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1 List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained. (2) The variety of materials used to make beads is remarkable: stones like carnelian (of a beautiful red colour), jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite; metals like copper, bronze and gold; and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay. Two methods of procuring materials for craft production :1. 2. They established settlements such as Nageshwar, Shortughai and Balakot. They might have sent expeditions to areas such as the Khetri region of Rajasthan (for Copper) and south India (for gold). Q.2 “Our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than that of (2)
the other Civilizations”. Explain it by your arguments? Yes, our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than that of the other because of the following reasons:• • The script of that age has hitherto not been deciphered.
The easy method behind seeking knowledge about other Civilizations such as that of Egypt, Mesopatamia, China etc. was the deciphering of their scripts. Scripts is that sole basis through which we can gather through knowledge about the art, literature, customs, dresses, function and religion etc. of any Civilizations
Q.3 • • •
What were the confusions in the mind of Cunningham while studying (2) He used the accounts left by Chinese Buddhist pilgrims who had visited the subcontinent between the fourth and seventh centuries CE. He thought that Indian history began with the first cities in the Ganga valley. In fact, Cunningham’s main interest was in the archaeology of the Early Historic (c. sixth century BCE-fourth century CE) and later periods.
Harappan civilization ?
What were the differences in the techniques adopted by Marshall and Wheeler in studying Harappan civilization ? (2)
Marshall tended to excavate along regular horizontal units, measured uniformly throughout the mound, ignoring the stratigraphy of the site. This meant that all the artefacts recovered from the same unit were grouped together, even if they were found at different stratigraphic layers. As a result, valuable information about the context of these finds was irretrievably lost.
R.E.M. Wheeler, rectified this problem. Wheeler recognised that it was necessary to follow the stratigraphy of the mound rather than dig mechanically along uniform horizontal lines “Burials is a better source to trace social differences prevalent in the Harappan civilization”. Discuss. • • • • Studying burials is a strategy to find out social differences. At burials in Harappan sites the dead were generally laid in pits. Sometimes, there were differences in the way the burial pit was made – in some instances; the hollowed-out spaces were lined with bricks. Some graves contain pottery and ornaments, perhaps indicating a belief that these could be used in the afterlife. Jewellery has been found in burials of both men and women. Write a note on the Drainage system of the Harappans. (5) (2)
One of the striking features of this town was a well planned drainage system. The drains were made of mortar, lime and gypsum. They were covered with big bricks and stones which could be lifted easily to clean the drains. Smaller drains from houses on both the sides of the streets came and joined a brick laid main channel. Bigger drains which cleared the rain water were 2 and half feet to 5 feet in circumference. For sewage from the houses, pits were provided at either side of the street. All this shows that the Indus Valley people took great care to keep their cities neat and clean. Q. 7 • Discuss the functions that may have been performed by rulers in society. (5) Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Harappan society had no rulers and that everybody enjoyed equal status. Others feel there was no single ruler but several. • There are indications of extraordinary uniformity of Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery seals weights and bricks.
Notably bricks though obviously not produced in any single centre, were of a uniform ratio throughout the region, from Jammu to Gujarat. Under the guidance and supervision of the rulers plans and layouts of the city were prepared. Big buildings palaces forts, tanks wells, canals, granaries were constructed.
• • • • • • Q. 8
Roads lanes and drains were also constructed and cleanliness was maintained under the over all supervision of the ruler. The ruler might have taken interest in economy of the state or city states. He used to inspire the farmer to increase agricultural production. He used to motivate the craftsmen to promote different handicrafts. Internal as well as external trade was promoted by the ruler. He used to issue common acceptable coins or seals, weights and measurements. During the natural calamity such as flood earthquake, epidemic etc. the ruler used to provide grains and other eatables to the affected people. He used to play active role to defend cities or state from foreign attack. How can you say that the Harappan culture was an urban one. • • • • • • • • The cities were well planned and thickly populated. The roads were straight and wide. The houses were made of burnt bricks and contained more than one storey. Every house had a well and a bathroom. The drainage system was excellent with house drains emptying into street drains. The citadel of Harappa had public buildings. Lothal had a dockyard and was an important trading centre. After the decline of the Harappan culture, town planning was forgotten and there was absence of city life for about a thousand years. (5)
We can say that the Harappan culture was an urban one, due to the following reasons:
Write a note on the agricultural technology of Harappans.
Agriculture was the chief occupation of the Harappans. The prevalence of agriculture is indicated by finds of grains. But it is more difficult to reconstruct actual agricultural practices. Archaeologists have found evidence of a ploughed field at
Kalibangan. Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture indicate that the bull was known, and archaeologist extrapolate from this that oxen were used for ploughing. Terracotta models of the plough have been found at sites in Cholistan and at Banawali. The field had two sets of furrows at right angles to each other, suggesting that two different crops were grown together. Most Harappan sites are located in semi-arid lands, where irrigation was probably required for agriculture. Traces of canals have been found at the Harappan site of Shortughai in Afghanistan. It is also likely that water drawn from wells was used for irrigation. Besides, water reservoirs found in Dholavira may have been used to store water for agriculture. Q.10 Discuss how archaeologist reconstruct the past. 1. Material evidences, allows archaeologists to better reconstruct Harappan life. This material could be pottery, tools, ornaments, household objects, etc. 2. Recovering artefacts is just the beginning of the archaeological enterprise. Archaeologists then classify their finds. 3. The second, and more complicated, is in terms of function: archaeologists have to decide whether, for instance, an artefact is a tool or an ornament, or both, or something meant for ritual use. 4. An understanding of the function of an artefact is often shaped by its resemblance with present-day things – beads, querns, stone blades and pots are obvious examples. 5. Archaeologists also try to identify the function of an artefact by investigating the context in which it was found 6. The problems of archaeological interpretation are perhaps most evident in attempts to reconstruct religious practices. 7. Attempts have also been made to reconstruct religious beliefs and practices by examining seals, some of which seem to depict ritual scenes. Others, with plant motifs, are thought to indicate nature worship. 8. Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are made on the assumption that later traditions provide parallels with earlier ones. This is because archaeologists often move from the known to the unknown, that is, from the present to the past. 9. Remains of crops, saddle querns or pit are studied to identify food. (8)
Q.11. Passage based question:(8) Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follows :“Evidence of an “invasion” Deadman Lane is a narrow alley, varying from 3 to 6 feet in width … At the point where the lane turns westward, part of a skull and the bones of 2 in. The body lay on its back diagonally across name. FROM JOHN MARSHALL, Mohenjodaro and the Indus Civilisation, 1931. Sixteen skeletons of people with the ornaments that they were wearing when they died were found from the same part of Mohenjodaro in 1925. Much later, in 1947, R.E.M. Wheeler, then Director-General of the ASI, tried to correlate this archaeological evidence with that of the Rigveda, the earliest known text in the subcontinent. He wrote: The Rigveda mentions pur, meaning rampart, fort or stronghold. Indra, the Aryan war-god is called puramdara, the fort-destroyer. Where are – or were – these citadels? It has in the past been supposed that they were mythical … The recent excavation of Harappa may be thought to have changed the picture. Here we have a highly evolved civilisation of essentially non-Aryan type, now known to have employed massive fortifications … What destroyed this firmly settled civilisation? Climatic, economic or political deterioration may have weakened it, but its ultimate extinction is more likely to have been completed by deliberate and large-scale destruction. It may be no mere chance that at a late period of Mohenjodaro men, women, and children, appear to have been massacred there. On circumstantial evidence, Indra stands accused. FROM R.E.M. WHEELER, “Harappa 1946”, Ancient India, 1947. In the 1960s, the evidence of a massacre in Mohenjodaro was questioned by an archaeologist named George Dales. He demonstrated that the skeletons found at the site did not belong to the same period: Whereas a indicate a slaughter,….the bulk of the burials of the sloppiest and most couple of them definitely seem to bones were found in contexts suggesting the thorax and upper arm of an adult were discovered, all in very friable condition, at a depth of 4 ft the lane. Fifteen inches to the west were a few fragments of a tiny skull. It is to these remains that the lane owes its
irreverent nature. There is no destruction level
covering the latest period of the city, no sign of extensive burning, no bodies of
warriors clad in armour and surrounded by the weapons of war. The citadel, the only fortified part of the city, yielded no evidence of a final defence. FROM G.F. DALES, “The Mythical Massacre at Mohenjodaro”, Expedition, 1964. As you can see, a careful re-examination of the data can sometimes lead to a reversal of earlier interpretations. (i) Ans. (ii) Name the archaeologist who presented this source? 1 John Marshall Which argument of the destruction of Harappa civilization, this excerpt indicates ? 1 Ans. This exert indicates that the Harappa civilization was destroyed by foreign invasion. (iii) Ans. Who co-relate this evidence with Rigveda ? Why ? 3 R.E.M. Wheeler. Because, the Rigveda mentions pur, meaning rampart, fort or stronghold. Indra, the Aryan war-god is called puramdara, the fort-destroyer. (iv) Ans. Who and how propounded the theory opposite to this ? 3 George Dales. He hesitates to accept that this invasion was carried on by the Aryans. . He demonstrated that the skeletons found at the site did not belong to the same period: Whereas a couple of them definitely seem to indicate a slaughter, the bulk of the bones were found in contexts suggesting burials of the sloppiest and most irreverent nature. There is no sign of extensive burning, no bodies of warriors clad in armour and surrounded by the weapons of war. 1 mark Why is Indus valley civilization also known as Harappan civilization? Harappa was the first sight of this civilization discovered by archaeologists. Why Harappan script is not helpful in reconstructing Harappan civilization? Harappan script is not helpful in reconstruction pest because the script remains undecifered till date. Compare Harappan script with that of Brahmi script?
Like Brahmi script the Harappan script was written from right to left as some seals show a wider spacing on the right & cramping on the left. 2 marks Name some of the important buildings in the Harappan civilization? Some of the buildings in the Harappan civilization were • The citadel • Great Bath • Pillared Hall • Granary How does an archaeologist reconstruct a civilization? Explain in the context of Indus valley civilization? • ‘The ruins’ of various buildings. various specimens of art seals metal images • The terracotta figurines made of the fire baked earthen clay. • Other artifacts (beads, weights ,bricks etc) Why the Harappan civilization called the Bronze Age civilization? • The people of Harappa used many tools and implements of stone, but they were very well acquainted with the manufacture and use of bronze. • The bronze tools and the weapons recovered from the Harappan sites contain a smaller Percentage of tin. However the pit of bronze goods left by the Harappan is considerable. What helps Archaeologists the most in studying the Harappan and Mohenjodaro cultures? The Harappan script is not of much help to the archaeologists. It is the material evidence that helps the archaeologists in the reconstruction of the Harappan life. Organic material such as cloth, leather, wood and reeds gets easily decomposed while stone, burnt clay, metal survive best. These materials such as bead, pottery, ornaments, household objects are available which helps to piece together parts of a fascinating history of the Harappan and Mohenjodaro cultures. What is meant by the term ‘Chert’? Describe the purpose it served? ‘Chert’ was a type of stone, generally cubical with no markings. It was used in the system of weights by the people of Harappan culture. It was of precise measurement, in which the lower denominations of weights were binary from 1 to 12,800, while the higher denominations followed the decimal system. What were the characteristics of the seals used by the Harappan culture? • The seals used generally had a line of writing, which probably had name and title of the owner. • The seal had a motif (generally an animal) which conveyed a meaning to those who could not read. • The inscriptions were short and written right to left. • The script has not been deciphered to date. How do archaeologists identify the centres of craft production? In order to identify the centres of craft production the archaeologists looks for the following: • Raw material such as stone nodules, whole shells, copper ore
• Tools • Unfinished objects • Rejects and waste material. In fact, waste is one of the best indicators of craft work. Why was seal important on the bags in which the goods were sent by the people in Harappan culture? • The seal served many purposes such as it established the identity of the seller/sender. • If the seal reached the receiver without any harm it meant that that bag was not tempered along the way thus establishing the credibility of the carrier. Why was the term saddle querns used for a particular type of quern stone? The saddle quern was produced by grinding the hand stone using parallel motions that was pushing and pulling the hand stone, which formed a shape looking like a saddle. Hence this particular type of quern stone was called saddle quern. The hand stones for saddle querns were either roughly spherical or roughly hemispherical and used with one hand. Which type of designs was used by the Harappans to decorate their pottery? The most common type of decorated pottery was a black-on-red ware. The surface of this pottery type was mostly decorated with typical designs of either geometric or naturalistic patterns. The most common motifs were interlocking circles, scales, and combs; naturalistic motifs included indigenous animals (peacocks, antelope, and zebras were common) and plants, with occasional human depictions as well. What are hoards? In archaeology, a hoard is a collection of valuable objects or artifacts, sometimes purposely buried in the ground in side pots or containers. Such hoards can be of jewellery or metal objects usually buried with the intention of later recovery by the hoarder. Hoarders sometimes died before retrieving the hoard, and these surviving hoards may be uncovered by metal detectorists, members of the public and archaeologists much later. Discuss the importance of ‘Chanhudaro’ and ‘Balakot’ in the Harappan culture? • Balakot was a Harappan settlement located near the coast. It was a specialized centre in making shell objects-including bangles, ladles and inlays which were taken to other settlements. • Chanhudaro is one of the best known settlements of the Harappan civilisation. This settlement was entirely devoted to craft production which included bead-making, shell-cutting, metal-working, seal making and weight making. Discuss the evidence which indicates Mohenjodaro as a planned town? • Labour was mobilised at a very large scale. • The settlement was first planned and then implemented. • Bricks used in the buildings were uniform in size. Briefly describe the Mohenjodaro settlements? The settlements in Mohenjodaro were divided into two sections • Citadel - It was built on mud brick platform & was walled & separated from the lower town.
• Lower town – It was walled. Several buildings were made on the platform that served as a foundation. Describe the kind of food that was available to the people of Harappan cities? • They ate wide range of plants and animal products, including fish. • Archaeologists have found grain such as wheat, barley, lentils, chickpeas, sesame at the Harappan sites. • In Gujarat, Millets have been found, rice was found rarely. • Bones of cattle, fish, fowl, sheep, goat, buffalo, pig, boar, deer and gharial are found at the sites of Harappan centres which indicate that these animals were either domesticated or hunted by the Harappan people. Discuss the agricultural practices carried out by the Harappans? It is very difficult to reconstruct actual agricultural practices carried out by the Harappans. Terracotta sculptures of the bull and their representations on the seals show that bull was known to the Harappans. From this the archaeologists can infer that the oxen were used for ploughing the fields. Moreover, the archaeologists have found terracotta models of the plough at sites in Cholistan and at Banawali (Haryana). Evidence of a ploughed field, associated with early Harappan levels have also been found at Kalibangan. With what were the early archaeological cultures in the region prior to the Mature Harappan culture associated? There were several archaeological cultures in the region prior to the Mature Harappan. These cultures were associated with distinctive pottery, evidence of agriculture, pastoralism and some variety of crafts. The settlements were small in size and had no large buildings. 5 marks What was buried with the dead? What did it indicate? The archaeologists are not sure as to whether the people during the Harappan culture believed in life after death, however copper mirror, necklace of beads, semi precious stones were buried in the burials for both males and females. The dead were generally laid in pits, the difference lay in the way the pits were built, and some were hollowed out spaces lined with bricks. Ornaments and pottery are found buried in some graves, indicating that the Harappans believed in afterlife. Dead bodies were buried with copper mirrors. But on the whole they did not believe in burying precious things with the dead. How are the findings classified by the Archaeologists? Recovering artifacts is the initial phase of the archaeological enterprise. Archaeologists then classify their finds. They employ various methods to classify their findings. • One method they follow is classification of their find in terms of material such as, stone, clay, metal, ivory etc. • The second method is in terms of functions. It is more complicated than the first one. The archaeologists decide whether the find is a tool, ornament or both or something meant for ritual use. • Function of an artefact is often understood by comparing it with present day things. • Moreover place where an artefact was found also plays an important role, such as if it was found in bath, grave, kiln or in a drain.
• At times indirect evidence is taken into account, such as to find about clothing archaeologists have to depend on indirect evidence like depictions in the sculptures. • At times archaeologists have to develop a frame of reference. For example the first Harappan seal was understood better when compared with the finds in Mesopotamia. Identify the difference between the technique of excavation by John Marshall and R.E.M. Wheeler? John Marshall excavated the region along the horizontal units. He measured uniformly through out the mound and ignored the stratigraphy of the site. This was followed by the fact that all the artifacts recovered from the same unit were grouped together, even if they were levelled at different stratigraphic layers. Following this technique valuable information about the context of these finds was lost. This problem was rectified by R.E.M. Wheeler. He recognized that stratigraphy of the mound had to be strictly followed rather than digging mechanically along the uniform horizontal lines. Accuracy was brought to the practice of archaeology. Who was Cunningham? How did Cunningham miss the significance of Harappa? Cunningham was the first Director-General of ASI. He began archaeological excavations in the mid nineteenth century. His main interest was in the archaeology of early history from6thcentury BCE - 4th century CE, and later periods. So, site like Harappa did not fit well in his area of investigation. Although Harappan artifacts were found during the 19thcentury and some of these reached Cunningham but he did not realise how old these were. An Englishman gave a Harappan seal to Cunningham but he was unable to judge the importance of the findings, and was unable to place it in the time frame, as he was familiar with the thought that Indian history began with the first cites in the Ganga valley. From this incidence we can conclude that Cunningham missed the significance of Harappa. Was there an authority present during the Harappan culture? Justify your answer. Historians have diverse views regarding the presence of a central authority in Harappa. • Some archaeologists are of the opinion that there were no rulers in the Harappan society and everybody in the state enjoyed equal status. • Others are of the opinion that there was no single ruler but different rulers. Mohenjodaro had separate ruler, Harappa had separate and so on. • While others base their opinion on, the uniformity of the artefacts used such as, bricks, seals, weights and measures, planned settlements, suggest that there was one single state. The last opinion appears to be more plausible as it is doubtful that such complex decisions were made and implemented collectively by entire communities. Why seals and sealing were used during the Harappan period? Long distance communication was made possible by using seals and sealing. When a bag of goods was sent from one place to another, its mouth was tied with rope. On the knot was affixed some wet clay on which one or more seals were pressed, leaving an impression. If the bag reached with its sealing intact, it meant that it had not been tampered with. The sealing also conveyed the identity of the sender. Numerous Harappan seals have been found at Mesopotamian cities.
Did the people of Harappan culture believe in life after death? Describe their burials. The archaeologists are not sure as to whether the people during the Harappan culture believed in life after death, however copper mirror, necklace of beads, semi precious stones were buried in the burials for both males and females. The dead were generally laid in pits, the difference lay in the way the pits were built, and some were hollowed out spaces lined with bricks. Ornaments and pottery are found buried in some graves, indicating that the Harappans believed in afterlife. In some instances dead were buried with copper mirrors. But on the whole they did not believe in burying precious things with the dead. Describe the ‘Great Bath’ of the Harappan culture? The ‘Great Bath’ was a large rectangular tank surrounded by corridors on all the four sides. There were two flights of stairs on north and south leading into the tank. The tank was made water tight by laying bricks on the edge and using mortar of gypsum. Rooms were built on the three sides of the tank, with one room having a large well. The water from the tank overflowed into a huge drain. Across the lane there was a smaller building with eight bathrooms, four at each side of a corridor, with drains from each bathroom connecting to a drain that ran along the corridor. What was done for irrigating the field in the Harappan culture? As the Harappan sites are located in semi-arid lands irrigation was required. River Ravi and Bias provided large scale irrigation to Indus Valley settlements around Harappa. Water was abundant so an advanced drainage system also existed. The Harappans channelled water onto their fields with little provision for drainage. Though there is no evidence of canal in this region, it is suspected that canals might have silted. Traces of canals have been found at the Harappan sites at Shortughai in Afghanistan. However at Dholavira in Gujarat some water reservoirs have been found, which were used to store water for agricultural purpose. It is also possible that water drawn from the wells was used for irrigation purposes. Discuss the Agricultural practices during Harappan culture. Though it is not known whether they scattered the seeds on ploughed land, the finding of grains indicate that agriculture was practiced during this time, the presence of a bull on the seal found from this site also indicates that bull was known as an oxen that was used for ploughing. Model of plough has been found at Cholistan (Pakistan) and Banawali; which indicates that it was familiar and was used in agriculture. Evidence has been found at Kalibangan (Rajasthan) that two different crops were grown together as two sets of furrows at right angles to each other. How can you say that the Harappan culture was an urban one. The following examples show that the Harappan culture was an urban one: • The cities were well planned and thickly populated. • The roads were straight and wide. • The houses were made of burnt bricks and contained more than one storey. • Every house had a well and a bathroom. • The drainage system was excellent with house drains emptying into street drains. • The citadel of Harappa had public buildings. • Lothal had a dockyard and was an important trading centre. • After the decline of the Harappan culture, town planning was forgotten and there was absence of city life for about a thousand years.
“Our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than that of the other Civilizations”. Explain it by your arguments? • The major reason behind our poorer knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization than that of the other Civilizations is that the script of that age has hitherto not been deciphered. Hence, we have only know about the period and development of this Civilization on the basis of more speculation. • The easy method behind seeking knowledge about other Civilizations such as that of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China etc. was the deciphering of their scripts. Scripts is that sole basis through which we can gather through knowledge about the art, literature, customs, dresses, function and religion etc. of any Civilizations. Discuss the functions that may have been performed by rulers in Harappan society. Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Harappan society had no rulers and that everybody enjoyed equal status. Others feel there was no single ruler but several that Mohenjodaro had a separate ruler, Harappa another and so forth yet others argue that there was a single state given the similarity in artefacts, the evidence for planned settlements the standardized ratio of brick size and the establishments of settlements near sources of raw material. As of now, the last theory seems the most plausible as it is unlikely that entire communities could have collectively made and implemented such complex decisions. • There are indications of complex decisions being taken and implemented in Harappan society. Take for instance the extraordinary uniformity of Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery seals weights and bricks. • Notably bricks though obviously not produced in any single centre were of a uniform ratio throughout the region, from Jammu to Gujarat. We have also seen that settlements were strategically set up in specific locations for various reasons. • Besides, labour was mobilised for making bricks and for the construction of massive walls and platforms. Who organized these activities? I think the rulers might have performed all these works. Under the guidance and supervision of the rulers plans and layouts of the City was prepared. Big buildings palaces forts, tanks wells, canals, Granaries were constructed. Roads lanes and drains were also constructed and cleanliness was maintained under the over all supervision of the ruler. The ruler might have taken interest in economy of the state or city states. He uses to inspire the farmer to increase agricultural production. He uses to motivate the craftman to promote different handicrafts. Internal as well as external trade was promoted by the ruler. He uses to issue common acceptable coins or seals, weights and measurements. During the natural calamity such as flood earthquake, epidemic etc. the ruler use to provide grains and other eatables to the affected people. He uses to play active role to defend cities or state from foreign attack. Analyse the causes led to decline of the Harappan civilization? • By 1800 most of the mature Harappan sites in regions such as Cholistan had been abandoned. Simultaneously there was an expansion of population into new settlements like Gujarat, Haryana, etc. • In the few Harappan sites that continued to be occupied after 1900 B.C, there appears to have been transformation of material culture and there new settlement indicated a rural way of life named as later Harappan.
• • • • • •
Climatic change Deforestation Excessive floods The shifting and or drying up of rivers Earthquake Landscape
Harappan religion strongly resembles the modern Hinduism. Give reason. • Harappan religion strongly resembles the modern Hinduism cause the terracotta figure seals, fire altars etc. are almost parallels with today’s religions practices. • In some seals a figure shown seated cross legged in a “yogic” posture, • Something surrendered by animals has been regarded a depiction of proto Shiva that is an early form is one of the major duties of Hindus tan • Some stone object have been classified as lings. • Which is a part and parcel of worship of Shiv even today? • On seals motifs of plants and animals are found that of religious importance even at present time. • Alters are essential part of rituals even in modern time Great bath can be compared with gangasnan that we see in practice on many of the festivals. How do you know the Harappan had an aesthetic sense? • The Harappans seal is possibly the most distinctive artefact of the Harappan civilization often contain animal motifs and signs. • The clay carts and toys too are fine specimen of the grand art. • Beautiful ornaments made of gold, silver etc. were worn by men and women. • The sight of the towns of Mohenjodaro and Harappa reflect the supremacy of the then architecture and town planning • Hair used to be decorated in many forms. Brass Combs, mirrors, piece of decoration made of ivory and a type of color used to redden the lips like lipstick too has been found. Harappa had a strong sense of hygiene and cleanliness substantiate this statement? • During excavations at Harappa a public bath was discovered. • The houses too had wells and bathrooms. These facts show that the Harappan people were more particularly attentive towards personal hygiene. • the most distinctive feature of Harappan civilization was the carefully planned drainage system. • Every house was connected to the street drains .the main channels were made of bricks set in mortar and were covered with loose bricks that could be removed for cleaning. Describe the trade relations of the hardpans with west Asia. • Some people of Harappan culture were traders. They took part in internal as well as external trade. The remains of coins, weights, pots, boats etc. prove that they had relations with contemporary Bronze age civilization, developed in west Asia. • Recent archaeological finds that copper was probably brought from Oman. • There are other traces of contact, a distinctive type of vessel, a large Harappan jar coated with a thick black layer of clay called a slip was found at Omani states. • The Mesopotamian also used copper with traces of nickel and Mesopotamian texts refer to copper coming from a region called Megan, perhaps a name for Oman.
How can you say that the Harappan culture was an urban one? • The cities were well planned & thereby populated. • The roads were straight & wide. • The houses were made of burnt bricks & contain more than one storey. • Every house had one well & bathroom. • The drainage system was excellent. • The citadel of Harappa had public buildings. • Lothal had a dockyard & was an important trading centre. 8 marks Discuss the functions that may have been performed by the rulers in Harappan society. • A large building found at Mohenjodaro was labeled as a place by archeologist but no speculator finds were associated with it. • A stone statue was labeled & continued to be known as the priest king. • Some archeologist are of the opinion that Harappan society had no rulers & that everybody enjoyed equal status. • Others feel there was no single ruler but several • Another argues that there was a single state given the similarity in artifacts. • The last theory seems the most plausible. (A) Studying burials• At burials in Harappan sites the dead were generally laid in pits. • Sometimes there are differences in the way the burial pits were made, sometimes the hollowed out spaces were lined with bricks. • Some graves contained pottery and ornaments. • In some instances the dead were buried with copper mirror. (B)Studying artefacts• Artefacts are divided into utilitarian and luxuries. • Utilitarian artefacts include objects made of stone or clay .these include querns, pottery, needles, flesh, rubbers etc. And are usually found distributed throughout settlements. • Luxury artefacts are rare objects made of valuable materials are generally concentrated in large settlement like Mohenjodaro and Harappa . How can we say that Harappa maintained contacts with distant lands? The people of Harappa maintained trade relations with distant lands to trade in raw material. The main source of long-distance trade includes a number of Harappan and Harappa related artifacts found at sites outside the subcontinent and foreign objects found at Harappan sites. • The Harappans probably had trade relations with the Oman peninsula. Chemical analyses have shown that both the Omani copper and Harappan artifacts have traces of nickel, which suggests a common origin. There are similarities between certain other types of objects found at this site such as a square steatite seal, fragments of pottery, carnelian beads, a cubical stone weight, etc. and Harappan artifacts. The imports from Oman may have included chlorite vessels, shells, etc. • There is literary as well as archaeological evidence for Harappan trade with the Mesopotamia. Mesopotamian texts mention contact with regions named Dilmun (probably the island of Bahrain), Magan and Meluhha, possibly the Harappan
region. The archaeological evidence for Harappan –Mesopotamian trade consists mainly of a few Harappan or Harappan related seals and carnelian beads at Mesopotamian sites. • It is likely that communication with Oman, Bahrain or Mesopotamia was by sea. Mesopotamian texts refer to Meluhha as a land of seafarers. Besides, seals and sealing depicting ships and boats have been found. • The most important evidence of trade with Afghanistan comes from an isolated Harappan trading outpost at Shortughai. The Harappans had established a settlement at Shortughai in Afghanistan near the source of lapis lazuli. Describe the material used and the ways of making craft by the Harappan people? Various materials were used by the Harappans to make Crafts, like, stones such as carnelian, jasper, crystal, steatite; metals like copper, gold, bronze; shell, faience and terracotta. • They made beads of carnelian, agate amethyst, turquoise, lapis lazuli, etc. Some times beads were made of two or more stones by cementing together, while some of stone with gold caps. • They were made in varied shapes such as cylindrical, spherical. Some were decorated by painting and some had designs etched on them. • They manufactured bangles out of shells, glazed faience and terracotta and carved ivory and worked shells into ornaments, bowls and ladles. • They made weapons, all types of tools, domestic objects and statues from copper and bronze. • They were skillful craftsmen in making gold and silver ornaments. Necklaces, silver- bangles were well crafted. • With great artistic ability they engraved their famous seals mostly in steatite. Thousands of seals with beautiful figures of animals such as unicorn, bull, tiger, bison, goat, buffalo have been discovered by the archaeologists. The most outstanding seal is the ‘Pashupati seal’. • Statues made of stone, bronze and terracotta were not abundant but were refined. • One of the most known bronze figurines is perhaps the ‘dancing girl’. The Harappans have made rough terracotta statuettes of women with elaborate head dresses. Two statues in stone - one is a torso in red sand stone and the other is a bust of a bearded man- have also been found. • The Harappans made brilliant models of animals, specially, monkey and squirrel. These were used as pinheads and beads. All the raw material required by the Harappan people was not available locally. Discuss the ways and means how they out- sourced the material? All the raw materials required by the Harappan people were not locally available. So, Harappans used different ways to procure rocks and minerals required for the production of utilitarian objects such as grinding stones and chipped stone tools as well for the manufacture of ornaments such as beads and inlay. • These people established various settlements near the source of raw materials such as Shortughai in Afghanistan near the source of lapis lazuli, Lothal near the source of carnelian and Nageshwar and Balakot near the areas where shell was available. The Khetri deposits of Rajasthan must have been an important source of copper. Steatite was procured from Rajasthan and north Gujarat. • Another method adopted by the Harappans to procure raw material was to send expeditions to areas such as Gujarat and Karnataka. Most varieties of semi-precious stone used for bead manufacture came from Gujarat and Gold came from the Kolar
fields of Karnataka. These expeditions established communication with local communities. Two wheeled carts were an important mode of transport for the people and the goods. Bronze and terracotta models of carts have been found at various sites. • The people of Harappa maintained trade relations with distant lands to trade in raw material. The Harappans probably had trade links with Oman, this is established by the fact that Omani and Harappan copper had traces of nickel, which suggests a common origin. Copper was sent to the present day region of Mesopotamia through Oman. The people of Harappa probably traded with Mesopotamia through the ports in Oman and Dilmun and island in Bahrain. Harappan seals have been found in these far lands. Discuss the layout Pattern of residential building and the citadel in Mohenjodaro era? Mohenjodaro has a planned layout based on a grid of streets, which were laid out in perfect patterns. The buildings of the city were particularly advanced. All the structures were constructed of same-sized sun dried bricks of baked mud and burned wood.The city of Mohenjodaro was divided into two parts, the so called the citadel and the lower City. The Lower Town at Mohenjodaro provides examples of residential buildings. Most of the residential buildings were centered on a courtyard, with rooms on all sides. Various activities like cooking, weaving etc. were done in the courtyard particularly during the hot and dry seasons. There were no windows along the walls on the ground floor so secrecy could be maintained. The residential building’s main entrance was like that it did not provide view of courtyard and interior. Every house had a bathroom paved with bricks, which was connected through the wall to the covered drains lining the major streets. A variety of buildings were of two storeys. In some houses remains of staircases to reach second storey or roof have been found. Many houses had wells which were approachable from outside for the use of outsiders. It is estimated that in Mohenjodaro total number of wells was around 700. Describe the layout pattern of Harappan cities? • The most distinctive feature of Harappan cities was the regularity and order in the town planning. The basic unit of city planning was the individual house. • Bricks of fixed sizes were used for building, while stone and wood was also used. In Harappan cities there was an extensive use of backed bricks, which gave greater durability to all of its buildings. • Thickness of the enclosing walls and the remains of staircase suggest two storey houses. The doors of the houses usually opened on to the side lanes rather than on to the main streets. • The layout of the houses had uniformity. Each house consisted of a courtyard surrounded by rooms for sleeping, cooking, weaving, etc. • The roads and streets in the lower part of the town were broadly laid out in a grid pattern, intersecting at right angles. The streets and drains were first laid out and then houses were built on the same pattern. • Consideration was given to the civic amenities like the sewerage system and drainage. If the domestic waste water had to flow, then to assist the flow of water there should be a wall adjacent to the house along the street. • These drainage systems were not unique to large cities but also to small settlements too. • At Lothal while houses were built of mud bricks the drains were made of burnt bricks.
About the drains, Mackay noted: “It is certainly the most complete ancient system as yet discovered.” Every house was connected to the street drains. The main channels… Very long drainage channels were provided at intervals with sumps for cleaning. It is a wonder of archaeology that “little heaps of material…was not always carted away when the drain was cleared”. Drainage systems were not unique…houses were built of mud bricks, drains were made of burnt bricks. (2+2+4) Site one example of smaller settlement having drainage system. 2 The most unique aspect of town planning in the Harappan civilisation was the system of underground drainage. In smaller settlements such as Lothal, the houses were built of mud bricks and drains were made of burnt bricks smoothened and joined together seamlessly. How can we say that the drains at Harappa civilisation were cleaned at regular intervals? 2 The drains of Mohenjodaro were periodically cleaned out is attested by little heaps of material mostly sand that have frequently been found alongside the drains. The more fine clay would be readily carried off by the rush of water whereas the heavier particles of sand were deposited. How were the drains at Harappa cleaned? 4 Every house at Mohenjodaro had drains connected to the street drain. The main channels were made of bricks set in mortar with brick or stone covers that could readily be lifted to remove for cleaning. Many of the most important drains were covered with limestone slabs. Every house had one or two apertures in its walls through which the waste water ran out into a soak pit into which solid matter settled while waste water flowed out into the street drains. Very long drainage channels were provided at intervals with sumps for cleaning. Processing of food required grinding equipment as well as vessels for mixing, blending and cooking. These were made of stone, metal and terracotta. This is an excerpt from one of the earliest reports on excavations at Mohenjodaro, the bestknown Harappan site: “Saddle querns … are found in considerable numbers… and they seem to have been the only means in use for grinding cereals. As a rule, they were roughly made of hard, gritty, igneous rock or sandstone and mostly show signs of hard usage. As their bases are usually convex, they must have been set in the earth or in mud to prevent their rocking. Two main types have been found: those on which another smaller stone was pushed or rolled to and fro, and others with which a second stone was used as a pounder, eventually making a large cavity in the nether stone. Querns of the former type were probably used solely for grain; the second type possibly only for pounding herbs and spices for making curries. In fact, stones of this latter type are dubbed “curry stones” by our workmen and our cook asked for the loan of one from the museum for use in the kitchen.” (4+2+2) a) What do you know about the saddle querns? 4 • Saddle querns were the only means of grinding cereals and pulses. Such types of grinders have been found in considerable number. • They were a kind of hand operated mil for grinding corn.
They were made of hard, gritty rock or sandstone. The remains of saddle querns show signs of hard usage.
b) What was required in the processing of food? 2 Grinding equipment as well as vessels for mixing, blending and cooking was required in the processing of food. These equipments were made of stone, metal and terracotta. c) Which type of saddle querns is called “curry stones”? 2 The type of quern in which the second stone was used as pounder, which eventually made a cavity in the base stone was called “curry stones”. This type was possibly used only for pounding herbs and spices for making curries. Most Important Questions How did A. Cunningham proceed in his discovery of the ancient site? Alexander Cunningham, the first Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India used the accounts left by Chinese Buddhist pilgrims who had visited the subcontinent between the fourth and seventh centuries CE to locate early settlements. Cunningham also collected, documented and translated inscriptions found during his surveys. What were the initial issues which delayed the discovery of the Harappan civilization? Although Harappan artefacts were found fairly often during the nineteenth century and some of these reached Cunningham, he did not realise how old these were as they were not part of the itinerary of the Chinese pilgrims and was not known as an Early Historic city. Who finally declared that new civilization had been discovered? Based on various finds, in 1924, John Marshall, Director -General of the ASI, declared the discovery of a new civilisation in the Indus valley to the world. Based on which Indian archaeologists’ research did J. Marshall declare the discovery of a new civilization? Daya Ram Sahni & Rakhal Das Banerji found similar seals at Harappa and Mohenjodaro respectively and contributed to the finding of this ancient civilization. Name some important sites of the Harappan civilization. Some important sites of the Harappan civilization are Kalibangan, Lothal, Rakhi Garhi, Dholavira, Rupar, & of course Harappa. Some newly found sites include Rakhigarhi, Ganeriwala, Chanhudaro, Sutkagen Dor. What were the Problems faced in discovering facts about this culture? The Harappan script did not help in understanding their way of living and their culture Many valuable artefacts were never retrieved due to them being used by the locals Many reconstructions of Harappan religion and their society are made on assumptions due to lack of proper evidences. End of the Civilization What were the main reasons sited by archaeologists for the decline of the Harappan civilization?
There is evidence that by c. 1800 BCE most of the Mature Harappan sites had been abandoned. The possible reasons could have been flooding of rivers, deforestation, shifting or drying up of rivers or invasion of the cities most probably by the Aryans. How do we judge that there was a decline in the Harappan civilization? Later Harappan sites that continued to be occupied after 1900 BC there is transformation of material culture, marked by the disappearance of the artefacts of the civilisation – weights, seals, special beads. Writing, long-distance trade, and craft specialisation also disappeared. House construction techniques deteriorated and large public structures were no longer produced. This indicated an onset of a rural way of living.
What do we mean by Subsistence Strategies? • The basis of any culture or society is the ways and means adopted by them to be able to sustain their society • This means the tools which provide support to animal life and also support human life. • It also studies the way and provisions, which produces provisions for the maintenance of a society and their livelihood. • Some of these strategies include: Hunting and Gathering, Cultivation, Pastoralism, Distribution (i.e. Exchange of goods and services) What were the main crops which were grown in the Harappan civilization? Finds of grain at Harappan sites include wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea, sesame and millets are found from sites in Gujarat. Finds of rice are relatively rare. Write a note on existence of animals in this civilization Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture show animals were domesticated. Animal bones found at Harappan sites include those of cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo and pig. Bones of wild species such as boar, deer and ‘gharial’ and bones of fish and fowl are also found. Explore the possibility of crops been grown through use of plough Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture indicate that the bull was known, and archaeologists deduce from this that oxen were used for ploughing. Moreover, terracotta models of the plough have been found at sites in Cholistan and at Banawali. Archaeologists have also found evidence of a ploughed field at Kalibangan. Did the Harappans need any irrigation facility if yes then why? Most Harappan cities were located in semi-arid lands, where irrigation was probably required for agriculture. Where do find examples of such irrigational facilities? Traces of canals have been found at the Harappan site of Shortughai in Afghanistan, but not in Punjab or Sind. Water reservoirs found in Dholavira (Gujarat) may have been used to store water for agriculture. What features show that the Harappan civilization had planned urban cities?
• The settlements were divided into two sections, one smaller but higher and the other much larger but lower. • Some features of planning include bricks, which, whether sun-dried or baked, were of a standardized ratio • The grid pattern of the drains show that the settlements were probably first planned and then built accordingly. Also all building activity within the city was restricted to a fixed area on the platforms most probably once they were set up. • Another feature, which shows prior planning, are that the roads were laid out, intersecting at right angles. It seems that streets with drains were laid out first and then houses built along them. What is the one main feature of the Harappan civilization, which we do not find any where in the world of that time? The well planned drainage system of the Indus valley civilization is unparalleled in those times. What was the possible function of the citadels in Harappan cities? The citadel was probably used for special public purposes with buildings which served those purposes e.g. The Great Bath. What were some of the main features of the houses of the Harappan civilization? Most of the residential buildings had its own bathroom Many houses had wells; some houses have remains of staircases leading to the second floor. SEALS, SCRIPT and WEIGHTS What were the weights made of and what were they used for? Exchanges were regulated by a precise system of weights usually made of a stone called Chert. Lower denominations of weights were binary, while the higher denominations followed the decimal system. What is one major shortcoming in seals being used as source of our study? Harappan seals usually have a line of writing though they remain undeciphered. We can only deduce that the writing was not alphabetical. What were the seals used for? Seals and sealings were used to facilitate long distance communication and trade. The sealing also conveyed the identity of the sender. Which of the Harappan cities was a major centre of bead making? Chanhudaro almost exclusively was devoted to bead making and to other craft production, including bead-making, shell-cutting, metal-working, seal-making and weight-making. Write some points on the techniques adopted to mark centres of production. The major points taken into consideration while analysing the same are availability of raw material such as stone, whole shells and unfinished objects; rejects and waste material Which of the Harappan cities were major centre of shell making. Nageshwar and Balakot were specialised centres for making shell objects. What were the materials used for making beads? There were varieties of materials used to make beads: • Stones like carnelian, jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite
• Metals like copper, bronze and gold; and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay. Where do we find special tools like drills used for craft work? Specialised drills have been found at Chanhudaro, Lothal and more recently at Dholavira which may have been used for making these beads. Where did the Harappans gather raw materials from for their craft work? Nageshwar and Balakot were areas for shell .Shortughai, in far-off Afghanistan, was the best source of lapis lazuli, and Lothal which was near sources of carnelian, steatite from south Rajasthan and north Gujarat and metal from Rajasthan. Expeditions to areas such as the Khetri region of Rajasthan (for copper) and south India (for gold) were also sent. Which countries did the Harappans had trade relations with. It is likely that communication with Oman, Bahrain or Mesopotamia was maintained by sea. What were the ways in which they kept contact with distant lands? Important means of transporting goods and people across land routes is evident by finds of terracotta toy models of bullock carts. Riverine routes along the Indus and its tributaries, as well as coastal routes were also probably used. What were the main sources of analysing social differences amongst the Harappans? Methods to show social or economic differences amongst people living within a particular culture include study of burials and finds of the luxuries used by the people. If we study the distribution of such artefacts, It has been noticed that rare objects made of valuable materials are generally concentrated in large settlements like Mohenjodaro and Harappa and are rarely found in the smaller settlements. For example finds of miniature pots of faience, perhaps used as perfume bottles, from these sites. How many theories do we have about the existence of a ruling class? We have about three major theories about the existence of a ruling class in the Harappan society. Religion Which are the two probable religious features that have been found by archaeologists? The two features are fire altars. The fire altars have been found at Kalibangan and Lothal. The Great Bath is one of the main buildings found at Mohenjodaro.
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