1.

INTRODUCTION

The speech recognition system is a completely assembled and easy to use programmable speech recognition circuit. Programmable, in the sense that you train the words (or vocal utterances) you want the circuit to recognize. This board allows you to experiment with many facets of speech recognition technology. It has 8 bit data out which can be interfaced with any microcontroller for further development. Some of interfacing applications which can be made are controlling home appliances, robotics movements, Speech Assisted technologies, Speech to text translation, and many more. Voice based device control is an interesting voice based project, mainly useful for industrial applications, surveillance applications. This project gives exact concept of controlling a device by a voice instruction. This project is the first step to design of voice based device automation projects. The use of Device control systems in the industrial environment or automation application is an important issue so that the user can find a balance between their devices and its usage at particular time only. A speech recognizes process to operate the ON/OFF the particular device period of work enables reliability to compute them, avoiding interest conflicts between the devices and its usage. The ordinary speech control Device systems use a PIC16F877A microcontroller to identify the particular key. According to that key, devices will be ON /off .These systems can be easily deceived because the user can be operated from the microcontroller to another microcontroller using ULN2003 driver and relays. In industrial, users do not need to go and switch ON/OFF to the particular device, neither to monitor device status. By saying particular word to the microcontroller. In this project, it is proposed microcontroller to microcontroller interface scheme that improves a user-friendly and flexible interface to the I/O devices.

Technology: Speech recognition: Speech recognition is classified into two categories, speaker dependent and speaker independent. Speaker dependent systems are trained by the individual who will be using the system. Speaker independent is a system trained to respond to a word regardless of who speaks. Speech recognition systems have another constraint concerning the style of speech they can recognize. They are three styles of speech: isolated, connected and continuous. Isolated speech recognition systems can just handle words that are spoken separately. This is the most common speech recognition systems available today.

Connected is a half way point between isolated word and continuous speech recognition. Allows users to speak multiple words. The HM2007 can be set up to identify words or phrases 1.92 seconds in length.

2. Block diagram
Microphone

Voice Recognition Module

PIC Microcontroller

CLK

DIV 4

RESET DIV 1

ULN 2003A

DIV 3

DIV 2

Step down T/F

Bridge Rectifier

Filter Circuit

Regulato r

Power supply to all sections

2.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION

The PIC microcontroller contains five ports. In this project one port is dedicated for speech recognition. Relays are interfaced through ULN driver circuit to control the devices. A simple yet powerful program is written in ‘c’ language and burned into the microcontroller to record and accept voice instructions and to control the device. This project uses regulated 5V, 500mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.

3 .CIRCUIT DIAGARAM VOICE RECOGNITION KIT USING HM2007 .

This board allows you to experiment with many facets of speech recognition technology. Speech Assisted technologies.e. • Speech controlled appliances and toys • Speech assisted computer games • Speech assisted virtual reality • Telephone assistance systems • Voice recognition security • Speech to speech translation Introduction Speech recognition will become the method of choice for controlling appliances. in the sense that you train the words (or vocal utterances) you want the circuit to recognize. Features • Self-contained stand alone speech recognition circuit • User programmable • Up to 20 word vocabulary of duration two second each • Multi-lingual • Non-volatile memory back up with 3V battery onboard. Will keep the speech recognition data in memory even after power off. tools and computers.9 to 15 V DC Use a commonly available 12V 500ma DC Adapter Output Data .8 bits at 5V Logic Level Interface . and many more. Some of interfacing applications which can be made are controlling home appliances.Introduction Speech Recognition System The speech recognition system is a completely assembled and easy to use programmable speech recognition circuit.Any microcontroller like 8051. Speech to text translation. • Easily interfaced to control external circuits & appliances Specification Input Voltage . It has 8 bit data out which can be interfaced with any microcontroller for further development.92 seconds Using the System . The heart of the circuit is the HM2007 speech recognition IC. each word a length of 1. At its most basic level. speech controlled appliances and tools allow the user to perform parallel tasks (i. The IC can recognize 20 words. toys. PIC or AVR can be interfaced to data port to interpret Applications There are several areas for application of voice recognition technology. Programmable. hands and eyes are busy elsewhere) while working with the tool or appliance. robotics movements.

for word one. The word (or utterance) is now identified as the “01” word. To make the recognition system simulate speaker independence one uses more than one word space for each target word. Therefore we obtain four different enunciations of each target word. 03 and 04 are allocated to the first target word. If you only require 10 target words that are all you need to train. 07 . The keypad is made up of 12 normally open momentary contact switches. When the circuit is turned on.The keypad and digital display are used to communicate with and program the HM2007 chip. If the LED did not flash. saying the word “directory” into the microphone will cause the number 20 to be displayed. We continue do this for the remaining word space. (Speaker independent). if the word “directory” was trained as word number 20. You may continue training new words in the circuit. Changing & Erasing Words Trained words can easily be changed by overwriting the original word. If one wishes to erase the word without replacing it with another word press the word number (in this case six) then press the CLR key. For instance. Now we use four word spaces per target word. For instances suppose word six was the word “Capital” and you want to change it to the word “State”. The numbers will quickly scroll by on the digital display as the memory is erased. Error Codes: The chip provides the following error codes. Training Words for Recognition Press “1” (display will show “01” and the LED will turn off) on the keypad. meaning that the voice that trained the system has the highest recognition accuracy. The number of the word should be displayed on the digital display. Testing Recognition: Repeat a trained word into the microphone. Press “2” then TRN to train the second word and so on. Simply retrain the word space by pressing “6” then the TRAIN key and saying the word “State” into the microphone. “00” is on the digital display. Word six is now erased. start over by pressing “1” and then “TRAIN” key. It is not necessary to train all word spaces. Say the target word into the onboard microphone (near LED) clearly. For instance. then press the TRAIN key ( the LED will turn on) to place circuit in training mode. Simulated Independent Recognition The speech recognition system is speaker dependant. The circuit will accept and recognize up to 20 words (numbers 1 through 20). 02. 06. the red LED (READY) is lit and the circuit waits for a command. But you can simulate independent speech recognition. The circuit signals acceptance of the voice input by blinking the LED off then on. The word spaces 01. the second target word will use the word spaces 05. 55 = word to long 66 = word to short 77 = no match Clearing Memory To erase all words in memory press “99” and then “CLR”.

Aural Interfaces It’s been found that mixing visual and aural information is not effective. Learning to Listen The ability to listen to one person speak among several at a party is beyond the capabilities of today’s speech recognition systems. Because of their like sounding nature they can confuse the speech recognition circuit. when you’re playing the game you’ll likely be yelling “FIRE! …Fire! . left. To achieve higher accuracy word recognition one needs to mimic the excitement in ones voice when programming the circuit. For instance assume you are sitting at your workbench and you program the target words like fire.. In the heat of the action you’re voice will sound much different than when you were sitting down relaxed and programming the circuit. When choosing target words for your system do not use homonyms. The way in which people typically communicate verbally. Products that require visual confirmation of an aural command grossly reduces efficiency. Well. So the circuit must be designed to recognize error codes 55. Error Codes When interfacing the external circuit through its data bus. train target words using one voice with different inflections and enunciation's of the target word. Homonyms Homonyms are words that sound alike. sat and fat sound alike. This becomes increasingly important when the speech recognition circuit is taken out of the lab and put to work in the outside world. To create an effective AUI products need to understand (recognize) commands given in an unstructured and efficient methods. 6 and 7. A common approach is To use three or four keywords that must be spoken and recognized in sequence in order to open a lock or allow entry.. the decoding circuit must recognize the word numbers from error codes. inflections and enunciations of the target word. This will enable the system to recognize different voices.LEFT …go RIGHT!”. Voice Security System This circuit isn’t designed for a voice security system in a commercial application. The more system resources that are allocated for independent recognition the more robust the circuit will become. Speech recognition systems can not (as of yet) separate and filter out what should be considered extraneous noise. into the circuit. If you are experimenting with designing the most robust and accurate system possible. bat.and 08.FIRE!! . right. If you are experimenting with speaker independence use different people when training a target word. Doom or Duke Nukem. This affects the accuracy of the circuit’s recognition.. Speech recognition does not understand speech. For instance the words cat. etc. 66 and 77 and not confuse them with word spaces 5. . but that should not prevent anyone from experimenting with it for that purpose. We continue in this manner until all the words are programmed. The Voice with Stress & Excitement Stress and excitement alters ones voice. forward. Then you use the circuit to control a flight simulator game... These factors should be kept in mind to achieve the high accuracy possible from the circuit. Understanding the meaning of words is a higher intellectual function.

howyadoin" Continuous speech recognition systems are on the market and are under continual development. The command word count is usually lower than the speaker dependent however high accuracy can still be maintain within processing limits. speech recognition also contends with the style of speech it can recognize.. In the future.92 seconds in length. These systems are capable of achieving a high command count and better than 95% accuracy for word recognition. The HM2007 can be set up to identify words or phrases 1. Industrial applications more often require speaker independent voice recognition systems. Therefore the system must respond to a large variety of speech patterns. Continuous: This is the natural conversational speech we use to in everyday life. inflections and enunciation's of the target word. The user must pause between each word and command spoken. This reduces the word recognition dictionary number to 20.96 second) • Maximum word length 1. speaker dependent and speaker independent. not what I say!” Speaker Dependent / Speaker Independent Speech recognition is divided into two broad processing categories. Features: • Single chip voice recognition CMOS LSI • Speaker dependent • External RAM support • Maximum 40 word recognition (. Speaker dependent systems are trained by the individual who will be using the system. Recognition Style In addition to the speaker dependent/independent classification. how are you doing?" to a computer sounds like "Hi. Connected: This is a half way point between isolated word and continuous speech recognition. The chip may be used in a stand alone or CPU connected. This is the most common speech recognition system available today. This is the most common approach employed in software for personal computers. For instance. Speaker independent is a system trained to respond to a word regardless of who speaks. to “Do what I mean. regulation. More on the HM2007 Chip The HM2007 is a CMOS voice recognition LSI (Large Scale Integration) circuit. voice analysis. voice recognition systems may have the ability to distinguish nuances of speech and meanings of words. The chip contains an analog front end. and system control functions. Isolated: Words are spoken separately or isolated. connected and continuous.Because a circuit can respond to a vocal command doesn’t mean it understands the command spoken. They are three styles of speech: isolated. It is extremely difficult for a recognizer to sift through the sound as the words tend to merge together. The drawback to this approach is that the system only responds accurately only to the individual who trained the system. "Hi. It permits users to speak multiple words.92 seconds (20 word) • Microphone support • Manual and CPU modes available • Response time less than 300 milliseconds • 5V power supply .

When the applied current or voltage exceeds a threshold value. Although relays are generally associated with electrical circuitry. and proven high reliability. in effect. the electric coil. which operates either to close the open contacts or to open the closed contacts. The current flowing in one circuit causes the opening or closing of another circuit. Highly sophisticated relays are utilized to protect electric power systems against trouble and power blackouts as well as to regulate and control the generation and distribution of power. the second is called the load circuit. such as in telephone exchanges. washing machines and dishwashers. digital computers and automation systems. long life. and heating and air-conditioning controls. When a power is supplied to the coil. it generates a magnetic force that actuates the switch mechanism. In the home. such as pneumatic and hydraulic. Relays are used in a wide variety of applications throughout industry. The first circuit is called the control circuit. All relays contain a sensing unit.3. the coil activates the armature. Input may be electrical and output directly mechanical.1 RELAYS A relay is usually an electromechanical device that is actuated by an electrical current. The magnetic force is. relays are used in refrigerators. relaying the action from one circuit to another. Relays are like remote control switches and are used in many applications because of their relative simplicity. or vice versa. there are many other types. . which is powered by AC or DC current.

The general-purpose relay is rated by the amount of current its switch contacts can handle. which will be a 5 pin relay and the working of the relay will be like as. such as a compressor Limit Control: Example: Motor Speed Control. copy machines. used to disconnect a motor if it runs slower or faster than the desired speed Logic Operation: Example: Test Equipment. Electromechanical Relays: In our project we will be using an electromechanical relay. and other consumer electronic equipment and appliances.On/Off Control: Example: Air conditioning control. Most versions of the general-purpose relay have one to eight poles and can be single or double throw. . used to limit and control a “high power” load. used to connect the instrument to a number of testing points on the device under test. These are found in computers.

inductive. Examples of resistive loads include electric heaters.) AC or DC. rather than in volts and amps. sewing machines and vacuum cleaners.) AC or DC – This affects the contacts circuit of the relay (due to EMF) and the timing sequencing. fans. Relays that are going to be subjected to high-inrush inductive loads. resistive.) Inductive. 1. This rating reflects the amount of power the relay contacts can handle at the moment the device is turned on (or switched). The relay can handle both volts and amps. And may result in performance issues in the switching capacity of the relay for different load types (I. 3.) Inductive Loads include power drills.) Resistive. will often be rated in horsepower. There are four types of loads: 1. .). ranges and ovens. Both the size of the load and its type are important. 3.Load Types: Load parameters include the maximum permissible voltage and the maximum permissible current. electric mixers. 2. such as an AC motor. 2. etc.) Resistive Load is one that primarily offers resistance to the flow of current.e. and 4. toasters and irons.) High or Low Inrush.

3. thus increasing and decreasing the current). A definite polarity (+ or -) is required By the relay coil. An example of a high inrush load is a light bulb. A permanent magnet is used to either attract or repel the armature that controls the contact. The latching option makes a polarized relay dual-winding. 4.2 INTERNAL OPERATION OF MECHANICAL RELAYS Standard: Single Side Stable with any of the following three different methods for closing contacts: 1. Plunger Type: The lever action caused by the energization of the armature produces a long stroke action. Polarized: Can be either a single side stable or dual-winding. .) High or Low Inrush . and the contact is driven into a stationary contact. Flexure Type: The armature actuates the contact spring directly.4. 2. Lift-off Type: The moveable piece is energized by the armature. which may draw 10 or more times its normal operating current when first turned on (some manufacturers refer to this as lamp load). and the contact closes 3. closing the circuit. Reed: A Single Side Stable Contact that involves low contact pressure and a simple contact point.Some load types draw significantly higher amounts of current (amperage) when first turned then they do when the circuit later stabilizes (loads may also pulsate as the circuit continues operating. meaning it remains in the current state after the coil is de-energized.

Each channel rated at 500mAand can withstand peak currents of 600mA. These versatile devices are useful for driving a wide range of loads including solenoids. LED displays filament lamps. . high current Darlington arrays each containing seven open collector Darlington pairs with common emitters. ULN2002A. thermal print heads and high power buffers. The ULN2001A/2002A/2003A and 2004A are supplied in 16 pin plastic DIP packages with a copper lead frame to reduce thermal resistance.3 RELAY DRIVER (ULN2003) The ULN2001A. OUTPUT CURRENT 500mA PER DRIVER (600mA PEAK) OUTPUT VOLTAGE 50V.3. They are available also in small outline package (SO-16) as ULN2001D/2002D/2003D/2004D. FEATURES OF DRIVER: • • • SEVENDARLINGTONS PER PACKAGE.Suppressiondiodesare included for inductive load driving and the inputs are pinned opposite the outputs to simplify board layout. relays DC motors. ULN2003 and ULN2004Aare high Voltage.

OUTPUTS CAN BE PARALLELED FOR HIGHERCURRENT.• • • • • • • INTEGRATED SUPPRESSION DIODES FOR INDUCTIVE LOADS. INPUTS PINNED OPPOSITE OUTPUTS TO SIMPLIFYLAYOUT PIN CONNECTION: . TTL/CMOS/PMOS/DTLCOMPATIBLE INPUTS.

3. realtime control system. An embedded system is a microcontroller-based. operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market.4 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS: Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. . software driven. reliable. autonomous. or human or network interactive.

High-end embedded Systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose. where they are embedded in.An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing. not a traditional business or scientific application. System Design Calls . Microwave Ovens. Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine. not a software system on PC or UNIX. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems.

The diagram shown on this slide is the “V Diagram” that is often used to describe the development cycle. simulating the rest of the the system with real-time hardware is preferred to testing components in the actual real system. In this diagram the general progression in time of the development stages is shown from left to right. many different versions of this diagram can be found to describe different product design cycles. Note however that this is often an iterative process and the actual development will not . Traditional testing is referred to as “static” testing where functionality of components is tested by providing known inputs and measuring outputs. real-time systems and data acquisition in dynamic test applications. Because of cost and safety concerns.The Embedded System Design Cycle “V Diagram” In this place we need to discuss the role of simulation software. Originally developed to encapsulate the design process of software applications. Here we have shown one example of such a diagram representing the design cycle of embedded control applications common to automotive. aerospace and defense applications. This has led to a need for “dynamic” testing where components are tested while in use with the entire system – either real or simulated. Today there is more pressure to get products to market faster and reduce design cycle times.

High-level to lowlevel view of application. Loop back/ Iterative process. This is a simplified version. If the x-axis of the diagram is thought of as time. As the system is divided into sub-systems and components. The goal of rapid development is to make this cycle as efficient as possible by minimizing the iterations required for a design. every phase of design requires a complimentary test phase. Afterwards components are integrated and tested together until such time that the entire system can enter final production testing. Reason for shape. X-axis is time (sum up). The y-axis of this diagram can be thought of as the level at which the system components are considered. the goal is to narrow the “V” as much as possible and thereby reduce development time. Therefore the top of the diagram represents the high-level system view and the bottom of the diagram represents a very low-level view. Characteristics of Embedded System: An embedded system is any computer system hidden inside a product other than a computer There will encounter a number of difficulties when writing embedded system software in addition to those we encounter when we write applications Throughput – Our system may need to handle a lot of data in a short period of time. the requirements of the overall system must be considered. Early on in the development. Notes: V diagram describes lots of applications—derived from software development.proceed linearly through these steps. Response–Our system may need to react to events quickly . the process becomes very low-level down to the point of loading code onto individual processors.

Military and aerospace embedded software applications. Applications: 1.5 ABOUT MICROCONTROLLER: . Some have a serial port or a network connection. screens or disk drives. 3. software often operates on hardware that is barely adequate for the job. They usually do not have keyboards.Testability–Setting up equipment to test embedded software can be difficult Debug ability–Without a screen or a keyboard. and you must make the software and the data fit into whatever memory exists Program installation – you will need special tools to get your software into embedded systems Power consumption – Portable systems must run on battery power. finding out what the software is doing wrong (other than not working) is a troublesome problem Reliability – embedded systems must be able to handle any situation without human intervention Memory space – Memory is limited on embedded systems. Embedded systems have a microprocessor/ microcontroller and a memory. and the software in these systems must conserve power Processor hogs – computing that requires large amounts of CPU time can complicate the response problem Cost – Reducing the cost of the hardware is a concern in many embedded system projects.

• Pin out compatible to the PIC16C73B/74B/76/77 • Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources) • Eight level deep hardware stack • Direct. Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM data memory. • All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle • Operating speed: DC .The micro-controller is a chip. PIC 16F877A: Microcontroller Core Features: • High-performance RISC CPU.20 MHz clock input DC . • Only 35 single word instructions to learn. which has a computer processor with all its support function.200 ns instruction cycle. Most microcontrollers do not require a substantial amount of time to learn how to efficiently program them. • Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory. but as the device family matures. the first version of micro-controller will just have memory and digital I/O. Along with micro-controllers getting faster. . although many of them which have quirks which you will have to understand before you attempt to develop your first application. Often. indirect and relative addressing modes. These built in functions minimize the need for external circuits and devices to design in the final applications. and I/O built in to the device. more and more pat numbers with varying features will be available. smaller and more power efficient they are also getting more and more features. memory (both program storage and RAM).

• Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges. • Low-power.0V to 5. • High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA. • Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST). . • Fully static design. • In-Circuit Debugging via two pins. • Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation. • Single 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming capability. • Wide operating voltage range: 2. • Selectable oscillator options. • In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) . • Power saving SLEEP mode.• Power-on Reset (POR). high-speed CMOS FLASH/EEPROM technology.5V. • Processor read/write access to program memory. • Programmable code-protection.

PIN DIAGRAM .

Peripheral Features: • Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler .

• Fully static design. .5V). with external RD. high-speed Flash/EEPROM technology.• Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler. Resolution is 12.0V to 5. max. Resolution is 200 ns .Capture is 16-bit.5 ns . • Wide operating voltage range (2. prescaler and postscaler • Two Capture. WR and CS controls (40/44-pin only) • Brown-out detection circuitry for Brown-out Reset (BOR) CMOS Technology: • Low-power. • Low-power consumption. max. Compare.Compare is 16-bit. PWM modules . • Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges.PWM max. Resolution is 10-bit • 10-bit multi-channel Analog-to-Digital converter • Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (Master Mode) and I2C (Master/Slave) • Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART/SCI) with 9-bit address detection • Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8-bits wide. can be incremented during sleep via external crystal/clock • Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register.

Programmable. Features • • • • • • • Self-contained stand alone speech recognition circuit ser programmable Up to 20 word vocabulary of duration two second each Multi-lingual Non-volatile memory back up with 3V battery onboard. VOICE RECOGNITION KIT USING HM2007 Introduction Speech Recognition System The speech recognition system is a completely assembled and easy to use programmable speech recognition circuit. and many more. Speech Assisted technologies. robotics movements.Any microcontroller like 8051. Will keep the speech recognition data in memory even after power off. in the sense that you train the words (or vocal utterances) you want the circuit to recognize. This board allows you to experiment with many facets of speech recognition technology. PIC or AVR can be interfaced to data port to interpret Applications . Easily interfaced to control external circuits & appliances Specification Input Voltage .8 bits at 5V Logic Level Interface . It has 8 bit data out which can be interfaced with any microcontroller for further development. Some of interfacing applications which can be made are controlling home appliances.9 to 15 V DC Use a commonly available 12V 500ma DC Adapter Output Data . Speech to text translation.4.

Using the System The keypad and digital display are used to communicate with and program the HM2007 chip. Testing Recognition: Repeat a trained word into the microphone. Say the target Word into the onboard microphone (near LED) clearly. The number of the word should be displayed on the digital display. If the LED did not flash. If you only require 10 target words that’s all you Need to train. The keypad is made up of 12 normally open momentary contact switches. speech controlled appliances and tools allow the user to perform parallel tasks (i. The circuit will accept and recognize up to 20 words (numbers 1 through 20). saying The word “directory” into the microphone will cause the number 20 to be displayed.e. Training Words for Recognition Press “1” (display will show “01” and the LED will turn off) on the keypad. the red LED (READY) is lit and the circuit waits for a Command. Press “2” then TRN to train the second Word and so on. The word (or utterance) is now identified as the “01” word.92 seconds. For instance. if the word “directory” was trained as word number 20. hands and eyes are busy elsewhere) while working with the tool or Appliance. for word one. then press the TRAIN key (the LED will turn on) to place circuit in training mode. each word a length of 1. 55 = word to long 66 = word to short 77 = no match Clearing Memory . Speech controlled appliances and toys Speech assisted computer games Speech assisted virtual reality Telephone assistance systems Voice recognition security Speech to speech translation Introduction Speech recognition will become the method of choice for controlling appliances. It is not necessary to train all word spaces. Error Codes: The chip provides the following error codes. At its most basic level. tools and computers. You may continue training new words in the circuit. start over by pressing “1” and then “TRAIN” key. The heart of the circuit is the HM2007 speech recognition IC. toys. “00” is on the digital display.• • • • • • • There are several areas for application of voice recognition technology. The IC can recognize 20 words. When the circuit is Turned on. The circuit signals acceptance of the Voice input by blinking the LED off then on.

Changing & Erasing Words Trained words can easily be changed by overwriting the original word. Homonyms Homonyms are words that sound alike. For instance assume you are sitting at your workbench and you program the target words like fire. meaning that the voice that trained the system has the highest recognition accuracy. The numbers will quickly scroll by on the digital display as the memory is erased. 02.. forward. Simulated Independent Recognition The speech recognition system is speaker dependant. Word six is now erased. right. left. Now we use four word spaces per target word. sat and fat sound alike. 03 and 04 are allocated to the first target word. If one wishes to erase the word without replacing it with another word press the word number (in this case six) then press the CLR key. We continue in this manner until all the words are programmed. inflections and enunciations of the target word. 07 and 08. Error Codes When interfacing the external circuit through its data bus. If you are experimenting with speaker independence use different people when training a target word. Voice Security System This circuit isn’t designed for a voice security system in a commercial application. 66 and 77 and not confuse them with word spaces 5. Because of their like sounding nature they can confuse the speech recognition circuit.LEFT …go RIGHT!” In the heat of the action you’re voice will sound much different than when you were sitting down relaxed and programming the circuit. This affects the accuracy of the circuit’s recognition.. The more system resources that are allocated for independent recognition the more robust the circuit will become. For instance the words cat.. etc. We continue do this for the remaining word space. If you are experimenting with designing the most robust and accurate system possible. the second target word will use the word spaces 05. the decoding circuit must recognize the word numbers from error codes. The Voice with Stress & Excitement Stress and excitement alters ones voice. But you can simulate independent recognition. To achieve higher accuracy word recognition one needs to mimic the excitement in ones voice when programming the circuit.. Then you use the circuit to control a flight simulator game. Well. To make the recognition system simulate speaker independence one uses more than one word space for each target word.To erase all words in memory press “99” and then “CLR”. For instance. These factors should be kept in mind to achieve the high accuracy possible from the circuit. The word spaces 01.FIRE!! . So the circuit must be designed to recognize error codes 55. when you’re playing the game you’ll likely be yelling “FIRE! …Fire! . When choosing target words for your system do not use homonyms. Simply retrain the word space by pressing “6” then the TRAIN key and saying the word “State” into the microphone. train target words using one voice with different inflections and enunciation's of the target word. bat. 06. This becomes increasingly important when the speech recognition circuit is taken out of the lab and put to work in the outside world. Therefore we obtain four different enunciations of each target word. into the circuit. (Speaker independent). This will enable the system to recognize different voices. Doom or Duke Nukem. A common approach is . but that should not prevent anyone from experimenting with it for that purpose. 6 and 7.. For instances suppose word six was the word “Capital” and you want to change it to the word “State”.

connected and continuous. "Hi. Speech recognition does not understand speech. and system control functions.92 seconds in length. It permits users to speak multiple words. This is the most common approach employed in software for personal computers. Continuous: This is the natural conversational speech we use to in everyday life. Products that require visual confirmation of an aural command grossly reduces efficiency. Therefore the system must respond to a large variety of speech patterns. Industrial applications more often require speaker independent voice recognition systems. The command word count is usually lower than the speaker dependent however high accuracy can still be maintain within processing limits. to “Do what I mean. The drawback to this approach is that the system only responds accurately only to the individual who trained the system. Speaker dependent systems are trained by the individual who will be using the system. speaker dependent and speaker independent. Aural Interfaces It’s been found that mixing visual and aural information is not effective. The chip contains an analog front end. This reduces the word recognition dictionary number to 20. how are you doing?" to a computer sounds like "Hi. not what I say!” Speaker Dependent / Speaker Independent Speech recognition is divided into two broad processing categories.howyadoin" Continuous speech recognition systems are on the market and are under continual development. It is extremely difficult for a recognizer to sift through the sound as the words tend to merge together. For instance. Isolated: Words are spoken separately or isolated. Understanding the meaning of words is a higher intellectual function. voice recognition systems may have the ability to distinguish nuances of speech and meanings of words. This is the most common speech recognition system available today. Because a circuit can respond to a vocal command doesn’t mean it understands the command spoken. Recognition Style In addition to the speaker dependent/independent classification. inflections and enunciation's of the target word. Features: • Single chip voice recognition CMOS LSI . The way in which people typically communicate verbally. More on the HM2007 Chip The HM2007 is a CMOS voice recognition LSI (Large Scale Integration) circuit. Learning to Listen The ability to listen to one person speak among several at a party is beyond the capabilities of today’s speech recognition systems. The chip may be used in a stand alone or CPU connected. regulation. speech recognition also contends with the style of speech it can recognize. In the future. voice analysis. The user must pause between each word and command spoken. These systems are capable of achieving a high command count and better than 95% accuracy for word recognition. They are three styles of speech: isolated. Speaker independent is a system trained to respond to a word regardless of who speaks.to use three or four keywords that must be spoken and recognized in sequence in order to open a lock or allow entry. Connected: This is a half way point between isolated word and continuous speech recognition. To create an effective AUI products need to understand (recognize) commands given in an unstructured and efficient methods.. The HM2007 can be set up to identify words or phrases 1. Speech recognition systems cannot (as of yet) separate and filter out what should be considered extraneous noise.

An encoder. an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage (or current) to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current.• Speaker dependent • External RAM support • Maximum 40 word recognition (. Typically. can also be considered ADCs. some nonelectronic or only partially electronic devices. ADCs are also used in quantization of timevarying signals by turning them into a sequence of digital samples. An ADC may provide an isolated measurement. for example. but there are other possibilities. However. The reverse operation is performed by a digitalto-analog converter (DAC). A/D or A to D) is a device which converts a continuous quantity to a discrete digital number. . might output a Gray code. The result is quantized in both time and value.1 Analog-to-digital convert An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC. such as rotary encoders. The digital output may use different coding schemes.96 second) • Maximum word length 1.92 seconds (20 words) • Microphone support • Manual and CPU modes available • Response time less than 300 milliseconds • 5V power supply 4. Typically the digital output will be a two's complement binary number that is proportional to the input.

3 STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER .2 POWER SUPPLY UNIT POWER SUPPLY UNIT COSISTS OF FOLLOWING UNITS 1) Step down transformer 2) Rectifier unit 3) Input filter 4) Regulator unit v) Output filter 4.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FIG4.

Full-Wave and bridge Rectifiers available for this specific function. The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. which enables you to have the correct voltage input for your electrical needs. if our equipment has been specified for input voltage of 12 volts. which decreases the incoming electrical voltage to be compatible with your 12 volt equipment. . Step down transformers can step down incoming voltage. This is a widely used configuration. 4. and the main power supply is 230 volts. the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core. To reduce or step down the voltage. There are Half-Wave. 4 RECTIFIER UNIT The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage. The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias. Bridge rectifier: A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full-wave rectification. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. For example. we will need a step down transformer. The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit.The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential. thus it is stepped down.

It charges in positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input. resulting in lower cost and weight as compared to a center-tapped transformer design. 4. And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage. The efficient circuit used is the Full wave Bridge rectifier circuit.5 INPUT FILTER Capacitors are used as filter. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output.A diode bridge or bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four diodes in a bridge configuration that provides the same polarity of output voltage for either polarity of input voltage. When used in its most common application. The output voltage of the rectifier is in rippled form. the ripples from the obtained DC voltage are removed using other circuits available. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. it is known as a bridge rectifier. The Forward Bias is achieved by connecting the diode’s positive with positive of the battery and negative with battery’s negative. The circuit used for removing the ripples is called Filter circuit. So it allows .

The capacitor exhibits reactance. The combination of resistance and capacitance gives you the time constant of the filter τ = RC (represented by the . This filter is fixed before the regulator. Thus the output is free from ripples. Input side the low pass filter has been used. causing them to go through the load instead. and blocks low-frequency signals. and a capacitor in parallel with the load. and the capacitor is quite capable of sustaining any reasonable load in between charging pulses. Low pass filter: One simple electrical circuit that will serve as a low-pass filter consists of a resistor in series with a load. The four rectifier diodes keep recharging the reservoir capacitor on alternate half-cycles of the line voltage. The 1000µf capacitor serves as a "reservoir" which maintains a reasonable input voltage to the 7805 throughout the entire cycle of the ac line voltage. At higher frequencies the reactance drops.only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. and the capacitor effectively functions as a short circuit.

it . Thus this can be successfully reduced here. the DC voltage also changes. so that the IC won't be damaged in case of excessive load current. The output goes up and down only a small fraction of the amount the input goes up and down. 4. the capacitor only has time to charge up a small amount before the input switches direction. is determined by the time constant: or equivalently (in radians per second): One way to understand this circuit is to focus on the time the capacitor takes to charge. It takes time to charge or discharge the capacitor through that resistor: • At low frequencies.6 REGULATOR UNIT 7805 REGULATOR Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. the output gets affected. At double the frequency. there's only time for it to charge up half the amount. Thus to avoid this Regulators are used. The break frequency. Meanwhile it also contains current-limiting circuitry and thermal overload protection. As and then the AC voltage changes. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms.Greek letter tau). there is plenty of time for the capacitor to charge up to practically the same voltage as the input voltage. also called the turnover frequency or cutoff frequency (in hertz). • At high frequencies.

the 7805 is a positive voltage DC regulator that has only 3 terminals.will reduce its output voltage instead. 2) Negative regulator • • • Ground pin Input pin Output pin It regulates the negative voltage. . Output Voltage. Ground. The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage. Further they can also be classified as: 1) Positive regulator • • • Input pin Ground pin Output pin It regulates the positive voltage. Encapsulated in a single chip/package (IC). They are: Input voltage. 7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR: The 7805 provides circuit designers with an easy way to regulate DC voltages to 5v.

BIBILOGRAPHY • • • http://www.com .vn/Datasheet/HM2007.pdf http://www.nskelectronics.Wikipedia.hutech.edu.com http://eed.

google.com http://www.com .• • http://www.microchip.

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