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INTRODUCTION:Quantum computing is the area of study focused on developing computer technology based on the principles of quantum theory, which explains the nature and behavior of energy and matter on the quantum (atomic and subatomic) level. Development of a quantum computer, would mark a leap forward in computing capability far greater than that from the abacus to a modern day supercomputer, with performance gains in the billion-fold realm and beyond. The quantum computer, following the laws of quantum physics, would gain enormous processing power through the ability to be in multiple states, and to perform tasks using all possible permutations simultaneously. Current centers of research in quantum computing include MIT, IBM, Oxford University, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. QUANTUM THEORY:-

Quantum theory's development began in 1900 with a presentation by Max Planck to the German Physical Society, in which he introduced the idea that energy exists in individual units (which he called "quanta"), as does matter. The Essential Elements of Quantum Theory:

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Energy, like matter, consists of discrete units, rather than solely as a continuous wave. Elementary particles of both energy and matter, depending on the conditions, may behave like either particles or waves. The movement of elementary particles is inherently random, and, thus, unpredictable. The simultaneous measurement of two complementary values, such as the position and momentum of an elementary particle, is inescapably flawed; the more precisely one value is measured, the more flawed will be the measurement of the other value.

A COMPARISON OF CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM COMPUTING:Classical computing relies, on principles expressed by Boolean algebra, operating with a (usually) 7mode logic gate principle. Data must be processed in an exclusive binary state at any point in time - that is, either 0 (off / false) or 1 (on / true). The millions of transistors and capacitors at the heart of computers can only be in one state at any point. While the time that the each transistor or capacitor need be either in 0 or 1 before switching states is now measurable in billionths of a second, there is still a limit as to how quickly these devices can be made to switch state. Quantum computing, by contrast, can work with a two-mode logic gate: XOR and a mode we'll call QO1 (the ability to change 0 into a superposition of 0 and 1, a logic gate which cannot exist in classical computing). In a quantum computer, a number of elemental particles such as electrons or photons can be used ,with either their charge or polarization acting as a representation of 0 and/or 1. Each of these particles is known as a quantum bit, or qubit, the nature and behavior of these particles form the basis of quantum computing. The two most relevant aspects of quantum physics are the principles of superposition and entanglement .

Quantum computers have no such limitations and can do multiple calculations as fast or faster than traditional computers. QUANTUM COMPUTATION:In a quantum computer. The AND Gate . Quantum computing works by being able to make multiple calculations at one time. only doing one at a time does limit their capabilities. quantum computers could make today's supercomputers look like children's toys. This experiment proved successful in solving a complex mathematical problem called order finding (determining the period of a function) in one step.Reversible Logic Due to the nature of quantum physics. data is represented by the quantum properties of a given molecule or set of molecules. While traditional machines do these calculations at an impressive speed. Though this may not sound like a major advancement. the ability to make multiple calculations at once can make a big difference in quantum computing. Operations on Qubits . Today's computers are able to solve the same problem only through repeated cycles. capable of processing speeds impossible by traditional computers. quantum computing has the potential to make computers using its technology millions of times more powerful than today's most powerful computers. In fact. An experiment on August 2000 by researchers at IBM Almaden center for research was able to make the nuclei of five fluorine atoms interact as qubits using magnetic resonance imaging and radio frequency pulses. Instead of performing computations by retrieving data from a hard disk and processing it using an integrated circuit filled with logic gates. In fact. WHAT IS QUANTUM COMPUTING ACTUALLY???? Quantum computing is a new method of computing with a hypothetical computer. the destruction of information in a gate will cause heat to be evolved which can destroy the superposition of qubits. Traditional computing works by only making one calculation at a time. Example. quantum computers process data by bombarding the information-containing molecule with short pulses of radiation.

but it is ideal for tasks such as cryptography and modeling and indexing very large databases. Simplest gate involves one qubit and is called a Hadamard Gate (also known as a square-root of NOT gate. They must be reversible. A practical quantum computer. While the capabilities of quantum computing are exciting. This would put very sensitive information at risk of being hacked for a number of nefarious purposes. if it fell into the wrong hands. uniquely. . We must use Quantum Gates. Note: Two Hadamard gates used in succession can be used as a NOT gate . IMPORTANT NOTE:Quantum computing is not well suited for tasks such as word processing and email. Due to the fact that quantum computers are able to process many calculations and work with very large numbers. current encryption methods would be no problem for a quantum computer. they would be able to code and decode information very quickly. Quantum Gates are similar to classical gates. could be a very dangerous piece of equipment. This means that a deterministic computation can be performed on a quantum computer only if it is reversible.e. their original input state can be derived from their output state. i.This type of gate cannot be used.) Used to put qubits into superposition. but do not have a degenerate output. In fact. the concept can also be dangerous.

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