.   Students  should  be  aware  that   current  experimental  evidence   suggests  that  low-­‐frequency   fields  do  not  harm  genetic   material.   Students  should  appreciate  that   the  risks  attached  to  the   inducing  of  current  in  the  body   are  not  fully  understood.  These   risks  are  likely  to  be  dependent   on  current  (density),  frequency   and  length  of  exposure.  

Electrical  power  lines  carry   alternating  current,  which  means   they  produce  changing  extra-­‐ low-­‐frequency  electromagnetic   fields.  These  changing  fields  are   theoretically  able  to  induce   currents  within  any  conductor,   including  human  bodies.     Electrical  power  lines  on  pylons   are  not  insulated  along  their   length  and  are  thus  extremely   dangerous  if  they  become   unattached  from  the  pylon.  In   addition,  some  statistical   evidence  exists  which  suggests   that  there  are  regions  (near   power  lines)  where  more   children  are  diagnosed  with   leukaemia,  a  cancer  of  the  blood,   than  usual.  Students  should   appreciate  that  the  risks   attached  to  the  inducing  of   current  in  the  body  are  not  fully   understood.  These  risks  are   likely  to  be  dependent  on  current   (density),  frequency  and  length   of  exposure.  

                         

 

 

 

79  

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Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

13.1  Quantum  physics  
 
  13.1.1   Assessment  statement   Teacher’s  notes   Describe  the     photoelectric  effect.     Under  certain  conditions,  when  light   (ultra-­‐violet)  is  shone  onto  a  metal   surface,  electrons  are  emitted  from   the  surface.  Below  a  certain  threshold   frequency,  not  photoelectrons  are   emitted.  Above  the  threshold   frequency,  the  maximum  kinetic   energy  of  the  electrons  depends  on   the  frequency  of  the  incident  light.   The  number  of  electrons  emitted   depends  on  the  intensity  of  the  light   and  does  not  depend  on  the   frequency.  There  is  no  noticeable   delay  between  the  arrival  of  the  light   and  the  emission  of  electrons.  These   observations  cannot  be  reconciled   with  the  view  that  light  is  a  wave.  A   wave  of  any  frequency  should   eventually  bring  enough  energy  to   the  metal  plate.     Einstein  introduced  the  idea  of   thinking  of  light  as  being  made  up  of   particles.  His  explanation  was:   • Electrons  at  the  surface  need  a   certain  minimum  energy  in  order  to   escape  from  the  surface.  This   minimum  energy  is  called  the  work   function  of  the  metal  (𝜙)   • The  UV  light  energy  arrives  in  lots  of   little  packets  of  energy  –  photons   • The  energy  in  each  packet  is  fixed   by  the  frequency  of  UV  light  that  is   being  used,  whereas  the  number  of   packets  arriving  per  second  is  fixed   by  the  intensity  of  the  source   • The  energy  carried  by  a  photon  is   given  by  E=hf  

13.1.2  

Describe  the  concept  of   the  photon,  and  use  it  to   explain  the   photoelectric  effect.  

Students  should  be  able  to   explain  why  the  wave  model   of  light  is  unable  to  account   for  the  photoelectric  effect,   and  be  able  to  describe  and   explain  the  Einstein  model.  

13.1.3  

Describe  and  explain  an   experiment  to  test  the   Einstein  model.  

Millikan’s  experiment   involving  the  application  of  a   stopping  potential  would  be   suitable.  

13.1.4  

Solve  problems   involving  the   photoelectric  effect.  

Example:  What  is  the  maximum  velocity  of  electrons  emitted  from  a   zinc  surface  (𝜙  =  4.2eV)  when  illuminated  by  EM  radiation  of   wavelength  200nm?   𝜙  =  4.2eV  =  4.2  x  1.6  x  10-­‐19  J  =  6.72  x  10-­‐19  J   Energy  of  photon:  ℎ =
! ! !.!"∗!"!!" ∗!∗!"! !∗!"!!

 

= 9.945 ∗ 10!!" 𝐽  

K.E.  of  electron  =   9.945 − 6.72 ∗ 10!!" 𝐽 = 3.225 ∗ 10!!" 𝐽   Therefore:  𝑣 =  
!!" !

= 8.4 ∗ 10! 𝑚  𝑠 !!       80  

Marc  W.     13.1.5   Describe  the  de  Broglie   hypothesis  and  the   concept  of  matter   waves.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   Students  should  also  be   aware  of  wave–particle   duality  (the  dual  nature  of   both  radiation  and  matter).  

IB  Session  May  2012  

Every  particle  has  a  wavelength   ! associated  to  its  momentum  p.  𝑝 =   ! The  hypothesis  assigns  wave-­‐like   properties  to  something  that  is   normally  thought  to  be  a  particle.   This  state  of  affairs  is  called  the   duality  of  matter.    

13.1.6  

Outline  an  experiment   to  verify  the  de  Broglie   hypothesis.  

A  brief  outline  of  the   Davisson–Germer   experiment  will  suffice.  

13.1.7  

Solve  problems   involving  matter  waves.  

For  example,  students   should  be  able  to  calculate   the  wavelength  of  electrons   after  acceleration  through  a   given  potential  difference.  

  In  the  Davisson-­‐Germer  experiment,   electrons  of  kinetic  energy  54eV  were   directed  at  a  surface  of  nickel  where  a   single  crystal  had  been  grown  and   were  scattered  b  it.  Using  the  Bragg   formula  and  the  known  separation  of   the  crystal  atoms  allowed  the   determination  of  the  wavelength,   which  was  then  seen  to  agree  with   the  de  Broglie  formula.     Find  the  de  Broglie  wavelength  of  a   proton  that  has  been  accelerated   from  rest  by  a  potential  difference  of   500V.       The  kinetic  energy  of  the  proton  is   given  by:   𝑝 ! 𝐾𝐸 =   2𝑚 The  work  done  in  accelerating  the   proton  through  a  potential  difference   V  is  qV  and  this  work  goes  into   kinetic  energy.  Thus     𝑝 ! = 𝑞𝑉   2𝑚 𝑝 = 2𝑚𝑞𝑉   Hence   ℎ 𝜆 =   2𝑚𝑞𝑉 𝜆 =
!.!"∗!"!!" !∗!.!"∗!"!!" ∗!.!"∗!"!!" ∗!"" !!"

   

13.1.8  

Outline  a  laboratory   procedure  for   producing  and   observing  atomic   spectra.  

Students  should  be  able  to   outline  procedures  for  both   emission  and  absorption   spectra.  Details  of  the   spectrometer  are  not   required.   𝜆

= 1.3 ∗ 10  𝑚   When  hydrogen  gas  is  heated  to  a   high  temperature  or  exposed  to  a   high  electric  field,  it  will  glow,   emitting  light.  In  the  laboratory,  this   can  be  seen  with  a  tube  of  hydrogen   whose  ends  are  at  a  high  potential   difference.  The  emitted  light  may  be   analysed  by  letting  it  go  through  a   spectrometer.  In  the  case  of   hydrogen,  the  emitted  light  consists     81  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

of  a  series  of  bright  lines.  This  is  the   emission  spectrum  of  hydrogen.    

  A  similar  phenomenon  takes  pace   when  white  light  is  allowed  to  pass   through  hydrogen  gas.  When  the  light   that  has  been  transmitted  through   the  gas  is  analysed,  a  series  of  dark   lines  superimposed  on  the   continuous  band  of  colours  is  seen.   This  is  the  absorption  spectrum  of   hydrogen.      
absorption:  

emission  

 

  The  dark  lines  in  the  absorption   spectrum  are  at  precisely  the  same   wavelengths  as  the  coloured  bright   lines  in  the  emission  spectrum.       13.1.9   Explain  how  atomic   spectra  provide   evidence  for  the   quantization  of  energy   in  atoms.   An  explanation  in  terms  of   energy  differences  between   allowed  electron  energy   states  is  sufficient.  

13.1.10   Calculate  wavelengths   of  spectral  lines  from   energy  level  differences   and  vice  versa.  

 

 

  e.g.  Calculate  the  wavelength  of  the   photon  emitted  in  the  transition  from   n=3  to  n=2.   The  energy  of  the  level  n=3  is:   13.6 − ! 𝑒𝑉 = −1.51𝑒𝑉   3     82  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

The  energy  of  the  level  n=2  is:   13.6 − ! 𝑒𝑉 = −3.40𝑒𝑉   2 The  energy  difference  is  the  1.89eV   and  that  is  the  energy  of  the  emitted   photon.     1.89𝑒𝑉 = ℎ𝑓   1.89 ∗ 1.6 ∗ 10!!" 𝐽 𝑓 =   6.63 ∗ 10!!"  𝐽𝑠 = 4.56 ∗ 10!" 𝐻𝑧   13.1.11   Explain  the  origin  of   The  model  assumes  that,  if   Imagine  that  an  electron  is  confined   atomic  energy  levels  in   an  electron  is  confined  to   within  a  box  of  linear  size  L.  The   terms  of  the  “electron  in   move  in  one  dimension  by  a   electron,  treated  as  a  wave,  according   a  box”  model.   box,  the  de  Broglie  waves   to  de  Broglie,  has  a  wavelength   associated  with  the  electron   associated  with  it  given  by  𝑝 = !.     ! will  be  standing  waves  of   Since  the  electron  cannot  escape  from   !! wavelength    where  L  is  the   the  box,  it  is  reasonable  to  assume   ! length  of  the  box  and  n  is  a   that  the  electron  wave  is  zero  at  the   positive  integer.  Students   edges  of  the  box.  In  addition,  since   should  be  able  to  show  that   the  electron  cannot  lose  energy,  it  is   the  kinetic  energy  EK  of  the   also  reasonable  to  assume  that  the   !! ! ! wave  associated  with  the  electron  in   electron  in  the  box  is   .   !!! !! this  case  is  a  standing  wave.  So  we   want  a  standing  wave  that  will  have   nodes  at  x=0  and  x=L.  This  implies   !! that  𝜆 =  where  n  is  an  integer.   ! Therefore  the  momentum  of  the   electron  is   ℎ 𝑛ℎ 𝑝 = =   2𝐿 2𝐿 𝑛 The  kinetic  energy  is  then   𝑛ℎ ! 𝑛! ℎ! 𝐾𝐸 = 2𝐿 =   2𝑚 8𝑚𝐿! 13.1.12   Outline  the  Schrödinger   The  model  assumes  that   The  theory  gives  probabilities  for   model  of  the  hydrogen   electrons  in  the  atom  may  be   finding  an  electron  somewhere  –  it   atom.   described  by  wavefunctions.   does  not  pinpoint  an  electron  at  a   The  electron  has  an   particular  point  in  space.     undefined  position,  but  the   The  probability  of  finding  a  particle  at   square  of  the  amplitude  of   any  point  in  space  within  the  atom  is   the  wavefunction  gives  the   given  by  the  square  of  the  amplitude   probability  of  finding  the   of  the  wave  function  at  that  point.   electron  at  a  particular   The  wave  function  provides  a  way  of   point.   working  out  the  probability  of  finding   an  electron  at  that  particular  radius.   The  (amplitude)2  of  the  wave  at  any   given  point  is  a  measure  of  the   probability  of  finding  the  electron  at   that  distance  away  from  the  nucleus   in  any  direction.  The  exact  position  of   the  electron  is  not  known  but  we   know  where  it  is  more  likely  to  be.    

 

 

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Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

13.1.13   Outline  the  Heisenberg   uncertainty  principle   with  regard  to  position– momentum  and  time– energy.  

      Students  should  be  aware   The  basic  idea  behind  the  principle  is   that  the  conjugate   the  wave-­‐particle  duality.  Particles   quantities,  position– sometimes  behave  like  waves  and   momentum  and  time– waves  sometimes  behave  like   energy,  cannot  be  known   particles,  so  that  we  cannot  cleanly   precisely  at  the  same  time.   divide  physical  objects  as  either   They  should  know  of  the  link   particles  or  waves.     between  the  uncertainty   The  Heisenberg  uncertainty  principle   principle  and  the  de  Broglie   applied  to  position  and  momentum   hypothesis.  For  example,   states  that  it  is  not  possible  to   students  should  know  that,  if   measure  simultaneously  the  position   a  particle  has  a  uniquely   and  momentum  of  something  with   defined  de  Broglie   indefinite  precision.  The  uncertainty   wavelength,  then  its   ∆𝑥  in  position  and  in  ∆𝑝  momentum   momentum  is  known   are  related  by:   ℎ precisely  but  all  knowledge   ∆𝑥∆𝑝 ≥   of  its  position  is  lost.   4𝜋 This  says  that  making  momentum  as   accurate  as  possible  makes  position   inaccurate,  whereas  accuracy  in   position  results  in  inaccuracy  in   momentum.  If  one  is  made  zero,  the   other  has  to  be  infinite.  If  a  particle   has  a  uniquely  defined  de  Broglie   wavelength,  then  its  momentum  is   known  precisely  but  all  knowledge  of   its  position  is  lost.  

   
13.2  Nuclear  physics  

 
  Assessment  statement   13.2.1   Explain  how  the  radii  of   nuclei  may  be  estimated   from  charged  particle   scattering  experiments.   Teacher’s  notes   Use  of  energy  conservation  for   determining  closest-­‐approach   distances  for  Coulomb   scattering  experiments  is   sufficient.     Consider  an  alpha  particle   (charge  2e)  that  is  shot  head-­‐on   toward  a  stationary  nucleus  of   charge  Q=Ze.  Initially  the  system   has  a  total  energy  consisting  of   the  alpha  particle’s  kinetic  energy   𝐸 = 𝐸! .  We  take  the  separation  of   the  alpha  particle  and  the  nucleus   to  be  large  so  no  potential  energy   exists.  At  the  point  of  closest   approach,  a  distance  d  from  the   centre  of  the  nucleus,  the  alpha   particle  stops  and  is  about  to  turn     84  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   back.  Thus,  the  total  energy  now   it  the  electric  potential  energy  of   the  alpha  particle  and  the   nucleus,  given  by:     𝑄𝑞 (2𝑒)(𝑍𝑒) 2𝑍𝑒 ! 𝐸 = 𝑘 = 𝑘 = 𝑘   𝑑 𝑑 𝑑 Then,  by  conservation  of  energy:     2𝑍𝑒 ! 𝐸! = 𝑘   𝑑 2𝑍𝑒 ! 𝑑 = 𝑘   𝐸! As  the  energy  of  the  incoming   particle  is  increased,  the  distance   of  closest  approach  decreases,   The  smallest  it  can  get  is,   however,  of  the  same  order  as  the   radius  of  the  nucleus.    

13.2.2   Describe  how  the  masses   of  nuclei  may  be   determined  using  a   Bainbridge  mass   spectrometer.  

Students  should  be  able  to   draw  a  schematic  diagram  of   the  Bainbridge  mass   spectrometer,  but  the   experimental  details  are  not   required.   Students  should  appreciate  that   nuclear  mass  values  provide   evidence  for  the  existence  of   isotopes.  

13.2.3   Describe  one  piece  of   evidence  for  the  existence   of  nuclear  energy  levels.  

  Ions  enter  through  the   collimating  slits  S1.  They  then   enter  a  region  of  magnetic  and   electric  fields  and  approach  a   second  slit,  which  only  allows   ions  of  a  given  velocity  to  pass.  A   second  magnetic  field  bends   these  ions  into  circular  paths   according  to  their  mass.  If  the   beam  contains  atoms  of  equal   mass,  all  atoms  will  hit  the  plate   at  the  same  point.  If,  however,   isotopes  are  present,  the  heavier   atoms  will  follow  a  longer  radius   and  will  hit  the  plate  further  to   the  right.  Measurement  of  the   radius  of  each  isotope’s  paths   thus  allows  for  the  determination   of  its  mass.     For  example,  alpha  particles   The  main  evidence  for  the   produced  by  the  decay  of  a   existence  of  nuclear  energy  levels   nucleus  have  discrete  energies;   comes  form  the  fact  that  the   gamma-­‐ray  spectra  are   energies  of  the  alpha  particles   discrete.   and  gamma  ray  photons  are   Students  should  appreciate  that   discrete  (in  contrast  to  beta   the  nucleus,  like  the  atom,  is  a   decays,  where  the  electron  has  a   quantum  system  and,  as  such,   continuous  range  of  energies).     has  discrete  energy  levels.  

 

 

85  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

13.2.4   Describe  beta+  decay,   including  the  existence  of   the  neutrino.  

Students  should  know  that  beta   energy  spectra  are  continuous,   and  that  the  neutrino  was   postulated  to  account  for  these   spectra.  

13.2.5   State  the  radioactive   decay  law  as  an   exponential  function  and   define  the  decay  constant.  

Students  should  know  that  the   decay  constant  is  defined  as  the   probability  of  decay  of  a   nucleus  per  unit  time.  

13.2.6   Derive  the  relationship   between  decay  constant   and  half-­‐life.  

 

  The  beta  decay  originates  from  a   decay  of  a  neutron  inside  an   atomic  nucleus:   ! ! ! ! !𝑛 → !𝑝 + !!𝑒 + !𝑣!   The  neutron  decays  into  a  proton,   an  electron  and  an  antineutrino.   Sine  the  energy  of  a  beta  decay   has  a  range  of  possible  values,  it   means  that  a  third  very  light   particle  must  also  be  produced  so   that  it  carries  the  remainder  of   the  available  energy.  Neutrino   stands  for  the  ‘little  neutral  one’.     The  law  of  radioactive  decay   states  that  the  number  of  nuclei   that  will  decay  per  second  is   proportional  to  the  number  of   atoms  present  that  have  not  yet   decayed:   𝑑𝑁 = −𝜆𝑁   𝑑𝑡 Here  lambda  is  the  decay   constant.  Its  physical  meaning  is   that  it  represents  the  probability   of  decay  per  unit  time.     If  the  number  of  nuclei  originally   present  (at  t=0)  is  𝑁! ,  by   integrating  the  above  equation  it   can  be  sen  that  the  number  of   nuclei  of  the  decaying  element   present  at  time  t  is:   𝑁 = 𝑁! 𝑒 !!"   After  one  half-­‐life,  𝑇! ,  half  of  the   nuclei  present  have  decayed,  so:   !!!! 𝑁! = 𝑁! 𝑒 !   2 Taking  logarithms  we  find:   𝜆𝑇! = 𝑙𝑛2   This  is  the  relationship  between   the  decay  constant  and  the  half-­‐ life.     When  measuring  the  activity  of  a   source,  the  background  rate   should  be  subtracted.     -­‐ If  the  half-­‐life  is  short,  then   readings  can  be  taken  of  
!
!

13.2.7   Outline  methods  for   measuring  the  half-­‐life  of   an  isotope.  

Students  should  know  the   principles  of  measurement  for   both  long  and  short  half-­‐lives.  

 

 

86  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   activity  against  time.  à  A   simple  graph  of  activity  against   time  would  produce  the   normal  exponential  shape.   Several  values  could  be  read   from  the  graph  and  then   averaged.  This  method  is   simple  and  quick  but  not  the   most  accurate.  à  a  graph  of   ln(activity)  against  time  could   be  produced.  This  should  give  a   straight  lines  and  the  decay   constant  can  be  calculated   from  the  gradient.     -­‐ If  the  half-­‐life  is  long,  then  the   activity  will  effectively  be   constant  over  a  period  of  time.   In  this  case  one  needs  to  find  a   way  to  calculate  the  number  of   nuclei  present  and  then  use   !" = −𝜆𝑁  

13.2.8   Solve  problems  involving   radioactive  half-­‐life.  

 

e.g.  Carbon-­‐14  has  a  half-­‐life  of   5730yr  and  in  living  organisms  it   has  a  decay  rate  of  0.25Bq  g-­‐1.  A   quantity  of  20g  of  carbon-­‐14  was   extracted  from  an  ancient  bone   and  its  activity  was  found  to  be   1.81  Bq.  What  is  the  age  of  the   bone?     The  decay  constant  is   𝑙𝑛2 𝜆 = = 1.21 ∗ 10!! 𝑦𝑟 !!   5730 When  the  bone  was  part  of  the   living  body  the  20g  would  have   had  an  activity  of  5Bq.  If  the   activity  now  is  1.81Bq,  then   𝐴 = 𝐴! 𝑒 !!"   !! 1.81 = 5𝑒 !!.!"∗!" !   𝑡 = 8400𝑦𝑟  

!"

                           
 

 
  87  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

14.1  Analogue  and  digital  signals  
 
  Assessment  statement   14.1.1   Solve  problems  involving   the  conversion  between   binary  numbers  and   decimal  numbers.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  be  aware  of  the   term  bit.  An  awareness  of  the   least-­‐significant  bit  (LSB)  and   most-­‐significant  bit  (MSB)  is   required.  Problems  will  be   limited  to  a  maximum  of  five   bits  in  digital  numbers.   Students  may  consider  LPs,   cassette  tapes,  floppy  disks,   hard  disks,  CDs,  DVDs,  and  so   on.   Students  must  know  that   destructive  interference  occurs   when  light  is  reflected  from  the   edge  of  a  pit.     e.g.  13=1101  (1+4+8)  where  1  is   the  most  significant  bit  (highest   power)  and  1  is  the  least   significant  bit  (smallest  power)  

14.1.2   Describe  different  means   of  storage  of  information   in  both  analogue  and   digital  forms.   14.1.3   Explain  how  interference   of  light  is  used  to  recover   information  stored  on  a   CD.  

 

14.1.4   Calculate  an  appropriate   depth  for  a  pit  from  the   wavelength  of  the  laser   light.  

 

  A  phase  difference  between   successive  laser  beams  means   that  a  land  has  changed  to  a  pit  or   vice  versa.     1. The  speed  of  rotation  of  the   disc  is  controlled  so  that  a   constant  length  of  track  is   scanned  in  a  given  time.     2. The  CD  has  a  higher  speed   of  revolution  when  the   laser  is  reading  near  the   centre  compared  with  the   outer  edge.     3. The  laser  beam  is  focused   on  the  track.   4. When  the  beam  reflects   from  a  land  or  a  pit,  a   strong  signal  is  received.   5. When  the  beam  reflects   from  the  edge  between  a   land  and  a  pit,  destructive   interference  takes  place   and  a  weak  signal  is   received.   6. A  strong  signal  =  0,  a  weak   signal  =  1.   ! Bump  height  is  always  equal  to     ! for  destructive  interference  to   occur.     e.g.  Laser  light  of  frequency   6x1014  Hz  is  used  in  a  laser.   Calculate  the  appropriate  depth   of  a  pit  on  a  CD.       𝐶 3 ∗ 10! 𝜆 = = = 500𝑛𝑚   𝑓 6 ∗ 10!" Depth  of  pit:   𝜆 500 = = 125𝑛𝑚   4 4   88  

 

Marc  W.     14.1.5   Solve  problems  on  CDs   and  DVDs  related  to  data   storage  capacity.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College    

IB  Session  May  2012  

14.1.6   Discuss  the  advantage  of   the  storage  of  information   in  digital  rather  than   analogue  form.  

14.1.7   Discuss  the  implications   for  society  of  ever-­‐ increasing  capability  of   data  storage.  

e.g.  Information  is  stored  on  a  CD   at  a  rate  of  44100  words  per   second.  The  information  consists   of  32-­‐bit  words.  A  CD  lasts  for  74   minutes.  Calculate  the  storage   capacity  of  the  CD.   The  number  of  bits  imprinted  on   the  CD  is  44100x32x74x60  =   6.27 ∗ 10!  bits.  Since  1  byte  =  8   bits  this  corresponds  to     6.27 ∗ 10! = 780𝑀𝑏𝑦𝑡𝑒𝑠   8 Students  should  consider   Quality:  There  must  be  a  complex   quality,  reproducibility,   set  of  rules  for  the  conversion  of   retrieval  speed,  portability  of   input  into  digital  signal  and  from   stored  data  and  manipulation  of   digital  to  output.     data.   Reproducibility:  Optical   techniques  can  ensure  that  each   subsequent  retrieval  is  virtually   identical.   Retrieval  speed:  Text  and  simple   data  can  be  retrieved  at  great   speed.  More  complex  data  takes   longer  but  selecting  different   sections  of  information  often   does  not  add  significant  time.     Portability:  Modern   miniaturization  techniques  have   ensured  that  large  quantities  of   data  can  be  stored  in  a  very  small   device.     Manipulation:  Manipulation  of   data  can  be  easily  achieved   without  significant  corruption.   Teachers  should  consider   Common  sense  +  see  revision   moral,  ethical,  social,  economic   guide  for  table.   and  environmental   implications.  

                           

 

 

89  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

14.2  Data  capture;  digital  imaging  using  charge-­‐coupled  devices  (CCDs)  

 
  14.2.1   14.2.2   Assessment  statement   Define  capacitance.   Describe  the  structure  of   a  charge-­‐coupled  device   (CCD).   Teacher’s  notes     Students  should  know  that  a   CCD  is  a  silicon  chip  divided   into  small  areas  called  pixels.   Each  pixel  can  be  considered  to   behave  as  a  capacitor.     The  amount  of  charge  that  can  be   stored  on  a  body  per  unit   electrical  potential.    

14.2.3  

Explain  how  incident  light   Students  are  required  to  use   causes  charge  to  build  up   the  photoelectric  effect.   within  a  pixel.  

14.2.4  

Outline  how  the  image  on   a  CCD  is  digitized.  

Students  are  only  required  to   know  that  an  electrode   measures  the  potential   difference  developed  across    

  A  CCD  is  a  silicon  microchip  that   can  be  used  to  electronically   record  an  image  focused  onto  its   surface.  The  surface  is  divided   into  a  large  number  of  small   areas  called  pixels.     1. During  a  photo  exposure,   each  element  within  the  CCD   generates  a  charge   proportional  to  the  incident   light  as  a  result  of  the   photoelectric  effect   2. The  charge  is  collected  in   different  pixels.  The  pixel   behaves  as  a  capacitor  and  a   charge  builds  up.     3. The  charge  collected  from   each  pixel  is  transferred  in   turn  by  ‘coupling’  charges   from  one  pixel  to  the  next  in   turn.     4. Individual  charge  packets  are   converted  to  an  output   voltage  and  then  digitally   encoded.  The  value  of  the  p.d.   is  converted  into  a  digital   signal  in  binary  code.  The   light  intensity  information   from  each  pixel  can  be  stored   along  with  other  digital  signal   representing  the  position  of   the  pixel  on  the  surface.     See  above.    

 

90  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   each  pixel  and  this  is  then   converted  into  a  digital  signal.   The  pixel  position  is  also   stored.   Define  quantum  efficiency   Quantum  efficiency  is  the  ratio   of  a  pixel.   of  the  number  of   photoelectrons  emitted  to  the   number  of  photons  incident  on   the  pixel.   Define  magnification.   Students  are  required  to  know   that  magnification  is  the  ratio   of  the  length  of  the  image  on   the  CCD  to  the  length  of  the   object.   State  that  two  points  on     an  object  may  be  just   resolved  on  a  CCD  if  the   images  of  the  points  are   at  least  two  pixels  apart.  

IB  Session  May  2012  

14.2.5  

The  ratio  of  the  number  of   electrons  emitted  to  the  number   of  incident  photons  on  a  pixel.     Magnification  is  the  ratio  of  the   length  of  the  image  on  the  CCD  to   the  length  of  the  object.   If  we  think  about  an  image   looking  like  this:  |  |  |  then  if  the   white  squares  are  on  adjacent   pixels  on  the  CCD,  they  will  look   like  one  object  and  not  like  two   separate.  Therefore,  there  has  to   be  at  least  on  pixel  in  a  different   colour  between  them.     The  greater  the  quantum   efficiency,  the  greater  the   sensitivity  of  the  device.  A   greater  magnification  means  that   more  pixels  are  used  for  a  given   section  of  the  image.  The  image   will  be  more  detailed.  The   greater  the  resolution,  the   greater  the  amount  of  detail   recorded.  An  improvement  in   resolution  will  mean  a  given   image  will  occupy  more  memory.     See  left  +  common  sense.    

14.2.6  

14.2.7  

14.2.8  

Discuss  the  effects  of   quantum  efficiency,   magnification  and   resolution  on  the  quality   of  the  processed  image.  

 

14.2.9  

Describe  a  range  of   practical  uses  of  a  CCD,   and  list  some  advantages   compared  with  the  use  of   film.  

14.2.10   Outline  how  the  image   stored  in  a  CCD  is   retrieved.   14.2.11   Solve  problems  involving   the  use  of  CCDs.  

Students  should  appreciate   that  CCDs  are  used  for  image   capturing  in  a  large  range  of   the  electromagnetic  spectrum.   They  should  consider  items   such  as  digital  cameras,  video   cameras,  telescopes,  including   the  Hubble  Telescope,  and   medical  X-­‐ray  imaging.      

See  14.2.3   A  digital  camera  is  used  to   photograph  an  object.  Two   points  on  the  object  are   separated  by  0.002cm.  The  CCD   in  the  camera  has  a  collecting   area  of  16cm2  and  contains  4   megapixels.  The  magnification  of   the  camera  is  1.5.  Can  the  image   of  the  points  be  resolved?     Area  corresponding  to  each   pixel:   = 4.0 ∗ 10!!" 𝑚 !   !∗!"! Separation  of  pixels:    
!"∗!"!!

 

 

91  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

4.0 ∗ 10!!" = 2.0 ∗ 10!!   Equivalent  separation  on  the   object:     2.0 ∗ 10!! = 0.0013   1.5 Distance  between  two  pixels  <   0.0020cm  so  the  image  can  be   resolved.    

                   

 

 

 

92  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

E1  Introduction  to  the  universe  
 
  E.1.1   Assessment  statement   Outline  the  general   structure  of  the  solar   system.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  know  that   the  planets  orbit  the   Sun  in  ellipses  and  moons   orbit  planets.  (Details  of   Kepler’s  laws  are  not   required.)  Students  should   also  know  the  names  of  the   planets,  their  approximate   comparative  sizes  and   comparative  distances  from   the  Sun,  the  nature  of   comets,  and  the  nature  and   position  of  the  asteroid  belt.    

 

 

 

 
Planet   Mercury   Venus   Earth   Mars   Jupiter   Saturn   Uranus   Neptune   Pluto   Distance   from  Sun   60m  km   110m  km   150m  km   230m  km   780m  km     1400m   km   2900m   km   4500m   km     6000m   km   Mass   (Earth  =1)   0.055   0.814   1   0.107   320   95   15   17   0.0026  

E.1.2  

Distinguish  between  a   stellar  cluster  and  a   constellation.  

 

Asteroid  belt:  consists  of  thousands   of  small  objects  (small  planets)  in   orbit  around  the  sun.  One  theory   about  the  asteroid  belt  involves  the   disruption  of  one  planet  into  many   pieces.  Another  invokes  the  effect  of   nearby  Jupiter,  whose  large  mass  did   not  allow  the  material  that  was  there   at  the  time  of  the  formation  of  the   solar  system  to  assemble  into  a   planet.     Comets:  A  small  body  (mainly  ice  and   dust)  orbiting  the  sun  in  an  elliptical   orbit.   Stellar  cluster:  A  group  of  stars  that   are  physically  near  each  other  in   space,  created  by  the  collapse  of  the     93  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

E.1.3  

Define  the  light  year.  

 

E.1.4  

Compare  the  relative   distances  between  stars   within  a  galaxy  and   between  galaxies,  in   terms  of  order  of   magnitude.   Describe  the  apparent   motion  of  the   stars/constellations  over   a  period  of  a  night  and   over  a  period  of  a  year,   and  explain  these   observations  in  terms  of   the  rotation  and   revolution  of  the   Earth.  

 

E.1.5  

This  is  the  basic  background   for  stellar  parallax.   Other  observations,  for   example,  seasons  and  the   motion  of  planets,  are  not   expected.  

same  gas  cloud.     Constellation:  A  group  of  stars  in  a   recognizable  pattern  that  appear  to   be  near  each  other  in  space  when   observed  from  Earth.  Stars  in  a   constellation  are  not  necessarily   close  to  one  another.     We  define  the  light  year  (ly)  as  the   distance  travelled  by  light  in  one   year.  Thus:   1ly  =  9.46  x  1015m   The  average  distance  between  stars   in  a  galaxy  is  about  1pc.  The  average   distance  between  galaxies  varies   from  about  100kpc  for  galaxies   within  the  same  cluster  to  a  few  Mpc   for  galaxies  belonging  to  different   clusters.     The  constellations  appear  to  move   over  the  period  of  one  night.  They   appear  to  rotate  around  one   direction.  In  the  northern   hemisphere  everything  seems  to   rotate  about  the  pole  star.  The  same   movement  is  continued  during  the   day.  The  Sun  rises  in  the  East  and   sets  in  the  West,  reaching  its   maximum  height  at  midday.  At  this   time  in  the  northern  hemisphere  the   sun  is  in  a  southerly  direction.     Every  night,  the  constellations  have   the  same  relative  positions  to  each   other,  but  the  location  of  the  pole  star   8and  thus  the  portion  of  the  night  sky   that  is  visible  above  the  horizon)   changes  slightly  from  night  to  night.   Over  the  period  of  a  year  this  slow   change  returns  back  to  the  exact   same  position.  The  sun  continues  to   rise  in  the  East  and  set  in  the  West,   but  as  the  year  goes  from  winter  into   summer,  the  arc  gets  bigger  and  the   sun  climbs  higher  in  the  sky.    

    E2  Stellar  radiation  and  stellar  types    
  E.2.1   Assessment   statement   State  that  fusion  is   the  main  energy   source  of  stars.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  know   that  the  basic  process   is  one  in  which   hydrogen  is  converted   into  helium.  They  do   not  need  to  know   about  the  fusion  of   elements  with  higher   proton  numbers.     The  source  of  the  energy  of  the  sun  is  nuclear   fusion  in  the  interior,  where  nuclei  of  hydrogen   fuse  to  produce  helium  and  release  energy  in  the   process.  Because  of  the  high  temperatures  in  the   interior  of  the  star,  the  electrostatic  repulsion   between  protons  can  be  overcome  and  hydrogen   nuclei  can  fuse.  Because  of  the  high  pressure  in   stellar  interiors,  the  nuclei  are  sufficiently  close   to  each  other  to  give  a  high  probability  of     94  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

E.2.2  

Explain  that,  in  a   stable  star  (for   example,  our  Sun),   there  is  an   equilibrium   between  radiation   pressure  and   gravitational   pressure.  

 

collision  and  hence  fusion.  The  sequence  of   nuclear  fusion  reactions  that  take  place  is  called   the  proton-­‐proton  cycle.     Nuclear  fusion  provides  the  energy  that  is   needed  to  keep  the  star  hot,  so  that  the  radiation   pressure  is  high  enough  to  oppose  further   gravitational  contraction.    

E.2.3  

Define  the   luminosity  of  a  star.   Define  apparent   brightness  and  state   how  it  is  measured.  

 

E.2.4  

 

E.2.5  

Apply  the  Stefan– Boltzmann  law  to   compare  the   luminosities  of   different  stars.  

 

  Luminosity  is  the  amount  of  energy  radiated  by   a  star  per  second;  that  is  the  power  radiated  by   the  star.  Luminosity  depends  on  the  surface   temperature  and  surface  area  of  the  star.     The  received  energy  per  second  per  unit  area  of   detector  is  called  the  apparent  brightness  and  is   ! given  by  𝑏 = .  The  units  of  apparent   !!! ! brightness  are  Wm-­‐2.  Apparent  brightness  is   measured  using  a  CCD.  A  CCD  has  a   photosensitive  silicon  surface  that  releases  and   electron  when  it  is  hit  by  a  photon.  The  number   of  electrons  released  is  proportional  to  the   number  of  photons  that  hit  the  surface.  Thus,  the   amount  of  charge  is  a  direct  measure  of  the   brightness  of  the  object  being  observed.  CCDs   are  more  than  50  times  more  efficient  in   recording  the  photons  arriving  at  the  device   than  conventional  photographic  film.     The  amount  of  energy  per  second  radiated  by  a   star  of  surface  area  A  and  absolute  surface   temperature  T  is  given  by:   𝐿 = 𝜎𝐴𝑇 !     e.g.  A  star  has  half  the  sun’s  surface  temperature   and  400  times  its  luminosity.  How  many  times   bigger  is  it?   We  have  that   𝐿 400 =   𝐿!"# 𝜎4𝜋𝑅 ! 𝑇 ! =   𝜎4𝜋𝑅!"# ! 𝑇!!" ! ! 𝑇 𝑅 ! !"# 2 =   𝑅!"# ! 𝑇!"# ! 𝑅 ! =   16 𝑅!"# ! 𝑅 ! = 400   16 𝑅!"# ! 𝑅 = 80   𝑅!"#   95  

 

Marc  W.     E.2.6   State  Wien’s   (displacement)  law   and  apply  it  to   explain  the   connection  between   the  colour  and   temperature  of   stars.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

The  Wien  displacement  law  relates  the   wavelength  𝜆!  to  surface  temperature  T:   𝜆! 𝑇 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 = 2.9 ∗ 10!! 𝐾  𝑚   which  implies  that  the  higher  the  temperature,   the  lower  the  wavelength  at  which  most  of  the   energy  is  radiated.  Most  energy  is  emitted   around  the  peak  wavelength  𝜆! .  We  see  that  the   colour  of  the  star  is  mainly  determined  by  the   colour  corresponding  to  𝜆! .  The  area  under  the   black-­‐body  curve  is  the  total  power  radiated   from  a  unit  area,  irrespective  of  wavelength,  and   is  thus  given  by  𝜎 𝑇 ! .      

E.2.7  

Explain  how  atomic   spectra  may  be  used   to  deduce  chemical   and  physical  data   for  stars.  

Students  must  have  a   qualitative   appreciation  of  the   Doppler  effect  as   applied  to  light,   including  the  terms   red-­‐shift  and  blue-­‐ shift.  

E.2.8  

Describe  the  overall   Students  need  to  refer   classification  system   only  to  the  principal   of  spectral  classes.   spectral  classes   (OBAFGKM).  

  Temperature:  The  surface  temperature  of  the   star  is  determined  by  measuring  the  wavelength   at  which  most  of  the  radiation  is  emitted.     Chemical  composition:  In  the  absorption   spectrum  each  dark  line  represents  the   absorption  of  light  of  a  specific  frequency  by  a   specific  chemical  element  in  the  star’s   atmosphere.  It  has  been  found,  that  most  stars   have  essentially  the  same  chemical  composition,   yet  show  different  absorption  spectra.  The   reason  for  this  difference  is  that  different  stars   have  different  temperatures.     Radial  velocity:  If  a  star  moves  away  from  or   toward  us,  its  spectral  lines  will  show  a  Doppler   shift.  The  shift  will  be  toward  red  if  the  star   moves  away,  and  toward  blue  if  it  comes  toward   us.  Measurement  of  the  shift  allows  the   determination  of  the  radial  velocity  of  the  star.     Rotation:  If  a  star  rotates,  then  part  of  the  star  is   moving  toward  the  observer  and  part  away  from   the  observer.  Thus,  the  light  from  the  different   parts  of  the  star  will  again  show  Doppler  shifts.     Magnetic  fields:  In  a  magnetic  field  a  spectral   line  may  split  into  two  or  more  lines.   Measurement  of  the  amount  of  splitting  yields   information  on  the  magnetic  field  of  the  star.     Stars  are  divided  into  seven  spectral  classes   according  to  their  colour  (therefore  surface   temperature).  
Class   O   B   Colour   Blue   Blue-­‐ white   Temperature   25000-­‐50000   12000-­‐25000  

 

 

96  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

A   F   G   K   M  

White   Yellow-­‐ White   Yellow   Yellow-­‐ red   Red  

7500-­‐12000   6000-­‐7500   4500-­‐6000   3000-­‐4500   2000-­‐3000  

E.2.9  

Describe  the   different  types  of   star.  

E.2.10   Discuss  the   characteristics  of   spectroscopic  and   eclipsing  binary   stars.  

Oh  Be  A  Fine  Girl  Kiss  Me.   Students  need  to  refer   Single  star:  Our  sun  is  a  single  star.     only  to  single  and   Binary  star:  Stars  that  are  in  orbit  around  each   binary  stars,  Cepheids,   other  (their  common  centre  of  mass).  A  visual   red  giants,  red   binary  star  is  one  that  can  be  distinguished  as   supergiants  and  white   two  separate  stars  using  a  telescope.  (also  see   dwarfs.  Knowledge  of   below)   different  types  of   Cepheid:  Stars  that  are  a  little  unstable.  They  are   Cepheids  is  not   observed  to  have  a  regular  variation  in  bright   required.   ness  and  hence  luminosity.  This  is  thought  to  be   due  to  an  oscillation  in  the  size  of  the  star.       Red  giant:  Very  large,  cool  stars  with  a  reddish   appearance.  The  luminosity  of  red  giants  is   considerably  greater  than  the  luminosity  of  main   sequence  stars  of  the  same  temperature.  The   mass  of  a  red  giant  can  be  as  much  as  1000   times  the  mass  of  our  sun,  but  their  huge  size   also  implies  small  densities.  A  red  giant  will  have   a  central  hot  core  surrounded  by  an  enormous   envelope  of  extremely  tenuous  gas.     Red  supergiant:  A  bigger  version  of  a  red  giant.   The  production  of  energy  does  not  stop  with  at   helium  or  carbon.     White  dwarf:  Very  common,  but  their  faintness   makes  them  hard  to  detect.  Very  small  in  size   and  white  in  colour.  Since  they  are  white,  they   are  comparatively  hot.  They  turn  out  to  be  one   of  the  final  stages  for  some  stars,  Fusion  is  no   longer  taking  place,  and  a  white  dwarf  is  just  a   hot  remnant  that  is  cooling  down.  Eventually  it   will  cease  to  give  out  light  when  it  becomes   sufficiently  cold.  It  is  then  known  as  a  brown   dwarf.       Spectroscopic:  Identified  from  the  analysis  of  the  spectrum  of  light  from   the  ‘star’.  Over  time  the  wavelengths  show  a  periodic  shift  or  splitting  in   frequency.  

  Eclipsing:  Identified  from  the  analysis  of  the  brightness  of  the  light  from       97  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

the  ‘star’.  Over  time  the  brightness  shows  a  periodic  variation.  The   explanation  for  the  ‘dip’  in  brightness  is  that  as  a  result  of  its  orbit,  one   star  gets  in  front  of  the  other.  If  the  stars  are  of  equal  brightness,  then  this   would  cause  the  total  brightness  to  drop  to  50%.    

E.2.11   Identify  the  general   regions  of  star  types   on  a  Hertzsprung– Russell  (HR)   diagram.  

  Main  sequence,  red  giant,  red  supergiant,  white  dwarf  and  Cepheid  stars   should  be  shown,  with  scales  of  luminosity  and/or  absolute  magnitude,   spectral  class  and/or  surface  temperature  indicated.   Students  should  be  aware  that  the  scale  is  not  linear.   Students  should  know  that  the  mass  of  main  sequence  stars  is  dependent   on  position  on  the  HR  diagram.  

  Once  we  know  the  temperature  of  a  star  (for  example,  through  its   spectrum),  the  HR  diagram  can  tell  us  the  luminosity  of  the  star  with  an   acceptable  degree  of  accuracy,  provided  it’s  a  main  sequence  star.    

 
    98  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

E3  Stellar  distances  

 
  E.3.1   Assessment  statement   Define  the  parsec.   Teacher’s  notes       When  a  star  with  a  parallax  angle   of  exactly  one  second  of  arc,  its   distance  must  be  3.26ly.  This   distance  is  defined  as  on  parsec   (pc).  [One  parsec  is  the  distance   to  a  star  whose  parallax  is  1  arc   second.]  

E.3.2  

Describe  the  stellar   parallax  method  of   determining  the  distance   to  a  star.  

  The  parallax  angle  can  be  measured  by  observing  the  changes  in  a   !  !"#$!  !"  !"# star’s  position  over  the  period  of  a  year.  Then:  tan 𝜃 =   Sine  the  angle  is  small,  tan 𝜃 = 𝜃.  Then:  𝑑   𝑝𝑐 = E.3.3   Explain  why  the  method   of  stellar  parallax  is   limited  to  measuring   stellar  distances  less  than   several  hundred  parsecs.   Solve  problems  involving   stellar  parallax.    
!  !"#  !"  !"#$ ! !"#"$$"%  !"#$%  (!)

 

E.3.4  

 

E.3.5  

Describe  the  apparent   magnitude  scale.  

Students  should  know  that   apparent  magnitude  depends   on  luminosity  and  the  distance   to  a  star.   They  should  also  know  that  a   magnitude  1  star  is   100  times  brighter  than  a   magnitude  6  star.    

The  parallax  method  can  be  sued   to  measure  stellar  distances  that   are  less  than  several  hundred   parsecs.  The  parallax  angle  for   stars  that  are  at  greater  distances   becomes  too  small  to  measure   accurately.     e.g.  A  star  is  1.32 ∗ 10!" 𝑚  away.   Calculate  its  parallax  angle.     𝑑 = 1.32 ∗ 10!" 𝑚   1.32 ∗ 10!" 𝑝𝑐 = 42.9𝑝𝑐   3.08 ∗ 10!" Then  the  parallax  angle  is:   1 = 0.023′′   42.9 The  scale  was  introduced  over   2000  years  ago  as  a  way  of   classifying  stars.  They  were  all   assigned  to  one  of  six   classifications  according  to  their   brightness  as  seen  by  the  naked   eye.  Very  bright  stars  were  called   magnitude  1  stars,  whereas  the   faintest  stars  were  called   99  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   magnitude  6.  With  the  aid  of   telescopes,  we  can  now  see  stars   that  are  fainter  than  the   magnitude  6  stars.  A  magnitude  1   star  is  100  times  brighter  than  a   magnitude  6  star  and  the  scale  is   logarithmic.     As  the  magnitude  numbers  get   bigger,  the  stars  are  getting   dimmer.  Magnitudes  are  negative   for  very  bright  stars.  Each  step  on   the  scale  equates  to  a  brightness   increase/decrease  of  2.512.    

E.3.6  

Define  absolute   magnitude.   Solve  problems  involving   apparent  magnitude,   absolute  magnitude  and   distance.  

 

E.3.7  

 

E.3.8   E.3.9  

Solve  problems  involving   apparent  brightness  and   apparent  magnitude.   State  that  the  luminosity   of  a  star  may  be  estimated   from  its  spectrum.  

   

The  absolute  magnitude  M  of  a   star  is  the  apparent  magnitude  it   would  have  if  place  d  at  a   distance  of  10pc  from  earth.     e.g.  Calculate  the  absolute   magnitude  of  a  star  whose   distance  is  25ly  and  whose   apparent  magnitude  is  3.45.   We  must  first  change  light  years   into  parsecs:   25 25𝑙𝑦 = 𝑝𝑐 = 7.67𝑝𝑐   3.26 𝑑 𝑚 − 𝑀 = 5 log     10 𝑑 𝑀 = 𝑚 − 5 log = 4.03   10  

   

E.3.10   Explain  how  stellar   distance  may  be   determined  using   apparent  brightness  and   luminosity.   E.3.11   State  that  the  method  of   spectroscopic  parallax  is   limited  to  measuring   stellar  distances  less  than   about  10  Mpc.  

 

Temperature  can  be  deduced   from  examining  the  spectrum  of  a   star.  Knowing  the  temperature   and  using  the  HR  diagram   (assuming  the  star  is  a  main   sequence  star)  allow  us  to   determine  the  luminosity.     Assuming  that  we  know  the   luminosity  and  apparent   brightness  of  a  star,  we  can  find   the  distance,  since:     𝑏 = 𝐿 → 𝑑 = 4𝜋𝑑 ! 𝐿   4𝜋𝑏

 

E.3.12   Solve  problems  involving   stellar  distances,  apparent    

 

The  term  spectroscopic  parallax   refers  to  a  method  of  finding  the   distance  to  a  star  given  the  star’s   luminosity  and  apparent   brightness.The  method  of   spectroscopic  parallax  is  limited   to  measuring  stellar  distances   less  than  about  10  Mpc.   e.g.  A  main  sequence  star  emits   most  of  its  energy  at  a     100  

Marc  W.     brightness  and  luminosity.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   wavelength  of  2.4x10-­‐7m.  Its   apparent  brightness  is  measured   to  be  4.3x10-­‐9.  How  far  is  the   star?   From  Wien’s  law  we  find  the   temperature  of  the  star  to  be   𝜆! 𝑇 = 2.9 ∗ 10!! 𝐾  𝑚   2.9 ∗ 10!! 𝑇 = = 12000𝐾   2.4 ∗ 10!! From  the  HR  diagram  we  see  that   such  a  temperature  corresponds   to  a  luminosity  of  about  100   times  that  of  the  sun,  that  is   𝐿 = 3.9 ∗ 10!" 𝑊   Thus   𝑑 = 𝑑 = 𝐿   4𝜋𝑏

3.9 ∗ 10!" 4𝜋 ∗ 4.3 ∗ 10!!

E.3.13   Outline  the  nature  of  a   Cepheid  variable.  

Students  should  know  that  a   Cepheid  variable  is  a  star  in   which  the  outer  layers  undergo   a  periodic  expansion  and   contraction,  which  produces  a   periodic  variation  in  its   luminosity.  

E.3.14   State  the  relationship   between  period  and   absolute  magnitude  for   Cepheid  variables.   E.3.15   Explain  how  Cepheid   variables  may  be  used  as   “standard  candles”.   E.3.16   Determine  the  distance  to   a  Cepheid  variable  using   the  luminosity–period   relationship.  

 

= 8.5 ∗ 10!" 𝑚   Cepheid  variable  stars  are  stars   whose  luminosity  is  not  constant   in  time  but  varies  from  a   minimum  to  a  maximum   periodically.  The  brightness   increases  sharply  and  then  fades   off  more  gradually.  The  reason   for  this  has  to  do  with  the   interaction  of  radiation  with   matter  in  the  atmosphere  of  the   star.  This  interaction  causes  the   outer  layers  of  the  star  to   undergo  periodic  expansions  and   contractions.     The  longer  the  period,  the  larger   the  luminosity  of  a  Cepheid   variable.    

It  is  sufficient  for  students  to   If  the  luminosity  of  the  Cepheid  is   know  that,  if  a  Cepheid  variable   found,  the  distance  between   is  located  in  a  particular  galaxy,   earth  and  the  galaxy  that   then  the  distance  to  the  galaxy   contains  the  Cepheid  can  be   may  be  determined.   found.     e.g.  A  Cepheid  has  a  period  of  about  22  days,  this  corresponds  to  a   luminosity  of  about  7000  solar  luminosities,  or  about   L=2.73x1030W.    

 

 

101  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

  The  peak  apparent  magnitude  is  about  m=3.7.  The  peak  apparent   brightness  can  be  found  from   𝑏 = 2.512!!   2.52 ∗ 10!!   𝑏 = 2.52 ∗ 10!! ∗ 2.512!!.! = 8.34 ∗ 10!!" 𝑊𝑚 !!   Then,     𝑑 = 𝐿 = 1.6 ∗ 10!" 𝑚 = 1700𝑙𝑦 = 520𝑝𝑐   4𝜋𝑏

   
E4  Cosmology  

 
  E.4.1   Assessment  statement   Describe  Newton’s  model   of  the  universe.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  know  that   Newton  assumed  an  infinite  (in   space  and  time),  uniform  and   static  universe.     Newton  used  an  extreme  version   of  the  cosmological  principle   when  he  suggested  that  the   universe  is  infinite  in  extent,  has   no  beginning  an  is  static,   meaning  it  has  been  uniform  and   isotropic  at  all  times.  He   assumed  and  infinite,  uniform   and  static  universe.     Students  should  be  able  to  show   If  the  universe  is  really  like   quantitatively,  using  the  inverse   Newton  imagined  then  the  night   square  law  of  luminosity,  that   sky  should  be  bright.     Newton’s  model  of  the  universe   Imagine  a  universe  that  is   leads  to  a  sky  that  should  never   infinite  and  contains  an  infinite   be  dark.   number  of  stars  more  or  less   uniformly  distributed  in  space.   The  very  distant  stars  contribute   very  little  light  to  an  observer  on   earth  but  there  are  very  many  of   them.  Mathematically,  let  n  stand   for  the  number  of  stars  per  unit   volume  of  space.  At  a  distance  d   from  a  star  of  luminosity  L,  the   received  energy  per  area  per   second  is    

E.4.2  

Explain  Olbers’  paradox.  

 

 

102  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   𝐿   4𝜋𝑑 ! The  number  of  stars  in  a  thin   shell  of  thickness  t  at  a  distance  d   from  the  observer  is  number   density  *  volume  =  4𝜋𝑑 ! 𝑛𝑡.     𝑏 =

E.4.3  

Suggest  that  the  red-­‐shift   of  light  from  galaxies   indicates  that  the  universe   is  expanding.  

 

  Hence  the  received  energy  per   second  per  area  from  all  the   stars  in  the  thin  shell  is     𝐿 ∗ 4𝜋𝑑 ! 𝑛𝑡 = 𝐿𝑛𝑡   4𝜋𝑑 ! This  number  does  not  depend  on   the  distance  d  to  the  shell.  Since   there  is  an  infinite  number  of   such  shells  surrounding  the   observer,  and  since  each   contributes  a  constant  amount  of   energy,  the  total  energy  received   must  be  infinite,  making  the   night  sky  infinitely  bright,  which   it  is  not.  This  is  Olbers’  paradox.     Hubble  interpreted  the  redshift   of  the  spectral  lines  as  evidence   of  a  velocity  of  the  galaxy  away   from  us,  as  in  the  Doppler  shift.   The  faster  the  galaxy,  the  larger   the  redshift.    

E.4.4  

Describe  both  space  and   time  as  originating  with   the  Big  Bang.  

Students  should  appreciate  that   the  universe  is  not  expanding   into  a  void.    

  Hubble’s  observations  thus   suggest  an  expanding  universe   with  galaxies  moving  away  from   us  and  from  each  other.  It  also   suggests  that  in  the  past  the   universe  was  much  smaller.  The   universe  appears  to  have  started   from  a  kind  of  explosion  that  set   matter  moving  outward.  This  is   the  idea  of  the  Big  Bang  model  of   cosmology.     See  above.   It  is  important  to  realize  that  the   universe  is  not  expanding  into   103  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   empty  space.  The  galaxies  that   are  moving  away  from  us  are  not   moving  into  another,  previously   unoccupied,  part  of  the  universe.   Space  is  being  created  in   between  the  galaxies  and  so  the   distance  between  them   increases,  creating  the  illusion  of   motion  of  one  galaxy  relative  to   another.     Two  radio  astronomers  working   at  Bell  Laboratories  accidentally   discovered  CMB  when  an   antenna  they  designed  was   picking  up  a  signal  the  persisted   no  matter  what  part  of  the  sky   the  antenna  was  pointing  at.  The   spectrum  of  this  signal  turned   out  to  be  a  black-­‐body  spectrum   corresponding  to  a  temperature   of  2.7K.       Today  we  observe  the   background  radiation  at  2.7K.   This  is  consistent  with  a  small,   hot  universe  in  the  distant  past,   which  began  to  cool  down  as  it   expanded.  Penzias  and  Wilson   realised  that  the  radiation   detected  was  the  remnant  of  the   hot  explosion  at  the  beginning  of   time.  It  was  the  afterglow  of  the   enormous  temperature  that   existed  in  the  early  universe.  As   the  universe  has  expanded,  the   temperature  has  kept  falling  to   reach  its  present  value  of  2.7K.     Big  Bang  theory  says  that  the   universe  is  not  infinite,  therefore   a  solution  to  the  paradox.    

E.4.5  

Describe  the  discovery  of   cosmic  microwave   background  (CMB)   radiation  by  Penzias  and   Wilson.  

 

E.4.6  

Explain  how  cosmic   radiation  in  the   microwave  region  is   consistent  with  the  Big   Bang  model.  

A  simple  explanation  in  terms   of  the  universe  “cooling  down”   is  all  that  is  required.  

E.4.7  

E.4.8  

Suggest  how  the  Big  Bang   model  provides  a   resolution  to  Olbers’   paradox.   Distinguish  between  the   terms  open,  flat  and  closed   when  used  to  describe  the   development  of  the   universe.  

 

If  the  distance  between  two  galaxies  was  𝑥!  at  some  arbitrary  time,   then  the  separation  of  these  two  galaxies  at  some  time  t  later  is   given  by  the  expression   𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑅(𝑡)𝑥!   Where  R(t)  is  the  scale  factor  of  the  universe  ,  that  can  be   interpreted  as  follows:   1. R(t)  starts  from  zero,  increases  to  a  maximum  value  and  then   decreases  back  to  zero  again.  The  universe  collapses  after  an   initial  period  of  expansion.  This  is  called  the  closed  universe.   2. The  scale  factor  R(t)  increases  without  limit,  the  universe   continues  to  expand  forever.  This  is  called  the  open  universe.   3. The  universe  does  expand  forever,  but  the  rate  of  expansion   decreases,  this  is  called  a  flat  universe.  

 

 

104  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

E.4.9  

Define  the  term  critical   density  by  reference  to  a   flat  model  of  the   development  of  the   universe.  

E.4.10   Discuss  how  the  density  of   the  universe  determines   the  development  of  the   universe.  

E.4.11   Discuss  problems   associated  with   determining  the  density  of   the  universe.  

  Depending  on  which  solution  is  taken,  the  age  of  the  universe  is   different.       The  theoretical  value  of  density   that  would  create  a  flat  universe   is  called  the  critical  density   (5x10-­‐26  kg  m-­‐3).   If  the  density  is  equal  to  the   critical  density,  the  universe   expands  forever  at  a  rate  that   approaches  zero  (flat  universe).       Let  p  be  the  actual  density  and  pc   the  critical  density.  Then:   • p  <  pc  the  universe  expands   forever  at  a  slowing  rate.   (open)   • p  =  pc  the  universe  expands   forever  at  a  slowing  rate  that   approaches  zero.  (flat)   • p  >  pc  the  universe  collapses   after  a  period  of  expansion   (closed)   This  statement  is  included  to   The  density  of  the  universe  is  not   give  the  students  a  flavour  for   an  easy  quantity  to  measure,  It  is   the  ongoing  and  complex   reasonably  easy  to  estimate  the   current  nature  of  research.   mass  in  a  galaxy  by  estimating   They  should  be  able  to  discuss   the  number  of  stars  and  their   relevant  observations  and   average  mass.  This  calculation   possible  explanations.   results  in  a  galaxy  mass  that  is  to   They  should  recognize  that,  in   small.  We  know  this  because  we   common  with  many  other   can  use  the  mathematics  or   aspects  of  our  universe,  much   orbital  motion  to  work  out  how   about  the  phenomena  is   much  mass  there  must  be   currently  not  well  understood.   keeping  the  outer  stars  in  orbit   Teachers  should  include  dark   around  the  galactic  centre.     matter,  MACHOs  and   We  think  we  can  see  a  maximum   WIMPs.   of  10%  of  the  matter  that  must   exist  in  the  galaxy.  This  means   that  much  of  the  mass  of  a  galaxy   and  indeed  the  universe  itself   must  be  dark  matter  –  in  other   words  we  cannot  observe  it   because  it  is  not  radiating     105  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

E.4.12   State  that  current   scientific  evidence   suggests  that  the  universe   is  open.   E.4.13   Discuss  an  example  of  the   international  nature  of   recent  astrophysics   research.  

E.4.14   Evaluate  arguments   related  to  investing   significant  resources  into   researching  the  nature  of   the  universe.  

sufficiently  for  us  to  detect  it.     The  matter  could  be  found  in   MACHOs  (massive  astronomical   compact  halo  objects).  There  is   some  evidence  that  lots  of   ordinary  matter  does  exist  in   these  groupings.  These  can  be   thought  of  as  low-­‐mass  ‘failed’   stars  of  high-­‐mass  planets.  They   could  even  be  black  holes,  which   would  produce  little  or  no  light.     There  also  could  be  few  particles   that  we  do  not  know  about.   These  are  WIMPs  (weakly   interacting  massive  particles)   Furthermore,  it  might  be  that  our   current  theories  of  gravit  are  not   completely  correct.       Current  scientific  evidence   suggests  that  the  universe  is   open.  There  is  also  evidence  that   the  rate  of  expansion  may  have   increased.     It  is  sufficient  for  students  to   e.g.  The  Cassini  spacecraft  that   outline  any  astrophysics  project   has  been  in  orbit  around  the   that  is  funded  by  more  than  one   Saturn  for  several  years  sending   country.   information  about  the  planet   back  to  Earth  and  it  is  designed   to  continue  doing  so  for  many   more  years.  The  Cassini-­‐Huygens   spacecraft  was  funded  by  ESA,   NASA  and  ASI.  As  well  as  general   information  about  Saturn,  an   important  focus  of  the  mission   was  a  moon  of  Saturn  called   Titan.  The  Huygens  probe  was   released  and  sent  back   information  as  it  descended   towards  the  surface.  The   information  discovered  is  shared   among  the  entire  scientific   community.     Students  should  be  able  to  demonstrate  their  ability  to  understand   the  issues  involved  in  deciding  priorities  for  scientific  research  as   well  as  being  able  to  express  their  own  opinions  coherently.     Advantages   Disadvantages   Understanding  the  nature  of   The  money  could  be  more   the  universe  (why  are  we   usefully  spent  providing  food,   here?,  is  there  life  elsewhere  in   shelter  and  medical  care     the  universe?)   All  fundamental  research  will   If  money  is  to  be  allocated  on   give  rise  to  technology  that   research,  it  is  much  more   may  eventually  improve  the   worthwhile  to  invest  limited   quality  of  life   resources  into  medical   research.     Life  on  earth  will,  at  some  time   It  is  better  to  fund  a  great  deal   in  the  distant  future,  become   of  small  diverse  research   and  impossibility.  Therefore   rather  than  concentrating  all   we  must  be  able  to  travel  to   funding  into  one  expensive     106  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

distant  stars  and  colonise  new   planets  
 

area.  Is  the  information  gained   really  worth  the  cost?  

E5  Stellar  processes  and  stellar  evolution  

 
  E.5.1   Assessment  statement   Describe  the  conditions   that  initiate  fusion  in  a   star.   Teacher’s  notes       In  order  for  the  proton-­‐proton   cycle  to  take  place,  two  positively   charges  particles  need  to  come   close  to  each  other  for   interactions  to  take  place.   Obviously,  they  will  repel  one   another.    This  means  that  they   must  be  at  a  high  temperature.  If   a  large  cloud  of  hydrogen  is  hot   enough,  then  these  nuclear   reactions  can  take  place   spontaneously.  As  the  cloud   comes  together,  the  loss  of   gravitational  potential  energy   must  mean  an  increase  in  kinetic   energy  and  hence  temperature.   In  simple  terms  the  gas   molecules  speed  up  as  they  fall  in   towards  the  centre  to  form  a   proto-­‐star.     The  star  cannot  continue  in  its  main  sequence  state  forever.  It  is   fusing  hydrogen  into  helium  and  at  some  point  hydrogen  in  the  core   will  become  rare.  The  route  that  is  followed  after  the  red  giant  phase   depends  on  the  initial  mass  of  the  star.  An  important  critical  mass  is   called  the  Chandrasekhar  limit  and  is  equal  to  approximately  1.4   times  the  mass  of  our  sun.     • If  a  star  has  a  mass  less  than  4  solar  masses,  its  remnant  will  be   less  than  1.4  solar  masses  and  so  it  is  below  the  Chandrasekhar   limit.  In  this  case  the  red  giant  forms  a  planetary  nebula  and   becomes  a  white  dwarf.     • If  a  star  is  greater  than  4  solar  masses,  its  remnant  will  have  a   mass  greater  than  1.4  solar  masses.  In  this  case  the  red  supergiant   experiences  a  supernova,  it  then  becomes  a  neutron  star  or   collapses  to  a  black  hole    

E.5.2  

State  the  effect  of  a  star’s   mass  on  the  end  product   of  nuclear  fusion.  

      107  

Marc  W.     E.5.3   Outline  the  changes  that   take  place  in   nucleosynthesis  when  a   star  leaves  the  main   sequence  and  becomes  a   red  giant.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   Students  need  to  know  an   outline  only  of  the  processes  of   helium  fusion  and  silicon  fusion   to  form  iron.  

IB  Session  May  2012   If  it  has  sufficient  mass,  a  red   giant  can  continue  to  fuse  higher   and  higher  elements  and  the   process  of  nucleosynthesis  can   continue.  This  process  of  fusion   as  a  source  of  energy  must  come   to  an  end  with  the   nucleosynthesis  of  iron.  The  iron   nucleus  has  the  greatest  binging   energy  per  nucleon  of  all  nuclei.   On  other  words  the  fusion  of  iron   to  form  a  higher  mass  nucleus   would  need  to  take  in  energy   rather  than  release  energy.    

E.5.4  

Apply  the  mass– luminosity  relation.  

 

E.5.5  

Explain  how  the   Chandrasekhar  and   Oppenheimer–Volkoff   limits  are  used  to  predict   the  fate  of  stars  of   different  masses.  

 

  For  stars  in  the  main  sequence,   there  is  a  mass-­‐luminosity   relation:  𝐿   ∝ 𝑀 !  where  n  is   between  3  and  4.  The  uncertainty   in  the  value  of  a  comes  from  the   fact  that  the  composition  of  stars   is  not  precisely  known.  One   application  of  the  mass-­‐ luminosity  relation  is  to  estimate   the  lifetime  of  a  star  on  the  main   sequence.  Sine  luminosity  is  the   power  radiated  by  the  star:     𝐸   ∝ 𝑀 !   𝑇 For  the  purpose  of  an  estimate,   we  may  assume  that  the  total   energy  the  star  can  radiate  will   come  from  converting  all  its  mass   into  energy  according  to  𝐸 = 𝑚𝑐 !   𝐸 𝑀𝑐 !   ∝ 𝑀 ! → ∝ 𝑀 !   𝑇 𝑇 𝑇 ∝ 𝑀!!!   If  the  mass  of  the  core  of  a  star  is   less  than  the  Chandrasekhar  limit   of  about  1.4  solar  masses,  the   star  will  become  a  stable  white   dwarf  in  which  electron  pressure   keeps  the  star  from  collapsing   further.     If  the  core  is  more  massive  than   the  Chandrasekhar  limit,  the  core   will  collapse  further  until   electrons  are  driven  into  protons,   turning  them  into  neutrons.   Neutron  pressure  now  keeps  the   star  from  collapsing  further  and   the  star  has  become  a  neutron   star.     108  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   If  the  core  is  substantially  more   massive  than  the  Oppenheimer-­‐ Volkhoff  limit  of  about  2-­‐3  solar   masses,  neutron  pressure  will   not  be  enough  to  oppose  the   gravitational  collapse  and  the   star  will  become  a  black  hole.     See  E.5.2  

E.5.6  

E.5.7  

Compare  the  fate  of  a  red   Students  should  know  that:   giant  and  a  red  supergiant.   •  a  red  giant  forms  a  planetary   nebula  and  then  becomes  a   white  dwarf   •  a  white  dwarf  is  stable  due  to   electron  degeneracy  pressure   •  a  red  supergiant  experiences  a   supernova  and  becomes  a   neutron  star  or  collapses  to  a   black  hole   •  a  neutron  star  is  stable  due  to   neutron  degeneracy  pressure.   Draw  evolutionary  paths   of  stars  on  an  HR  diagram.  

 

E.5.8  

Outline  the  characteristics   of  pulsars.  

 

  A  neutron  star  may  have  a   magnetic  field  of  quite  large   magnitude  (108T)  and  may  rotate   as  well,  with  a  period  ranging   from  30ms  to  0.3s.  Rotating   neutron  stars  emit     109  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   electromagnetic  waves  in  the   radio  part  of  the  spectrum  and  so   neutron  stars  can  be  detected  by   radio  telescopes.  Rotating   neutron  stars  that  radiate  n  this   way  are  called  pulsars.  The   radiation  emitted  by  the  pulsar  is   in  a  narrow  cone  around  the   magnetic  field.  If  the  magnetic   field  is  not  aligned  with  the  axis   of  rotation,  then,  as  the  star   rotates,  the  cone  containing  the   radiation  precesses  around  the   rotation  axis.  An  observer  who   can  receive  some  of  this  radiation   will  then  do  so  every  time  the   cone  sweeps  past.    

   
E6  Galaxies  and  the  expanding  universe  

 

 
  E.6.1  

 
Assessment   statement   Describe  the   distribution  of   galaxies  in  the   universe.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  understand  the   terms  galactic  cluster  and  galactic   supercluster.     Galaxies  are  not  distributed  randomly   throughout  space.  They  tend  to  be  found   clustered  together.  For  example,  in  the   region  of  the  Milky  Way  there  are  twenty   or  so  galaxies  in  less  then  2.5m  light   years.  On  a  larger  scale,  galactic  clusters   are  grouped  into  huge  superclusters  of   galaxies.  In  general,  these  superclusters   often  involve  galaxies  arranged  together   in  joined  bands  that  are  arranged  as   though  randomly  throughout  empty   space.   The  velocity  of  recession  is  found  by  an   application  of  the  Doppler  effect  to  light.   Light  from  galaxies  arrives  on  earth   redshifted.  This  means  that  the   wavelength  of  the  light  measured  upon   arrival  is  longer  than  the  wavelength  at   emission.  According  to  the  Doppler   effect,  this  implies  that  the  source  of  light   (galaxy)  is  moving  away  from  the   observer  on  earth.     e.g.  A  hydrogen  line  has  a  wavelength  of   434nm.  When  received  from  a  distant   galaxy,  this  line  is  measured  on  earth  at     110  

E.6.2  

Explain  the  red-­‐ shift  of  light  from   distant  galaxies.  

Students  should  realize  that  the   red-­‐shift  is  due  to  the  expansion   of  the  universe.  

E.6.3  

Solve  problems   involving  red-­‐ shift  and  the  

 

 

Marc  W.     recession  speed   of  galaxies.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

E.6.4  

State  Hubble’s   law.  

 

E.6.5  

Discuss  the   limitations  of   Hubble’s  law.  

 

486nm.  What  is  the  speed  of  recession  of   this  galaxy?   From  formula  booklet:   ∆𝜆 𝑣 ≅   𝜆 𝑐   (486 − 434) ∗ 3 ∗ 10! ≅ 𝑣   434 𝑣 ≅ 3.6 ∗ 10! 𝑚𝑠 !!   Hubble  studied  a  large  number  of   galaxies  and  found  that,  the  more  distant   the  galaxy,  the  faster  it  moves  away  from   us.  This  is  Hubble’s  law,  which  states   that  the  velocity  of  recession  is  directly   proportional  to  the  distance:  v  =  Hd,   where  d  is  the  distance  between  the   earth  and  the  galaxy,  and  v  its  velocity  of   recession.  The  constant  of   proportionality,  H,  is  the  slope  of  the   graph  and  is  known  as  the  Hubble   constant.     The  uncertainties  in  H  come  mainly  from   the  enormous  difficulties  in  measuring   distances  to  remote  galaxies  accurately.   It  is  also  not  clear  whether  the  expansion   of  the  universe  happened  at  a  constant   rate.  Some  theories  suggest  that  the   expansion  is  currently  accelerating.    

E.6.6  

Explain  how  the   Hubble  constant   may  be   determined.  

E.6.7  

Explain  how  the   Hubble  constant   may  be  used  to   estimate  the  age   of  the  universe.  

Students  need  only  consider  a   constant  rate  of  expansion.  

E.6.8  

Solve  problems   involving  

 

Imagine  a  galaxy,  which  is  now  a   distance  r  from  us.  Its  velocity  is  thus  v  =   Hr.  In  the  beginning  the  galaxy  and  the   earth  were  at  zero  separation  from  each   other.  If  the  present  separation  of  r  is   thus  covered  at  the  same  constant   velocity  Hr,  the  time,  T,  taken  to  achieve   this  separation  must  be  given  by     𝑟 1 𝑣 = = 𝐻𝑟 → 𝑇 =   𝑇 𝐻 Where  T  is  the  age  of  the  universe.     Find  the  age  of  the  universe  (𝐻 = 72 ∗ 10! 𝑚𝑠 !! 𝑀𝑝𝑐 !! )    

 

 

111  

Marc  W.     Hubble’s  law.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

E.6.9  

Explain  how  the   expansion  of  the   universe  made   possible  the   formation  of  light   nuclei  and  atoms.  

Students  should  appreciate  that,   at  the  very  high  temperatures  of   the  early  universe,  only   elementary  (fundamental)   particles  could  exist  and  that   expansion  gave  rise  to  cooling  to   temperatures  at  which  light   nuclei  could  be  stable.  

1 1 =   ! 𝑚𝑠 !! 𝑀𝑝𝑐 !! 𝐻 72 ∗ 10 1 ∗ 10! 𝑝𝑐   72 ∗ 10! 𝑚𝑠 !! 1 ∗ 10! ∗ 3.09 ∗ 10!" 𝑚   72 ∗ 10! 𝑚𝑠 !! 4.29 ∗ 10!" 𝑠 = 13.6 ∗ 10! 𝑦𝑟𝑠   At  t=10-­‐2s,  the  temperature  had  fallen   sufficiently  to  1011K  for  quarks  to  bind   together  and  to  form  protons  and   neutrons  and  their  antiparticles.  The   universe  had  a  size  of  10-­‐10  of  its  present   size.  At  t=1s  after  the  Big  Bang,  T=1010K,   and  protons,  neutrons,  electrons  and   their  antiparticles  were  in  thermal   equilibrium  with  each  other.     [At  the  very  high  temperatures  of  the   early  universe,  only  elementary   (fundamental)  particles  could  exist  and   that  expansion  gave  rise  to  cooling  to   temperatures  at  which  light  nuclei  could   be  stable.]   𝑇 =

   

 

 

 

112  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

H1  Introduction  to  relativity  
 
  H.1.1   Assessment  statement   Describe  what  is  meant  by   a  frame  of  reference.   Teacher’s  notes       A  frame  of  reference  may  refer  to   a  coordinate  system  or  set  of   axes,  within  which  to  measure   the  position,  orientation  and   other  properties  of  objects  in  it.     [The  observer  along  with  the   rulers  and  clocks  that  he  or  she   uses  to  measure  distances  and   times  constitute  what  is  called  a   frame  of  reference.]   It  is  possible  to  formalise  the   relationship  between  two   different  frames  of  reference.  The   idea  is  to  use  the  measurement  in   one  frame  of  reference  to  work   out  the  measurements  that   would  be  recorded  in  another   frame  of  reference.  The   equations  that  do  this  without   taking  the  theory  of  relativity   into  consideration  are  called   Galilean  transformations.     [The  relation  between   coordinates  of  events  when  one   frame  moves  past  the  other  with   uniform  velocity  on  a  straight   line.]   Simple  e.g.  A  ball  rolls  on  the   floor  of  a  train  at  2ms-­‐1  (with   respect  to  the  floor).  The  train   moves  with  respect  to  the   ground  to  the  right  at  12ms-­‐1  (a);   to  the  left  at  12ms-­‐1  (b)  What  is   the  velocity  of  the  ball  relative  to   he  ground?   a) v  =  14ms-­‐1   b) v  =  -­‐10ms-­‐1  

H.1.2  

Describe  what  is  meant  by   a  Galilean  transformation.  

 

H.1.3  

Solve  problems  involving   relative  velocities  using   the  Galilean   transformation  equations.  

 

   
H2  Concepts  and  postulates  of  special  relativity  

 
  H.2.1   Assessment  statement   Describe  what  is  meant  by   an  inertial  frame  of   reference.   State  the  two  postulates  of   the  special  theory  of   relativity.   Discuss  the  concept  of   simultaneity.   Teacher’s  notes       Frames  moving  with  uniform   velocity  past  each  other  on   straight  lines  are  called  inertial   frames  of  reference.  These  are   non-­‐accelerating  frames.     1) The  laws  of  physics  are  the   same  in  all  inertial  frames   2) The  speed  of  light  in  a   vacuum  is  the  same  for  all   inertial  observers   Events  that  are  simultaneous  for   one  observer  and  which  take     113  

H.2.2  

 

H.2.3    

Students  should  know  that  two   events  occurring  at  different  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   points  in  space  and  which  are   simultaneous  for  one  observer   cannot  be  simultaneous  for   another  observer  in  a  different   frame  of  reference.  

IB  Session  May  2012   place  at  different  points  in  space,   are  not  simultaneous  for  another   observer  in  motion  relative  to   the  first.     On  the  other  hand,  if  two  events   are  simultaneous  for  one   observer  and  take  place  at  the   same  point  in  space,  they  are   simultaneous  for  all  other   observers  as  well.     [Simultaneity,  like  motion,  is  a   relative  concept.  Our  notion  of   absolute  simultaneity  is  based  on   the  idea  of  absolute  time:  events   happen  at  specific  times  that  all   observers  agree  on.  Einstein  has   taught  us  that  the  idea  of   absolute  time,  just  like  the  idea  of   absolute  motion,  must  be   abandoned.]  

     
H3  Relativistic  kinematics  

 
  H.3.1   Assessment  statement   Describe  the  concept  of  a   light  clock.   Teacher’s  notes   Only  a  very  simple  description   is  required  here.  For  example,  a   beam  of  light  reflected  between   two  parallel  mirrors  may  be   used  to  measure  time.     A  light  clock  is  an  imaginary   device.  A  beam  of  light  bounces   between  two  mirrors  –  the  time   taken  by  the  light  between   bounces  is  one  ‘tick’  of  the  light   clock.  The  path  taken  by  light  in  a   light  clock  that  is  moving  at   constant  velocity  is  longer.  We   know  that  the  speed  of  light  is   fixed  so  the  time  between  the   ‘ticks’  on  a  moving  clock  must   also  be  longer.  This  effect  –  that   moving  clocks  run  slow  –  is   called  time  dilation.     A  proper  time  interval  is  the   same  separating  two  events  that   take  place  at  the  same  point  in   space.  It  turns  out  to  be  the   shortest  possible  time  that  any   observer  could  correctly  record   for  the  event.     If  we  imagine  a  stationary   observer  with  one  light  clock   then  t  is  the  time  between  ‘ticks’   on  the  stationary  clock.  In  this   stationary  frame,  a  moving  clock   runs  slowly  and  t’  is  the  time   between  ‘ticks’  on  the  moving   clock:  t’  is  greater  than  t.    

H.3.2  

Define  proper  time   interval.  

 

H.3.3  

Derive  the  time  dilation   formula.  

Students  should  be  able  to   construct  a  simple  derivation  of   the  time  dilation  formula  based   on  the  concept  of  the  light  clock   and  the  postulates  of  relativity.  

 

 

114  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

In  the  time  t’,  the  clock  has   moved  on  a  distance  =  vt’.   Distance  travelled  by  the  light:     𝑙 ! = 𝑣𝑡 ! ! + 𝑙 !   𝑙 ! 𝑣𝑡 ! ! + 𝑙 ! 𝑡 ! = =   𝑐 𝑐 𝑣𝑡 ! ! + 𝑙 ! 𝑡 !" =   𝑐 ! ! ! 𝑣 𝑙 𝑡 !" 1 − ! = !   𝑐 𝑐 Since   𝑙 ! = 𝑡 !   𝑐 ! 𝑣 ! 𝑡 !" 1 − ! = 𝑡 !   𝑐 1 𝑡 ! = ∗ 𝑡   𝑣 ! 1− ! 𝑐 This  equation  is  true  for  all   measurements  of  time,  whether   they  have  been  made  using  a   light  clock  or  not.     H.3.24   Sketch  and  annotate  a   graph  showing  the   variation  with  relative   velocity  of  the  Lorentz   factor.  

 

(Lorentz  factor)  

H.3.5  

Solve  problems  involving   time  dilation.  

 

e.g.  The  time  interval  between   the  ticks  of  a  clock  carried  on  a   fast  rocket  is  half  of  what   observers  on  earth  record.  How   fast  is  the  rocket  moving  with   respect  to  earth?   From  the  time  dilation  formula:   1 2=   𝑣 ! 1− ! 𝑐 1− 𝑣 ! 1 =   𝑐 ! 2 𝑣 ! 3 =   𝑐 ! 4

 

     

115  

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   𝑣 = 8.866𝑐   The  proper  length  of  an  object  is   the  length  recorded  in  a  frame   where  the  object  is  at  rest.     One  of  the  peculiar  aspects  of   Einstein's  theory  of  special   relativity  is  that  the  length  of   objects  moving  at  relativistic   speeds  undergoes  a  contraction   along  the  dimension  of  motion.   An  observer  at  rest  (relative  to   the  moving  object)  would   observe  the  moving  object  to  be   shorter  in  length.  That  is  to  say,   that  an  object  at  rest  might  be   measured  to  be  200  feet  long;  yet   the  same  object  when  moving  at   relativistic  speeds  relative  to  the   observer/measurer  would  have  a   measured  length  which  is  less   than  200  ft.  This  phenomenon  is   not  due  to  actual  errors  in   measurement  or  faulty   observations.  The  object  is   actually  contracted  in  length  as   seen  from  the  stationary   reference  frame.  The  amount  of   contraction  of  the  object  is   dependent  upon  the  object's   speed  relative  to  the  observer.   [Note  that  it  is  only  lengths  in  the   direction  of  motion  that  are   contracted.]     e.g.  An  unstable  particle  has  a  life   time  of  4.0 ∗ 10!! 𝑠  in  its  own  rest   frame.  If  the  frame  is  moving  at   98%  of  the  speed  of  light,   calculate  (a)  its  life  time  in  the   lab  frame  and  (b)  the  length   travelled  in  both  frames.   a)  𝛾 =
! !!!.!"!

H.3.6   H.3.7  

Define  proper  length.  

 

Describe  the  phenomenon   The  derivation  of  the  length   of  length  contraction.   contraction  formula  is  not   required.  

H.3.8  

Solve  problems  involving   length  contraction.  

 

= 5.025  

∆𝑡 = 𝛾∆𝑡! = 5.025 ∗ 4.0 ∗ 10!! = 2.01 ∗ 10!! 𝑠   b)  in  the  lab  frame,  the  particle   moves:  length  =  speed  x  time.     0.98 ∗ 3 ∗ 10! ∗ 2.01 ∗ 10!! = 59.1𝑚   in  the  particle’s  frame,  the   laboratory  moves   59.1 ∆𝑙 = = 11.8𝑚   𝛾

       

 

 

116  

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Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

H4  Some  consequences  of  special  relativity  

 
  H.4.1   Assessment  statement   Describe  how  the  concept   of  time  dilation  leads  to   the  “twin  paradox”.   Teacher’s  notes   Different  observers’  versions  of   the  time  taken  for  a  journey  at   speeds  close  to  the  speed  of   light  may  be  compared.   Students  should  be  aware  that,   since  one  of  the  twins  makes  an   outward  and  return  journey,   this  is  no  longer  a  symmetrical   situation  for  the  twins.     A  rocket  follows  a  long  circular   path.  It  sets  off  from  space   station  P  and  will  eventually   come  back.  The  passenger  in  the   rocket  sets  his  clock  by  looking  at   the  station’s  clock.  The  time  is  0.   When  he  returns,  he  looks  at  his   watch  and  finds  that  it  is  slow   compared  with  the  station  clock.   Thus,  if  the  trip  lasted,  say  6   years,  by  the  passenger’s  watch,   the  passenger  is  6  years  older.   However,  the  passenger’s  twin   brother,  who  is  the   stationmaster,  is  older  by  10   years.  (assuming  that  v=0.8c).     The  stationmaster  may  claim   that  it  was  he  who  moved  away.   So  when  the  stationmaster  again   meets  the  rocket  passenger,  he   will  claim  that  his  clock  is  slower   than  the  passenger’s.  So  the   stationmaster  is  only  6y  older   while  the  passenger  is  10y  older.   Which  of  the  twins  is  older  when   they  meet  again?  This  is  often   referred  to  as  the  twin  paradox.   At  all  times  the  stationmaster   was  in  an  inertial  frame.   However,  the  rocket  had  been   moving  in  a  circle  (thus   experiencing  centripetal   acceleration)  and  so  the  rocket’s   frame  had  not  been  inertial.   Careful  application  of  the  laws  of   relativity  to  this  asymmetric   situation  leads  to  the  conclusion   that  the  stationmaster  has  aged   by  10y  and  the  passenger  by  6y.   Even  if  the  roket  moves  in  a   straight  line  and  then  reverses   direction  to  return  to  the  space   station,  this  does  not  help   because  in  this  case  the  rocket   must  decelerate  and  then   accelerate.     Atomic  clocks  were  put  into   aircraft  and  flown,  both   eastwards  and  westwards,   around  the  world.  Before  and   after  the  flights,  the  times  on  the   clocks  were  compared  with   clocks  that  remained  fixed  in  the   same  location  on  the  surface  of   the  Earth.     An  observer  in  the  centre  of  the   Earth  would  describe  the  clock   117  

H.4.2  

Discuss  the  Hafele– Keating  experiment.  

 

 

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   flying  eastwards  as  moving  the   fastest,  the  clock  that  is  on  the   same  location  on  the  Earth’s   surface  as  also  moving  eastwards   (due  to  the  rotation  of  the  earth)   but  not  as  fast  as  the  clock  in  the   airplane,  and  the  clock  flying   westwards  as  moving  the   slowest.  The  results  of  their   experiment  agreed  with  the   predictions  within  the   uncertainties  of  the  experiment.     𝒖! + 𝒗 𝒖 =   𝒖! 𝒗 𝟏 + 𝟐 𝒄 e.g.  An  electron  has  a  speed  of   2.00x108ms-­‐1  relative  to  a  rocket,   which  itself  moves  at  a  speed  of   1.00x108ms-­‐1  with  respect  to  the   to  the  ground.   Applying  the  formula  above  with   𝑢 ! = 2.00 ∗ 10! 𝑚𝑠 !!  and   𝑣 = 1.00 ∗ 10! 𝑚𝑠 !!  we  find   𝑢 = 2.45 ∗ 10! 𝑚𝑠 !!     Mass  and  energy  are  equivalent.   This  means  that  energy  can  be   converted  into  mass  and  vice   versa.     The  energy  required  to  create  a   particle  at  rest  is  called  the  rest   energy  and  can  be  calculated   from  the  rest  mass:  𝐸! = 𝑚! 𝑐 !   The  rest  mass  of  an  object  is  its   mass  as  measured  in  a  frame   where  the  object  is  at  rest.  A   frame  that  is  moving  with   respect  to  the  object  would   record  a  higher  mass.     See  H.4.8  

H.4.3  

Solve  one-­‐dimensional   problems  involving  the   relativistic  addition  of   velocities.  

The  derivation  of  the  velocity   addition  formula  is  not   required.  

H.4.4  

State  the  formula   representing  the   equivalence  of  mass  and   energy.  

 

H.4.5  

Define  rest  mass.  

Students  should  be  aware  that   rest  mass  is  an  invariant   quantity.  Students  should  be   familiar  with  the  unit  MeV  c−2   for  mass.    

H.4.6  

H.4.7  

Distinguish  between  the   energy  of  a  body  at  rest   and  its  total  energy  when   moving.   Explain  why  no  object  can   ever  attain  the  speed  of   light  in  a  vacuum.  

 

H.4.8  

Determine  the  total   energy  of  an  accelerated   particle.  

Students  should  be  able,  for   example,  to  calculate  the  total   energy  of  an  electron  after   acceleration  through  a  known   potential  difference.     𝐸

= 𝛾𝑚! 𝑐 !   𝑚! 𝑐 ! 𝐸 =   𝑣 ! 1− ! 𝑐 It  is  very  important  to  notice   that,  as  the  speed  of  a  particle   approaches  the  speed  of  light,  the   total  energy  approaches  infinity.   Therefore,  a  particle  with  mass   cannot  reach  the  speed  of  light.   Only  particles  without  mass,  such   as  photons,  can  move  at  the   speed  of  light.   If  a  particle  is  accelerated  by  a   potential  difference  of  V  volts,  its   total  energy  will  increase  by  an   amount  qV,  where  q  is  its  charge.   Thus,  if  a  particle  is  initially  at   118  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   rest,  its  total  energy  is  the  rest   energy  𝐸! = 𝑚! 𝑐 ! .  After  going   through  the  potential  difference,   the  total  energy  will  be   𝐸 = 𝑚! 𝑐 ! + 𝑞𝑉.   e.g.  An  electron  f  rest  energy   0.511  MeV  is  accelerated  through   a  potential  difference  of  5.0MV  in   a  lab.  (a)  What  is  its  total  energy   with  respect  to  the  lab?  (b)  What   is  its  speed  with  respect  to  the   lab?   a)  The  total  energy  will  increase   by  𝑞𝑉 = 1𝑒 ∗ 5.0 ∗ 10! 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡 = 5𝑀𝑒𝑉   And  so  the  total  energy  is:   𝐸 = 𝑚! 𝑐 ! + 𝑞𝑉   𝐸 = 0.511𝑀𝑒𝑉 + 5.0𝑀𝑒𝑉 = 5.511𝑀𝑒𝑉   b)  We  know  that   𝐸 = 𝛾𝑚! 𝑐 !   5.511 = 𝛾 ∗ 0.511   5.511 𝛾 = = 10.785   0.511 Since     1 𝛾 =   𝑣 ! 1− ! 𝑐 1 10.785 =   𝑣 ! 1− ! 𝑐 𝑣 = 0.966𝑐  

   
H5  Evidence  to  support  special  relativity  

 
  H.5.1   Assessment  statement   Discuss  muon  decay  as   experimental  evidence  to   support  special  relativity.   Teacher’s  notes       Muons  are  particles  with   properties  similar  to  those  of  the   electrons  except  that  they  are   more  massive,  unstable  and  they   decay  into  electrons.  Muons  are   created  high  up  in  the   atmosphere  (10km).  Cosmic  rays   from  the  sun  can  cause  them  to   be  created  with  huge  velocities:   0.99c.  As  they  travel  towards  the   earth  some  of  them  decay  but   there  is  still  a  detectable  number   of  arriving  at  the  surface  of  the   Earth.  Without  relativity,  no   muons  would  be  expected  to   reach  the  surface  at  all.  A  particle   with  a  lifetime  of  2.2 ∗ 10!! 𝑠   which  is  travelling  near  the   speed  of  light  would  be  expected   to  travel  less  than  a  kilometre     119  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   before  decaying.  The  muons’   speed  means  that  the  Lorentz   ! factor  is  high.  𝛾 = = 7.1.   ! Therefore  an  average  lifetime  of   2.2 ∗ 10!! 𝑠  in  the  muons’  frame   of  reference  will  be  time  dilated   to  a  longer  time  as  far  as  a   stationary  observer  on  earth  is   concerned.  Many  muons  will  still   decay  but  some  will  make  it   through  to  the  surface  –  this  is   exactly  what  is  observed.  In  the   muons’  frame  of  reference  they   exist  for  2.2 ∗ 10!! 𝑠  on  average.   They  make  it  down  to  the  surface   because  they  atmosphere  is   moving  with  respect  to  the   muons.  This  means  that  the   atmosphere  will  be  length-­‐ contracted.  The  10km  distance   !" will  only  be   = 1.4𝑘𝑚.  A   !.! significant  number  of  muons  will   exist  long  enough  for  the  Earth  to   travel  this  distance.      
!!!.!!

H.5.2   H.5.3  

Solve  problems  involving   the  muon  decay   experiment.   Outline  the  Michelson– Morley  experiment.  

  Students  should  be  able  to   outline  the  principles  of  the   Michelson  interferometer  using   a  simple  sketch  of  the   apparatus.  

H.5.4  

Discuss  the  result  of  the   Michelson–Morley   experiment  and  its  

The  implication  that  the  ether   does  not  exist  and  that  the   result  is  consistent  with  the    

  The  aim  of  the  experiment  was  to   measure  the  speed  of  the  earth   through  space  (the  ether).  It   involved  two  beams  of  light   travelling  down  two  paths  at   right  angles  to  one  another.   Having  travelled  different  paths,   the  light  was  brought  together   where  it  interfered  and  produced   fringes  of  constructive  and   destructive  interference.  If  the   apparatus  were  rotated  around,   the  speed  down  the  paths  would   change.  This  would  move  the   interference  pattern.  The  idea   was  to  measure  the  change  and   thus  work  out  the  speed  of  the   Earth  through  the  ether.  The   experiment  was  tried  but  the   rotation  of  the  apparatus  did  not   produce  any  observable  change   in  the  interference  pattern.     The  above  null  result  can  be   easily  understood  from  the  first   postulate  of  relativity  –  the   120  

 

Marc  W.     implication.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   constancy  of  the  speed  of  light   is  the  accepted  explanation.  

IB  Session  May  2012   constancy  of  the  speed  of  light.   The  interference  pattern  does   not  change  because  the  speed  of   light  along  the  paths  is  always   the  same.  It  is  unaffected  by  the   motion  of  the  Earth.  Also,  it  can   be  concluded  that  the  ether  does   not  exist.     The  first  conclusive  experiment   that  demonstrated  the  constancy   of  the  speed  of  light  with  great   accuracy  was  performed  at  CERN   in  1964.  In  this  experiment,   neutral  pions  moving  at   0.99975c  decayed  into  a  pair  of   photons  moving  in  different   directions.  The  speed  of  the   photons  in  both  directions  was   measured  to  be  c  with   extraordinary  accuracy.  The   speed  of  light  does  not  depend   on  the  speed  of  its  source.    

H.5.5  

Outline  an  experiment   that  indicates  that  the   speed  of  light  in  vacuum  is   independent  of  its  source.  

Students  should  be  familiar   with  pion  decay  experiments   involving  the  decay  of  a  fast-­‐ moving  pion  into  two  gamma-­‐ ray  photons.  

   
H6  Relativistic  momentum  and  energy  

 
  H.6.1   Assessment  statement   Apply  the  relation  for  the   relativistic  momentum   𝑝 = 𝛾𝑚! 𝑣  of  particles.   Teacher’s  notes   Students  should  be  familiar   with  momentum  expressed  in   the  unit  MeV  c−1.     In  classical  mechanics,  the   momentum  is  given  by  the   product  of  mass  times  velocity,   but  in  relativity  this  is  modified   to  𝑝 = 𝛾𝑚! 𝑣.  We  still  have  the   usual  law  of  momentum   conservation,  which  states  that,   when  no  external  forces  act  on  a   system,  the  total  momentum   stays  the  same.     The  kinetic  energy  𝐸!  is  defined   as  the  total  energy  minus  the  rest   energy:   𝐸! = 𝐸 − 𝑚! 𝑐 !   This  can  be  rewritten  as     𝐸! = 𝛾 − 1 𝑚! 𝑐 !   This  definition  ensures  that  the   kinetic  energy  is  zero  when  v  =  0.   The  familiar  result  from   mechanics  that  the  work  done  by   the  new  force  equals  the  change   in  kinetic  energy  holds  in   relativity  as  well.     e.g.  Find  the  kinetic  energy  of  an   electron  whose  momentum  is   1.5  𝑀𝑒𝑉𝑐 !!   The  total  energy  of  the  electron   is  given  by     ! 𝐸 ! = 𝑚! 𝑐 ! + 𝑝 ! 𝑐 !   to  give     𝐸 = 1.58𝑀𝑒𝑉   121  

H.6.2  

Apply  the  formula   𝐸! = 𝛾 − 1 𝑚! 𝑐 !  for  the   kinetic  energy  of  a   particle.  

 

H.6.3  

Solve  problems  involving   relativistic  momentum   and  energy.  

Students  should  be  able  to   calculate,  for  example,  the   kinetic  energy,  total  energy,   speed  and  momentum  of  an   accelerated  particle  and  for   particles  produced  in  reactions.  

 

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College   And     So  

IB  Session  May  2012   𝐸

! = 𝐸 − 𝑚! 𝑐 !   𝐸! = 1.07𝑀𝑒𝑉  

   
H7  General  relativity  

 
  H.7.1   Assessment  statement   Explain  the  difference   between  the  terms   gravitational  mass  and   inertial  mass.   Teacher’s  notes       Inertial  mass:  The  property  of  an   object  that  determines  how  it   responds  to  a  given  force  (different   masses  have  different  accelerations   when  a  force  acts  on  them)   𝐹 𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙  𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠   𝑚! =   𝑎 Gravitational  mass:  The  property  of   an  object  that  determines  how  much   gravitational  force  it  feels  when  close   to  another  object.   𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙  𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒   ∝   𝑚!   Gravitational  and  inertial  effects  are   indistinguishable.    

H.7.2    

Describe  and  discuss   Einstein’s  principle  of   equivalence.  

Students  should  be  familiar   with  Einstein’s  closed   elevator  “thought   experiment”.  

 

H.7.3  

Deduce  that  the   principle  of  equivalence   predicts  bending  of  light   rays  in  a  gravitational  

  Consider  an  elevator  motionless  in  space  (so  that  there  is  no  gravity   inside  and  any  occupants  are  in  “freefall”).  This  elevator  has  a  pin-­‐ sized  hole  in  the  wall,  through  which  a  tiny  beam  of  light  enters,   creating  a  speck  of  light  on  the  opposite  wall,  directly  across  from  the     122  

 

Marc  W.     field.  

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

H.7.4  

Deduce  that  the   principle  of  equivalence   predicts  that  time  slows   down  near  a  massive   body.  

hole  (if  one  measured  the  distance  from  the  floor  of  the  elevator  to   the  hole  and  to  the  speck  of  light,  it  would  be  equal).   Now,  if  this  elevator  began  to  be  pulled  forward  through  space,  the   inertial  mass  would  pull  the  occupants  to  the  floor  of  the  elevator   (mimicking  the  pull  of  gravity),  and  something  peculiar  would   happen  to  the  beam  of  light:   As  the  elevator’s  acceleration  increases,  the  prick  of  light  will  appear   to  move  downward,  for  in  the  time  it  takes  for  the  light  to  travel  from   the  hole  to  the  opposite  wall,  the  elevator  would  already  have  moved   forward  slightly  (though  it  would  have  to  be  moving  rather  quickly   for  this  effect  to  be  at  all  noticeable).  In  other  words,  because  of  the   motion  of  the  elevator,  the  beam  of  light  would  “bend”  as  it  enters  the   elevator.  Now,  carrying  this  thought  through  to  its  conclusion  –   remember  that  the  occupants  of  this  elevator  would  have  no  way  of   knowing  if  the  sensation  they  are  feeling  is  caused  by  the  elevator’s   inertia  or  by  some  gravitational  force  (it  could  feel  to  them  that  they   are  on  the  surface  of  the  Earth),  so  to  these  people,  the  bending  of  the   beam  of  light  appears  to  be  caused  by  gravity.   Consider  two  waves  on  a  wavefront  AB,  which  are  bend  as  they  pass   near  a  massive  object:  

H.7.5  

Describe  the  concept  of   spacetime.  

H.7.6  

H.7.7  

State  that  moving   objects  follow  the   shortest  path  between   two  points  in   spacetime.   Explain  gravitational   attraction  in  terms  of  the   warping  of  spacetime  by   matter.  

  AC  is  longer  than  BD,  however  the  speed  of  light  is  constant.  As:   𝑑 𝑐 =   𝑡 time  must  slow  down  near  a  massive  object.       Space-­‐time  is  a  four-­‐dimensional   world  with  three  space  and  one  time   coordinates.     [The  mass  and  energy  content  of   space  determine  the  geometry  of   that  space  and  time.  The  geometry  of   space-­‐time  determines  the  motion  of   mass  and  energy  in  the  space-­‐time.]     In  the  absence  of  any  forces,  a  body   moves  in  this  four-­‐dimensional   world  along  paths  of  shortest  length,   called  geodesics.       The  motion  of  a  planet  around  the   sun  is,  according  to  Einstein,  not  the   result  of  a  gravitational  force  acting   on  the  planet  (as  Newton  would  have   it)  but  rather  due  to  the  curved   geometry  in  the  space  and  time   around  the  sun  created  by  the  large     123  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

mass  of  the  sun.  The  planet  follows  a   geodesic  in  the  curved  space-­‐time   around  the  earth.  This  geodesic   appears  as  a  circular  path  if  we  view   space-­‐time  as  flat.    

H.7.8  

Describe  black  holes.  

Students  should  know  that   black  holes  are  a  region  of   spacetime  with  extreme   curvatures  due  to  the   presence  of  a  mass.  

H.7.9  

Define  the  term   Schwarzschild  radius.  

 

H.7.10   Calculate  the   Schwarzschild  radius.  

 

H.7.11   Solve  problems   involving  time  dilation   close  to  a  black  hole.  

 

  Some  objects  contract  under  the   influence  of  their  own  gravitation,   becoming  ever  smaller  objects.  The   object  is  expected  to  become  a  hole   in  space-­‐time  around  this  point.  This   creates  an  immense  bending  of   space-­‐time  around  this  point  and  it  is   known  as  a  black  hole  –  since  noting   can  escape  from  it.     The  Schwarzschild  radius  is  not  the   actual  radius  of  a  black  hole  (the   black  hole  is  a  point)  –  it  is  the   distance  from  the  hole’s  centre  that   separates  space  into  a  region  from   which  an  object  can  escape  and  a   region  from  which  no  object  can   escape.  Any  object  closer  to  the   centre  of  the  black  hole  than  this   radius  will  fall  into  the  hole;  no   amount  of  energy  supplied  to  this   body  will  allow  it  to  escape  from  the   black  hole.     2𝐺𝑀 𝑅! = !   𝑐 For  the  sun:   2 ∗ 6.67 ∗ 10!!! ∗ 2 ∗ 10!" 𝑅! =   3 ∗ 10! ! 𝑅! ≈ 3 ∗ 10! 𝑚   Two  observers  who  are  at  different   points  in  a  gravitational  field   measure  the  time  interval  between   the  same  two  events  differently.  This   is  an  example  of  how  masses  curve   not  just  space  but  also  time.     ∆𝑡!"#$ ∆𝑡!"# =   𝑅 1− ! 𝑟 e.g.  Consider  a  theoretical  observer   approaching  a  black  hole.  This   observer  sends  signals  to  a  far-­‐away   observer  in  a  spacecraft  of  his   position.  When  his  distance  from  the   centre  of  the  black  hole  is  𝑟 = 1.5𝑅! ,   the  observer  stops  and  sends  two   signals  one  second  apart  (as     124  

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012  

H.7.12   Describe  the  concept  of   gravitational  red-­‐shift.  

Students  should  be  aware   that  gravitational  red-­‐shift  is   a  prediction  of  the  general   theory  of  relativity.  

H.7.13   Solve  problems   involving  frequency   shifts  between  different   points  in  a  uniform   gravitational  field.  

 

H.7.14   Solve  problems  using  the     gravitational  time   dilation  formula.  

measured  by  his  clocks).  The   spacecraft  observers  will  receive  the   signals  a  time  apart  given  by   ∆𝑡!"#$ ∆𝑡!"# =   𝑅! 1− 𝑟 1 ∆𝑡!"# = = 1.73𝑠   1 1− 1.5 Gravitational  redshift  is  an  effect  that   the  general  theory  of  relativity   predicts  –  clocks  slow  down  in  a   gravitational  field.  In  other  words  a   clock  on  the  ground  floor  of  a   building  will  run  slowly  when   compared  with  a  clock  in  the  attic  –   the  attic  is  further  away  from  the   centre  of  the  earth.     A  UFO  travels  at  such  a  speed  to   remain  above  one  point  on  the  Earth   at  a  height  of  200km  above  the   Earth’s  surface.  A  radio  signal  of   frequency  of  110MHz  is  sent  to  he   UFO.  What  is  the  frequency  received   by  the  UFP?   𝑓 = 1.1 ∗ 10! 𝐻𝑧   𝑔 = 10𝑚𝑠 !!   ∆ℎ = 2.0 ∗ 10! 𝑚   ∆𝑓 𝑔∆ℎ = !   𝑓 𝑐 10 ∗ 2.0 ∗ 10! ∆𝑓 = ∗ 1.1 ∗ 10!   3 ∗ 10! ! ∆𝑓 = 2.4 ∗ 10!! 𝐻𝑧   Therefore,  the  received  frequency:   1.1 ∗ 10! − 2.4 ∗ 10!! = 109999999.998𝐻𝑧 ≈ 1.1 ∗ 10! 𝐻𝑧    

   
H8  Evidence  to  support  general  relativity  

 
  H.8.1   Assessment  statement   Outline  an  experiment  for   the  bending  of  EM  waves   by  a  massive  object.   Teacher’s  notes   An  outline  of  the  principles  used   in,  for  example,  Eddington’s   measurements  during  the  1919   eclipse  of  the  Sun  is  sufficient.     When  the  sun  is  between  the   earth  and  the  star,  the  sun’s  light   would  completely  wipe  out  the   light  from  the  star.  This  is  why   such  an  observation  is  possible   only  during  a  total  solar  eclipse.   The  bending  of  light  that   Eddington  measured  in  1919   was  in  agreement  with  the   Einstein  prediction,  within   experimental  error,  but  the   accuracy  was  not  enough  for  this   to  constitute  a  test  of  the  theory.   125  

 

 

Marc  W.    

Hockerill  Anglo-­‐European  College  

IB  Session  May  2012   The  measurements  have  since   been  refined  to  include  radio   signals  from  distant  galaxies,  and   these  agree  with  general   relativity  predictions.     The  bending  of  light  is  important   to  astronomers  in  the  following   was.  Light  from  a  distant  star  will   be  bent  on  its  way  to  earth  if  it   goes  past  a  massive  star  or   galaxy.  This  means  that  the  star   will  not  be  observed  to  be  at  its   true  position.  In  some  cases  this   leads  to  the  formation  of  multiple   images  of  the  star.  In  this  way   massive  objects  act  as  a  king  of   gravitational  lens.     Pound-­‐Rebka:  The  decrease  in   frequency  of  a  photon  as  it   climbs  out  of  a  gravitational  field   can  be  measured  in  the  lab.  The   measurements  need  to  be  very   sensitive,  but  they  have  been   successfully  achieved  on  many   occasions.  The  frequencies  of   gamma-­‐ray  photons  were   measured  after  they  ascended  or   descended  a  tower  at  Harvard   university.     Atomic  clock:  Because  they  are   so  sensitive,  comparing  the   difference  in  tie  recorded  by  two   identical  atomic  clocks  can   provide  a  direct  measurement  of   gravitational  redshift.  One  of  the   clocks  is  taken  to  high  altitude  by   a  rocket,  whereas  a  second  one   remains  on  the  ground.  The  clock   that  is  at  the  higher  altitude  will   run  faster.   Shapiro  time  delay:  The  time   taken  for  a  radar  pulse  to  travel   to  another  nearby  planet  and   back  can  be  accurately  recorded.   The  gravitational  field  of  the  sun   can  affect  the  time  taken.  The   extent  of  the  effect  depends  on   the  orientation  of  the  planets  and   the  sun.  The  experiment  was  first   performed  in  the  1960s  and  the   result  confirmed  the  predictions   of  general  relativity.    

H.8.2  

Describe  gravitational   lensing.  

 

H.8.3  

Outline  an  experiment   that  provides  evidence  for   gravitational  red-­‐shift.  

The  Pound–Rebka  experiment   (or  a  suitable  alternative,  such   as  the  shift  in  frequency  of  an   atomic  clock)  and  the  Shapiro   time  delay  experiments  are   sufficient.  

           
    126  

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