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Cells Cell structural and functional unit of life. Eukaryotic Cells structural cells composing our body. Cytology study of cells. *Cells come from division of pre-existing cells. Functions of Cells Irritability ability to respond to stimuli. (nerve cells) Contractility ability to change shape. (muscle cells) Absorption absorption of substance for use by the cell. Secretion useful material excluded by the body. Excretion no longer useful material excluded by the body. Respiration release of energy through the oxidation of food. Reproduction cell division. Structure of Eukaryotic Cell 1. Plasma Membrane y Outermost part of a cell. y Separates the contents of the cell from the environment. y Regulates entry and exit of materials in the cell 2. Nucleus y Located at the center of the cell. y Contains the chromatins. y Control center of the cell (directs cellular activities). y Stores genetic information
Cytoplasm a semi fluid composition filling the space between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. gel state. y Exports materials from the cell to be stored in the vacuoles. appears bumpy due to many ribosomes attached to it. used in protein synthesis. Golgi body y Can transport materials out of the cell and within the cell. Endoplasmic Reticulum y Network of very fine tubules that lies across the cell interior. y RER. Serves as the passageways of materials in and out of the nucleus. SER. y Nucleoplasm the semi fluid material that fills the entire nucleus. 4. Ribosomes y Very smalls structure found free-floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the ER. used in synthesis of lipids. y Considered as the factories of proteins in the cell. more fluid portion and occupying the rest of the cytoplasm. Different Cellular Organells and their Functions 1. y Nucleolus the center of the nucleus. . y Connected to the Nuclear Envelope and Plasma Membrane y Serves as the channel for translocation of materials within the cell. y Chromatins is the threadlike structure which transforms into chromosomes during cell division. and the dense spherical body within the nucleus. *Ectoplasm.Parts of the Nucleus: y Nuclear Envelope membrane that separates the nuclear contents from the cellular contents. 3. occupying the region near the plasma membrane. Mitochondria y Powerhouse of the cell. 2. Endoplasm. y Contains enzymes involved in the release of energy. 3.
Vacuoles y Storage cavities of useful chemicals or waste products. y Interacts withe myosin for muscular contraction. Lycosomes y Responsible for intracellular digestion. a protein molecule. y Called suicide bags for an accidental release of enzymes can destroy the entire cell. y Aid in movement of some organelles in the cell. y Capable of self-duplication and responsible in the organization of the spindle fibers during cell division. 6. Microfilaments y Long strings of actin. Microtubules y Transforms into spindle fibers during cell division. 7. y Located near the nucleus. . y Help destroy harmful bacteria that enter the cell.5. 9. 8. Centrioles y 2 small rods that lie to each other.
Protection Serves as barrier that protects the underlying tissues from mechanical injury. 2.Tissues Histology study of tissues Four major types of tissues: 1. diff cavities and internal organs. binds. supports. invasion of microorganisms and dryness. Secretion and Absorption) 1. Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous Epithelial Tissue y Covers and lines the outer surface of the body. . kind of cells. Classifications of connective tissues y The composition of matrix. 3. *Matrix is the intercellular material. Secretion (Glandular Epithelium) .Epithelial tissues that secretes materials 3. 2. transports. 4. fights infections and stores materials. type and arrangement of fibers. thus they derive nutrients from the underlying connective tissues Functions of Epithelial Tissue (Protection. Absorption Connective Tissue connects. y Composed of closely packed cells joined together by intercellular materials y Does not have direct blood supply (avascular).
Loose Connective Tissue y Forms the internal environment of the body y Have capacity to hold water (that s why they re called tissue fluid). portion of the larynx and epiglottis. It composes the pinna of the ears. y Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of the body part where it is found. . also allows for a certain change in shape. It also composes the nose. y Hyaline cartilage composes the ends of bones forming a spring coating at the joints. bronchial tubes and costal cartilage.A. Dense Fibrous Connective Tissues Dense Regular Connective Tissue Composes: y y y y y Ligaments Connects bones together (bones to bones) Tendon Connects muscles to bones (muscle to bones) Aponeurosis connects muscles together (muscles to muscles) Fascia wraps the whole muscle and holds them in place Membrane covers organs within the cavities C. y Fibro cartilage found in areas where great strength and certain rigidity are required. y Delivers substances in the different parts of the bodies. larynx. Adipose Tissue (FATS) y Helps regulate body temperature y Important source of energy B. Supportive Connective Tissues 1. Cartilage Tissue provides rigidity and resiliency (support) to areas in the body where there is extreme pressure and abrasive force.
Blood or Vascular Tissue .Transports 98% if oxygen in the blood. y Inner surface are covered with endosteum. Haversian Systerm functional unit of the bone.Red color due to haemoglobin .Type of connective tissue composed of a liquid matrix called plasma and several formed elements called corpuscles.Clump to control bleeding in the process of blood clotting . y Leucocytes . Plasma is liquid portion of the blood. y Erythrocytes .Are the blood platelets . Corpuscles formed elements suspended in the plasma. Bone or Osseus Tissue y Tough and rigid because its matrix is compose of calcium phosphate and inorganic material.Red Blood Cells . y Spaces filling the bones are the yellow bone marrow and the red bone marrow. y Outer surface of the bone is covered with a membrane called periosteum.Cells that transports gases in the body.Soldiers of the body .Fights invading organisims y Thrombocytes . .2.White Blood Cells . Named after Clopton Haver.
Cardiac Nervous Tissue . .Composed of two kinds of cells. Voluntary Action is under the control of will.Muscular Tissue functions for contractility that leads to movements of the different parts of the body. Visceral 3. Involuntary Action is under unconscious control.Its functions are to receive stimuli. y Axons conveys impulses AWAY from the cell body. . Neuroglia acts as the supporting tissue of the nervous system. Skeletal 2. 3 types of muscles: 1. Nerve processes y Dendrites convey impulses TOWARD the cell body.Is the most highly organized tissue in our body. Neuron is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system and nervous tissue. *Muscle fibers are usually grouped into bundles by a fibrous connective tissue. the neuron or nerve cell and neuroglia or glial cells. .
desiccation of underlying tissues and invasion of harmful microorganisms. Functions: Protection against chemical and mechanical stimuli. Hairs 2. Skin is the integument of body cover of vertebrates including man. Dermis called as the true skin. Glands 3.Integumentary System Integument pertains to the outer body covering of an animal. Nails or Unges . regulation of body temperature. Two distinct layers: epidermis and dermis. Hypodermis connects the skin to the underlying structures. excretion of waste material and vitamin production. Epidermis outer layer of the skin. Derivatives of the Skin 1. reception of stimuli.
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