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***case*** AT: Moral Obligation to Immigrants (113) Utilitarianism Good (117) AT: Slavery (1/5) Immigration Bad-Generic Immigration Increases RichIPoor Gap (112) Immigration Increases Rich/Poor Gap (212) Immigration Reinforces Racism No Solvency-IllegalsInevitable Plan Causes More Immigrants . Population Growth Turns Case Plan too Fast-Kills Hopes for Assimilation Immigrants Pay Now Increased Immigration Doesn't Solve SocSec Social Security Not Collapsing Social Security Collapse Inevitable Immigration High Mexican Immigration High Plan Increases Immigration Naturalization Down Backlash Low Immigration Backlash White Backlash (1/2) Backlash Impact Backlash Turns Case AT: No Backlash AT: Public Won't Backlash AT: Only Elites Backlash Immigration Doesn't Solve SocSec Crisis Spending Link Unskilled Immigrants Key to Econ Amnesty Doesn't Solve Econ AT: Illegals = unemployment Public Hates Plan GOP Opposes Plan Public Wants Wafl Plan Fractures Conservatives Immigrant Base Opposes Terrorism Link Assimilation Fails Immigration Threatens Culture Naturalization Key To Identity American Culture Key to Heg Protestant Beg Solves Ethnic Violence National Memory Good AT: National Ideology Risilient Brain Drain D/A 1NC (112) Open Borders CP Solvency IRCA CP 1NC IRCA CP Solvency (113) Lopez CP Solvency (113) PRAs Counterplan Wall counterplan Agamben Links Assimilation Links Nationalism Links Assimilation=Coercion
Immigration Neg II
I . .
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Hannah. Jacinth. Jordan. Lasky. Simi. Will
Michigan 7 Wk Seniors 2006-2007
Assimilation Impacts State Policies Affect Assimilation Citizenship Bad-Racist Alternatives Aff-Multiculturalism Perm
............................................................................................................................................................................... 100 ............................................................................................................................................................ 101 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 102 ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 105
Immigration Neg 11
/ . .
Hannah. Jacinth. Jordan. Lasky. Sirni. Will
Michigan 7 W k Seniors 2006-2007
Immigration Neg I1
AT: Anti-Immigration Laws Racist
The underlying justification for anti-immigration advocates is not race - it's the sheer number of immigrants Beck 96 (Roy, Washington, D. C. editor of The Social Contract, The Case Against Immigration, 1996)
If one side points out that some immigrants are prone to crime and destructive behavior, others note that most immigrants arrive with high motives, good character, and laudable behavior. Some observers fear that the volume of non-European immigration threatens to swamp America's cultural heritage; others welcome an ever more multicultural society. Nonetheless, the chief difficulties that America faces are are because of current immi~ration not triggered by who the immi~rants but by how many they are. The task before the nation white America: it is about protecting and in setting a fair level of immigration is not about race or some vision of a horno~eneous enhancing the United States' unique experiment in democracy for all Americans. including recent immigrants, regardless of their particular ethnicity. It is time to confront the true costs and benefits of immigration numbers, which have skyrocketed beyond our society's ability to handle them successfully.
Hannah, Jacinth, Jordan, Lasky, Simi, Will
Michigan 7 Wk. Seniors 2006-2007
AT: MORAL OBLIGATION TO IMMIGRANTS (1/3)
1 -Immigration Neg I1
We have no moral obligation to illegal immigrants - rather, public policy makers have an obligation to abide by the law to uphold citizen's interests Spingola 05 (Deanna, "Illegal Immigration & the Law," htt~://www,newswithviews.corn/S~innola~deannaI .htm)
Non enforcement of any law gives criminal license to the lawless. If an individual breaks the law, there should be consequences or others will follow the example of the unfettered lawbreaker. Justice also dictates that there cannot be selective prosecution based on some arbitrary standard or personal status. What good is the law if it does not apply to all, including arrogant, badly behaving elected officials? Laws are for the protection of the innocent and those who abide the law. The proper role of government is to enforce the laws for the overall welfare and security of its citizens. Elected officials should be held accountable for the enforcement of all laws and should not be at libertv to sus~end certain re~ulations the financial benefit of a few business own in^. politically dona tin^ citizens or for that cross our borders daily. It for some other hidden political motive. The laws should not be suspended for the hordes of ille~als immigrants come into our countw. Some may come to "do the jobs that Americans won't do" does not matter why or how the ille~al
and who knows where that rationalization came fiom? Yes, many wish to come to America for better opportunities. The reason America might be so attractive is because of the freedoms allegedly guaranteed by the very laws the illegals and our errant representatives are trashing. Many of the illegals are from countries that are impoverished because of the socialistic and otherwise immoral behavior of that country's leaders. Some of those leaders encourage illegal entry into America for their worst citizens: the morally corrupt and criminal element of their society. Why would Vicente Fox, an alleged good friend of Bush, dump all of his problem people on a country that has attempted to financially benefit his country with generous trade pacts? Is it America's responsibility to take care of the cast-off citizens of other countries? Should our taxes pay for incarceration of their criminals? No, it is the government's job to protect its citizens fiom the encroachment of others. Countries have borders for a
reason. America has generallv welcomed those who desire to emigrate and become a part of this nation. Our ancestors were all immigrants. But they usually did not come here illegally to suck up our resources or engage in criminal behavior. They came with a desire to work and contribute to their communities. They had an interest in the success of their villages and towns. They constructed homes, farms, churches and synagogues which demonstrated their permanence. They embraced the language and culture while still honoring and retaining their heritage. They did not demand that we adapt to their language and culture - after all they were entering our
country as guests. Currently, there are two members of the House of Representatives who have demonstrated the legal and moral courage to uphold the Constitution while most of their congressional peers apparently do not take their oaths all that seriously. Congressmen, regardless of party, are obligated to uphold the laws that they enact in behalf of the rest of us. These two courageous representatives are Tom Tancredo and Ron Paul. Rather than demonstrating the courage of Tancredo and Paul, they often question or ridicule them. On 10 May 2005 George W. Bush was in the country of Georgia, formerly a part of the Soviet Union. When our elected officials leave the country, watch out! That is when we need to be super vigilant. Included in an address he delivered to the citizens of Georgia, he stated: "At the same time, the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Georgia must be respected - the territorial [sic] and sovereignty of Georgia must be respected by all nations." [I] Why does he recognize and encourage the protection of Georgia's sovereignty but not America's? Why does the success and stability of other countries matter more than the sacred oath that he made during his inaugural ceremony? He solemnly vowed, with his hand on the bible, to uphold the Constitution of this great nation. Obviously, this must be another way of taking the Lord's name in vain. He also stated in his inaugural address: "My most solemn duty is to protect this nation and its people against further attacks and emerging threats. Some have unwisely chosen to test America's resolve, and have found it f r .  Well, Mr. Bush, the borders are not firm and constitute an ongoing threat. What im" are his policies that make "America last" and every other country first? press release on 29 April 2005: "President Bush's administration has clearly stated that it rejects the vigilantism carried out by individuals on the border In a Mexico C ~ t y and he has said that he will not condone violations of the law."  He is the one in violation - by this obvious treacherous lack of enforcement of his country's laws. The press release further stated: "It should be noted that this year, by Mexico's initiative, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopted by consensus a resolution on migrants' rights in which states are urged to adopt effective measures to punish any detentions of migrants by individuals and to pursue and punish any violations of the law that result from this conduct."  "The Mexican government will assist with any lawsuits, anywhere, that are brought before the corresponding authorities if arrests are made by individuals or if the rights of Mexican citizens are violated."  "As has been stated previously, Mexico reiterates its commitment to continue working with officials at all levels of the United States government in the search for mechanisms that assure that Mex~canmigration to the United States is legal, safe, orderly and respectful of their rights."  WHAT ABOUT THE RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS? Logically, an American citizen should be able to sue the Mexican government for loss of wages due to their lack of respect for our laws. Or a group of ex-employees who have been displaced by illegal immigrants ought to be able to initlate a class action suite against their ex-employer for loss of wages as well as racial discrimination. There are no coincidences in politics. If something happens, you can be sure that it was planned that way. The constant influx of illegal immigrants, including other than Mexicans, affects our economy, morality, safety, health, social structure, politics and every other aspect of our lives. Our southern border has become the world's gateway to our ultimate downfall. The agenda includes a planned perpetual foreign onslaught designed precisely for the results that it is achieving - the collapse of America and the eventual merging of adjacent nations into a tyrannical one world government. This devised merge is destroying the middle class. That Continued...
Hannah, Jacinth, Jordan, Lasky, Simi, Will
Michigan 7 Wk. Seniors 2006-2007
AT: MORAL OBLIGATION TO IMMIGMNTS (2/3)
Immigration Neg I1
Continued... will result in a two class society, the rich and the poverty stricken. The poverty stricken will then rely completely on the government for sustenance. He who writes the check, controls. Because federal oficials look the other way and the "mess media" are absolutely ignoring the illegal immigration situation we can assume that they do not view it as a problem. It is but a means to an end. More than few "conservative" talk show hosts continually claim that the "mess media" has a liberal bias. I seriously question this evaluation. If it were actually liberally biased their attack on Bush regarding the borders would be merciless. The media isn't right or left. This constant vocal contest between the so-called conservative right republicans and the liberal left democrats is a distracting political maneuver. The political agenda of the media, owned and controlled by big money in influential places, is compatible with that of Bush. They are on the same side: it is the CFR insiders against America. It is totally inconsistent to create a Department of Homeland Security and speedily ram the Patriot Act through congress yet completely disregard the enormous border breach. The Patriot Act was devised and written during the Clinton presidency but was not implemented until America's utter vulnerability after 9111. So essentially it is not about safety or homeland security. Homeland Security and the Patriot Act are a farce. The more obvious purpose is the additional withdrawat of certain individual freedoms. We have been deprived of personal liberties with a promise of national security and we are less safe than before 9111. The only benefactors of Homeland Security are the individuals appointed to run yet another government agency - in other words - the squandering of our tax dollars. George W. Bush has a moral oblipation to abide by and enforce the laws of this nation. Another slothful servant, Bill (I did not have sex with that woman.) Clinton, by his deceitful behavior and low life explanations, introduced a new moral mentality regarding intimate relationship practices, much to the dismay of teenager's parents who now cite this disreputable individual as reason for their own immoral behavior. However, Clinton certainly did not set the precedent for lying - that has and is standard procedure for the administration. This is not simplv about
motives. Among them are the following: they the justifications for illegal entry into this country. Of course, illegals have com~elling come to take the iobs of Americans. sell drugs, receive health care and get social security benefits after their return to Mexico. Their motives, whether good or bad. are beside the point. That is not the primary concern. The plain and simple fact is Illegal Immigration is Illegal.
We have no moral obligation to illegal immigrants. They should be viewed as criminals who committed a crime entering the nation Walker 7-24-06 (Bruce, Editor - Enter Stage Right, One way to treat illegal workers, htt~://~~~,enter~tageright.com/archive/articles/0706/0706iIlegwork.htm)
The controversv over illegal immieration would be seen more clearlv if we viewed the illegal immigrants as convict labor. Although convicts do work in jobs within the American economy, many of those jobs outside of prison, there is - or should be - a general consensus that the best solution should be to have as few convicts as possibie and consequently as little convict labor as possible. Why? There are several reasons. Illegal immigrant workers. like convict labor. are people who have broken our law. While it is true that American governments (federal, state and local) have enacted entirely too many laws and criminalize entirely too much behavior, most of the people who wind up in prison or on probation have committed real crimes, like theft or assault or burglary. 1llee;al i m m i ~ a nworkers t have effectively committed the crime of burglar?, by entering illegalIv the nation of another. Making people into criminals or law-breakers is not in the interest of anv societv that desires to live bv the rule of law. The habit of law breaking spreads easily, as we learned during Prohibition. Those who work in the underground economy undermine those who play bv the ruIes. It is not iust illegal immierants but businesses who have become criminals by our failure to enforce immigration laws. The verv market forces that have made America affluent penalize honest employers and reward criminal employers. The moral authority of laws is thus doubly weakened: by illegal immigrant workers and by illegal native employers. Because illegal immigrant workers, like convict workers, can work - or can be pushed into working - more cheaply that legal workers. the consequence of illegal immigrant workers is the same as the consequence of convict labor: the law-breakers will work more cheaply than the law-abiders; the criminals will economically undercut the legal workers, operating outside of prisons or outside the immigration laws of our nation.
Hannah, Jacinth, Jordan, Lasky, Simi, Will
Michigan 7 Wk. Seniors 2006-2007
AT: MORAL OBLIGATION TO IMMIGRANTS (313)
Immigration Neg I1
We have no moral obligation to illegal immigrants. They should be treated as criminals - our appeasement of their behavior threatens to collapse civil society Fisher 3-26-06 (Pete, RenewAmerica.us, "Criminal acts defended by pro-illegal immigration" http://~~~.renewarnerica.us/columns/fisher/060326) I am beginning to wonder if there is something in the water these days when so many people are defending the rights of people, who under current law should have no rights as citizens. After all, they are not citizens. They are criminals who lied and smuggled themselves into our nation bv the millions. They are an element that is costing the taxpayers billions of dollars a vear, and it is tax revenue that is lost. I know the IRS will never let me or any other legal taxpaver go without paving taxes without extremely high penalties and seizure of property. Why is it they are not going after the illegats? Because the truth is, most have one or several SSN cards that are stolen or forged. In essence, they cannot be tracked down easily if the names and numbers can be switched by shuffling the deck of SSN cards many of these people hold. This also makes it harder for law enforcement officials to enforce the laws, and even if these people are arrested, many walk out and assume a new identity in minutes with another name and number. If a legal citizen were caught doing the same thing-, we would be orosecuted and punished accordinalv. Yet so many are heralding the greatness of illegal immigrants in this nation and excusing their law breaking activities as if it were nothing more than spitting; on a sidewalk. Now, when 9-11 occurred most Americans wondered how those Arab terrorists were able to walk around so easily and slip in and out our society undetected. Illegal immigration and the attitude towards it has been a large contribution to easy access. If we turn our heads continuallv on illegal activity, it will become commonplace in our societv when people break the law and no one looks to see what is happening. In fact, with the liberal media and people like Hillary speaking up for these criminals, it has already hit that point. The message we are getting is that it is ok to break immigration laws and be used as slave labor as long as we get cheap labor for our hotels and car washes. I think this is despicable at best to condone activity as such, especially in light of the fact that we need to be more watchful of who crosses our borders and the massive expense to enforce our laws. I have high praise for the Minutemen who give of their time and abilities to do what the government has refused to do. And given the high population of citizens in this country who have spoken out against this for years and are only now seeing their elected officials act on it, I would be almost surprised at Hillary's support of illegal immigration, were it not her history of condoning illegal activity to glean votes from a particular ethnic group in the nation. Releasing several cop killers in NY comes to mind, and the next presidential election could gain another several million votes in the Hispanic sector. So we can see why Hillary would sell her soul, there are votes involved. In her mind, it's an even trade. But I cannot see the average citizen in support of this unless they are incredibly ignorant of the costs both financially and security wise to this nation. Even while driving through Woodstock, Illinois last week I saw an insurance company with signs in Spanish that in essence said "no license, no problem." How can insurance companies do this? It should be against the law for someone without a license to get solid insurance. I know of a case once where a man was driving his new motorcycle without a license. He got into an accident, and the insurance company refused to pay because he was unlicensed. This in turn cost the person who was hit to have their insurance company pay for the damages and go after the man. And in turn, the insurance companies will hike rates to continue having to chase unlicensed drivers, which is even harder to do if the individual has a false identity and is here illegally. So why the huge support of illegal criminals? BY condoninn this activitv and suvvortinrr watered down laws. the nation becomes weaker. not stronger. If we turn our heads and allow criminal activity like this to continue. we undermine all we have as a free nation of laws and structured societv. It is a shame to those who support an element that walks unpunished while continually breaking the law. By punishing companies who use this form of slave labor, I agree. I fully support heavy penalties that will not allow them to condone illegal activity.
Hannah, Jacinth, Jordan, Lasky, Simi, Will
The Closing Circle: Nature. Seniors UTILITARIANISM GOOD (1/7) Immigration Neg II We should not hold ourselves accountable for the personal. Will . These include the widespread use of pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. For a number of such activities.* All this has taken some people by surprise. The ratio of benefit to risk that is acceptable to the public can be seen from a plot of the risk against the benefit. Other benefitlrisk issues relate to large-scale social enterprises in which the risks are taken involuntarily. voluntary acts. Commoner 72 (Barry. this judgment can only be made by some appropriate governmental agency. traveling in a train or an aircraft. air pollution due to urban traffic. the use of x-rays for medical diagnosis. using a microwave oven or a synthetic insecticide. The answer to this argument is that public opinion has. in fact. and Technology.illegal aliens made the voluntary decision to cross the border. all forms of power production. Hannah. They would argue as well that there is no way to establish the general public attitude toward the moral acceptability of a given balance between benefit and risk and that. already established rather well-defined limits to the risks that are acceptable for the benefits to be derived from a wide range of activities. Simi. For there is a myth in some political circles that public policy is determined more by narrow self-interest than by concerns for values as nebulous as the integrity of the environment. Lasky. voluntary acts of others . working in an industrial plant or li&ng near it.204-7) / I -- I I . watching a color television set. and indeed all of the massive sources of environmental pollution. Jordan. from the available statistics. The benefit/risk issue is associated with many aspects of personal life: driving a car. skiing. Chauncey Starr has evaluated the risk (which he defines as. "the statistical probability of fatalities per hour of exposure of the individual to the activity considered) and the benefit. the quantitative balance between the benefits and risks associated with such activities that has been accepted by the general public.Michigan 7 Wk. Jacinth. calculated in these terms. Recently efforts have been made to evaluate. realistically. These are personal. Man. calculated from the dollar equivalent value derived by the individual from the activity. 1972.
000 times less than that acceptrisks able for voluntary ones.voluntary activities fall on separate curves of the same general shape. as the value increases. Lasky. their actions appear to reflect rather than create the common public view.Michigan 7 Wk. approximately. Involuntary and . Moreover. When the value of the benefit is small. deeply inherent in our society. in proportion to the cube of the benefit). they place a numerical value on a matter of public morality-that. Jordan. In effect. "'we are loath to let others do unto us what we happily do to ourselves." A Hannah. as the beneficial value of various activities increases. the acceptable risk is also relatively low. some general standard of public judgment regarding the acceptable balance between benefit and risk. the acceptable risk reaches an upper limit. the acceptable risk also rises-but at a rate that is very large relative to the increase in value (the acceptable risk rises. Simi. the influence of a purely moral factor such as the distinction between an involuntary and voluntary activity is measurable in the results. Will . These calculations show that the acceptable beneGt/risk ratio is determined by a general public consensus. Jacinth. but for the same benefit the acceptable level for invol~~ntary is 10. where regulatory agencies are involved. Seniors 2006-2007 UTILITARIANISM GOOD (217) Immigration Neg I1 / -- The results of such a plot are quite striking. Since a wide variety of activities fit this general formula. we must conclude that there has been. in Starr's words. Also.
To say that corrupt means corrupt the ends is to believe in the immaculate conception of ends and principles. The man of action views the issue of means and ends in pragmatic and strategic terms. Hannah. one does not always enjoy the luxury of a decision that is consistent both with one's individual conscience and the good of mankind. He asks of ends only whether they are achievable and worth the cast.. The choice must always be for the latter. He has no other problem. in action. Whenever we think about social change. He who sacrifices the mass good for his personal conscience has a peculiar conception of "personal salvation".25) Immigration Neg I1 / -- Life and how you live it is the story of means and ends. Will . of means. Life is a corrupting process from the time a child learns to play his mother oP against his father in the politics of when to go to bed. he who fears corruption fears life. only whether they will work. Jordan. and the means is how you get it. Jacinth.Michigan 7 Wk. he doesn't care enough for people to be "corrupted" for them. March 1972. Simi. The practical revolutionary will understand Goethe's "conscience is the virtue of observers and not of agents of action". The real arena is corrupt and bloody. he thinks only of his actual resources and the possibilities of various choices of action. We must produce the best end. Action is for mass salvation and not for the individual's personal salvation. Lasky. Rules for Radicals: A Practical Primer for Realistic Radicals. The end is what you want. the question of means and ends arises. regardless of the morality of the means Alinsky 72 (Saul D. Seniors 2006-2007 UTILITARIANISM GOOD (3f7) Ignoring consequences is immoral and idealist.
should search themselves as to their real political position. Lasky.Michigan 7 Wk. It is this species of man who so vehemently and miIitantly participated in that classicaIly idealistic debate at the old League of Nations on the . In fact. not our wished-for fantasy of the world as it should be. Simi. The most unethical of all means is the nonuse of any means. ethical differences between defensive and offensive weapons. to the burdens and problems of operational responsibility and the unceasing pressure for immediate decisions. Hannah. they are passive-but real-allies of the Haves. constantly obsessed with the ethics of the means used by the Have-Nots against the Haves. They are the ones Jacques Maritain referred to in his statement. moreover. I ones who chose not to fight the Nazis in the only way they could have been fought.'Yhe means-and-end moralists or nun-doers alwuys wind up on their ends without any means. Their fears of action drive them to refuge in an ethics so divorced from the politics of life that it can apply only to angels. Seniors 2006-2007 UTILITARIANISM GOOD (417) Immigration Neg I1 / -- The men who pile up the heaps of discussion and literature on the ethics of means and ends-which with rare exception is conspicuous for its sterility-rarely write about their awn experiences in the perpetual struggle of life and change. Will . They are strangers." or "This is not the time. they were the ones who privately deplored the horror of it all-and did nothing. the world as it is. They assume a nonexistent situation where men dispassionately and with reason draw and devise means and ends as if studying a navigational chart on land. they were the ones who drew their window blinds to shut out the shameful spectacle of Jews and political prisoners being dragged through the streets. not to men." These non-doers were the i ourselves by entering the context of history is not virtue. They can be recognized by one of two verbal brands: 'We agree with the ends but not the means. "The f ~ n r p cnilin \ \ but a way of escaping virtue. The means-and-ends moralists. This is the nadir of immorality. The standards of judgment must be rooted in the whys and wherefores of life as it is lived. Jacinth. Jordan. They are passionately committed to a mystical objectivity where passions are suspect.
However. but listed none of the benefits. patriotic idealists. Jefferson.Michigan 7 Wk. Judgement depends on one's political position. in such conflict. To us the Declaration of Independence is a glorious document and an affirmation of human rights. property destruction. There was no mention of the food the colonies had received from the British Empire during times of famine. It is life or death. assassins. these people were IawIess terrorists. medicine during times of disease. Rules for Radicals: A Practical Primer for Realistic Radicals. To the British. March 1972. Those who opposed the Nazi conquerors regarded the Resistance as a secret army of selfless. or the many other direct and indirect aids to the survival of the coIonies. neither protagonist is concerned with any value except victory. terror. To the occupation authorities. Sirni.271 Immigration Neg 1 1 / -- he second rule of the ethics of means and ends is that the fitdgrnent of the ethics of means is dependent upon the political position of those sitting in judgment. it was a statement notorious for its deceit by omission. courageous beyond expectation and willing to sacrifice their lives to their moral convictions. murderers. If you actively opposed the Nazi occupation and joined the underground Resistance. however. saboteurs. and the hope for imminent remedial legislation to correct the inequities under which the colonies suffered. and others were honorable men. Seniors 2006-2007 UTILITARIANISM GOOD (517) No right is absolute. Alinsky 72 (Saul D. who believed that the end justified the means. but they knew that the Declaration of Independence was Hannah. kidnapping. Any foreign occupation would so ethically judge its opposition. Neither was there notice of the growing number of allies and friends of the colonists in the British House of Commons. then you adopted the means of assassmation. Jacinth. In the Declaration of Independence. and the willingness to sacrifice innocent hostages to the end of defeating the Nazis. Will . the bombing tunnels and trains. soldiers during times of war with the Indians and other foes. the Bill of Particulars attesting to the reasons for the Revolution cited a11 of the injustices which the colonists felt that England had been guilty of. Lasky.. Jordan. Franklin. on the other hand. and were utterly unethical according to the mystical rules of war.
as a declaration of war. Simi. and his home. had to be what it was." Tanner replied. from one point of view the omission was justified. we denounce the same tactics when they are used by communist forces in different parts of the world against us. allied with the angels. They also knew that a list of many of the constructive benefits of the British Empire to the colonists would have so dihted the urgency of the call to arms for the Revolution as to have been self-defeating. We condemned Lenin's acceptance of money from the Germans in 1917 but were discreetly silent while our Colonel William B. As allies of the Soviets in World War I1 we praised and cheered communist guerrilla tactics when the Russians used them against the Nazis during the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union. Seniors 2006-2007 UTILITARIANISM GOOD (6/7) Immigration Neg I1 / -- a call to war. The Declaration of Independence. "I am a gentleman. used against us. George Bernard Shaw. from the other. pointed out the variations in ethical definitions by virtue of where you stand. Jordan.Michigan 7 Wk. Mendoza said to Tanner. in Man and Superman. Shake hands. in no war has the enemy or the cause ever been gray. r r l I Hannah.- . tied to the Devil. and that because of that 20 per cent difference we were going to have a Revolution. I live J l by robbing the poor. theirs had to be all evil. I live by robbing the rich. The opposition's means. . and only 40 per cent on their side. his children. "I am a brigand. Jacinth. To expect a man to leave his wife. it was deliberate deceit. Will . History is made up of "moral" judgments based on politics. The result might well have been a document attesting to the fact that justice weighted down the scale at least 60 per cent on our side. to leave his crops standing in the field and pick up a gun and join the Revolutionary Army for a 20 per cent difference in the balance of human justice was to defy common sense. are always immoraI and our means are always ethical and rooted in the highest of human values. Therefore. Thompson in the same year contributed a million dollars to the anti-Bolsheviks in Russia. a 100 per cent statement ~f the justice of the cause of the colonists and a 100 per cent denunciation of the role of the British government as evil and unjust. Lasky." -. Our cause had to be all shining justice..
Hannah. could reconcile himself to being on the same side as the Soviets. Rules for Radicals: A Practical Primer for Realistic Radicals." He believed that the civil courts were powerless to cope with the in. . the leading British anticommunist.Michigan 7 Wk. when Lincoln was convinced that the use of military commissions to try civilians was necessary. Will . the secretary inquired how Churchill. Informed of the imminent turn of events. the destruction of Hitler. Alinsky 72 (Saul D." In the Civil War President Lincoln did not hesitate to suspend the right of habeas corpus and to ignore the directive of the Chief Justice of the United States. Again. Jordan. I have only one purpose. Would not Churchill find it embarrassing and difficult to ask his government to support the communists? Churchill's reply was clear and unequivocal: "Not at all. March 1972. If Mitler invaded Hell I would make at Ieast a favorable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons.. Simi. Any risk of war trumps rights. Seniors 2006-2007 UTILITARIANISM GOOD (717) Life is the ultimate right.. and my life is much simplified thereby. Lasky. "Must I shoot a simpleminded soldier boy who deserts.' surrectionist activities of civilians. Jacinth. he brushed aside the illegality of this actbn with the statement that it was "indispensable to the public safety. Winston Churchill's remarks to his private secretary a few hours before the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union graphically pointed out the politics of means and ends in war. while I must not tou a hair of a wily agitator who induces him to desert .29) Immigration Neg I1 I -- - The third rule of the ethics of means and ends i that s in war the end justifies almost any means*Agreements on the Geneva rules on treatment of prisoners or use of nuclear weapons are observed only because the enemy or his potential allies may retaliate.
* They can leave that iob and look for another. most illegal immigrants satis@ the following list: * They come to this country voluntarily (atbeit illegally.outsidethebeltway. and often at risk to their lives). like meat.. Here the assertion is merely made that illegal immigrants are equivalent to or the "next best thing to" slaves. Jacinth. anti-illegal immigration folks Iike Michelle Malkin frequently enjoy pointing out that illegal immigrants aren't "in the shadows" (and hence not likely to be subject to forced labor). * They voluntarily take a-iob that a employer voluntarilv offers to pay. No compared to actual slavery such as was the case in the U. See. Jordan. or lynched. "looked for other emplo~ment")were whipped. such cases are more the exception than the rule. Not quite in line with the definition of slavery. Riehl. Illegal Immigration the New Slavery?. Africans were kidnapped fiom their homes. * They can live where the please (and can afford).and I can't believe I even have to do this . They were beaten and bred like animals. shot.. Seniors 2006-2007 AT: SLAVERY (115) The status of illegal immigrants is clearly distinct from that of slaves .S. it's apparent to many in this debate who has the interests of America in their heart . * They are free to spend their money as they see fit. Now . http://www. Mr. Thev were routinely ripped from what littIe semblance of family they were permitted to have if their "employer" wished to sell them.. Simi. Slaves who escaped (i. fiom halfww across the world. Will . a well run guest worker program and an amnesty plan for those already here would solve that issue to a large extent as well.com/archives/2006/05/illegal immigration the new slaverv/) Immigration Neg I1 Between special interest groups served by a growing underclass and big business special interests intent on maintaining a steady supply of cheap labor. lets look at Radley Balko's take on it. with slavery. In fact.Michigan 7 Wk. and who is simply looking for access to the 2006 equivalent of. Lasky.let's talk about fucking slavery.immigrants are not slaves Verdon 5-06 (Steve. however. Hannah.S.-emphasis in the original. And to the extent that forced labor is a problem. To be sure there are cases of forced labor even the U. fiom what I have been able to find so far. And all of this went on for generations.e. Thev were bought and sold as if they were mules.. They were murdered if they resisted. They were packed into ships against their will. or next best thing to slaves. However.
America does not make homogenization a virtue. I turned to this subject when I read repeatedly that a considerable number of public leaders and colleagues believe that American society is in the process of being deeply transformed -from being a Europeandominated society to one governed by a "majority of minorities. Moreover. and Asian Americans . Will . compatible with their values and interests. 2001. whatever their background or race. in American society. Simi. I show herein that the vast majority of all Americans.Michigan 7 Wk. Jacinth. but neither does it employ apartheid of any kind or color. because they assume that people's pigmentation will determine their personal. The Monochrome Society.will become the majority of the country's population sometime afier the year 2050 and will carry us in fundamentally new directions. social." Black. Jordan. far from growing apart.I read . diversity continues to be well contained by unity. Lasky. I found that those who foresee such a turn are inadvertently racists. xv) The volume opens with an exploration of the relationship among racial and ethnic groups that make up American society. or one in which colors do not mix and there is no place for white (Chapter I). We are much more a monochrome society than a rainbow society. The record shows that. we are coming together through intermarriage and other processes to be discussed. Seniors 2006-2007 AT: SLAVERY (215) Immigration Neg I1 1 -- America is becoming homogenous in terms of race Etzioni 01 (Amitai. basically hail the same virtues and have the same dreams and aspirations. and political views and actions. Latino. Hannah.
The fact is that America is blessed with an economic and political system as well as culture and core values and much else that. and votes. Moreover. most Americans who hail from different social backgrounds will seek to follow a different agenda or hold a different creed than a white majority. A fair number of findings. Will . or other Americans. current trends. brown. there is strong evidence that if they behave in any way that resembles current behavior of white. yellow. values. Jordan. they will share the same basic aspirations. Hannah. whites and nonwhites will largely change together. racial attributes. or. is embraced by most Americans of all races and ethnic groups. both views-that of alarm and that which celebrates the ending of the white majority and the rise of a majority of minoritiesare fundamentally wrong because these positions are implicitly and inadvertently racist: they assume that people's pigmentation.5) Immigration Neg I1 1 -- As I see it.15 Actually. and mores. nobody can predict what people will believe or do fifty years hence. 2001. race is used to encompass ethnicity. of course. while far from flawless. support the thesis that American society is basically much more of one color-if one looks at conduct and beliefs rather than pigmentation and other such external.Michigan 7 Wk. Simi. Lasky. from here on. black. The Monochrome Society. determine their visions.) It is a grievous error to suggest that because American faces or skin tones may appear more diverse some fifty years from now. I claim and will show that very often the opposite is true. Seniors 2006-2007 AT: SLAVERY (315) America is becoming homogenous in terms of race Etzioni 01 (Amitai. more generally. we shall see shortly. While. core values. red. Jacinth. (To save breath. skin-deep indications. further support the thesis that while the American society may well change. during a period in which the nonwhite proportion of the population already has increased.
and because the group is gaining in political self-awareness and experience. it would have increased divisiveness in America. Some attempts have been made to define Hispanics as a separate race -a brown one. is that Hispanics constitute the fastest-growing. 2001. Simi. The picture that is going to emerge from such a change in perspective wiII be deeply affected by the way Hispanics are depicted. Jacinth. If such a characterization had caught on. Jordan. from the viewpoint Hannah. Lasky. increasing racial polarization Etzioni 01 (Amitai. The Monochrome Society. fortunately.Michigan 7 Wk. surprisingly infrequently discussed. major American social group due to high levels of immigration. one in which Hispanics are not mentioned at all or only as an afterthought. Will . As a result. Seniors 2006-2007 AT: SLAVERY (415) The airmafive's discourse isohtes Hispanics.lS) Immigration Neg I1 / -- Especially important for the future "monochrome-ness" of Arnerican society is the way Hispanic Americans come to view themselves and to be characterized by others. Given that the number of African Americans is growing much more slowly (mainly because there is very little immigration from Africa). high rates of childbirth. we are quite likely to stop talking about a black and white society. in the next decades. and that this group already has a relatively high level of political presence and hence less room to grow in this area. The special significance of this development. as countless books and essays did in the recent past. Hispanics are very likely to overtake African Americans in the next decade as the leading nonEuropean group in American society. and instead focus on the relationship between European Americans and Hispanic Americans.
continuous attempts are being made to classi@ Hispanics as something different. continue. ~ ~ There is of course no God-given or scientific reason to classify Hispanics as different from other white ethnic groups. of one kind.")'~ The ways Hispanics come to see themselves in the near future is the single most important factor in determining to what extent America will continue to be a primarily monochrome society.of those who favor a monochrome society. (As Orlando Paterson says. the category of "non-Hispanic whites" reflects a mixture of the ways statistics are kept (which themselves reflect normative and political pressures) and an ideological agenda. most Americans and the media continue to view Hispanics as an ethnic group rather than a race. and recognize that they are not all of one kind (just the way other white groups are not). many immigrants from the Middle East are quite "dark. . and increasingly ally themselves with those African Americans who seek social and normative separateness (which by itself is a declining number). and in later years all over A m e r i ~ a .and to lump them with the nonwhite groups. Thus. the census always just reflects changing attitude~. If Hispanics view themselves largely as white. recent press reports employed the category "non-Hispanic whites. Instead of simply treating them as one white group among others (groups that differ in their features. America's diversity will not overwhelm its essential unity. Attempts to change the social construction of Hispanics." who are projected to Iose their majority in July 2001 in California. Indeed. however. continue to share basic American values. although those who use this term do not necessarily subscribe to it or are even aware (ofthis agenda. If Hispanics view themselves as if they were a racial minority. "These are all basically political decisions. for instance." but are viewed as whites in contemporary America). maintaining a monochrome America will be seriously challenged.
Jordan. which reflect thousands of years of tradition. the greatest number of respondents chose to be labeled by their country of origin.'' Hannah. which reflected differences in their feelings both about their country of origin and their willingness to become Americans. and Central/South American attitudes and political behavior found numerous differences among these groups. The percentages of those who had become citizens ranged from 53% (Cubans) to 26% (Central1 South Americans). the percentage of Hispanics identifying themselves as Republicans ranged from 12% '(CentrallSouth Americans) to 34% (Cub a n ~ )Large differences were also found in the rate to which differ.20) William Westerman of the International Institute of New Jersey complains about Americans who tend to ignore the cultural differences among Asian nations. and Mexico would feel if they were all treated as indistinguishable "North Americans . We don't speak worker remarked that when she is called Latina it makes her think "about some kind of Many Americans from Central America think of themselves as "mestizo.~~ ent Latino groups became United States citizens.Michigan 7 Wk. Support for legal abortion ranged from 32% (Ce'ntrallSouth Americans) to almost double that (60%. Will . In response to a question about pa* 'affiliation. Lasky. Simi. includng three of my sons." a term that refers to a mixture of Central American Indian and European ancestry. Puerto Ricans). puts it this way: "There is no place called Hispanica. Canada. Seniors 2006-2007 AT: SLAVERY ( 9 5 ) Immigration Neg II / -- The terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" are culturally insensitive misnomers Etzioni 01 (Amitai. Among those surveyed in the National Latino Political Survey in 1989. Cuban. Even Latino is a A Mexican American office misnomer. n as opposed to "pan-ethnic terms such as "Hispanic" or la tin^. The Monochrome Society. Puerto Rican."74 The same holds for the so-called Latinos. a social service administrator. 2001."^^ A recent extensive survey comparing Mexican. Americans of Hispanic origin trace their origins to many different countries and culture^. Jacinth.^' Eduardo Diaz. I think it's degrading to be called something that doesn't exist. He wonders how the citizens of the United States.
Until recently. Will . A nearly half-centurv march of economic propress for black Americans has been halted and turned back. unmatched in world history. income disparities have widened disturbingly. but an honest look at major trends during the recent mass immigration shows that ordinary Americans' concerns can hardly be dismissed as narrow and unenlightened: Whole industries in the 1970s and 1980s reorganized to exploit compliant foreign labor. have been reversed. Lone: trends of risinp U S wages .000 newcomers annually.000 a year. and wrong. education. Jordan. their country of origin. 1996) Over the long span of history from the founding of the nation in 1776 until 1965. Simi. the United States-with vast expanses of virtually open landwas much better able than today to handle 230. D. with the result that conditions have deteriorated for all workers in those industries. fleeting. Suddenly in the 1970s and 1980s.S. And it has been running around 1 million a year during the 1990s. immimation has turned many cities into caldrons of increased ethnic tension and divisiveness.. co-opted. C.000 a year. immigration soared above American tradition. Numerous or~anized pained solid beachheads of operations. A stabilizing U.S. population with low birth rates (like other advanced nations) has become the most rapidly congesting industrialized nation in the world (resembling trends in Third World countries). Majority public opinion can be shallow. natural habitat. culture.Michigan 7 Wk. This was a phenomenal flow into a single country. and undermined because of the unanticipated volume of new immigration. population had grown large enough. and race. Lasky. Povertv has increased. at the very time that the majo~ity Americans were coming to of the conclusion that the U. Jacinth. and ecosystems have been destroyed to accommodate the rrrowing ~opulation. policymakers and politicians of every stripe had ignored what public opinion polls found to be the public's growing dissatisfaction with the abnormally high level of immigration. The Case Against Immigration. and morals. It is common when discussing those negative trends to focus on individual immigrants' skills. immigration varied widely but averaged around 230. it should be noted that during large parts of that period. The culture-and even language-of many local communities has been transformed against the wishes of their native inhabitants. Aggressive civil riphts programs to benefit the descendants of slaverv have been watered down. editor of The Social Contract. Seniors 2006-2007 IMMIGRATION BAD-GENERIC Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Rapidly increasing immigration will lead to a laundry list of impacts Beck 96 (Roy. Law enforcement agencies have been confounded just as they thought they were near victory over the crime organizations that other ethnic groups had brought with them during the Great Wave. Vast tracts of remaininp farmland. Washington. Hannah. Environmental progress has been set back by the addition of crime syndicates headquartered in the new immigrants' home countries have tens of millions of new polluters. Instead of spawning healthy diversity. averaging more than 500. The middle-class way of life has come under siege.
Others have won by having the security. Hannah. winning unanimous approval to block the corporation." high school history teacher Mark Tucker said. Simi. Jordan. similar history and economy. it is onlv for the upper crust that the financial benefits of immigration tend to outweigh the losses. who lose opportunities to pursue science-based careers because of some corporations' and universities' preferences for foreign scientists and engineers. they'll be replaced by Third World workers. the economic enticements were greater. Local advocates for the new jobs accused opponents of being racist. In Clay County. Census Bureau. An outside corporation sought a zoning change to allow it to start up operations in an abandoned plant in Spencer. executive director Carolyn Dunagan said: "I don't know about other places. According to the UN report. Washington. Also among the losers fiom immigration are all Americans who prefer to live in a more middle class and less economically polarized society. refugee resettlement agency personnel. And that serves to increase income disparity. lower-skilled workers. residents of declining urban communities. The most telling reason Spencer citizens gave for blocking the newjobs was: "We don't want to become another Storm Lake. Will . harming their already modest economic position. though. In fact. Nearly every community receiving substantial numbers of immigrants has experienced increased disparities among its population and diminished cohesiveness. they don't want to create a community of rising disparities. officials of immigrant-advocacy groups. real estate aeents. and even some of America's brightest young people. and the same epic prairie sky of uninhibited expressiveness. Seniors 2006-2007 IMMIGRATION INCREASES RICHPOOR GAP (112) / -Immigration Neg I1 Immigration increases the rich-poor gap. Deep South county was having enough trouble trying to create a cohesive culture out of its black and white residents. But a corporation similar to the one just blocked in Spencer moved into Storm Lake and immediately began attracting foreign workers. An enraged citizenry crowded into the high school fieldhouse in an emotional demonstration before the city council. without adding foreign cultures and languages into the mix and contributing to a population growth unlikely to pay its own way. In Alabama. which mav have led to lower prices than otherwise would have occurred. and educational leaders in 1995 to discourage an Arkansas corporation from using immigrant labor to expand its existing poultryprocessing operations in rural Clay County. large numbers of African Americans. immigration definitely brings some benefits to a nation. and Clay County. and educators and other social services employees who work with immigrants. That would include immigration lawyers." Until the 1980s. but it is a growth that only the upper class enjoys. and others who tend to profit from population growth are winners. home mortgage officials.S. Asked if it wasn't a little strange to have a chamber of commerce opposing local economic and population growth. Unfortunately. Americans who prize cultural diversity are among the non-financial winners. The Case Against Immigration. The proposed operation was in an industry with a long track record of drawing foreign workers. Owners of high-tech industries have lowered their who have costs by importing skilled immigrants who will work at lower wages than college-educated Americans. same size. Under low-immigration conditions from 1925 to 1965. P e o ~ l e can afford nannies. a shared bucolic. Jacinth. replacing black employees-more than any other Americans-with foreign workers has become somewhat commonplace around the country under Washington's expanded immigration programs. D. But consumers also tend to be laborers drawing those depressed wazes. or pay of their jobs enhanced by the high immigrant flow. but here when it comes to a choice between quality of life and growth. the United States enjoyed increasing egalitarianism. told me that many townspeople believed the corporation was preparing to recruit immigrant workers in response to recent protests by local black employees over working conditions. quality of life is the most important.Michigan 7 Wk. "is that the next time black workers walk out over a labor problem. prestige." The Clay County leaders acted out of two primary concerns: (1) The importation of immigrants likely would hurt the county's black workers. Beck 96 (Roy. civic. The steady flow soon turned Storm Lake into one of the scores of new immigration hubs created by federal immigration mandates since 1965. the unskilled immigrants who already are here and face the most severe competition from new immigrants. Immigrants may create economic growth. according to the U. Even many Americans who would gain financially from high immigration into their community have come to oppose it because of the changes it would bring. the county chamber of commerce helped organize business. most Americans may have benefited as consumers because the immigrants have kept the vrice of labor lower. Consider the recent examples of Clay County. Who wins and who loses? A glance through the roster of immigration winners quickly finds business owners who have followed a low-wage labor strategy. 1996) Nonetheless. But by the middle of the 1980s. Mayor Irving Thompson of Ashland. C. Storm Lake-less than an hour's drive to the south-had been like a twin to Spencer: neighboring agricultural county seat." It is not a frivolous fear. lowa. it had a larger gap between the rich and poor than could be found in any other major industrialized nation. noted that the community had freely embraced refugees over the years. Lasky. increasing poverty and creating social tension. the roster of immigration losers is much larger and includes some of America's most vulnerable citizens: poor children. the county seat. Iowa. and (2) the impoverished. eardeners. and housekee~ers benefited fiom lower costs. even if they would make more money. Why would they kiss good-bye 350 new industrial jobs for the city of 11. the county seat.000? In a word: immigration. Land develovers. editor of The Social Contract. "The fear. and that their concern about an influx of foreign workers was that the experience of other cities showed an unacceptable change in a previously egalitarian way of life. Alabama. Opponents. safe. midwestern lifestyle with excellent schools.
of Stanford University.Michigan 7 Wk. parts of town became undesirable in the real estate market based on which schools had high populations of students who didn't speak English. instead of making technological improvements and then training of workers for more productive. more have seen their wages depressed because of the loosening of the labor market and the immigrants' lower expectations. where the national trend toward economic stratification has been visible longer. higher-paying jobs. says the obvious central cause of the disappointing economic conditions for the American majority since 1973 is the drastic drop in the rate of growth in output (productivity) per worker. immimation during the last two decades. Romer found that when the nrowth in number of workers went up (throu~hhigh immigration and fertilitv). history to be increasing the number of U.5 Studies by Harvard's Jeffrey G. the very process that could send wages upward again." said Mary Galik.S. Jacinth. Even main street merchants did not oppose efforts to block the new industry. No scholar suggests that increased immigration is the chief culprit in America's overall decline in wages. along with technology. Simi. program manager of the merchants' economic growth organization. Williamson have found that during those same periods of high immigration. Storm Lake still can seem like a delightful place to live. But the average wage for most American groups has declined. It is four times higher than crime in Spencer. who insist that the federal government must continue to run a highimmigration program in order to boost the economy. New facilities have been needed to handle the growing population of high-fertility foreign families with their tow incomes and low tax payments. Overnight. explained Bob Rose. but not by enough to improve the circumstances of the average worker. Seniors 2006-2007 IMMIGRATION INCREASES RICH/POOR GAP (2/2) Immigration Neg I1 / -- The unrequested changes to life in Storm Lake followed patterns similar to those in many new-immigration cities. Williamson declared in 1994 that all standard mainstream economic models predict migration will tend to lower wages where immigrants settle. transience.S.4 Clearly. Krugman has noted that when the number of workers surges. Romer's research flies in the face of today's immigration advocates. A community.8 And economists Timothy J. The study found that immigration accounted for 20 to 25 percent of the increase in the wage gap between low-skill and high-skill workers. Looking across American history. it would appear that the big increases in the labor supply probably contributed to the drop in productivity growth. the richest 20 percent of Americans have enioyed some economic improvement and the richest 1 percent have reaped strong increases of income. a Storm Lake native who moved to Spencer. and separate cultures-has been the deterioration in Storm Lake residents' sense of safety. would seem to be undermining capital investment per worker. high immigration during the 1980s helped facilitate a massive redistribution of wealthmore than $1 00 billion a year-from American workers to the upper class. It is the capital investment per worker. But the experts are uncertain about precisely why productivity growth has dropped so low and stayed there. As business owners. the 1980s. to match demand to supply.Reich fretted in 1994 that constant suppl~es foreign labor have enticed many employers to continue relying on low-paid. the changes have been difficult to accept. The crime rate soared above that of the rest of Iowa. "In fact. U. workers through immigration.6 It isn't difficult to see how an abundant supply of new foreign workers could retard wage increases. Bureau of Labor Statistics study concluded that immigration was responsible for roughly half the decline in real wages for nativeborn high school dropouts in the f i f h largest metropolitan areas during. became a starkly stratified society Especially unsettling-but to be expected in a community of wide disparities. even the profits of the small recent growth in per capita productivity have not been ~ a s s e d to the workers. published in the authoritative National Bureau of Economic Research journal. "It breaks my heart to see what has become of my hometown. But to those who knew the city before. "the way that a freely functioning labor on market ensures that almost evervone who wants a job gets one is by allowing wage rates to fall. Lasky. though. there was nothing about the creation of sharp disparities in the Storm Lake population that Spencer's citizens wanted to risk duplicating. For the first time.S. Hatton and Jefiey G. and definitely worked against efforts to improve it after it did drop.9 Because the United States has had a surplus of workers.11 Hannah. Congress picked a terribly inappropriate period of U." Romer maintains. the merchants did not look favorably on economic development that might endanger what they saw as Spencer's special midwestern small-town culture and quality of life. the labor market was being flooded with baby boomers who were reaching employment age and with a big increase in married women seeking jobs. there was a decline in the nrowth ofger capita output-just as has occurred durine this latest time of hiph immigration and depressed wages.S. Will . if necessarv.10 According to the research of immigrant economist George Borias. its former twin. bv greatly increasing the labor suvplv. that is the most important ingredient in increasing per capita output. according to Romer's study." Most of the profits from recent increased productivity have gone to Americans in the top 1 percent of income. To a visitor from a coastal city. changing the character of neighborhoods and causing some elementaty schools to be disproportionately filled with newcomers. Nationally during the last two decades of high immigration. Given a choice. At the same time immigration was snowballing in the 1970s. low-sk~lledjobs. Thus. Research by the economist Paul Romer explains that the problem with a large increase in the number of workers is that it tends to result in a lower amount of capital investment per worker. Some Storm Lake residents have lost their jobs to immigrants.7 A U. Secretary of Labor Robert B. But as parents and grandparents. Based on recent research by several economists. the United States became less of a middle-class society and experienced its highest degree of economic disparity-justas is happening during the current period of high immigration. Storm Lake schools were dealing with the cultural ramifications of a student body that now is one-fifth immigrant (predominantiy Laotian and Mexican) and with the challenges of teaching in different languages. Jordan. Adding workers usually does increase the nation's overall economic output. what the data suggest is that labor productivity responds quite negatively to increases in the labor force. The economist Paul Krugman. The immigrants have tended to occupy housing units in higher densities than natives and have settled in enclaves. they favored the new plant because it would have increased their retail sales. which previously had little reason to think in terms of haves and have-nots.
But racism and the absence of civil rights laws and affirmative action-could not halt phenomenal economic progress for black Americans during the tight-labor conditions of that era. the harm of continued immigration to poor Latino. giving black families the economic wherewithal to stay together and raise their children. thev quadrupled. But progress for the average black wage earner stalled in 1973. America would be a far different society today. and would take considerable pressure off poor black communities and the programs designed to serve them. non-college-educated black males to obtain jobs that pay enough to support a family and make marriage an option. The increase in poverty is due to many changes in society. "We hear people talking about black families falling spa*" said Roger Wilkins of George Mason University. tightbut labor conditions during that time helped all Americans to make impressive gains."l7 According to a 1993 Urban Institute report. 1996) The uncompleted agenda of economic and political equality of opportunity for the descendants of American slavery ranks as perhaps our most troubling and pervasive national agony. of Comell University suggests an immigration connection to even those factors in his immensely useful history. If the black economic trends in the 1940s. The rapid ballooning of the labor supply has conspired to strike most Americans. "But we don't hear anybody talking about putting black men to work. High immigration has eliminated the best economic friend black Americans had: a tight labor market. the 1924 to 1965 period of low immigration contained the economic golden era not only for i m m i ~ a n t s for black Americans. The greatest increases for black workers occurred before 1965. editor of The Social Contract. "The longer it [immigration] is allowed to function as a political policy. According to papers in the Journal of Economic Literature. Jr. Considering the political climate and current federal budget realities. Federal offic~als wring their hands over the failure of government programs to more apprec~ably help the black underclass. Lasky. Ferguson suggested in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences' exhaustive study on the state of black Americans. and housing. but it has done just that."lS Some political leaders have been fearful oftalking about immiaration. Real incomes of white males. Washington has made the end of the line a lot farther fiom the fiont. But for black men. When the hiring line is short-and especially if it is shorter than the number of jobs to fill-the anti-black prejudice of employers is less harmful. he maintains. single parenting.S. but black Americans have been hit the hardest. Mass Immigration and the National Interest. slavery. such as illegitimacy. racism. and 1960s had continued. And t businesses owned bv immigrants appear to be especially heavy practitioners of anti-black iob discrimination. But the labor economist Vernon Briggs. C. though. thev found. education. And that is one of the causes of the incredible increase in black illegitimacy. with whom they tend to compete for iobs. and involvement in drug use and trade. Seniors 2006-2007 IMMIGRATION REINFORCES RACISM Immigration Neg I1 / -- Immigration uniquely hurts African Americans . While Congress argues over which programs actually work. He finds the increase in labor supply caused by immigration to be a significant factor in the inability of young. "Immigration policy was not purposely intended to harm black Americans. The immigrants and other disadvantaged moups among us would benefit fiorn any immigration changes designed to help the descendants of U. Yet the federal government continues its program of importing foreign labor into poor black communities. During renewed mass immigration. The Case Against Immigration. Harvard's Ronald F. well-paid.15 Immigration and loose labor markets hurt black workers more than others in part because American employers always have tended to put African Americans toward the back of the hiring line. saving that highlighting the negative effects of immigration on black Americans risks pitting one Proup of disadvantaged Americans (poor blacks) against another (poor immigrants). expanded two-and-one half-fold between 1940 and 1980. In fact. 53 percent of black men between the ages of twenty-five and thirty-four did not earn enough to support a family of four above the poverty level. No social problem seems untouched by the acrimony of racial recriminations that rises out of the failure to end the massively disproportionate presence of blacks in poverty." he says. They settle disproportionately in the neighborhoods of lower-income blacks. large uouulation of well-educated.14 Those who blame racism for the worsening wages for lower-skilled blacks todav might consider that institutional and social racism were thriving in the 1940-65 period. divorce. for exampIe. Jacinth. the year both the Voting Rights Act and the Immigration Act were uassed. rapidly closing the gap between races.it reinforces job discrimination.16 Recent investigative reports by the Wall Street Journal and New house Newspapers have shown the preference of emulovers for i m m i ~ r a n workers over African Americans. and Caribbean immigrants in this country is very similar to what it does to black Americans. the worse are the economic prospects for blacks. and poverty Beck 96 (Roy. But with a revised immigration policy. one-third of the total black population seems intractably stuck in povertv-and the number has been increasing throughout most of this era of rising immigration. there is merit to the arguments of analysts who point to a long list of contributing behavioral traits that have risen in prominence. Congress could at least take the stance of first doing no harm to the black poor.. Jordan. one would think that it would not intentionally take action that would weaken the chances of the members of the underclass resuming their march into the middle class. 1950s.Michigan 7 Wk. Asian. nearly a million legal immigrants: and another few hundred thousand illegal aliens. Washington. Little known to most Americans. hiehlv productive black Americans. drastically cutting immigration would cost the government next to nothing. it is unlikely that Congress soon will increase the spending aimed at helping poor black Americans. D. By lengthening the hiring line with so many immigrants over the last three decades. Hannah. social services. Certainly. Will . The federal government's immiaration program allows into this country evew year: several hundred thousand foreign persons an special work visas. Despite a thriving. Simi. the wage gap between black and white workers has widened since 1973.
it is not immigration policy that has created unnecessary tears and strains in America's social order. The solution to the legal crisis immigration represents won't come through immigration law itself. the welfare state is at the root of any legitimate claim that immigration (legal or illegal) is an assault on the American nation. or how many years you can have been here illegally before you have to leave and come back.illegal immigration is inevitable Doherty 2006 [Brian. http://www. (There are plenty of illegitimate complaints. Lasky. or what particular hoop you are asked to jump through by whatever law does eventually pass.reason. will have little effect on the forces that make immigration a recurring and increasingly tedious American telenovela.) Hannah. based merely on distaste for the often-imaginary hell of running into Spanish-speaking peopIe in day-to-day life or seeing some flag not of your nation. No matter how much money is spent or how the law is jiggered.shtml] Ultimately. Simi. "Immigration and the Welfare State?" August. how many people waved which sort of flag. Seniors 2006-2007 NO SOLVENCY-ILLEGALS INEVITABLE 1 -Immigration Neg I1 No solvency . Jordan.immigration. Jacinth.com/0608/fe. Rather.ng. Will . Author of This Is Burning Man. which again and again has proven itself useless at fully stemming the irresistible tides of human desire for a better life.Michigan 7 Wk. but such arguments do not deserve consideration.
Jacinth.reason. Lasky. "Bush's Border Bravado. Simi. Will . we will be willing to grant amnesty again five years later. Seniors 2006-2007 PLAN CAUSES MORE IMMIGRANTS Granting amnesty leads to future illegal immigration / -- Immigration Neg I1 Gillespie 2006 [Nick. kindness to today's immigrants in the form of amnesty--er. guest worker programs-regardless of threats to get tough in the future.corn/0608/fe.ng.shtml~ As important. Why? Because potential immigrants recognize that such "time inconsistency" clearly signals that we will be lenient to fwture immigrants despite rhetoric to the contrary.Michigan 7 Wk. http:I/www. will inevitably have the effect of ginning up more immigration.immigration. "If we are willing to grant amnesty for immigrants today. Jordan." August. As economist Kevin Hassett of the American Enterprise Institute summarizes. Hannah. Editor of Choice." And clearly we are: Virtually no oneand certainly not the president or the Senate-is talking about mass deportations of currently undocumented workers and children.
the United States doesn't have a lot of environmental leeway. Thirtv-five states are withdrawing groundwater faster than it is being replenished. Jordan.S. education. Such fi~ures United States. most of our environmental goals would have been met or be within reach by now. and the decades afterwards? The U. food. population grows by another 3 million people. farmland. the U. 1996) For three decades. has been the number-one cause of population growth since 1970. Americans have demanded that their government protect and restore the country's natural environment so that it could continue to meet human needs for health.. but they add to the world's overall environmental problems by emitting far more hydrocarbons into the air than they did in their home countries. But there now are more than 265 million of us! Immigration has been a substantial cause of the negative environmental news that must be mixed among all the good.S. Lasky. government who has been decorated by the Brazilian government for his decades of work with the rainforests. The more likely direction now appears to be toward cuts in environmental standards and enforcement. Thus. parking lots... by 1993. This is not because immigrants are environmentally bad people. Each year. there is intense pressure to log much of the rest. five hundred plant and animal species still were listed. Forty percent of America's lakes and streams remain unfishable and unswimmable. t Thev will be responsible for 90 ~ e r c e n of the population expansion between now and 2050. clothe.S. That will take care of this year. and waste disposal. A nation's concern for the natural resources entrusted to it within its borders is. More than 1 million acres are blacktopped each year.S. The results in aggregate are impressive: rivers no longer catch fire or run in brilliant colors (as I witnessed when 1 first began covering the environment for newspapers during the 1960s).. use public transportation. As additional people. The most important change in America that has so counteracted all the positive efforts to restore and preserve the environment is this: an additional 65 million U. require land to feed. residents. Every additional 1 percent of decrease in air pollution now becomes much more expensive than before.. in terms of both money and restrictions on personal freedom.S. Like the Americans they join. Washington. however. as taxpayer and consumer.S. and all sorts of other asphalting of farmland and animal habitat. How different would this statistic be if there were 65 million fewer Americans driving cars and using electricity? And it only gets worse. the preponderance of that blame rests on U. An adviser to the U. fifteen years after passage of the Endangered Species Act. According to the conservation biologist Thomas Lovejoy. but because they are people. recreation. Seniors 2006-2007 POPULATION GROWTH TURNS CASE 1 -Immigration Neg I1 Population growth. Nothing in the current political climate suggests that such cuts will occur. about 40 percent of Americans livgin metropolitan areas that still fail to meet some of the Environmental Protection Agency's health standards. it projects an increase to nearly 400 million Americans by 2050: that is another 130 million Americans. As expensive as it has been to clean up the air thus far.S.000 acres a year to accommodate its expanding population. U. Onlv a reduction in numbers will deal with the environmental problem. Not onlv do immigrants do all those additional things to the U. WiIl .S. immigrants flush toilets. the bald eagle has been rescued from oblivion. etc. To avoid fiirther encroachment on those resources. D. Simi. population growth. With 90 percent of northwestern oldgrowth forests gone. to whatever extent environmental problems can be blamed on U. At enormous costs. Using recent U. demographer Leon Bouvier of Tulane University ran a computer study which found that immigrants and their descendants since 1970 have comprised more than half of U. environmental resources. countrv of origin."24 Hannah. concern for the descendants of the present inhabitants. But we have fallen far short of our goals. and house them.. Because 65 million more people are contributing to the air pollution. and commerce. It is anticipating the pain that our greatgrandchildren might have if we destroy their chance of ever experiencing or using parts of our present natural endowment. The fight against air pollution may be America's greatest environmental success story. But what about next year. combined with the much higher fertility of immigrants. If we were still the 203 million Americans of 1970 whose government committed itself to saving the U.-will not diminish the threat.S. psychic or spiritual nourishment. and air and water quality in the immigration policies. population growth. and to provide the materials (and space) for their commerce. kills the environment and risks individual rights Beck 96 (Roy. In 1988. C. the emissions per person must be cut another 30 percent just to make the air as clean as it would have been if our population had remained at 1970's 203 million. Jacinth. Under those assumptions. The Case Against Immigration.Michigan 7 Wk. Population growth is probably the single most important factor in the ability to protect biological diversity and manage the environment. recreation. Having already destroyed some 50 percent of its wetlands-the prime incubators of biodiversitv-the United States is filling in another 300. editor of The Social Contract. Chanrzinn the composition of the immigration stream-whether bv skill. the average American since 1970 has slashed his or her destructive impact on the country's environmental resources. the air in our cities is far cleaner and even heatthy much of the time.S. drive cars. they require more streets. On top of the general threat of pollution and other stresses. environment. Lovejoy says the United States is "demonstrably losing biological diversity. The giant factories of biodiversitv-the Chesapeake Bay and the Everglades-teeter in precarious ecological health. that was the easy and cheap task compared with what lies ahead. most of them immigrants and the descendants of recent immigrants. the number had increased to more than seven hundred. Conflicts often described as pitting the needs of people against the needs of the environment frequently realty are conflicts of the needs of today's people versus the needs of our descendants. caused by immigration and immigrant-fertility rates. almost all of them resulting from post-1970 Dose a chillinn threat to biodiversity. Census Bureau currently considers the most likely population scenario to be one of fertility continuing close to the present rate and of immigration running slightly below recent levels. we have some areas that are really sort of close to 'last-minute' situations. recreational spaces. Despite Herculean cleanup efforts. federal and state governments must enforce deep cuts in material standards of living and in individual freedoms (such as choices of transportation and where to live) to accommodate another 130 million people. immigration poIicy.S. Census Bureau data and projections. if current fertility and immigration rates remain constant. at its heart. immi~ration policy.
Likewise Hispanics. whites constituted 88 percent of the population. who currently make up about 12. Beloit College.7 With ethnic "Hispanics" outnumbering blacks. 19). quite intentionally. jm w. DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE RISE OF WHITE IDENTITY POLITICS IN AMERICA") According to the official projections of the United States Census Bureau. The fertilitv rate of white. However. Again. and Asian Americans constituting a politically significant demowaphic. These numbers are considered to be conservative pro-iections of current trends. The narrative of white demographic decline is being written. the politics of race will become a lot more complex. Benjamin L. a statistical minority. Non-Hispanic whites will be.6 percent of the total povulation-already UP from 6. 5). the percentage of the ~ o ~ u l a t i o n designated "white" will likely decline from its current super ma-iority of 70-plus percent.4 percent in 1980 (Gibson & Jung 2002. as the relative proportion of the population described as white noes down. is not an entirely new phenomenon. limited non-white and non-European immigration to the United States. non-Hispanic women in the United B t e s has been dropping precipitously since the end of the post-war "baby boom" and current levels are well below replacement. a percentage which has been relatively stable since the Civil War (Gibson & Jung 2002. Seniors 2006-2007 PLAN TOO FAST-KILLS HOPES FOR ASSIMILATION Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Shift in the racial and ethnic balance inevitable. Simi.University of Memphis. to 14. It is only since Congress passed the Immigration and Naturalization Act Amendments of 1965 that American racial and ethnic demographics have taken the turn sketched above (Office of Immigration Statistics 2004. Gardiner 2004 (Steven L. however. 19 nearly double as a proportion of the total population. Currently constitutin~ little less a the 4 percent of the population. bv the middle of the twenty-first centurv. the plan makes it worse because it is a sudden increase. during the height of the Civil Rights era.5 The decline in white fertility. is only a small part of the story. Jordan. to less than 50 percent of the population. Gardiner. Jacinth.4 Yet as recently as 1960. the results of which are difficult to predict. primarily.6 uercent. black Americans. Assimilation inevitable. New inter-racial (and inter-ethnic) political alliances will become vossible. will increase modestly. Hooks Institute for Social Change . the next five decades will bear witness to an un~recedented shift in the racial and ethnic balance of the countrv. Passed during the Johnson Administration. for the first time in United States historv. who today constitute about 12. particularly by white nationalist movement allies (Brimelow 1995. Hannah. the relative size of the black population will be stable. which have been l o n ~ of been perforce. largely defined by a binomial opposition between a white maioritv (80 to 90 percent) and a black minority (10 to 20%). in the language of immigration. to 24.3 In this relatively brief span of time. "THE MORE THINGS CHANGE: IMMIGRATION. Meanwhile. it will be slow. according to Census Bureau projections. It abolished the national origins quotas which had. however. Will . and the proportions of Asians and Hisvanics rapidly increases. redefined.7 percent of the total. Lasky. Americans of Asian descent are predicted to more than double to 8 percent by 2050. The results are pro-iected to be dramatic. The decline in the relative percentage of white Americans.6 Another way to parse these data is to say that the demogra~hics race and ethnicity in the United States.Michigan 7 Wk. Beck 1996). the 1965 Act repealed the most blatantly racist aspects of the Immigration Act of 1924.4 percent. of course.
reason. Jacinth. Simi. or." August. not without some merit. Jordan. http:llwww.immigration. "Bush's Border Bravado. more likely.Michigan 7 W k Seniors 2006-2007 IMMIGRANTS PAY NOW No tax evasion now Immigration Neg I1 / -- GiHespie 2006 wick. indirectly via rents that reflect property taxes).shtml] Immigration restrictionists argue. Restrictionists tend to overstate the effect of illegal immigrants on American wages and they understate the amount of taxes even illegals pay. Will . Hannah. the only public funds illegals can really access are for emergency medical care and primary and secondary education(and only 10 percent of illegals send kids to public schools). Social Security.com/06O8/fe. that illegal immigrants don't fully pay into the socialwelfare system from which they benefit.ng. and income taxes. About two-thirds of illegals pay Medicare. All pay sales taxes and property taxes (directly if they own property. And since 1996. Editor of Choice. Lasky.
workers are forced to choose between a reduction in wages or unemvlovment. It is drivin~ U. If we choose to lower fertility to stop population growth. but not hourly real wages. Other figures for 2000 were 47 (Japan). http://www.S.npg. And it uses an arbitrarv definition of "working age. Will . 48 (Italy). population growth through 2050 is the result of post-2000 immigration.html) <Mass Immigration Is the Problem. 2004 (Lindsey.declining worker benefits Grant. Lasky. uolicv now encourages -. "Social Security And The Fear of Aging". the correlations are verv loose. "Social Security And The Fear of Aging".> low de~endencv The 'dependency ratio' is flawed Grant. very little we can do about it. Cornorations are ~resentlv industries which had heretofore paid high wages.2 More immieration would drive vo~ulation unthinkable levels." (The UN definition is 15-64 years of age. and by the high average fertility of the immigrants.and those countries' central problem perversely enoueh is unem~lovrnent. and that nobodv else is. 2004 (Lindsey. Former US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment and Population. when they retire. NGP. We want to live longer. Seniors 2006-2007 INCREASED IMMIGRATION DOESN'T SOLVE SOCSEC Immigration Neg 1 1 / -- As long as we live longer. It may or may not lower other prices. Better paid workers.> < T h States and Europe are feeling the competition from The United e E r Hannah. 47 (Germany) and 54 (France). the lower the devendencv ratio. Immigration is offered as a solution.htm1) <The "Deuendencv Ratio" Is a Flawed Measure. draw more from Social Securitv than they had put into it. As we do. g . "Social Security And The Fear of Aging".) The deuendencv ratio in the United States is now about 50. Not the Answer. The the United States is ~ o i n g wrong wav. on the other hand. There is really up. NGP. Productivity is rising. Jacinth. but it is uart of the moblem. 1 1 That Drocess in turn siphons off Social Securitv taxes. gowulation upwards bv the immigrants' numbers. but college bound people are potentially the most productive workers. without making Social Securitv solvent. T suggests that all "working age'' u e o ~ l e working.org/forum~series/ssfearofaging. In low wage countries. it will actually improve the dependency ratio for awhile. And it retards the investment in labor saving techniques that is essential to maintaining a high wage labor force. NGP. not a threat.increased immigration isn't the solution Grant.> Alternate Causality . which have been stagnant since the mid-1970s.org/forum~series/ssfearofaging. NGP. http://www. Former US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment and Population. It drives down wages and thus weakens Social Securitv. Mass immigration -.narticularlv the immigration of unskilled people that U S .html) scaling back their labor force and the waaes and verks that labor had come to eniov.makes the management of retirement more difficult.html) <An older aooulation is a goal. but it certainly holds wages down. We can't have a ratio and lone lives. In theorv. make a net contribution to the system over their lifetime.npg. and they don't enter the work force until their 20s. Neither assumution is correct. the more favorable it should be. Lowwane workers. not easier.> Immigration is the root cause of our social security woes . Two thirds of the Census Bureau's projected U. Simi.increasing immigration will only harm the economy Grant. Former US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment and Population. but then the working population will age. h~p://www. It was uu in the middle 60s in the 1960s. The UN Population Division expects it to rise to 61 in the 2040s. but that of course depends on how accurate its population projection is. Higher fertility would have similar conseauences. "Social Security And The Fear of Aging". bv the numbers of their children and descendants. Former US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment and Population. and we have been. Jordan. All those figures are verv "favorable" -. Prosperous householders like it because it provides cheap household labor.S. 2004 (Lindsey. particularly for the less skilled workers with whom most immigrants compete.org/forum~series/ssfearofaging. Welloaid workers thus subsidize ill-uaid ones. Im~licitlv. t are it suggests that prosveritv is closelv linked to the ratio.npg. http://www. 2004 (Lindsey. In fact. Immigration in the United States is driving our vo~ulation but it isn't having much effect on the to devendencv ratio (the number of dependents per 100 people of working age). Employers welcome mass immigration because it lowers their costs.org/forum_series/ssfearofaging.npg. the average age rises.Michigan 7 Wk. the dependency ratio is going to be high .
take care of your health care. You wouldn't have to throw ur." Let's look at the definition of these three words. Although marked "not for g * I ' Security battle is one we can win .and in doing so. President Bush not onlv wants to sell the house. we resolved the challenge then iust as we can do now." Is it true The that Social Securitv is in crisis? Is bankrupt? Is collavsin~? answer is a resoundine NO. a Gamble: The Social Security Debate". They are the ones who told us that the Medicare prescription drug bill would cost $400 billion over 10 years .which hasn't happened. They are the ones who told us that $50 to $100 billion of oil in Iraq would pay for all the reconstruction of that country .2 trillion. feed your kids. it is not about bringing together Democrats and Republicans as Ronald Reagan did to ensure that full benefits will be there for all Americans.when. Speech. and the wedding band. nn eve on the future. and Dreaare for that 38th year. If someone told vou that your family would be in solid s h a ~ for the next 38 vears.Michigan 7 Wk. How do I know that? Am I being partisan? Am I being unfair by stating in a very clear way that I believe the true goal here is to destroy Social Security? Not at all. They are the ones who told us "Mission Accomplished.and they are now the highest in history. On Januarv 6. California Senator. So whv would an otherwise optimistic George Bush g it sound." collapse: "to break down completely.that's 60 vears . It is about one thing and one thing onlv: destrovine: Social Securitv. 2005 (Barbara. Simi. They are the ones who told us that a booming economy would lower our deficits . Speech. "Peace of Mind vs. February 11') & < "bankru~tcv. he is walking awav from the foundation of America's most successful insurance program using scare tactics Of course we should be used to this by now from this administration. > Hannah." "collavse.2005. it is now reported to cost $1. I am simply telling the truth as told by this very White House. the antiaue grandfather clock.even Bush is exaggerating in order to pass his proposal Boxer.the "iceberg" strategy. And vou certainlv wouldn't call vour situation a crisis. California Senator. in fact. Jacinth. vour hands and sell vour house. according to the Merriam-Webster's Dictionary. but the car. crisis: "a and situation that has reached a critical phase. In other words. we can helw transform the ~olitical ~hiloso~hical and landscape of the countrv. Frankly. They are the ones who told us that tax cuts to the wealthiest among us would bring unparalleled economic growth .to collapse social security Boxer. Democrats and Republicans. a Gamble: The Social Security Debate"." Imagine: for six decades . a 37-vear-old worker todav will get full benefits until he or s l s > Social Security is doing fine . and send your kids to college. February 1 lth) < m y in 1983. Jordan. Social Securitv will be able to pav full benefits for 38 vears. we all face the fact that expenses go up over the years and our families need to prepare for those challenges. vou would have to trv to earn more.0 w o r d s let's talk about these scare tactics So e for a moment ." bankruptcy: "utter failure or impoverishment.which hasn't happened." when tragically it wasn't. When it comes to Social Securitv. vou would probablv breathe a sigh 2 to pay for ue -~ ki ie vour your rent or mortgage. So a message I have for the American people is this: m .the president is just using scare tactics in order to accomplish a longtime right-wing goal . "Peace of Mind vs. According to the most conservative estimates. the White House wrote a Social Securitv memo. Seniors 2006-2007 SOCIAL SECURITY NOT COLLAPSING Immigration Neg I1 / -- Social Security isn't collapsing . 2005 (Barbara. In essence. save more. Will . Lasky. .
he predicted the the end of Social Securitv bv the end of 1988. It will be collecting more than it disburses until 2017 or 2019.org~fonrm~series/ssfearofaging. 1999 (Maine Center for Economic Policy. utility regulation. The policy issue is how to prepare to keep the SociaI Security cash flow in balance in the decades after 2020.htm) 1 25 <In general. according to different actuaries. and is uroiected to shrink to 2 to 1 in 2030. the ratio of .org/MEChoices99/ch 1 25 99. Speech.Vol5 No 1. Executive Director of the Maine Center for Economic Policy. http://www. This has been accomplished by gains in workers productivity and wages as well as the social security tax increases adopted under President Reagan. and he is wrong now. But the timing and size of these uotential changes are less well understood.> There is no reason to try to 'save' social security because it is doing fine .htm1) <Social Securitv Is Not in a Crisis.its just a scare tactic Boxer. lobbyist at the Maine State Legislature. In 1978. lobbyist at the Maine State Legislature. January 25*.htm) CManv members of the uublic are currently tryine to understand the real status of the Social Securi5 program and outions for its future. this is what will hauuen: he will turn Social Securitv from a guaranteed benefit into a euaranteed cambIe. compared to todav's . In this case. Executive Director of the Maine Center for Economic Policy. must be sun~orted current wroduction. Another way to look at this relationship is the ratio of all nonworkers (including both children and dependents for each elders) to workers. partly because of the ill-advised new prescription insurance program). Seniors 2006-2007 SOCIAL SECURITY NOT COLLAPSING Immigration Neg I1 / -- Bush was wrong before and he is wrong now . Various uro~osals "save" Social Securitv are being discussed. And if he succeeds. He was wrong then.the reserves won't start being used until maybe 2041 Grant. Christopher St. Lasky. Former US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment and Population. S i m ~ l drawing down an accumulated reserve is legitimate bookkeeuine. Choices . welfare. some of which in fact would do unnecessarv and irrewarable damake to to deuend on Social Securitv and will Iikelv draw the the uroeram. January 25th. lead in^ to exaggerated and uremature assumutions about the ~rogram'sill health. Choices . California Senator. Jacinth.mecep. this suwests a much greater difficultv for those workers uavroll taxes to support social securitv benefits in the future. where he represented low-income individuals and groups on such issues as health care. NGP. But what is worse now. that the large block of babv-boomers now working to and will eventuallv swell the retired uouulation in uro~ortion the working uo~ulation. utility regulation. "Peace of Mind vs.7 to one worker. there is a common sense recognition that Americans are living longer. It would auuear from these nroiections that the ratio of workers to recipients is ~ o i to shrink less in the next thirtv n ~ years than it has in the last thirtv-nine. that these demographic realities may require changes to keep the program in balance. is the use of the full power of the uresidencv to do the following: scare the American ueoule and hold out privatization as the savior of Social Security. We will need to accommodate the aging babv boomers in the United States. and taxation. "Social Security And The Fear of Aging". February 1 lth) <This isn't the first time that this uresident has ~redicted end of Social Securitv. At first glance. "Keeping Social Security Strong".> Social security wont collapse by 2030 MECEP. ieopardizing: the securitv of millions of Americans who ~resentlv maioritv of their suuuort from the Program at some time in the future. 2005 (Barbara. unemployment insurance. 1999 (Maine Center for Economic Policy. Simi. http://www. as a candidate for Congress. But thev also point out that in 1960 the ratio of workers to reciuients was 5 to 1.mecep. where he represented low-income individuals and groups on such issues as health care. when the baby-boomers were children in 1960.3 to 1.Michigan 7 Wk. "Keeping Social Security Strong". Bv this measure. welfare.> Social security is doing fine . the ratio was actually higher: worker. Social Securitv is runnine a large and rauidlv rising surplus right now (unlike Medicare. Jordan.or~/MEChoices99/ch 99. but it does not bv v necessarily generate the flow of commodities to suuuort the retired. John. which is in much worse shape.Vo15 No 1. Will .795 to I oroiected for 2030 seems less alarming.theres only a risk of irreparable damage MECEP. but the crunch is vears awav. 2004 (Lindsey. http://www. and taxation. a Gamble: The Social Security Debate". John. unemployment insurance.> < Hannah. Christopher St. indicating that the svstem has been able to accommodate the reduction of workers per recivients to date.npg. The Economic Policv Institute uoints out that the ratio of workers to social securitv recivients is now 3.
But that is just an actuarial estimate based on various assumptions.http://www. $150. Using more detailed assumptions. and See if the ~ l o o m v predictions are coming true. '70s-era inflation. the Social Securitv Trustees said the program would be unable to pay full benefits in 2030. Wait for a decade or two.without a clue about the Vietnam War.are about as reliable as the Farmers' Almanac. Depending on which assumptions you make. I have dealt earlier with the question of aging in Europe.000. the long-term outlook is rosy or grim. Christian Science Monitor. To this chorus there have now been added urgent ~rovosals to "reform" U. Simi.csmonitor. we have been besieged bv stories about impending population decline in Europe and Japan.com/2005/02141p17s01-cogn. http://www. That's right. Staff Writer for the Christian Science Monitor. Europe and Japan need to return soon to replacement level fertility. in effect paying their own way in terms of Social Security benefits. Here's another solution to the alleged crisis: Do nothing.although our Social Securitv svstem is ~resentlv working well and eeneratin~ larne surulus to help reduce our unconscionable national budget deficit. a decade later. the Congressional Budget Office (CBQ) savs that date won't havven until 2052 . Will the economv and vroductivitv . the trustees will issue a new annual report containing their latest projection for Social Security's crunch time.upon which all the current alarm is based . the fall of the Berlin Wall. And 75-vear economic forecasts . or increase? Trving to predict that far out is like the Eisenhower administration imagining 2005 . Those fears have silenced concerns about a population growth because of the widespread belief that industrial countries need more immigration or higher fertility to support the old. February 14".> Hannah. And who are these trustees? The majority are cabinet secretaries . "Social Security Cure: Procrastination". and more immigration is a solution for none of us. In 1995. as assumed.S. Jacinth. Seniors 2006-2007 I Immigration Neg I1 SOCIAL SECURITY NOT COLLAPSING I -- The evidence that says the social security system is going to collapse isn't reliable Francis. In March.Michigan 7 Wk. Former US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment and Population. Other revenues factors play an even bigger role in the outlook. Imore the doomsavers. rather than relying on their husbands' benefits. Will . One common proposal is to raise the maximum level of wages subject to payroll tax from its current $90.who select among a range of assumptions provided by civil servants. Lasky. or the Internet. too high.000 to. "Social Security And The Fear of Aging". the rise of Silicon Vallev.> Social security is doing fine and immigration isn't the solution Grant. Whv the difference? The CBO assumes women will be working longer. A little history helps to clarify the picture. the date is 2042.political appointees .npg.html) <For a decade or so. 2004 (Lindsey. Whv? Because economists have great difficultv making accurate long-term oroiections. 2005 (David R. Now. Jordan. President Bush proposes private accounts. Social Securitv because it is suv~osedlv running.org/for~m~series/ssfearofaging.factors crucial to the level of ~avroll-tax behave better or worse than assumed? Will immigration decline.a decade later. NGP. Liberals want a number of minor tweaks.html) <You don't have to look hard for suggested solutions to Social Security. but the United States' fertilitv is. It's not as crazy as it sounds because of one simple fact: No one reallv knows whether the forecast of a solvency oroblem will come true or iust maduallv fade awav. if anvthine. say.. t worsening de~endencv ratio and too few workers to suuvort the aped.out of monev -.
Our children may be faced with the choice of paying retirement benefits to their parents or paying for programs that help their own children. Over rouehlv the next 10 vears. Lasky. Enemies did not know the exact moment when the legions would reach them. these deficits will exceed $100 billion annuallv and will continue to grow from there. Heritage Foundation . Will . that additional monev will reach $100 billion a vear (not counting inflation). Research Fellow in Social Security and Financial Institutions in the Thomas A. Jordan. And then thg real nroblems hit. millions of babv boomers anoroach retirement. From then until 2025. That future is coming. Social Security's future problems are equally predictable. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies at The Heritage Foundation. on top of renlacing Social Securitv's $100 billion annual surulus. cut Drograms. Demographics are more predictable than most events. Somewhere around 2018. every year will see another crop of baby boomers reach the 62 year-old threshold. WebMemo #696. the wroeram's annual cash sumlus will shrink and then disa~vear. The exact timing of this crunch is less important than its inevitabilitv. Millions of baby boomers will begin to retire in 2008. Eventuallv. but once the process started. the same year that the first babv boomers reach early retirement age. Congress will have to find billions more so that Social Securitv can pay all of the benefits that it has wromised. The reason that Social Securitv's deficits are inevitable is fairlv simnle. the number of tax~avine: workers will shrink. http:l/www. those Social Securitv sumluses. Simi.cfm) <Massive future deficits. WebMemo #696. which are nothing more than wledges to use ever-larger amounts of eeneral revenue taxes to wav benefits. Social Securitv's future ~roblems apnroach sIowlv.ora/ResearchiSocialSecuritylwm696. Research Fellow in Social Security and Financial Institutions in the Thomas A. It will need to consume ever-growing amounts of eeneral construction to revenue dollars to meet its obligations-monev that now uavs for everything from environmental programs to hi~hwav defense.. "How to Fix Social Security".cfm?rende~orurin~ I) <Like a Roman Legion advancing against its enemy. 2004 (David C. the benefits oaid to retirees will be cut-first bv 27 percent and then bv ever-greater amounts-as Social Securitv's deficits grow laver.herita~e. Social Securitv has a "trust fund" drawer full of government bonds. March 21. its outcome was seldom in doubt. 2005 (David C. 2005 (David C. the drawer of paper promises will be emntv. will continue to shrink and then disapaear comvletelv. heritage.Michigan 7 Wk. Backgrounder #I81 1. Inless than 15 years (awnroximatelv 201 8). and no amount of wishful thinking will change that. either benefits will have to be slashed or the rest of the government will have to shrink to accommodate Social Securitv.> Starting in 2008 social security wilI start killing the federal deficit and within 10 years it will be accounting for over 300 billion dollars annually John. and the slaughter would begin. March 21.cfm?renderfornt= I) <This future is corning with steady weed. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies at The Heritage Foundation.orpiResearch/SocialSecurity/bl811 . November 17. or let annual deficits climb. Bv about 2042. andlor increase government borrowing. Research Fellow in Social Security and Financia1 Institutions in the Thomas A.orgiResearch/SocialSecuri~/wm696. even if their exact timing is uncertain.> Social security collapse is inevitable John. Then. "Social Security's Inevitable Future". 9 year in benefits than it receives in taxes. "Social Security's Inevitable Future". Within about five vears. about $100 billion a year at their peak. Seniors 2006-2007 SOCIAL SECURITY COLLAPSE INEVITABLE I -Immigration Neg I1 Social security will run of out money and start going into billions of dollars by 2042 John. Jacinth. and soon $300 billion a vear. Within a few vears. increase taxes. Without those surwluses to reduce the size of the federal deficit. but their arrival is inevitable. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies at The Heritage Foundation. From that eoint forward. http://www. Social Securitv's annual cash surpluses wilI begin to fall in 2008. Congress will have to raise taxes to bring in billions of dollars of new revenues. Whether Social Security begins to spend more on paying benefits than it receives in taxes in 2018 or 2019 or any other specific year means much less than what these deficits will mean to our economy. http:liwww. From there. when those born in 1946 reach Social Security's early retirement age of 62. Social Securitv will not be able to nav full benefits from its payroll and other tax revenues.. the federal government will have to reduce spending on other government programs. the annual demands will reach first $200 billion a vear. When it comes time to revav those bonds. Because the babv boomers have not oroduced enough children to replace themselves.> Hannah.heritage.. Rome's legions lined up behind a wall of shields that moved slowly across battlefields with a discipline that few others possessed.
a form of IOU. Cato Institute. however. Simi. August 1 3 ~htt~:/lwww. though. the Social Securitv system will then begin taming the Social Securitv Trust Fund to uav benefits until 2029. Social Securitv could beein running a deficit as earlv as 2006.Michigan 7 Wk. redeem in^ the bonds to oav benefits after 2012 will reauire a huge tax increase on voune workers. A major economic downturn or a major medical breakthrough could speed Social Security's collapse. the trust fund is little more than an accounting aimmick. director of health and welfare studies at the Cato Institute. Under some projections. Lasky. 1997 (Michael. f i theorv. even this projection may easily prove unduly optimistic.html) . Moreover. In 2012.cato. <In Washington. There is no monev in the trust fund -. the motto often seems to be "Why do today what you can put off until tomorrow?" When it comes to reforming Social Securitv. Jordan.only government bonds. Will . Jacinth. "Social Security Reform: The Clock is Ticking". just 15 years from now.or~daiIvs/X-13-97.> Hannah. In realitv. the president and Congress should realize that anv delav outs the securitv of everv American's retirement at risk. when the trust fund will be exhausted. Seniors 2006-2007 SOCIAL SECURITY COLLAPSE INEVITABLE Immigration Neg I1 I -- The collapse has already started Tanner.
The latter goal was not achieved. fmm El Salvador. Who Are We? pg. about 90 percent from Mexico.8 million illegal Mexjcans were 69 percent of that pop~lation. Illegal immigration is. Simi. an estimated 4. The former goal was achieved: some 3.~ 2003 illegal Mexicans In in the United States were twenty-five times as numerous as the next largest contingent. overwhelmingly. 3 Hannah. 2251 : The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act contained provisions to legalize the starus of existing illegal immigrants and to reduce fumre illegal immigration through employer sanctions and other means. Lasky. became legal Ygreencard" residents of the United States. Jacinth.1 million illegal immigrants. Estimates of the total number of illegal immigrants in the United States rose from four million in 1995 to six million in 1998 and eight to ten million by 2003.Michigan 7 Wk. Jordan. Seniors 2006-2007 IMMIGRATION HIGH Currently there are up to 10 million illegal immigrants Immigration Neg I1 / -- Huntington 2004 [Samuel. Mexican immigration. Will . by 2000. Mexicans accounted for 58 percent of the total illegal popdation in the United States in 1990. Political Scientist @ Harvard.
Lasky. Simi. The experience and lessons of past immigration have little relevance to understanding its dynamics and consequences. Mexican immigration differs from past immigration and most other contemporary immigration due to a combination of six factors. Seniors 2006-2007 MEXICAN IMMIGRATION HIGH Current Mexican immigration is unprecedented Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Huntington 2004 [Samuel. however. American attitudes toward immigrants and American immigration policies have been and. America is now confronted by a massive influx of people from a poor. 2221 C Contemporary Mexican immigration is unprecedented in American history.Michigan 7 Wk. Who Are We? pg. contiguous country with more than one third the population of the United States. Jordan. in considerable measure. have little or no relevance for Mexican immigration. Will . Immigrants arrived in the United States after crossing several thousand miles of ocean. who come across a two-thousand-mile border marked historically simply by a line in the ground and a shallow river. and more recently perhaps Kennedy Airport. '> Hannah. These assumptions and policies. still are shaped by this image. Americans have thought of immigration as symbolized by the Statue of Liberty. Comtiguity. Ellis Island. Jacinth. Political Scientist @ Harvard.
> Hannah. Will . Political Scientist @ Harvard. Also. Who Are We? pg. 2451 In addition. Jacinth.% Citizenship also facilitates expansion of the immigrant community by allowing the new citizens to bring in a wider range of relatives than they could as legal permanent residents. birth in the United States and naturalization make it easier for people to travel back and forth across the border and thus maintain contacts with and their identity with their place of origin. Seniors 2006-2007 PLAN INCREASES IMMIGRATION Citizenship encourages others to immigrate Immigration Neg I1 / -- Huntington 2004 [Samuel. Simi. Lasky. of course. Jordan. citizens can vote and participate in government and thus much more effectively promote the interests of their ethnic community.Michigan 7 Wk.
the incentive for citizenship fades. If these are available to noncitizens. the overall declining rates of naturalization. 2191 C The erosion of the differences between citizens and aliens. it may literally be a matter of Iife or death. all suggest the central importance of material government benefits for immigrant decisions. Will . Political Scientist @ Harvard. one more generally available "federal social benefit. that increasingly counts. Jacinth. who are wholly dependent upon public benefits."83If."84 3 Hannah. Simi. and the naturalization spike of the mid-1990s. not citizenship. As Peter Schuck and Rogers Smith argue. it is superfluous. it "is welfare state membership. in contrast [to membership in the political community]. Membership in the welfare stare. Immigrants become citizens not because they are attracted to America's culture and Creed. Lasky. . Seniors 2006-2007 NATURALIZATION DOWN Immigration Neg I1 / -- Naturalization rates have declined but they would rise with government benefits Huntington 2004 [Samuel. . Who Are We? pg. but because they are attracted by government social welfare and affirmative action programs. . for some. in Peter Spiro's phrase. citizenship is not necessary to get benefits. is of crucial and growing significance. however. Jordan.Michigan 7 Wk. Citizenship is becoming.
In 1982 when Bryant Gumbel became the first black anchor on a major T V network. Jordan. and commentators of all races come and go on the networks. Lasky. victorious war. " ~ ~ it happens. Will . except for those who view its declining salience as a threat to the place of wlutes in America. as Joel Perlmann and Roger Waldinger say. when you look like me. Political Scientist @ Harvard. who pays attention to their skin color? A half century after Jackie Robinson." Yes. but they also see a secretary of state. you're black.Michigan 7 Wk. the removal When of race from census forms will signal a dramatic step toward the creation of a comprehensive American national identity. When people look at Colin Powell. if they are internationally oriented. and. 308-91 Racial perceptions and racial prejudices are and wl remain facts of il life in America. 1 Hannah. a retired four-star general. "In America. Seniors 2006-2007 BACKLASH LOW Racism against immigrants is declining Immigration Neg I1 / -- Huntington 2004 [Samuel. reporters. they will at some point. race still matters in America. Simi. Powell's skin color fades into insignificance compared to these other components of his identity. make government efforts to classify people by race "quaintly p a s ~ C . the leader of America's military in a short. Decades later when anchors. do they think skin colors or batting averages? If the trends toward multiracialism continue. Colin Powell once remarked. Who Are We? pg. but in more and more segments of national life. Jacinth. hosts. Yet the salience of race in people's perceptions and amtudes is clearly declining. At present. which I love from the depth of my heart and soul. when Americans look at a mixed group of baseball players. they may see a black. his skin color was important. the principal proponent in the Bush administration of multilateralism in American foreign policy. it matters less and less.
region.. There are numerical thresholds for how many additional and culturally different residents any community can or wants to handle-economicallv. Los An~eles. Crime historian Ted Robert Gurr of the Universitv of Marvland explains that this third great crime wave in America's history is similar to the other two in that it is linked to three factors: increased economic deprivation.. instead. Residents have not approved. But the number of those individuals arriving each year has overwhelmed individual communities.Michigan 7 Wk. they discovered that the "influx of immigrants is provoking sharper racial demographer of the University of Michigan's Population Center.. which is the number-one destination of immigrants. bleakly observed: "Rather than leading divisions. educationally. A Times-Mirror Center poll in November 1994 indicated that 82 percent of Americans think the United States should restrict immigration. all of which "interfere with the civilizing process... backlash. Jacinth. The "size of the wave and the chaos of the situation are too great" for schools to be able to keep poor natives in class. gender."20 This relentless wave of high immigration is transporting ethnic conflict to communities and regions where nothing of the sort even existed in the 1960s. tension. religion. Simi. m. 1996) Immigration Neg I1 / -- Immigration has not been a usehl companion to the major efforts of the last three decades to reduce the grievous ethnic tensions in our cities. Washington. and polarization Beck 96 (Roy." Dr. or independents. but the arrival in such large numbers of people of different cuItures contributes a transience and lack of community cohesiveness that is healthy for neither the newcomers nor the citizens . Other polls show that no matter how the populace is sliced into demographic groups-by income. Polls show that most citizens retain generally positive attitudes about immigrants as individuals. the new migration dynamics are contributing to a demographic Balkanization across broad regions and areas of the countrv. Each successive Congress and president simply adopted or maintained policies that forced massive immigration upon thousands of neighborhoods across the land. Will .. It isn't that Americans don't like immigrants."l9 Describing California. and & jump in immigration. and environmentally. Education failure is the norm for immigrants and natives alike. The Case Against Immigration. age. C. the aftermath of war (this time. Jordan.22 And then there is crime-the factor that may top all others in driving capital and the middle class fiom the cities and in creating inhumane conditions for those residents trapped behind. or size of community-a majority of them dislike current immigration levels.23 Cities-ranging in size fiom millions to a few thousand-struggle with an immigration influx that few ever requested. And the federal government never asked the local officials if they desired or could handle the flow. A CBS/New York Times poll two months earlier found only 6 percentage points difference among those identifying themselves as Democrats. A sweeping Ford Foundation studv found that the most prevalent relations among natives and newcomers in communities with moderate to high immigration is competition. Time magazine in 1991 painted an equally dismal portrait of our efforts toward a healthy diversity: "The state is dividing and subdividing now along a thousand new fault lines of language and identitv. inward turning and immiscible.. Lasky. socially. ethnicity. all almost self-sufficient. Seniors 2006-2007 IMMIGRATION 3 BACKLASH Immigration leads to crime. regardless of the ethnicity of the immigrants . Every ethnic group in America resents heavy flows of immigrants into their communities. editor of The Social Contract. It is not that the immimants themselves are esueciallv oriented toward crime and anarchv. Ann Scott Tyson of the Christian Science Monitor noted in 1994 that manv social scientists had anticipated that immigration would encourage greater cultural and racial mixing. Fewer than one of two kids going into these high schools comes out employable. education.21 A RAND Corporation study of urban school svstems with high numbers of immimants concluded that the newcomers exacerbate already serious problems in those schools. all overwhelmingly objected to current immigration levels. William toward a new national diversity. Hannah. .for example. and oavosition. D. Vietnam). is one of the most segregated cities in the world-a horizontal patchwork of ethnic and racial enclaves. Opposition to immigration is not ideological. Republicans.
To the extent that such rhetoric is confined to a small group of professional agitators. Though racist social movements of all types. attempting to exploit the changing demographics in furtherance of their own agenda. multiethnic urban centers and a white "Middle American" heartland is all too real. radical phase of Reconstruction. white nationalism is remarkable for the number of institutionally well-positioned scholars it has attracted.University of Memphis. with geographic segmentation increasinglv mapping as a racial divide between multiracial. Northern whites could conceivably have allied themselves ~oliticallv with Southern blacks to form a viable governing coalition. Beloit College. Beloit College. of course. as I have pointed out. Jacinth. Hooks Institute for Social Change . "THE MORE THINGS CHANGE: IMMIGRATION. However. These scholars support the white nationalist agenda through racial research that lends the movement a patina of academic res~ectabilitv. have always attracted individuals from all backgrounds. In the culminating in the Civil War. it The potential for a further polarization of the United States. DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE RISE OF WHITE IDENTITY POLITICS IN AMERICA") Unlike many of the far right white racialist movements of recent decades. Benjamin L. Gardiner. In fact. however. Benjamin L. Contemporary white nationalism. _thecoincidence of white nationalist rhetoric t with the reality of changing demographics m i ~ hconstitute the basis for a broader social movement with the potential to significantly impact the future shave of American politics. Southern whites had to be bribed back to nationalist loyalty. even in the aftermath of slavery. Lasky. The coin of this wake of the massive ru~ture bribe was white solidarity.University of Memphis. Jordan. Marx 1998). Hannah. however. grounded in a taken-for-granted white superiority. something of this sort did occur during the brief. black dynamic was by no means inevitable. the white nationalist perspective offers us a uniquelv skewed but nonetheless revealing view of both the present and the prospective future. contrary to their popular image. The current challenge is first to understand the structural position of contemporary white nationalism in the context of the current opportunities afforded to it by demographic change. The bi-racial white vs.Michigan 7 Wk. Only proceeding from such an understanding can analysts make policy recommendations grounded not in fear of a white nationalist backlash-which should on the current analvsis be antici~ated-but in accord with the principles of civic citizenship. As argued compellingly by Anthony Marx. DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE RISE OF WHITE IDENTITY POLITICS IN AMERICA") The mere existence of white nationalist rhetoric. Whatever the future impact of such political tendencies. the needs of nation building and economic unification eventually outweighed either liberal promises to enfranchise former slaves or party political efforts to woo black voters. is not the first movement in American history where ostensible threats to white privilege have spawned a visible white rights reaction. even now. is not intrinsically of much concern. Gardiner. "THE MORE THINGS CHANGE: IMMIGRATION. The historic trend has been for the white mainstream to placate such white racialist movements by offering "concessions" that appease the white nationalists (and their historic predecessors) at the expense of blacks and other minorities. the changing demo~raphics points to as its primary concern are a potentially explosive issue. thus re-inscribing the racial order of society. Seniors 2006-2007 1 -Immigration Neg I1 White nationalist rhetoric will increase due to immigration Gardiner 2004 (Steven L. The particular shape of American racial politics developed in a context of both labor and regional conflict (Allen 1994. Will . The consequences were the introduction of de jure segregation in the South matched by continued de facto segregation in the North (Marx 1998). Simi. White nationalists are. Hooks Institute for Social Change . white nationalism pursues a "realist" politics via alliances with "mainstream" anti-immigration groups and common cause with a white liberalism which it purports to despise. Though the movement itself is small. it is not even very interesting. Immigration will lead to a white nationalist backlash Gardiner 2004 (Steven L.
As with the global "decline" in the importance of sovereign nation-states vis-8-vis supernational coalitions and multinational corporations (Hobsbawm 1990). however. the emergent and polmorphous non-white maiorih. The United States has undoubtedly become a much more diverse place to live. Seniors 2006-2007 WHITE BACKLASH (212) Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Immigration will lead to unequal concentrations of racial minorities due to white flight and new sectionalism Gardiner 2004 (Steven L. potential upshot of this concentration of non-white diversity is the foundation for a kind of new sectionalism. already ~resairedin the much remarked upon mapping of "red" and "blue" voting patterns in national elections. Jacinth. Beloit College.068 American counties. particularly in relation to class (Wilson 1999). Hooks Institute for Social Change -University of Memphis. DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE RISE OF WHITE IDENTITY POLITICS IN AMERICA") Demographer Harold Hodgkinson reminds us that the increased diversitv will not be evenly distributed. Much of the rest of the ~rowth both population and population diversity will be concentrated in in New York. In fact. 9). the consequences of this newfound diversity. "THE MORE THINGS CHANGE: IMMIGRATION. Gardiner. With these demographic trends hrther exacerbated by the phenomenon of white flipht. New Jersey and Illinois.Michigan 7 Wk. concentrated in the three large border states-California. Typically cast as "middle-America" vs. only 230 of 3. As of yet. will be geoma~hicallv concentrated in a few large states. Jordan. Some observers have suggested that the combination of increased diversity and racial mixing are leading to a decline in the importance of race per se in the United States. Texas and Florida-will absorb more than half of the increase (Hodgkinson 2000/2001. Lasky. the "coastal liberals. This would seem to me to be a conclusion both premature and incomplete. particularly in terms of the politics of race. and skewed toward urban areas within those states. Benjamin L. the general trend is of but small consolation in those localities where the most vicious forms of nationalism are flourishing-so it is with race and racism in America." the changing demographics lend this trend a potential raciallethnic potency. and the results are potentially explosive. though staticallv characteristic of the countrv as a whole. Hannah. Will . particularly in a relative handful of highly urban counties. Simi. remain largely unexplored. The demographic trend inaugurated by the 1965 Act was largely unintended (Graham 2001).
Will ." 33 + The most powerful stimulus to white nativism. 315-61 c The makings of serious white nativist movements and of intensified racial conflict exist in America. however. the continued existence of liberal immigration policies. but her eloquent warning deserves serious thought. Who Are We? pg. Jacinth. culture. Lasky. Simi. is likely to be the threat to their language. Carol Swain probably overdramatizes the possibiliry. We are witnessing. Jordan. the rising expectations of ethnic minorities. "the simultaneous convergence of a host of powerful social forces. social. the continued existence of racial preference policies. Political Scientist @ Harvard. the next logical stage for identity politics in America. she says. and the Internet's ability to enable like-minded individuals to identify with each other and to share mutual concerns and strategies for impacting the political system. growing concerns about job losses associated with globalization." These factors can only serve "to nourish white racial consciousness and white nationalism. > I Hannah. and power that whites see coming from the expanding demographic." These include "changing demographics. the demands for multiculturalism.Michigan 7 Wk. economic." As a result. and political roles of Hispanics in American society. America is "increasingly at risk of large-scale racial conflict unprecedented in our nation's hstory. Seniors 2006-2007 BACKLASH IMPACT 1 -Immigration Neg I1 White nativist movements could cause unprecedented racial conflict Huntington 2004 [Samuel.
expel. Jacinth.Michigan 7 Wk. Historical and contemporary experience suggest that this is a hghly probable reaction from a once dominant ethnic-racial group that feels threatened by the rise of other groups. Jordan. the various forces challenging the core American culture and Creed could generate a move by native white Americans to revive the discarded and discredited racial and ethnic concepts of American identt and to create an America that would exclude. ethnic. Simi. Political Scientist @ Harvard. It could produce a racially intolerant country with high levels of intergroup confict. Will . Lasky. or suppress iy people of other racial. and cultural groups. Who Are We? pg. 3 Hannah. Seniors 2006-2007 B A C a A S H LINK Nativist backlash is likely and would increase racial conflict 1 Immigration Neg I1 Huntington ZOO4 [Samuel. 201 < Third.
" Gerstle says. Half a century later. The Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund will challenge the law. Fla. Will .S. whose ancestors were Italian immigrants. a community of 30. Adjunct Professor @ Columbia. which would have kept Barletta's forebears in Italy had it been in effect. Gary Gerstle. "Immigration backlash goes local. history. Simi. Jordan.000 for renting to illegal immigrants. The anti-immigrant laws taking shape in Congress give oxygen to a latter-day Know-Nothing movement by playing on people's fears. when Irish immigrants were blamed for taking jobs from native-born Americans and for a host of social problems. Jacinth. It led to a national immigration reform law in the 1920s. Most Democrats are split between those concerned with civil rights and those allied with organized labor. blames paralysis in Washington for the wave of local nativist activity. Lasky. the ripple effects are being felt around the country ." Barletta. The Know Nothings. sadly. for illegal immigrants. Calif. is a hero to many. Nativism and its anti-immigrant philosophy spawned the Know-Nothing movement in the 1850s. Seniors 2006-2007 BACKLASH LINK / -- Immigration Neg I1 Immigration reform sparks backlash Fuentes 2006 [Anette.000 nestled in former coal-mining country. Denies these same businesses city contracts or grants for up to 10 years. But whether such ordinances are voided or not.Michigan 7 Wk. USA Today] Though immigration reform is stalled in Congress. "Immigration is an issue that splits the parties in unconventional ways. he says." Mayor Barletta and his acolytes in other cities are following Washington's lead and repeating unfortunate lessons of U.. sought to end Irish immigration and stirred up vigilantism against them. is as American as immigration itself. and his law is being copied in Escondido.S. Hazleton's law: Requires tenants to obtain an occupancy permit. the city adopted Mayor Louis Barletta's Illegal Immigration Relief Act. Fines landlords $1. whose strength emerged at the local level. Italian and Eastern European immigrants were targeted by a similar anti-immigrant movement. Just this month. These anti-immigrant measures are cropping up in small cities such as Hazleton. Revokes business permits of employers who hire undocumented immigrants. but other members want to close the border. Pa. pro-business interests want cheap labor. and Palm Bay.. a Vanderbilt University history professor. they are troubling signs of a kind of backlash politics that." 7/28. which Barletta has said "is intended to make Hazleton one of the most difficult places in the U. In the GOP. Hannah. "and that has opened the doors to local actions.more backlash and knee-jerk than thoughtful and measured.
the perversion of their culture. dissidents of various sorts who share these characteristics differ in many ways. anti-black. Who Are We? pg. primarily working-class and middle-class. protesting and attempting to stop or reverse these changes and what they believe. and anti-immigration. Political Scientist @ Harvard. intellectual currents. Simi. Jordan. Jacinth. their loss of jobs to immigrants and foreign countries. but still have enough in common to be brought together under the label "white nativism. the displacement of their language. accurately or not. and the erosion or even evaporation of the historical identity of their country. Lasky. They would be the heir to the many comparable exclusivist racial and anti-foreign movements that helped define American identity in the past. Such movements would be both racially and culturally inspired and could be anti-Hispanic. Social movements. 3 101 It should not be difficult to see that "rebellion" and the reasons for it.Michigan 7 Wk. political groups. Seniors 2006-2007 BACKLASH LINK All history confirms more immigration will cause racist backlash Immigration Neg II 1 -- Huntington 2004 [Samuel. to be the diminution of their social and economic status. One very plausible reaction would be the emergence of excIusivist sociopolitical movements composed largely but not only of white males. It would. be extraordinary and possibly unprecedented in human history if the profound demographic changes occurring in America did not generate reactions of various sorts. indeed. Will ." A Hannah.
and the movement of whites out of the state. In 2040 it is predicted to be 31 percent white and 48 percent Hispanic. Who Are We? pg. Lasky.Michigan 7 Wk. in this comparable situation. In 1990 the population of California was 57 percent white and 26 percent Hispanic. Seniors 2006-2007 BACKLASH LINK / -Immigration Neg 11 Hispanic immigration threatens Anglo-Protestant culture and will inevitably produce backlash Huntington 2004 [Samuel. the population was 43 percent Serb and 26 percent Muslim. Jacinth. affirmative action. and numbers by any social. As the racial balance continues to shift and more Hispanics become citizens and politically active. r Hannah. California whites will react Ue Bosnia Serbs is about zero. that reaction has already b e p with the overwhelming referenda votes against benefits for illegal immigrants. white groups may look for other means of protecting their interests. The probability that. Simi. or economic group almost always leads to efforts by that group to stop or reverse those losses. racial. 3 131 The actual and prospective continuing loss in power. The probability that they will not react at all is also about zero. In 1991 it was 31 percent Serb and 44 percent Muslim. status. In 1961 in Bosnia-Herzegovina. and bilingual education. Jordan. The Serbs reacted with e h c cleansing. Political Scientist @ Harvard. Indeed. Will . ethnic.
averaged less than 500. then hit new heights until interrupted by World War I. 951. briefly peaked again immediately after the war. Irish immigration.000 in the 1850s. 1 Hannah. Simi. which was 780. America has been a nation of restricted and interrupted immigration as much as it has been a nation of immigration. has "not always been a country of immigration. Who Are We? pg. Will . Jordan. Immigration levels have varied and.3 in the 1840s and 1850s.468 and 718. "the United States has also been a nation of nativi~ts. but dropped dramatically as a result of the 1924 immigration law. dropped to 6. Political Scientist @ Harvard.Michigan 7 Wk. dropped to 767. Jacinth. dropped in the 1890s. in part due to the recession in the United States.i~he United States.000 in the 1840s and 1850s.000 and less per decade. as Nathan Glazer said.4 and 9.I3The immigration wave of the 1840s and 1850s came to an end with the Civil War.4 and 6.and rose to 9.182 in the following two decades. nativist backlash has choked off immigration Huntington 2004 [Samuel. Overall. 1951 ~iscontinuity. reviving in the 1880s but then dropping precipitously to 500. legislation first limited and then prohibited immigration by Asians and for forty years effectively limited overall immigration to very small numbers.000 and 914. The rate of immigration per 1."~~ During the century from the 1870s to the 1960s.000 population was 8. the turn-of-the-century immigration wave hit one peak in the 1880s.000 in the subsequent decades. Seniors 2006-2007 BACKLASH TURNS CASE Immigration Neg I1 / -- Historically. as Robert Fogel points out. German immigration. the pro-immigration Immigration Forum notes. and immigration did not again reach the same absolute numbers until the 1880s." In addition to being a nation of immigrants. Lasky.2 in the 1880s.2 in the 1860s and 1870s. have tended to follow a cyclical pattern.
Europe and America prove Huntington 2004 [Samuel. WiIl . In 2000 in California. often polled 20 percent of the vote. Jacinth. Jordan. the Economist reported. 313. the Non-Partisan League. including the Populist movement. Simi."30 Whites nationallyare likely to react in similar fashion. Comparable organizations promoting white interests could emerge in the coming years. Political Scientist @ Harvard. and in Austria and the Netherlands participated in governing coalitions. In America white nativism is likely to materialize not in a new political party but in a new poiitical movement that will aim to influence the choice of candidates and policies by the two dominant parties. the Grange. Lasky. and the American Farm Bureau Federation. 3 Hannah. who were once so generous to newcomers. anti-immigrant nativist ~olitical parties emerged in several western European countries. Who Are We? pg. are beginning to behave like a minority under pressure. Industrialization in the late nineteenth century produced losses for American farmers and led to the formation of numerous agrarian protest groups.Michigan 7 W k Seniors 2006-2007 AT: N O BACKLASH Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Backlash is possible and powerful .141 - In the 1990s. "whites.
Lasky. the American people have become A increasingly alienated from politics and government. however. racial. Seniors 2006-2007 AT: PUBLIC WON'T BACKLASH The gap between the general public and elites alienates the public from patriotic politics Huntington 2004 [Samuel. Jordan. 3251 Immigration Neg I1 I -- < The differences between a "patriotic public" and "denationalized elites" parallel other differences in values and philosophy. has become increasingly divorced from the American people. especially involving national identity. Concomitantly. regional. Will . its leaders pass laws and implement policies contrary to the views of the American people. the American establishment. Growing differences between the leaders of major institutions and the public on domestic and foreign policy issues affecting national identiry form a major cultural fault line cumng across class. Political Scientist @ Harvard. In a variety of ways. it has become an unrepresentative democracy because on cruciaI issues. governmental and private. Jacinth. and ethnic distinctions. In many respects. denominational. Who Are We? pg.Michigan 7 Wk. Simi. Politically America remains a democracy because key public officials are selected through free and fair elections. Hannah.
and think of themseIves as losing out in the racial competition to other groups favored by the elites and supported by government policy. Jordan. in a national survey of whites. Who Are We? pg. they only have to exist in their minds to generate fear and hatred of the rising groups.5 percent. middle-class and lower middle-class whites see rhemselves as a minority and have adopted a posture of being the victims. but by now they are so hybridized that they have no ethnic identity. In similar fashion. 20 percent estimated blacks as between 3 1 percent and 40 percent. A majority of white Americans also see themselves as relatively poorer and blacks as relatively richer than is the case. lack their assurance and security. for instance. yet millions of nonelite whites have very different attitudes from those of the elites. Lasky. Hannah. Most of them feel they have no real culture. 25 percent said between 21 percent: and 30 percent. 43 percent of whites estimated Latinos as more than 15 percent. They might have a grandmother who was Italian and a grandfather who was French. L 1997. Ethnicity used to fill a vacuum as people assimilated. although at that time. Their losses do not have to exist in reality. IS n percent estimated that blacks were more than 40 percent of Americans. As the sociologist Professor Charles Gallagher of Georgia State University explains: Like it or not. they actually constituted 12. Simi. 314-151 Immigration Neg I1 White elites dominate all major American institutions. aIthough they actually were 10.8 percent. Seniors 2006-2007 AT: ONLY ELITES BACKLASH Non-elite whites are prone to backlash over immigration Huntington 2004 [Samuel. Political Scientist @ Harvard.~' . Jacinth. Sixty percent of whites thus saw blacks as more than 20 percent of the American people. The only thing that is filling the void now is ~ictimization. Will .Michigan 7 Wk.
000 a year would create a benefit equal to only 0. Seniors 2006-2007 IMMIGRATION DOESN'T SOLVE SOCSEC CRISIS Increased immigration would have little effect on the social security crisis Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Camarota 2006 [Steven A. Hannah. while if net immigration averaged 900. The argument that immigration can have a significant impact on the aging of our society may seem plausible. it would be 59. indicate that net annual legal immigration of 800. the working-age share would have been 65.-born children are not counted. The relatively high US fertility is one of the key reasons immigration has such a small impact on the aging of American society.1 children in her life time.000 to 200. The 2004 trustee's report. nor are immigrants sufficiently numerous to be of any real help in changing the nation's age structure. Census Bureau projections indicate that if net immigration averaged 100. including illegals. Because.l-n] Many advocates argue for high levels of immigration on the grounds that it can solve the problem of our aging population. Americans will simply have to look elsewhere to deal with this problem. As for the program's deficit. who arrived after 1980 from the 2000 Census. Immigration's Projected Impact on Aging. along with other information provided to Senator Hagel. Basic Demographics. compared to 1.000.000 to one million. One can see this by looking at Social Security Administration (SSA) projections.S. Moreover immigrants age just like everyone else.77 percent of the program's projected total expenditures. We can measure the impact of current immigration on the aging of the United States very precisely. Impact on Retirement Programs. it is argued.5 percent A 2000 report by Census Bureau states that immigration is a "highly inefficient" means for addressing the ratio of working-age people to the rest of the population in the long run. Looking at the full impact of post-1980 immigrants reveals that if they and all their U. Those that make this argument worry that there will not be enough working-age people to support the economy or pay for government. it follows that it will have only a very small impact on federally funded retirement programs.000 annually.4 for Europe. particularly retirement programs. Another way to look at the aging of society is to examine the working-age (15 to 64) share of the population. Actual demographic analysis shows immigration can have only a very tiny effect on the nation's age structure. Will . But if all immigrants are excluded the rate would still have been 2. would increase the dollar value of the actuarial deficit by just 6. Jordan.0. the working. will make the country more youthful. The Census asks immigrants when they arrived. Simi.Michigan 7 Wk. as pointed out above. Almost all of those making this argument.. the average age in the United States would have only been four months older.2 percent when they are all included. Immigrants tend to arrive in America relatively young and they also tend to have more children than natives. But an evaluation of the actual data shows that the difference between immigrants and natives is not sufficiently large. Director of the Research Center for Immigration Studies. (Some 90 percent of illegal immigrants are thought to have responded to the 2000 Census.9 percent in 2000.) If we excluded all immigrants. Lasky. We can also look at fertility rates. almost exactly the same as the 66. immigration has little impact on the working-age share of the population. June 26. annual legal immigration of 350. Immigration.000 versus 800. Testimony to the Committee on House Ways and Means. The key to understanding why America has higher fertility than other industrialized democracies is not immigration.000 a year versus 350. however. In 2000 the average woman living in America had 2. Looking to the future.7 percent in 2060. The bottom line is that even very large shifts in the number of people allowed into the country have only a minor impact on the program. are not demographers. Jacinth.age share would be 58.6 percent of the projected deficit over the next 75 years.
umi. Lasky.000 for each "volunteer" to complete his or her term of service.000 per volunteer. AmeriCorps is one of the few initiatives the Clinton administration proudly points to as a success. after two years in operation AmeriCorps stands in danger of joining a long list of unsuccessfi~l Great Society programs.000 Volunteer. 2006 ~http://proquest. Costly.000 "volunteer. who can criticize a program that not only encourages America's youth to help their neighbors.] 16701 Taxpayers across the country were rightfully outraged I0 years ago with the Reagan Pentagon's $7. & least five Pel1 Grants could be awarded to needy students for the cost of-just one Americorps participant. the money spent on one AmeriCorps volunteer would be enough to cover four years of tuition and fees for three full-time students at the University of Iowa. AmeriCorps is neither the best way to help working families with education costs nor a true embodiment of America's tradition of voluntarism." National Minority Politics 6. Proquest. billed as a domestic version of the Peace Corps designed to get more young people to volunteer for community service. Seniors 2006-2007 SPENDING LINK Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Plan costs about $30." s That was the price for a single participant in a 1992 demonstration of President Clinton's new "AmeriCorps" program. 4 Aug.Michigan 7 Wk. Jacinth.com/pqdweb?did=4959 &sid=8&Fmt=3&clientId=l7822&RQT=3O9&VName=PQD~. Hannah. Given directly to families. Will .12 (1994): 22. Today. UMich Library. After all. Roughly half goes toward salary and benefits for the participant. The way AmeriCorps is set up. Grassley 94 [Grassley. Jordan. the rest is overhead and administration. Chuck. You do the math. 11 million immigrants: that's 300 billion dollars. but helps them pay for college at the same time? Nevertheless. the Clinton administration b r i n ~ taxpayers the $30. it takes $30. "The $30.600 coffee pot. Simi. inefficient and bureaucratic.
Yet economic research suggests a different picture: Unskilled and immigrants are good for the U. We should not forget that immigration is good for the immigrants themselves. Additionally. workforce. devastate some agricultural sectors and labor-intensive industries. Will . immigrants create their own work. Seniors 2006-2007 UNSKILLED IMMIGRANTS KEY T O ECON / -Immigration Neg I1 Unskilled immigrants preserve the economy Cowen and Rothschild 2006 [Tyler and Daniel M. Professor of Economics @ George Mason and Associate Director of the Global Prosperity Initiative at the Mercatus Center.S. when a boom in native-born self-employment occurred.html] With an estimated I 1 million undocumented immigrants comprising rounhlv 5 percent of the U. compared with less than 1 percent of crane operators. who studied patterns in different U. by 2000 this figure had fallen to less than one in five. 54 percent of tailors in the U. During the coming decades. http://www. U. The labor market is not a zero-sum game with a finite number of jobs.Michigan 7 Wk. Most bureaucrats in 1980 did not foresee the building or biomedical booms of the 1990s.ng. inclinations. also keep prices down across the economy. It often means the difference between extreme poverty and the good life. New arrivals. from immigration is about $7 billion annually.immigration. lower wages. Even Borjas. For instance. concludes that immigration has not lowered wages for American workers. the favorite economist of immigration restrictionists. are foreign-born. Jordan. A similar discrepancy exists between plaster-stucco masons (44 percent immigrant) and sewer-pipe cleaners (less than 1 percent foreign-born). Hannah. Most economists have sided with Card.4 percent between 1980 and 2000.S. by producing more goods and services." August.com/0608/fe. immigrants were more likely than natives to work for themselves. and sponge off welfare. Immigrant small businesses.S. from the Korean corner market to the Mexican landscaping service. George Borjas of Harvard counters that immigration reduced the wages of high school dropouts by 7. creating a shortage of unskilled laborers that immigrants fill. http://www. the U..S. as Card points out. Simi. Lasky. But this assumes the government can read the economic tea leaves. or the decline of auto manufacturing. cities.. the need for immigrant labor will increase. The baby boom generation will need more health care and more nursing homes. Gianmarco Ottaviano of the University of Bologna and Giovanni Peri of the National Bureau of Economic Research have shown that immigrants and low-skilled American workers fill very different roles in the economy. his studies better capture the notion that immigrant labor makes work easier for all of us and brings new skills to the table. "Don't Bad-Mouth Unskilled Immigrants. admits the net gain to the U. Some argue that we should employ a more restrictive policy that allows in only immigrants with "needed" skills. they are not looking to simply copy the behavior of American workers.-Berkeley's David Card. is good for them. makes all businesses easier to start and thus spurs American creativity. In 1980 one out of three American adults had less than a high school education. the percentage of native-born high school dropouts has fallen sharply during the last few decades.shtmI] But what about the millions of unskilled laborers who arrive in this country every year? Recent public discourse would have us believe they poach American jobs. economv. Immigrants come to the United States with different skills. Jacinth. including the unskilled.com/news/articles/112limmig2l.S. according to demographers.S. The plan would take critical immigrant workers out of the workforce.C. A key question for economists has been whether the influx raises or lowers "native" American wages. and ideas.S. drain government resources and require one of the biggest mass migrations in history.azcentral. We should not trust government to know what kind of laborers we will need 20 years from now. are as American as apple pie. For one thing. The ready presence of immigrant workers.reason. collapsing the economy LA Times 05 111-21-2005. The upcoming Medicare fiscal crunch will require more and younger laborers to finance the program. Until the late 1990s. many businesses believe that attempting to make them move back to their home countries would disrupt the U.
NumbersUSA 05 (2-19-2005. The agricultural industry would grind to a halt without immigrant farm workers. Well. that is an overstatement. Jordan. America enjoys unprecedented diversity. Since the principle is that immigration policy should serve the interests of citizens. are consumes. are uncomfortable with demographic change. The cheap-labor lobbies are always saying that if all the illegal workers suddenly went home tomorrow that our economy would collawse. Will . Please don't misunderstand.S. San Diego Union Tribune.htmll Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Anti-immigration sentiment is one symptom of a larger neo-Mercantilist disease that is also threatening the alobalization of trade and capital flows. Immigration is a moral imperative and an economic necessity. Immigrant labour is key to the U. Much of the nation's economy today depends on the hard work and the manv contributions of immigrants. And I think that everv illegal alien who comes in contact with law enforcement should be deported. whose populations and economies have been buoyed by immigration.Michigan 7 Wk. to wages. 10-17. to entrepreneurship. Immigrants also have founded manv of the largest and most successfbl technology companies.our fiee market economy adjusted as the millions of illegal aliens were allowed by the federal government to illegally take jobs. Jacinth.S. is that -. ma-iority of these workers are undocumented . most Americans feel comfortable with this diversity. Now. but some. But going cold turkey and withdrawing too fast from the drug may be vew harmful to the addict. particularly in a country whose civic identity is based on providing opportunities to people from around the world.. from job displacement. U.S.signonsandiego. Fed News 05 [4-16-2005. U S economy is addicted to immigrants . Immigrants have revitalized urban economies throughout the b i t e d b t e s and particularly improved important sectors such as small business.html) The reality. but our current immigration laws have failed us. agriculturaf economy. finance.although our free-market economy did not need them before they came -. http://www. the lifeblood of our 21st century economy.com/uniontrib/2OO5101 7/news_lzl el 7kerpen.S. Nativism and the Immigration Issue. importlexport. Geographic location of birth is a morally arbitrary fact. Each immigrant who comes to the United States expands national output more than he or she ~ersonally everyone. They have falsely attempted to blame immigrants for everythin&from suburban sprawl to environmental degradation and most recently have taken advantage of the fears of the American public to blame immigrants for terrorism. but it would cause a great deal of disruption and dislocation for American citizens. The economic contributions of immigrants have been particularly notable in midsize to large cities. I do not believe we should have mass deportations that would seek out and expel 10 million people a year -. Policy Analyst. After decades of increasing prosperity. Hannah.economy Kerpen 05 [Phil. But our economy IS like a drug addict who didn't need the drug in the first place and definitely has to be rid of the drug eventually for a healthy future.numbersusa. Kennedy Issues Statement on AGJOBS. A slower withdrawal is required. much of the economic progress of the past century could be reversed. Simi. our economy is a bit addicted to all those illegal workers. A landmark National Academy of Sciences report found that immigrants contribute more than $10 billion annually to the economy. reacting to immigrants who are increasingly bypassing traditional immigrantfriendly coastal cities to settle in traditionally white rural and suburban communities.com/interests/CPAC2005speech. "Sen. Other estimates range as high as $80 billion. Yet. The NAS study examined every aspect of the issue. which benefits clear.and are therefore easily exploited by unscrupulous employers who can get away with paying shamehlly low wages and forcing them to work in unacceptably dangerous conditions. though.because that would be too disruptive to U. the ovenvhelmine. Unless true free-market conservatives tame these emotional arguments with the force of logic. I am not opposed to deportations. The economic benefits of free movement of people." lexis] America has a proud tradition as a nation of immigrants and a nation of laws. Lasky. to taxes and consumption of social services. immigrant groups and demagogues like Gilchrist and Tancredo have capitalized on this discomfort in newly emerging immigrant communities.withdrawal would collapse the economy . http:l/www. construction and manufacturing. and it is wrong to limit an individual's freedom to pursue his or her interests based on it. like the benefits of fiee trade and capital flows. Seniors 2006-2007 UNSKILLED IMMIGRANTS KEY TO ECON Immigrant workers are the lifeblood of the U. citizens.
However. other grain-producing countries around the world don't see it that way. and it would collapse if thev were deported. Lexis) U. like lower petroleum prices that were passed on at the gas pump. Government policy for the past 60 years has been to intravenously feed farmers the ""antibiotic" of farm subsidies and price supports.New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg yesterday took aim at hard-line GOP members of the U.424. the extra cash is helping us through the crisis. Thank you. this has not been the case with meats and other commodities in 1997 and 1998. Processors and retailers decided they could increase their margins rather than passing on the savings to the consumer (which would have cleaned up the oversupply). and for failing to understand just how important the estimated 11 million undocumented workers are to the well-being of this country." Bloomberg also attacked the House hardliners for insisting on the expulsion of undocumented immigrants for breaking the immigration law. could have prevented the Great Depression). be subjected to cost inflation and price deflation at the same time? U. it is a pretty sure bet the banks holding his notes will get bailed out. not consumers. the rest of the economy is sure to follow. in hindsight. Supplies continue to build. Getting rid of the immigrants would kill the economy Newsday 06 [Brune. you say. instead of flirting with 9.Michigan 7 Wk. would fa11 without illegal immigrants. "Mayor's stand on immigration. Journal of Commerce 98 (12-31. but we must act now. help America's farmers sell our products outside our borders.'' Hannah. But if these prices continue. Hog prices also reflect a near-70 percent decline since 1990.S. that will cause inflation. anriculture prices have reached lows not seen in 10. Lexis. Many things have contributed to this dramatic decline of commodity prices. If agriculture dies an economic death. The livestock producer gets no help from taxpayers. say around 700. But the wound has never healed.S. those who produce the majority of our food. "Although they broke the law by illegallv crossing our borders.20 or even 30 years. Impossible? U u s t over two years. Free markets have been stymied. It is not too late. Economy of NYC. how can it keep the stock market from tumbling. saying PHILADELPHIA . The enormous power of the hedge funds that continuously short commodity fbtures . going through such difficult times? Why should a minority. We are dying out here.S.000. Maybe investors should rethink inflation. But. cash grain prices have dropped over 70 percent from the high posted in July 1996. The same holds true for the nation. their belief that border patrols alone can stop undocumented immigrants "is either naive and shortsighted. Will . it is just what we needed: another Band-Aid. Bloomberg tells congressional panel. U. They continue to subsidize their producers. Along with next year's Freedom to Farm payments. Some have directlv benefited the consumer. while the costs of living.the pricing mechanism of the world these days . We can make our products much more affordable to foreign buyers by devaluing the dollar." Newsdav 6 July 2006 Mew Yorkl : .is staggering. Maybe a little inflation is much better than another Depression. Tom. "our city's economy would be a shell of itself had thev not. I am not trying to tell you we are heading for a sequeI of the Great Depression. But why is the greatest production machine in the world. it would appear that Washington may have started to print money (which. Jordan.] House. Seniors 2006-2007 UNSKILLED IMMIGRANTS KEY TO ECON Immigration Neg I1 I -- Collapse of U. The only thing. S. agriculture would lead to U. If this countrv continues to aIlow its agriculture to sink to De~ression-era levels. American agriculture.S. The Freedom to Farm Act attempts to wean agriculture from subsidies and supports by initiating a "ttwithdrawal"process. The problem is. benefiting only processors and retailers. I hope this is the case. taxpayers coughed up $6 billion dollars this year to help the farmer. labor and machinew are at record highs.S. Lasky. or cynical and duplicitous. Jacinth.. Simi. too? Think about the stock market's falling to levels of 30 years ago. Please." Bloombere said. economic collapse. missing that was present 70 vears ago is a stock-market plunge and massive unemplovment. If you look at government money-supply figures.
immigration. all illegals autornaticalIy pay state sales taxes that contribute to the upkeep of public facilities they use (such as roads) and pay property taxes through their rent that contribute to the schooling of their children. and welfare programs. Another important development happened in 1996: The Internal Revenue Service began issuing identification numbers to enable illegal immigrants who don't have Social Security numbers to file tax returns. Simi. "Who's milking who?" August. If anything. Immigrant bashers are using the "costs" of undocumented aliens to whip up indignation against people they don't want here in the first place. Hannah. broke and unemployed.) have popularized the notion that illegal aliens are a colossal drain on the nation's hospitals. illegals are not milking the government. The Senate immigration bill that collapsed earlier this year would have tempered these draconian penalties for private aid. In reality. parents and children combined contribute an average of $80. schools. Each year close to 8 million of the 12 million or so illegal aliens in the country file personal income tax returns using the alternative numbers. these communities might receive the surplus taxes the federal government collects from immigrants. Will . citizenship so we can avoid "theft of these benefits by illegal aliens. Last year. http://www. Congress has already passed a law that requires everyone who gets Medicaid. But no one. and Medicare-funded hospitalization. The only services that illegals can still get are emergency medical care and K-12 education. including food stamps. Social Security. Under this bill. Yet nativists such as Rep. One might have imagined that people earning meager wages and fearing deportation would take a pass on the IRS's scheme. Tancredo and his allies nevertheless pushed a bill through the House that would criminalize all aid to illegal aliens--even private acts of charity by priests. Democrat or Republican. which the Social Security Administration stashes in its "earnings suspense file. Indeed. Not so. It's true that many illegal migrants impose a strain on border communities on whose doorstep they first arrive.reason. contributing billions of dollars to federal coffers. The nonpartisan National Research Council found that when the taxes paid by the children of low-skilled immigrant families (most of whom are illegal) are factored in. seems to oppose the idea of withholding public services from illegal immigrants.shtml] The fact that illegal immigrants pay taxes at all will come as news to many Americans. it's the other way around. they'll never be able to collect the benefits these taxes are meant to pay for. on average. But immigrants aren't flocking to the United States to mooch off the government. nurses. to offer proof of U. The file is growing. They probably hope paying taxes will one day help them acquire legal status-a plaintive expression of their desire to play by the rules and come out of the shadows. the revenues from these fake numbers. Lasky. Tom Tancredo (R-Colo. Beyond federal taxes." added up to 10 percent of the Social Security surplus. In the real world. What's more.Michigan 7 W k Seniors 2006-2007 UNSKILLED IMMIGRANTS KEY TO ECON Illegal immigrants give more income to the system than they take out Immigration Neg I1 / -- Dalmia 2006 [Shikha. and personal income taxes. housing assistance." as Rep. Since undocumented workers have only fake Social Security numbers.) puts it. Senior Analyst @ The Reason Foundation. consuming services they don't pay for. According to a study by the Urban Institute. Medicaid. Jacinth.S. aliens who are not selfemployed (and aren't paid in cash) have Social Security and Medicare taxes automatically withheld from their paychecks. Last year. the government-funded health care program for the poor. the 1996 welfare reform bill disqualified illegal immigrants from nearly all means-tested government programs.000 more to federal coffers than they consume over their lifetimes.ng. by more than $50 billion a year. and social workers. To solve this problem equitably. Jordan. someone running a soup kitchen that offers so much as a free lunch to an illegal could face up to five years in prison and asset forfeiture. Charlie Nonvood (R-Ga.com/0608/fe. exactly as intended. A stunning two-thirds of illegal immigrants pay Medicare. the 1996 welfare reform effort dramatically reduced the use of welfare by undocumented immigrant households.
the rates for every major category of crime fell. Similar trends apply in other high-traffic states. Massey reports that 62 percent of illegal immigrants pay income taxes (via withholding) and 66 percent contribute to Social Security.) Yet the most comprehensive survey to date of national crime data concludes.7 percent and considerably lower than the black unemployment rate of 9. with the exception of Colorado. there were almost 1.3 percent. when it should be drawing attention instead to a very different matter: how to build on the luster and wonder of the American dream. immigrants are generally less involved in crime than similarly situated groups. The state's Hispanic population during that time increased 120 percent. Heather MacDonald of the Manhattan Institute discovered that illegal immigrants in 2004 accounted for 95 percent of all outstanding homicide warrants in Los Angeles and two-thirds of unserved felony warrants." Authors Ramiro Martinez Jr.Michigan 7 Wk. drug dealers." As for crime.ng. "U. Greenwood and Marta Tienda. despite the wealth of prominent criminological theories that provide good reasons why this should not be the case. That's not just an anomaly. Hannah.S. Impacts of Mexican Immigration.immigrationshtmlj Illegal immigration seems to have spawned a dreary debate about the merits of Mexicans. reports that "crime rates along the border are lower than those of comparable non-border cities. Texas. Lasky. Another major study. Simi. which is true-but primarily in places that offer lavish benefits to illegal immigrants.6 million Hispanic-owned businesses generating $222 billion in revenue in 2002. for instance. Hispanic unemployment has tumbled to 5. "Where's the Mayem?" August. aided and abetted by laws that prevent local officials from handing illegalimmigrant criminals over to federal authorities. President Bush's Secretary. only slightly above the national average of 4.5 percent." This doesn't mean immigrants from Mexico are saints. the picture doesn't quite conform to conventional wisdom. "In the small number of studies providing empirical evidence. it also provides a helpful prop for sustaining American economic growth and cultural dynamism. Seniors 2006-2007 UNSKILLED IMMIGRANTS KEY TO ECON Illegal immigrants are essential to the economy / -Immigration Neg I1 Snow 2006 [Tony. While the population includes an eye-popping number of crooks. which has one of the nation's largest immigrant populations. the vast majority of whom hail from Mexico. 10 percent send kids to public schools." by Michael J. crime rates in the highest-immigration states have been trending significantly downward. On the work front. (Gangs. Skeptics counter that immigrants have clogged our hospitals. Hispanics are opening businesses at a rate three times faster than the national average. account for much of the mayhem. Will . Immigration is not the pox neo-Know Nothings make it out to be. Forbes magazine notes that Mexican illegals aren't clogging up the social-services system: Only 5 percent receive food stamps or unemployment assistance.com/06O8/fe. Jordan. In addition. While Arizona's population grew 41. violent crime has fallen more than a third. Princeton University sociologist Douglas S.8 percent between 1993 and 2003. Total crime and property crime in California are half what they were in 1980.reason. Begin with the astounding influx of illegal immigrants. and Matthew T. it just means they may not be the marauding horde some make them out to be. Jacinth. http://www. Lee note that the Latino homicide rate in Miami is three times that of El Paso. Economist Larry Kudlow praises Hispanic entrepreneurship: "According to 2002 Census Bureau data. and would-be welfare sponges. As it turns out.
The Senate plan also does not solve one the other big problems associated with illegal immigrants --. which means they are not even looking for a job. Testimony to Immigration Subcommittee. the difference between the taxes the legalized illegals paid and the costs they created was a negative $79 billion borne by American taxpayers. These are precisely the kind of individuals who work in construction. If illegals are legalized and are allowed to remain in the country. In fact. If we legalize illegal aliens.pdf.000 more in services than he pays in taxes during his lifetime and an immigrant with only a high school degree will create a net fiscal drain of $3 1. and wages of workers at the bottom of the job market show there is no shortage of less-educated workers. Yet wages have stagnated or declined for such workers. The trend of less educated Americans doing poorly in the labor market has accelerated in recent years. and the share with only a high school degree and no additional schooling declined from 75 to 70 percent. There is some evidence that illegal did do better after being legalized. but there is no evidence that after the last amnesty nativeborn American with little education saw an increase in their wages and benefit. and you reduce its price. green card holders or illegal aliens means lower wages and job opportunities for less-educated Americans. If there were. July 18. not because they are illegal. A Center for Immigration Studies report found that in just the first ten years after IRCA passed. Letting them stay means the costs stay. This is what happened with IRCA and it would surely happen again. Jacinth. How does letting in even more less-educated workers through the new H2C program in S2611 help this problem? There are 65 million nativeborn Americans between the ages of 18 and 64 who have no education beyond high school. The price of less-skilled labor is the wages and benefit paid to such workers. Illegal aliens create significant costs for taxpayers mainly because they are unskilled. Allowing illegals as guest workers. so naturally less-educated natives continue to do poorly in the labor market. the poorest and least educated American workers would still face job competition from millions of former illegal aliens. 23 million of whom are either unemployed or not even in the labor market. Hannah. The National Research Council in 1997 report entitled.org/articles/2006/back206.l-n] Amnesty Does Not Solve Problem of Job Competition. At least 60 percent lack a high school degree and another 20 percent have only a high education with no additional schooling. Director of the Center for Immigration Studies.Michigan 7 Wk. Jordan. Such persons pay relatively little in taxes regardless of legal status because they earn so little in the modern American economy. and the share holding a job has deteriorated significantly in recent years. the fiscal costs are guaranteed to explode. which is where illegal are overwhelmingly concentrated. estimated that the average immigrant without a high school diploma will use $89. And as in 1986. food 5For a detailed discussion of labor market problems of less-educated Americans see Dropping Out: Immigrant Entry and Native Exit From the Labor Market. Between 2000 and 2005 the share of natives (18 to 64) with only high school degree holding a job declined from 53 to 48 percent. The New Americans. The primary reason illegal immigrants reduce wages or job opportunities for less-educated native-born Americans or legal immigrants already here is not that they work for less. Simi. the general trends has been for less-educated Americans to do worse in the US labor market.000.cis. which is what the illegals would become. unemployment. Letting illegals stay only makes sense if you think the poor are overpaid. The primary reason they create a problem for such Americans is simply their presence in the United States. My research indicates that if we legalized illegals and they began to pay taxes and use services like legal immigrants with the same level of education.the cost to tax payers. Will . The vast majority of workers who do this kind of work are natives. Thus to suggest that Americans are not interested in such jobs is ridiculous. wages and employment should be rising fast. Lasky. Amnesty Does Not Solve Costs to Taxpayers.educated workers remain. service and building cleaning and grounds maintenance occupations. the fiscal costs at just the federal level would triple from about $10 billion a year to nearly $30 billion. By letting the illegals stay the oversupply of less. but unskilled legal immigrants.6 Unskilled illegal aliens are costly.. Seniors 2006-2007 AMNESTY DOESN'T SOLVE ECON I -Immigration Neg I1 Amnesty doesn't solve the economy Carnaroto 2006 [Steven A. 2000-2005 at http://www. in this case less-educated workers. It is basic economics: increase the supply of something. thought that certainly happens. but that simply is not happening. cost even more because they can more easily access social programs. non-work.
Will . Simi. the "huddled masses yearning to breathe free. wages have begun to grow in tandem with the economy. Lasky. Seniors 2006-2007 AT: ILLEGALS = UNEMPLOYMENT Unemployment rates are at record lows . The United States somehow has managed to absorb 10 million to 20 million illegal immigrants not only without turning into Animal Fawn. http://www.com/O608/fe. Rather than panicking. shouldn't we at least spend a little time trying to get our facts straight? Hannah. Virtually everyone agrees that we need to secure our borders. President Bush's Secretary.illegal immigrants don't steal jobs Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Snow 2006 [Tony. tax receipts are exploding at the federal and state levels.reason.Michigan 7 Wk. "Where's the Mayem?" August. employment is booming. Jordan. deport lawbreakers and slackers among the illegal-immigrant population. then. unemployment remains low." Before someone razes Lady Liberty and decides to erect a wall to "protect" America from the world. the fuss? In America today. and revitalize the notion of citizenship by insisting that prospective citizens master the English language and the fundaments of American history and culture. The Statue of Liberty symbolizes America's affection for the world's tired and poor. and the United States continues to run laps around its European and Asian economic rivals. the political class might want to take a deep breath and attempt a little common sense.immigration.ng.shtml] Why. and the double-whammy hurricane season of 2005. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Jacinth. but while cranking up the most impressive economic recovery in two decades and the most prolonged period of declining crime in a century-all in the teeth of the post-9111 recession.
Jordan. Washington.A CBS/New York Times poll two months earlier found onlv 6 vercentage points difference among those identifvinq themselves as Democrats. It is not that the immigrants themselves are es~eciallv oriented toward crime and anarchy. Each successive Congress and president simply adopted or maintained policies that forced massive immigration upon thousands of neighborhoods across the land. But the number of those individuals arriving each vear has overwhelmed individual communities. Lasky. There are numerical thresholds for how many additional and culturally different residents any community can or wants to handle-economically. or size of community-a ma-iority of them dislike current immigration levels. And the federal government never asked the local officials if they desired or could handle the flow. education. The Case Against Immigration. educationally. Seniors 2006-2007 PUBLIC HATES PLAN Immigration Neg I1 / -- Public doesn't like unchecked immigration Beck 96 (Roy.. region. Jacinth. all of which "interfere with the civilizing process. but the arrival in such large numbers of people of different cultures contributes a transience and lack of community cohesiveness that is healthv for neither the newcomers nor the citizens . The "size of the wave and the chaos of the situation are too great" for schools to be able to keep poor natives in class.. Vietnam). Will . and a big jump in immigration. Simi. D. A Times-Mirror Center voll in November 1994 indicated that 82 percent of Americans think the United States should restrict immimation.. 1996) A RAND Corporation study of urban school systems with high numbers of immigrants concluded that the newcomers exacerbate already serious problems in those schools. and environmentallv.. or independents. gender. Education faiIure is the norm for immigrants and natives alike. editor of The Social Contract. Fewer than one of two kids going into these high schools comes out employable.22 And then there is crime-the factor that may top all others in driving capital and the middle class from the cities and in creating inhumane conditions for those residents trapped behind. Crime historian Ted Robert Gurr of the University of Maryland explains that this third great crime wave in America's history is similar to the other two in that it is linked to three factors: increased economic deprivation. It isn't that Americans don't like immigrants. Hannah.23 Cities-ranging in size from millions to a few thousand-struggle with an immigration influx that few ever requested. Other polls show that no matter how the aopulace is sliced into demomaphic groups-bv income. sociallv. age. ethnicitv. C. all overwhelmingly obiected to current immigration levels. Residents have not approved.k. Republicans.. religion. the aftermath of war (this time. Opposition to immigration is not ideolo~ical. Polls show that most citizens retain ~enerallv positive attitudes about immigrants as individuals.Michigan 7 W.
Hannah.skilled workers." while only 19 percent felt we had made a "real effort" to enforce our laws and the reason we failed was because we are not letting in enough people legally. Testimony to Immigration Subcommittee.may not keep track of the details of immigration policy. Director of the Center for Immigration Studies. The Senate's plan. US immigration policy for many years now has been out of step with the desire of most Americans for less legal immigration and greater efforts to enforce immigration laws. Jordan. Unfortunately. July 18. like most changes in immigration law in the last four decades. Lasky. S2611 clearly does not do that. public policy should in general reflect the views of the people. 73 percent of the public said they had little or no confidence in the ability of the government to screen these additional applicants to weed out terrorists and criminals that would result if 52611 became law. Most Americans also don't buy the argument that we are desperately short of less. Congress responded by legalizing illegal aliens and increasing legal immigration. 77 percent said there are plenty of Americans to fill lowwage jobs if employers pay more and treat workers better. But when asked this very question by Zogby. would continue that trend with the same result growing public anger. if it does become law. The Senate's plan would increase legal immigration from roughly 1 million a year to perhaps 2 million or even more. At the behest of interest groups. In a democratic republic. When asked. While the public .7 But the Senate bill does precisely the opposite of what most Americans want. Finally.Michigan 7 W k Seniors 2006-2007 PUBLIC HATES PLAN 1 -Immigration Neg I1 The public finds amnesty policies that encourage more immigration unpopular Camaroto 2006 [Steven A. The public wanted the law enforced and less legal immigration. Using neutral language a Zogby poll of likely voters conducted for the Center for Immigration Studies found that in general Americans want less not more immigration. just 15 percent said there are not enough Americans for such jobs. Given deep public opposite to S2611. But. 71 percent of Americans felt that enforcement had failed because our efforts had been "grossly inadequate.. Americans generally know we have already tried amnesty and it has not worked. Defenders of S2611 often argue that we have tried to enforce the law but we simply can not do it because we are not letting enough people legally. Simi. Will . Yet only 2 percent of Americans in the same Zogby poll respond that they believe that current immigration is too low. compared to 67 percent who said immigration should be reduced so we can assimilate those already here. This is very similar to what happened in the late 1980s with the IRCA amnesty and the large increases in legal immigration passed by Congress in 1990. Only 26 percent said immigrants were assimilating fine and that immigration should continue at current levels. I-n] S2611 Defies Public Opinion. Jacinth. This is one reason the public is so cynical about immigration. it can only make the American people more cynical and dissatisfied with our immigration system.
it seems probable that at no time in American history has a majority of Americans favored the expansion of immigration. 68 percent. Simi. Lasky. rose to 65 percent to 66 percent in the 1980s and early 1990s. This is clearly the case since the 1930s when survey evidence became available. a Hannah. and 83 percent of Americans opposed altering existing law to allow more European rehgees into America. In the 1995-1997 ih World Values Survey. of its population that wanted to prohibit or put strict limits on immigration. 329-301 Although Americans like to think of their country as a nation of immigrants. Who Are We? pg. South Africa. the extent and intensity of public opposition to immigration varied with the state of the economy and the sources of immigrants.jR The people of this "nation of irnmigrants" have been more hostile to immigration than those of most other countries. large majorities of the public ranked large numbers of immigrants and nuclear proliferation as "critical threats" co America. Ln nineteen polls from 1945 to 2002. and dropped to 49 percent in 2002. In the 1990s. Seniors 2006-2007 PUBLIC HATES PLAN Immigration Neg I1 / -- The public consistently opposes increased immigration Huntington 2004 [Samuel. Jordan. but high immigration has never been popu- lar overalI. and Poland) out of forty-four countries in the propordon. Will . Taiwan. the proportion of the public favoring increased immigration never rose above 14 percent and was less than 10 percent in fourteen polls. In three 1938 and 1939 polls. Jacinth. 71 percent. w t international terrorism coming in a close third. In subsequent years. The proportion wanting less immigration was never less than 3 3 percent. the United States ranked fifth (behind the Philippines.3 percent. 62.Michigan 7 Wk. Political Scientist @ Harvard.
1801 ( ~ h eimmigration issue may produce serious divisions among elite groups. arouse popular opinion against immigrants and immigration. Simi. Who Are We? pg. Jordan. and offer opportunities to nationalist and populist politicians and parties to exploit these sentiments.Michigan 7 Wk. Jacinth. Seniors 2006-2007 PUBLIC HATES PLAN Immigration arouses popular opinion against immigrants Immigration Neg I1 / -- Huntington 2004 [Samuel. Will . Lasky. Political Scientist @ Harvard. > Hannah.
73 percent and 5 5 percent of the public and 28 percent. Simi. In these same years. Lasky. Who Are We? pg. In the 1994 and 1998 Chicago Council polls. Seniors 2006-2007 PUBLIC HATES PLAN I -Immigration Neg 11 Elites favor but the masses oppose increased immigration Huntington 2004 [Samuel. Jordan. Political Scientist @ Harvard. with 72 percent of the public sayA ing it had been fairly or very unsuccessful^" Hannah. of course. "conaolling illegal immigration" came in next to the last (reducing drug abuse). 330-3 11 < This shift in elite opinion produced a maior gap between elite and public attitudes. and meant.and 21 percent of the leaders thought that reducing illegal immigration should be "a very important goal" for America. Will . In a 1997 ~ o lasking to what extent the federal government had been successfuI in l achieving sixteen policy goals.Michigan 7 Wk. diat government policy would continue to reflect the former rather than the tatter. Jacinth. 74 percent and 57 percent of the public and 31 percent and 18 percent of forr~gn leaders thought thnt large nurnhers of immigrants were a "critical threat" to the United States.
D-North Hollywood."If we do not control the costs of illegal immigration we will be shutting the door to legal immigration. hospitals and the criminal justice system. who accused Republicans of avoiding a fight within the party ahead of elections. who authored legislation approved by the House in December that focuses on tougher enforcement. Ginny Brown-Waite. 2005. R-Texas. Sensenbrenner has repeatedly said that he would reject a compromise that includes what he describes as "amnesty" for illegal immigrants. N. provisions that were included in Senate legislation passed in May. "House panel hosts illegal immigration hearing in San Diego. permanently." Gohmert said. Hannah. speaking Wednesday at a field hearing aimed at exposing flaws in rival Senate legislation. Democrats asked why hearings were being held after bills have already passed. About 100 people attended the 90-minute hearing. "The reason it's a good idea to have them now is that we're at an impasse. Lasky. talks or smells like amnesty. Conservative Republicans hate anything that smacks of amnesty for illegal immigrants The Ledger 05 ["Lawmakers Unsure how to Tackle Illegal Workers. Howard Berman. costing the county more than $1 billion a year. Louie Gohmert. "If it walks." In July. Jordan. House Republicans launched the unusual series of summer field hearings. it would be a tough fight in Congress. a political scientist at the University of California. San Diego. "These hearings are a con job on the American people.mercurynews. U." http://www. R-Wis. reducing the burden on public coffers. Seniors 2006-2007 GOP OPPOSES PLAN I -Immigration Neg I1 The GOP hates giving amnesty to illegal immigrants Mercury News 8-2 [Allison Hoffman. Jacinth. laws to get here. The House Judiciary Committee met at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot in what Republicans. a Crystal River Republican representing a 1are. said illegal immigrants cost taxpayers by straining government services. Rep. billed as a hearing to examine "the tremendous burden" that Senate legislation would impose on taxpayers to pay for health care. AP Writer.html House Republicans.com/mld/mercurynews/news/breingnews/l5 183586. Democrats said GOP leaders were stalling to avoid a bruising fight within their party over a sweeping immigration overhaul before November midterm elections." _Whatever it's called." May 27&. testified that a guest worker program would allow illegaI immigrants to freely go back and forth to their home countries rather than staying in the U. defended the timing." said Rep. Lexis] McCain and Kennedy propose allowing illegal immigrants to identifv themselves. I could never vote for it. Will .S.M. education and other services. although Republicans such as Bush and McCain say they don't support "amnesty." said House Judiciary Committee Chair James Sensenbrenner.S.Michigan 7 Wk. But Wayne Cornelius. including seven this week." said Rep. Simi. President Bush supports a guest-worker program and a path to citizenship for many illegal immigrants.. and then get in line for residency and citizenship. Los Angeles County Supervisor Mike Antonovich said illegal immigration was a "catastrophic" drain on public schools.S. Opponents call such programs "amnestv" for people who broke U. obtain status as guest workers.e agriculture sector and who is also a member of the conaressional Immigration Reform Caucus. They meet Thursday in Phoenix and Las Cruces.
reason.shtrnl] How will immigration play out politically over the next few months. Where any of this might end up is anybody's guess.com/0608/fe. Will . Jordan. the Senate had signed on to building some sort of wall. At least for a while. who passed legislation that is long on enforcement and "cutting off the flow" stuff and extremely short on amnesty. Editor of Choice. http://www. A good chunk of Senate Republicans-along with a handful of Democrats-is in favor of less-draconian legislation than House Republicans. Hannah. if not most. especially since the dead heat that American politics has become is more dead than ever? The vast majority of the American people is staunchly in favor of militarizing the Southern border or doing whatever it may take to stop the flow of illegal immigrants f o that part rm of the world. In fact." August. and the like. Especially with mid-term elections coming up. Jacinth.Michigan 7 Wk.immigration. both the Dems and the Reps may want to play to their bases by refusing to "compromise" on their core "principles. So are the House Republicans. current illegals. too. a plurality of the American people is in favor of reducing the flow of legal immigrants. Sirni. including a guest-worker program and. Lasky. some way of legalizing many. guest workers. At press time." There could be worse outcomes. in theory at least. Seniors 2006-2007 PUBLIC WANTS WALL The public is in favor of building a militarized border zone Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Gillespie 2006 [Nick. "Bush's Border Bravado.ng.
Enforcement not only has the advantage of reducing the costs of illegal immigration.I-n] Policing the border. Jordan. Will . both the public and policymakers have to understand that there will be significant long-term costs for taxpayers. enforcing the ban on hiring illegal aliens. Simi.Michigan 7 Wk. denying temporary visas to those likely to remain permanently. Seniors 2006-2007 PUBLIC WANTS WALL Policing the border to decrease illegal immigration is popular among the public I Immigration Neg I1 7- Camarota 2006 [Steven A. especially ethnic advocacy groups and those elements of the business community that do not want to invest in labor-saving devices and techniques or pay better salaries. Nonetheless. but instead want access to large numbers of cheap. Lasky. since the cost of illegal immigration to the federal government alone is estimated at over $10 billion a year. June 26. unskilled workers. policymakers can expect strong opposition from special interest groups. significant resources could be devoted to enforcement efforts and still leave taxpayers with significant net savings. Jacinth. If we choose to continue to not enforce the law or to grant illegals legal status. Hannah. it also is very popular with the general public. Testimony to the Committee on House Ways and Means. Director of the Research Center for Immigration Studies. However. and all the other things necessary to reduce illegal immigration will take time and cost money..
it's a battle over contending right-wing ideologies." That same day a Journal editorial titled "Conservatives and Immigration" reiterated the paper's "longstanding position favoring open immigration. Jacinth. Policy Director @ the International Relations Center. Hannah. The signatories." Seeking his party's presidential nomination. The breakdown this spring of bipartisan attempts to pass a comprehensive immigration reform bill demonstrated the newfound political strength of immigration restrictionists. freemarket conservatives. the increasing clout of the immigration restrictionists was quickly apparent as even the proponents of legalization dressed up their bills in the language of "national security" and "law and order." observing that the "scariest part" of illegal immigration is that "we have absolutely no idea what they'll do tomorrow on U. Jordan. Pro-immigration sentiment runs deep in the Senate. Phyllis Shlafly and William Bennett. it was blocked in the House." The conservative manifesto comes on the heels of another statement on immigration policy by pro-immigration conservatives published in the Wall Street Journal on July 10. have since Sep." This summer. including such right-wing luminaries as William Buckley. 11. Republican senators are beginning to adopt the "enforcement first" language of the anti-immigration lobby. called for the country's political leaders to remember that "We are in the middle of a global war on terror. It's also a high-stakes race to determine which approach to the immigration crisis will win the most votes for Republicans. Leading conservative think tanks. the immigration debate in the United States has heated up as conservatives of all tendencies -. Manhattan Institute and American Enterprise Institute." signed by 33 prominent conservatives. the majority leader has founded his own organization called SecureAmericasBorders. In part. 11 succeeded in gaining control of the immigration agenda. including the Hudson Institute. national security conservatives and Republican Party stalwarts -. calls for the creation of new legal channels for immigrants "drawn to the jobs created by our economy. conservative and neoconservative think tanks and policy institutes have jumped into the immigration fray.1-nj Leading conservatives recently sent an open letter to President Bush and congressional leaders stating that "enforcement first" measures should be central to any immimation policy reform.seek to frame the debate in their own terms. a Colorado Republican. Together with the leading conservative figures."July 3 1. Immigration received little or no attention from the right's battery of think tanks and policy institutes. Hoover Institution. 2001. where restrictionists. Seniors 2006-2007 PLAN FRACTURES CONSERVATIVES The plan splits the conservative party Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Barry 2006 [Tom. Will . "Immigration Debate Splinters Conservatives. paleoconservatives. led by Tom Tancredo.S. immigration restrictionists were marginalized in Congress and had little pull in the Republican Party.com to tap the anti-immigrant surge. Before the attacks of Sept. creating new ideological divides throughout the center-right. neoconservatives. except for single-issue institutes such as the Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) and the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR).Michigan 7 Wk. Lasky. But this time around. Senate Majority leader Bill Frist of Tennessee describes immigration as a "dangerous national security threat. whose members have traditionally reflected the liberal immigration views of large corporations and the party leadership.social conservatives. Simi. soil. that previously never addressed immigration issues now have scholars articulating sharply different positions on immigration policy. Although a comprehensive bill that included legalization and guest-worker provisions did pass the Senate." Seeing the antiimmigration tide sweeping the nation. "The Conservative Statement for Immigration Reform.
" the proportions were exactly reversed: 29 percent good. ~ ' ' Hannah. 60 percent bad.Michigan 7 W k Seniors 2006-2007 IMMIGRANT BASE OPPOSES Even recent immigrants don't favor more immigration Immigration Neg I1 / -- Huntington 2004 [Samuel. Political Scientist @ Harvard. but any more will be disastrous. Lnrnigrants often are door-closers too. and one third door-closers approving past immigration and against it now. Who Are We? pg. A Latino National Political Survey in 1992 found that 65 percent of American citizens or le. Simi." Fiftynine percent said a good thing and 31 percent a bad thing." A 1993 Newmeek poll asked people whether immigration had been "a good thing or a bad thing for this country in the past. T h e American public was thus divided aln~ost equally: one third for past and present immigration." a skepticism also manifested in answers to a 1984 survey of Texas MexicanAmericans by Rodolfo de la G a r ~ a . Jacinth. Lasky. one third against past and present immigration. and Cuban descent thought there were "too mmy immigrants in this country. 33 11 Q 711e persistent and pervasive and-immigration attitudes often reflect a door-closing approach: "It's great we got in. Puerto Rican. Asked whether im~nigration "a good thing or a bad thing for this country was today. Will . Jordan.ga1 residents of hlexican.
April 6. including the FBI and the CIA. Hannah. The Senate may soon pass guest-worker legislation. The doors are open for sure. Simi. with information-sharing being frustrated. and the system is rigged to shortchange security. it's clear. but I don't see the security counterbalanced despite the lessons of 9111. the agency that establishes the immigration status of millions of applicants every year. that's the jargon for "Move the applications as fast as you can. Jordan. One of today's witnesses will tell of U. government agencies.l-n] Terrorists conspiring to attack the United States often defraud and manipulate our immigration system. in documenting the agency's poor management controls. So ow homeland faces a very determined terrorist enemy. This puts those deciding immigration applications in the very difficult position of not having access to key records held by other U. when you can't check the terrorist watch list. remains deeply flawed.S. Moreover. Will . there are dozens of terrorists who have defrauded our immigration system. That is why I offered a successful amendment to the House immigration enforcement bill to ensure that law enforcement is a top USCIS priority. This includes individuals affiliated with a1 Qaeda and affiliated with Hezbollah. which a Government Accountability Office report highlighted just last month. Seniors 2006-2007 TERRORISM LINK Strengthening immigration law is critical to terrorism prevention Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Federal News Service 2006 [Hearing of the Subcommittee on International Terrorism and Nonproliferation of the House International Relations Committee.S. noting that production goals are put over rooting out the type of fiaud that terrorists commit in their planning. The system. It is timely to examine these issues now. is rigged to approve immigration applications. there are too many uninvestigated complaints against USCIS personnel who issue green cards or work visas or asylum and other immigration standings." The March GAO report seconded that finding. Jacinth. we will hear from one witness. And our immigration policies and practices. in November. USCIS is riddled with fraud and corruption. will tell us in fi-ank terms that our immigration officials aren't taking seriously their responsibility to counter terrorism. And the 9111 commission found that 15 of the hijackers that attacked the United States could have been stopped had we more diligently enforced our immigration laws. found that it continues to operate under production pressures. immigration documents being issued by foreign intelligence operatives. And last week this subcommittee held a hearing on the attempts by terrorists to acquire shoulder-launched missiles that can down an airliner. remain a very porous defense. This report also found that a number of individuals linked to a hostile foreign powers intelligence service were found to have been employed as temporary alien workers on military research. that creates an opening for terrorists. Lasky. in which illegal immigrants are given legal status. I'm afraid. A big part of the problem is that those deciding applications are under enormous pressure to reduce the backlog. and the critical information needed to protect national security remains stovepiped. as Congress debates immigration policy. representing grave vulnerabilities. including many since 9111. The Department of Homeland Security inspector general.guarded.Michigan 7 Wk. one of our witnesses. Now. This policy. And frankly. United States Citizenship and Immigration Services. will place tremendous new burdens on a deeply flawed USCIS. As one of today's witnesses will testify. USCIS says it supports the ideal of keeping America's doors open but well. an individual experienced as a top security official in the immigration field. Indeed. Some of these personnel themselves have not been adequately investigated before being given the responsibility of frustrating attempts by terrorists and criminals to acquire the documentation needed to operate fteely in the United States. to remain in this country.
20 of 21 foreign terrorists became naturalized U. citizen. The findings show widespread terrorist violations of immigration laws and abuse of the U. 11 of the violations noted in the report were persons who had acquired immigration benefits before or around 9111.S. Will . Jordan. one each is associated with the Pakistani terrorist groups Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad.l-n] There is nothing more important to a terrorist than getting where he needs to go and being able to stay there long enough to carry out his or her instructions. and immigration arrival records. There were at least nine sham marriages. Abdulrahman Alamoudi. but also to remain. in total 34 individuals were charged with making false statements to an immigration official. Simi.--There were 11 instances of passport fraud and 10 instances of visa fraud. Testimony to House International Relations Subcommittee. Religious worker visas are known to carry a 33 percent fraud rate.S. The report highlights the danger of our lax immigration system. along with surveillance of financial buildings in northern New Jerseymew York and North Carolina. Principal of 9/11 Security Solutions. virtually no attention is being given to the most recent information about terrorist travel and to the mission. Political asylum and naturalization are two of the benefits most rampantly abused by terrorists. The findings also show that not just Al Qaeda violates our immigration laws the study cuts across a variety of terrorist organizations. or "embed.Michigan 7 Wk. terrorists overstayed their temporary visas. the study found that about two-thirds (59) committed immigration fraud prior to or in conjunction with taking part in terrorist activity. immigration laws. --In at least 13 instances. citizens. --Seven terrorists were indicted for acquiring or using various forms of fake identification." As I wrote in 9/11 and Terrorist Travel. with nearly all of these individuals indicted or convicted for their crimes. including six of the September 11th hijackers discussed above. Lasky. --Temporary visas were a common means of entering. Social Security cards. And even when naturalization is acquired. Many of these terrorists may have been affiliated with one or more terrorist organizations. terrorists claimed to lack proper travel documents and applied for asylum. --In total. Immigration and Terrorism: Moving Beyond the 9111 Staff Report. terrorists were still able to acquire immigration benefits after 9111. My September 2005 Center for Immigration Studies report. In fact." in the country. often at a port of entry. Seniors 2006-2007 TERRORISM LINK Immigration Neg I1 Strict immigration law is critical t o terrorism prevention K e p h a r t 2006 [Janice L. 16 of 23 terrorists became legal permanent residents. In at least two instances. including driver's licenses. Violations were rampant with plots to blow up a shopping mall in Ohio.--Fraud was used not only to gain entry into the United States.S.S. once in the country. In 17 instances. and six with Hizballah are specifically identified. we do not require the new U. often by marrying an American. The report included persons with a clear nexus to terrorist activity.. immigration inspectors for years by using his old passports for travel while he was visiting countries outside the United States. 18 terrorists had student visas and another four had applications approved to study in the United States. We call this "embedding. "while the rhetoric continues to focus on the critical mission of terrorist entry. or hand in old passports. April 6. ." The inadequacies of our Citizenship and Immigration Services agency continue to make embedding relatively easy. At least 17 terrorists used a visitor visa either tourist (B2) or business (Bl). many committed multiple immigration violations 79 instances in all. but whose terrorist plots within the United States occurred after 911 1. now spending 23 years in prison for illegal financial dealings with the Libyan government (which included a plot to assassinate a Saudi prince). -- Hannah. was able to hide much of his travel abroad from U. Libyan or former Iraqi governments. covers the immigration histories of 94 terrorists who operated in the United States between the early 1990s and 2004. The report makes clear that USCIS must be an integral player in border security. used weaknesses in the system to remain here.S. 16 with either the Palestinian or Egyptian Islamic Jihad. for example. not just in terms of whom is allowed in. raising the bar on its usual persona as merely a customer service agency to one of having a critical role in national security the last chance to say no to a terrorist who seeks to stay here longer under U. The report was built on prior work done by the 911 1 Commission and the Center for Immigration Studies. citizen to renounce his or her country of origin. Three are unaffiliated but of a radical Islamist background. but also how terrorists. birth certificates.S. Jacinth. immigration benefits system.--Once in the United States. but 40 individuals are associated with al Qaeda. --Of the 59 terrorists who violated the law. one each is affiliated with the Iranian. The summary of findings in the report is as follows (these are lifted verbatim fiom the report): --Of the 94 foreign-born terrorists who operated in the United States. . --In 47 instances. providing more information than has been previously been made public. and the affiliations of eight others indicted or detained on terrorismrelated charges are unknown. of preventing terrorists who get in from staying in. 16 with Hamas. One wellknown terrorist and naturalized U. immigration benefits sought or acquired prior to 9/11 enabled the terrorists to stay in the United States after 9/11 and continue their terrorist activities.
Assimilation of current immigrants is thus likely to be slower. Political Scientist @ Harvard. > Hannah. and the implications of any differences for assimilation now. Immigrants fought and died in America's wars. institutions. culture. immigrants had to be willing to confront its substantial costs. risks. h g r a t i o n involved self-selection. less complete. Their immigration poses problems unprecedented in America and will be dealt with in detail in the following chapter. immigration processes. w t no single country or ih language predominant at any one time. and different from the assimilation of earlier immigrants. Will . the responses of American society. Immigrants. Seniors 2006-2007 ASSIMILATION FAILS Assimilation will fail and doesn't work well with current immigrants Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Huntington 2004 [Samuel. Immigration was discontinuous. Assimilation no longer necessarily means Americanization. and uncertainties. Jordan.Michigan 7 Wk. generally. After 1965. all of these factors are either absent or much more diluted than they were previously.and post-1965 immigrants. Assimilation is particularly problematic for Mexicans and other Hispanics. both overall and for individual countries. reasonably clear. and highly positive concept of American identity and created activities. with no single group of immigrants forming a majorityof the population in any region or major city. wanted to be Americans. This chapter more generally compares pre. interrupted by pauses and reductions. Lasky. and policies to promote the Americanization of immigrants. Who Are We? pg. Simi. Immigrants who did not convert to American values. Immigrants came from many countries. and way of life returned to their home countries. Jacinth. Immigrantsdispersed to ethnic neighborhoods throughout the United States. Americans shared a common. 184-1851 < In the past many factors facilitated the assimilation of immigrants into American society: Most immigrants came from European societies with cultures similar to or compatible with American culture.
Jacinth. but that these are probably more related to education and occupation before coming to the United States than to other factors. and the Philippines. Seniors 2006-2007 ASSIMILATION FAILS / -Immigration Neg I1 Many factors make Mexican immigrants especially hard to assimilate Huntington 2004 [Samuel. with societies clustering together in religious-geographical groupings.Michigan 7 Wk. Will . In part this is the result of the large numbers and geographical concentration of Mexicans. and Mexican-American writers have argued that a major gap exists between American and Mexican cultures. have also been helped by their knowledge of English. structural incorporation. have generally assimilated rapidly in terms of culture. Mexican. Latin American immigrants. The limited evidence available on relative assimilation of post-1965 groups indicates that substantial differences may exist. Overall. Korea. Simi. Jordan. Indians and Filipinos. and this may also retard assimilation. and their descendants have been slower in approximating American norms. immigrants fiom India. and intermarriage. Japan. 3 Hannah. Political Scientist @ Harvard. Lasky. of course. Who Are We? pg. as well as that of native non-Hispanic Americans (see Chapter 9). 187-81 $ Will the assimilation of post-1965 Latin American and Asian immigrants proceed more or less as it did for the earlier Europeans? Social science and psychoanalyucal analyses have shown major and lasting cultural differences among peoples. whose educational profiles more closely approximate those of native Americans. The educational levels of Mexican immigrants and of their descendants also have been below that of almost all other immigrant groups. particularly those horn Mexico. In addition. American.
however. Jordan. Political Scientist @ Harvard. the issue of Mexican immigration and treating the overall relationship with their neighbor as if it did not differfrom that with other countries. Lasky. Seniors 2006-2007 ASSIMILATION FAILS Hispanic advocates resist assimilation Huntington 2004 [Samuel. is also to answer it and acquiesce in the eventual transformation of Americans into two peoples with two languages and two cultures. they also avoided the issue of whether America wiIl continue to be a country with a single national language and a common Anglo-Protestant mainstream culture. Jacinth.Michigan 7 Wk. By avoiding. immigration. they have tended to generalize about immigrants without discriminating among them. Simi. Who Are We? pg. challenge. primarily Mexican. at least until 2004. To ignore that question. and problems posed by Hispanic. 3161 1 -- Immigration Neg I1 When Americans talk about immigration and assimilation. They have thus hidden from themselves the peculiar characteristics. s -- Hannah. Will .
Jacinth.instead in a culturally neutral space as 'Americans. should not espouse an American identity but embrace an "emerging Latino identity and political and social consciousness."34 ." They should claim and are claiming a separate "cultural citizenship" involving "a distinct social space for Latinos in this counq. Lasky. such as William Flores and Rina Benmayor. and instead create a large. Seniors 2006-2007 IMMIGRATION THREATENS CULTURE Immigration Neg I1 I -- Mexican immigration threatens Anglo-Protestant culture Huntington 2004 [Samuel. Advocates.' " Hispanics. reject the idea of a "single national community. social and cultural Hispanic community on American soil. Simi." and castigate the effort to promote the use of English as a manifestation of "xenophobia and cultural arrogance. we must put aside those identities and interact. except in those sanctioned displays of ethnicity. Who Are We? pg. The first is to prevent the assimilation of Hispanics into America's Anglo-Protestant society and culture. Spanishspeaking. they argue." attack "cultural homogenization." They also attack multiculturalism and pluralism because these concepts relegate "different cultural identities" to "private lives" and assume that "in h e public sphere.3 Hannah. permanent. 31 81 < Tlie continuing growth of Hispanic numbers and influence has led some Hispanic advocates to set forth two goals. Political Scientist @ Harvard. autonomous. Jordan. Will .Michigan 7 Wk.
(3) The ability to speak. Jacinth." meaning absence of a criminal record. Political Scientist @ Harvard. demonstrated by passing the "civics test. Who Are We? pg. Lasky. 2151 < Contemporary criteria for naturalization in America are limited and specific. and write ordinary (eighth-grade) English. the American requirements for naturalization are relatively rn~dest.Michigan 7 Wk. read." As one critic of these criteria as too restrictive admits. Will . Jordan. Simi. and (4) A general understanding of American government and history."'~ The two key requirements are those for an elementary knowledge of English and of American history and politics. Seniors 2006-2007 NATURALIZATION KEY TO IDENTITY Present naturalization practices maintain national identity Immigration Neg I1 1 -- Huntington 2004 [Samuel. These criteria embody and symbolize the two remaining components of American national identity: the English cultural heritage and the liberal democratic principles of their Creed. Somewhat simplified they are: (1) Five years legal permanent residence in the United States. ) Hannah. (2) "Good moral character. "In comparative perspective.
are also capable of postponing their demise by halting and reversing the processes of decline and renewing their vitality and identity. prosperity. and religions and that have been the source of their liberty. and values that for three and a half centuries have been embraced by Americans of all races. ethnicities. Lasky. unity. Seniors 2006-2007 AMERICAN CULTURE KEY TO HEG Maintaining the Anglo-Protestant culture is key to hegemony 1 -Immigration Neg I1 Huntington 2004 [Samuel. Who Are We? pg. even when so threatened. Yet some societies. to which they eventually succumb. power. Simi. Political Scientist @ Harvard.Michigan 7 Wk. I believe that America can do that and that Americans should recommit themselves to the Anglo-Protestant culture. Will . and moral Ieadership as a force for good in the world. Jordan. xvii] < All societies face recurring threats to their existence. > Hannah. Jacinth. traditions.
and an abstract. Lasky. American national identity and unity. its standards of taste and morality. Will . This benefited them and the country. That elite's reIigious and political principles. people who were not whte Anglo-Saxon Protestants have become Americans by adopting America's Anglo-Protestant culture and political values."~ MiIlions of immigrants and their children achieved wealth. Jacinth.' Whatever freedom from ethnic and nationalist conflict this country has enjoyed (and it has been considerably less than our national mythology would have us believe) has existed thanks to a cultural and ethnic predominance that would not tolerate conflict or confusion regarding the national i~tentity. WASPish ethnic identity. which generations of immigrants have absorbed. Simi. on the other. Schwarz has said. The core of their identity is the culture that the setders created. its customs and social relations. derived "from the ability and willingness of an Anglo elite to stamp its image on other peoples coming to this country. as Benjamin C . power. Throughout American history. Jordan. 61 -21 These critics are right. Seniors 2006-2007 PROTESTANT HEG SOLVES ETHNIC VIOLENCE Anglo-protestant cultural hegemony has limited ethnic conflict Immigration Neg II Huntington 2004 [Samuel. were for 300 years. 7 < Hannah. America's. At the heart of that culture has been Protestantism. on the one hand. Political Scientist @ Harvard Who Are We? pg./ -- Michigan 7 Wk. Hence there is no validity to the cIairn that Americans have to choose between a white. are-despite our celebration of 'diversity. and whch gave birth to the American Creed. shallow civic identity dependent on commitment to certain political principles. and in basic ways they still. and status in American society precisely because they assimilated themselves into the prevailing American culture.
enemies and wars. and to promore the importance of their respective states and localities. for much of the early nineteenth century the United States was not a nation because it did not have a national history. as Benedict Anderson said. is a imagined community." Daniel Boorstin observes. to gIorify. 1 Hannah. Political Scientist @ Harvard. Seniors 2006-2007 NATIONAL MEMORY GOOD 1 -Immigration Neg I1 No nation can exist without a national memory Huntington 2004 [Samuel." State and local historical societies were created to perpetuate.'l Scholars who wished to turn to the national past wrote biographies of local heroes promoting them as aational heroes. "it was generally assumed that a history of the United States would consist of a history in turn of each of the states.Michigan 7 Wk. while efforts to create a national historical society came to naught. By this criterion. defeats and victories. The history of states and regions seemed primary. No nation exists in the absence of a national history. Lasky. Simi. the history of the United States seemed contrived and derivative. Jordan. 115. and it is defined by its historical memory of itself. but n it is more specifically a remembered communiv. heroes and villains. "For at least a haIf-century after the Declaration of Independence. enshrining in the minds of its people common memories of their travails and triumphs.161 A nation. a c o m u i t y with an imagined history. Who Are We? pg. Will . Jacinth.
or Wkraillians. there could well haw been i Dresden people in their eighties who in n their youth were sincere Nazis. Poles. A nation defined only by political ideology is a fragile nation.Michigan 7 Wk. In 2000. Lasky. socialists have adopted capitalism. Sirni. kee marketers. Jordan. former communist elites regularly redefined themselves as liberal democrat. Comrnunists have become fervent anti-com~mnists. Political Scientist @ Harvard. Jacinth.. or fervent nationalists.. 3381 People can with relative ease change their political ideologies.democratic liberals have embraced Maixism. Seniors 2006-2007 AT: NATIONAL IDEOLOGY RISILIENT Immigration Neg I1 Ideology is inadequate for national unity Huntington 2004 [Samuel. WilI . Throughout the former conmunist world in the 1990s. 3 Hannah. and after 1989 were sincere democrats. Who Are We? pg. then became sincere communists. They did not abandon their identity as Hungarians.
as Mr Stark suggests. These visas allow American companies and universities to bring foreign scientists. The drain of educated minds from poor countries is mostly determined bv host countries' rules. Lasky." Africa loses 20. WiIl .2006 http:llnewsblo~s. shortage of health professionals by looking overseas. coming to the U. however. People like Angie and Maria. deserves a chance to compete on a global stage. Angie and Maria.S. scientists and engineers to boost our economy. It is ironic that we tell these talented young people to leave and then search the world over for nurses. Carrington and Detragiache 99 [ William J. might be a spur to greater accomplishment. Perhaps surprisingly. Many had no choice in the matter. Links: 1.com/news opinion letters/2006/07/illerral student. Due to their undocumented status. not home countries' interests.chicagotribune. June 1999.7 million) consists of individuals with into secondary education from other North American countries (understood here to include Central American and Caribbean countries). Foreign-born individuals with little or no education.there is little Mexican Brain Drain now.html1 The cover story in the July 23 Tribune Magazine highlighted a situation that is both tragic and avoidable.5 million individuals) consists of highly educated migrants from Asia and the Pacific. I believe we need a more balanced approach-one that will utilize the talents of the bright young people who are already here. issued nearly 266. Chicago Tribune. Finance and Development. especially. Number 21 The first striking feature of the U. It's in our nation's best interest to provide these talented students the opportunitv to earn their wav to legal status by attending college or joining the military. like Senegal's footballers. Jordan. Ethiopia has only three doctors per 100. America is a land of opportunity and compassion.000 people. primarily Mexico. There will be tremendous pressure to loosen those rules in the future.000 African migrants). not least because. it will seek to "backfill the taxpaying workforce behind it". Volume 36. are denied a chance at the American dream. US Senator.S. A new World Health Or~anization from the poorest countries to the richest as representing a "loss of hope and years of investment. and the poor world's talent. B.this causes brain drain. as the baby-boom generation retires. that immigrants from Africa consist primarily of highly educated individuals (about 95. Simi.000 health professionals each year. however.S. The largest group of immi~rants the United States (about 3.000 H-IS visas. Change in Immigration policies will lead to Brain Drain The Economist 2005 [Fruit that falls far from the tree print edition. July 30. Nov 3rd 2005 Emigration. doctors. The rich world no longer welcomes the tired and the huddled: it looks set to compete ever more fiercely for the bright and the qualified. as Messrs Kapur and McHale put it. tens of thousands of immigrant students with good grades like the girls in your story. It is noteworthy. Hannah. Africa is quite small. Any real solution to this problem must reflect both. Seniors 2006-2007 BRAIN DRAIN DIA 1NC (112) Immigration Neg I1 / -- A. Total immigration from South America and. migration data is that immigration flows of individuals with no more than a primary education are quite small. and Enrica.000 individuals out of a total of 7 million immigrants). While it may be convenient to fill the U. health-care workers and other professionals into the United States. with their parents at a young age and living in America all of their lives. Jacinth. How Extensive is the Brian Drain?. In 2005.000 of the 128. Uniqueness: Current levels of Hispanic Immigrants are not the highly educated . And our brain report identifies increasing mimation of health workers gain is often another countrv's brain drain. may be undercounted by the census if they are in the country illegally or do not speak English. the second largest group (almost I . Durbin 2006 [Dick.S.Michigan 7 Wk. And yet there are more Ethiopian-trained doctors in Chicago than there are in Ethiopia. But it is not easy to run a managed "emigration" policy. both in absolute terms and relative to other educational groupings (about 500. the U. 2. Democrat Illinois. Citizenship offers lure students and professionals from the poorest countries to the richest countries .
The disappearance of the old structures has. World on Fire.is detrimental for the countw of emigration. the poor countries of the world lack the West's well-established rule of law traditions. and the Brain Drain. Jordan. most unstable. including. but rather by abrupt uvheavaIs. That is really what much ethinic conflict is all about. In other words. violence. pichard H. Adams. Jacinth. Meanwhile. Since education has often been cited as a maior determinant of long-term economic aowth. Waiting for a conflict to "ripen" will achieve nothing if the contesting. Indonesia. June 20031 Within the last decade an increasing amount of attention has focused on the relationship between international migration. Take the rawest from of capitalism. 2003. by a new set of actors or by older actors marching under new flags." shaped and promulgated to a large extent by the United States. and export the two as a package deal to the poorest. The World Bank. The ongoing population explosion outside the West only makes things worse. we need to reflect on the stakes. in one fashion or another. If current World Bank projections are correct.including how we get out of the woods we have wandered into. military intervention. too.Michigan 7 Wk. Brain Drain leads to economic depression and poverty in developing countries Adams Jr. Lasky. Add market dominant minorities to the picture. When both sides in a conflict find the Status Qou preferable to any settlement. As a result. political transitions in the developing world tend to be marked not by continuity and compromise. chairman of the Board of the US institute for Peace. Remittances. a fundamental shift in the balance of power ont eh ground has occurred. created strateyic vacuums that will be filled. in the developing world todav the poor are far more numerous. the situation will never "ripen" and the humanitarian toll will mount. Poverty Reduction Group. And the numbers of victims of these conflicts is huge: up to four million in Sudan alone over the past fortv years.. essentially amounts to this. leadership elites are living off the conflict. Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network. Law professor. and the instabilitv inherent in this barenuckle version of free market democracy is comnounded a thousand fold by the manipulated forces of ethnic hatred.the so-called "brain draint1 . Seniors 2006-2007 BRAIN DRAIN D/A 1NC (212) Immigration Neg I I / -- C. Liberia. Simi. brain drain. and most desperate countries of the world." we may be tempted to think that the stakes are now low for the United States. So the stakes are huge in moral as well as strategic terms. FPRI Wire. and bloodshed. Modern Ethnic Conflicts risk Nuke War Crocker '99 (Chester. slap it together with the rawest form of democracy. most frustrated. but (now that we have bucked into this forest without a compass) what is at stake is American leadership. in short. Global Poverty triggers ethnic conflict Amy Chua.' According to this argument. Will . or new demands fiom donor clubs. the population in countries now classified as developing is expected to increase from roughly a billion today to roughly eight billion by the year 2050. and countless others in Sierra Leone. Harvard. the Indo-Pakistani worst case scenario has gotten a lot worse. today's universal policy prescription for "underdevelopment. Hannah. Secondly. the World Bank. How to think About Ethnic Conflict" September) Weather their challenges come through information technology. Think. poverty is far more extreme. 2. As a superpower which supposedly "doesn't do windows. A Study of 24 Labor-Exporting Countries. But what is at stake in Kosovo is not just the Albanians or Serbs. 2003. 3. the erection of new standards of governance. Russia and China. either today or at analogous historical periods. Jr. the survival of NATO. p 195 Is this wise? Almost by definition. International Migration. conventional wisdom has tvpicallv argued that the international migration of people endowed with a high level of human capital . Similar conflicts have raged in the South Asian subcontinent since the massive postcolonial population transfers of the late 1940's and now that nuclear weapons have been openly thrown into the mix. and inequality far more glaring than in the Western countries. and the Balkans. and economic yrowth. Impacts: 1. and the International Monetary Fund. will acquire something or a veto over American Policv . about the stakes involved for the people who become victims of these conflicts. and the danger that members of the UN Security Council. the large-scale departure of highly-educated workers fiom developing countries tends to depress income levels and long-run economic growth rates in the developing world.
http://www. or to start his or her own taqueria or a retail toque outlet. This was the early vision of Ronald Reagan. the idea of eliminating visa requirements with Canada and Mexico seems as heretical as the notion of pasteurization or a sun-centered solar system. in terms of encouraging campesinos to leave the farm and seek better opportunities.reason. "Open the Borders. They would be a partial return to the way things were in the golden age. we're not even willing to allow such an open system for our immediate neighbors and closest trading partners. the various Senate proposals will not increase. Jordan. "but we've shut off the legal opportunities for people to do that. if there is such a crisis. Simi. and that the guest worker compromise will be more fair than what we have now. Anti-illegal-immigrant types who never tire of pointing out that their ancestors came here legally are making a hollow argument: Until fairly recently in American history. Lasky." August. Hannah.Michigan 7 Wk. when the Tancredos.immigration. The first of these answers is half-right: In the current political climate. Editor of Reason. in a period of economic expansion. "Whether that's going to work. the legal opportunities to pursue the American dream. I don't know. For anybody who dreams of coming to the United States for a better job. Seniors 2006-2007 OPEN BORDERS CP SOLVENCY Open borders solve the immigration crisis Immigration Neg 11 1 -- Cavanaugh 2006 [Tim. and allowing Canadians. The guest worker compromise is unrealistic because it has nothing to do with economic reality on this continent.ng. policy director of the Illinois Coalition for Immigrant Rights. Jacinth. "NAFTA had an effect on the Mexican economy. the Sensenbrenners.com/O608/fe.shtml] The solution to the immigration crisis. It's a sign of a timid and tired nation that. all a prospective American had to do was show up. Americans. Will . and may even reduce. Since all parties to this debate draw a line between legal and illegal immigration. every person I interviewed for this article gave two replies: that we need to be realistic about our options. "Guest worker provisions are an attempt to recapture some of the circularity that happened in the past. and the Cavanaughs first fouled these shores. does not rest in guest worker programs or higher visa quotas. when people moved more freely between countries. the arguments of realism and fairness are entirely wrong. there was no motive for illegal immigration. but in the one possibility nobody is mentioning: eliminating visas altogether within the NAFTA countries. Beyond that." The pathetic aspect of this debate is that visaless NAFTA borders would not even be a novel step." says Tsao. we should note that visaless borders would greatly increase the former and virtually eliminate the latter. Is that a problem? I don't think so. and people who oppose the idea need to explain why they think it would be." says Fred Tsao. and it was certainly an implied outcome of NAFTA. Nor is it especially fair: At best it will grandfather in some portion of the existing undocumented work force (and probably not a very large portion).'When asked about visaless borders. and Mexicans with legitimate passports to travel freely among our three countries for any reason or for no reason.
Seniors 2006-2007 IRCA CP 1 NC A. Calavita 1996. Levy 1987). impoverishment. IRCA does not deter illegal immigration Durand. Text: The United States Congress should overturn The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Immigration Neg I1 / -- B. Michigan. the IRCA aimed to reduce the flow of aliens illegally entering the United States to find work by prohibiting employers from hiring them. or refer for a fee.//links. Department of Human and Community Development. immigrants who are not authorized to work in the U. Simi. Third World origins. Parrado '99 [Jorge. IRCA was an unequivocal failure. Lasky. from a Paper prepared for presentation at the AFL-CIOI Michigan State University Workers' Rights Conference. and Emilio A. Jacinth. however. 87). 86.O. Will .CO%3B2-H] As a program of legalization. urbanized. the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) gave policy expression to the most recent of the surges of nativism that have seized the U S . Wells 02 [Miriam J. Davis. and it was instrumental in transforming a predominantly rural. 20021 In 1986. Hannah. As an enforcement policy intended to control undocumented migration. and permanent population of settled immigrants. The Act assigned the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to levy civil and criminal sanctions against employers who knowingly hire. and temporary flow of migrant workers into a feminized.S. therefore. It virtually doubled the overall budget and staff of the INS between 1986 and 1990 (Jufias 1991 : 77.Michigan 7 Wk. Massey. 1999). No 2. Douglas S. assigning and finding the Department of Labour (DOL) to aid in the law's enforcement. October. Solvency: The Immigration Reform and Control Act is a nativist and anti immigrant policy. http. Generally attributed to the increasing number. University of California. Cornelius 1982.jstor. Jordan. and urging the Social Security Administration (SSA) to assist as well. populace (Bean and Fix 1992. (Sep. and illegality of immigrants into the country after the 1965 Immigration Act. 518-536. Vol. Rethinking History and the Nation-State: Mexico and the United States as a Case Study: A Special Issue. recruit. pp.org/sici?sici=0021-8723%28199909%2986%3A2%3C5 18%3ATNEOMN%3E2. Not only did it fail to deter undocumented migrants from leaving Mexico but it actually encouraged additional undocumented migration by family and friends who had remained behind. IRCA was a great success: more than two million Mexicans-including many women and children-achieved l& status under the legislation. East Lansing. in light of the declining and increasingly uncertain economic circumstances of the majority of the U. The Journal of American History. citizenry since the 19th century. male.S. Professor.
Will . with over 2. citizen. Seniors 2006-2007 IRCA CP SOLVENCY (113) 1 -Immigration Neg I1 The IRCA is a racist and ideoiogically flawed policy rooted in Nativist theology and remnicent of 1920's hypocritical and racist immigration policies Flores 1997 [Estevan T. The author concludes with the contemporary period on immigration politics and sheds some light on the current hysteria of those who fear both the multicultural society that we already are and the newcomers who are racially. Flores.e. Jacinth. 1131-1132.O. International Migration Review. both misapprehend or intentionally misrepresent the contemporary reality of political and cultural change. 31. in concert with both radical left groups like CASA-HGT and more mainstream organi- B zations such as the Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund and LULAC. It is precisely this logic of agribusiness which Gutierrez turns to in showing the hypocritical nature of the nativist and racist which at once demands the exclusion O 1undocumented to this country while ide o o~ at the same time providing le a1 mechanisms for both the importation o contract labor (i.000 in attendance. Gutierrez's text develops well tle histori! cal links between nativists in the 1920s who argued for exclusionary immigration laws and contemporary restrictionists such as Alan Simpson who championed the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)." Gutierrez rightly points to one of the great turning points in Mexican-American politics in 1977 when Chicano Movement activists generated a drive to defend the undocumented. Gutierrez argues.~istor. to resoundingly reject Jimmy Carter's 1977 immigration roposals. Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans.CO%3B2-J] In all this history. 4..S. Vol. Instructive are the references to the historical congressional debates in the 1920s and beyond when arguments were made about the "mongrel" Mexican race and their unworthiness as permanent settlers or citizens of the United States.ora/sici?sici=019791 83%28199724%293 1%3A4%3C113 1%3AWAMMAM%3E2. Lasky. (Winter. ethnically and linguistically different from what has been dominant in W. Mexican Immigrants and the Politics of Ethnicity. No. Hannah. joined forces in San Antonio. society. The current nativists. http:lllinks. That such an immigration bill took nine years to pass after it's introduction is a testament to the growing political strength of ChicanolLatino and Hispanic organizations. Simi. pp. Yet this labor was desired and demanded by agribusiness interests who ofien prevailed in securing their supply of labor. Gutierrez shows how activists. or undocumented. Jordan. 1997). the bracero program) or tacit acceptance of undocumented labor through failure to accept "employer sanctions. In reviewing the work of Bert Corona and the organizing of undocumented Mexicanos in the late 1960s and 1970s.Michigan 7 Wk. Special Issue: Immigrant Adaptation and Native-Born Responses in the Making of Americans. Gutierrez highlights the racism prevalent towards Mexicans whether documented.
and Jing (1995) showed that employers who reported discriminatory practices hired fewer Hispanic workers than did other employers. 36. Hannah. In a survey of U. U. http://links. Despite precautions included in the legislation to reduce potential discrimination. and Douglas S. and Douglas S. General Accounting Office 1990). 1989. Department of Labor (1991) suggested that employers who have trouble finding authorized workers are more likely to discriminate by verifying the documentation of only foreign-appearing individuals.0. but studies have not yet identified the reasons for this change. Jacinth. Jordan. Possible explanations include intentional discrimination by employers on the basis of legal status. Vol.or~/sici?sici=00703370%28 199905%2936%3A2%3C233%3ATNLMIA?403E2. Teachman. The New Labour Market: Immigrants and Wages after IRCA.Michigan 7 Wk. 1990:3) concluded that a "widespread pattern of discrimination" emerged after the implementation of employer sanctions.employers.~0%3B2-G] Since 1986. No. the GAO found that 19% of employers admitted to some form of discriminatory treatment on the basis of national origin or citizenship after the passage of IRCA (Perotti 1992. 233-246. The IRCA has only led to increased racism and discrimination because of predicaments it makes for employers. The New Labour Market: Immigrants and Wages after IRCA. Seniors 2006-2007 Immigration Neg I1 I -- IRCA CP SOLVENCY (213) The IRCA has only led to deterioration in wages and working conditions for undocumented workers Philips and Massey 1999 [Julia A. 36.S.glsici?sici=00703370%28 199905%2936%3A2%3C233%3ATNLMIA%3E2. Independent studies confirm a widespread pattern of discrimination by employers toward foreign-looking individuals. Research generally suggests that IRCA led to a deterioration in the wages and working conditions of undocumented migrants. Will . Lowell.S. Demography.S.15% fewer Hispanic workers for employers who reported discrimination compared with employers who did not). regardless of legal status (Bean et al. 233-246. although the reduction in Hispanic employment was relatively small (an average of 0. Philips and Massey 1999 [Julia A. most notably Hispanics. Simi. Civil libertarians feared that employers would use physical appearance or accent as a proxy for legal status in order to bypass IRCA's burdensome paperwork requirements or to avoid the possibility of prosecution.0.or. a shift in employer hiring practices in sectors that employ undocumented workers. Several studies provide evidence that discrimination grew in response to IRCA's employer sanctions. General Accounting Office (GAO. Vol. Demography. http://links. 2 (May.S. Another study by the U. and a general decay of economic conditions after 1986. pp. 1999). 1999). No.istor.~0%3 B2-GJ A prominent criticism of IRCA at its inception was that employer sanctions would lead to increased discrimination by employers against all workers of foreign demeanor. Perotti 1992). Lasky. many studies have examined IRCA's effects on economic outcomes among Mexican immigrants. the U. increased competition from newIy legalized workers. pp. 2 (May.istor.
and rates of pay were determined largely by education. Durand. and rather than denying them jobs.Michigan 7 Wk.44 during 19911996 (expressed in constant 1990 dollars). pp. Congress also did not require employers to verify the authenticity of documents offered by laborers to prove their identity and right to work in the United States. post-IRCA wage discrimination was especially severe against undocumented migrants. employers embarked on a pattern of systematic wage discrimination against Latinos in general and undocumented Mexicans in particular. they simply had to fill out an 1-9 form to demonstrate they had seen what appeared to be valid documents.O. Jordan. l9 Among foreigners. (Sep. the United States Congress was mindful of the needs of employers. so did working conditions. and English ability. employers did face some new risks. rose temporarily to $5. experience. Simi.8 1 during 1980-1986.jstor.org/sici?sici=002-8723%28 199909%2986%3A2%3C518%3ATNEOMN%3E2. Seniors 2006-2007 IRCA CP SOLVENCY (313) Immigration Neg I1 1 -- IRCA increases wage discrimination and has decreased the minimum wage many immigrants receive. Rethinking History and the Nation-State: Mexico and the United States as a Case Study: A Special Issue. they simply lowered their wages. Parrado '99 [Jorge. Hannah. As wages deteriorated for undocumented migrants in the wake of IRCA. they were determined by a person's social contacts. and rather than being determined by schooling.18 Despite the low odds of prosecution under the law. and then fell to $4. Rather than taking the time and trouble to identify which migrants were undocumented. To compensate themselves for these new risks.~~ As table 1 indicates. Jacinth. Instead. United States experience.14 during the transition period. the employer was not liable to prosecution if he or she could produce an 1-9 form and a photocopy of the document they had seen. 518-536. afterward undocumented migrants earned wages that were 28 percent less than those earned by documented migrants. Vol. and English language ability. particularly if they relied heavily on unauthorized labor. http. Even if these documents later turned out to be false and the worker was deported. In developing them. Massey. entry-level wages for undocumented Mexican workers averaged $4. The Journal of American History.//links.C0%3B2-H] 1 IRCA'S employer sanctions also had profound effects on the United States labor market. Whereas before IRCA undocumented migrants earned the same wages as documented migrants. 86. Douglas S. 1999). and Emilio A. No 2. with higher proportions earning wages below the legal minimum and larger numbers working under irregular drcumstan~es. profoundly effecting the US labour market. requiring that sanctions be applied graduulb to give them time to adjust to the new regime. they simply discriminated against foreign-looking workers. Will . Lasky. The predictable result was a boom in the market for fraudulent documents.
As a result. Department of Human and Community Development. ambiguous. Will . As we have seen. have created opportunities for advocates to marshal normative arguments of their own as to the issues and values at stake. East Lansing. Michigan. and comprise a significant part of the local economy. its impacts are influenced signally by the concerns and strategies of local actors. 20021 In the first case. Professor. Professor. States are the best actors to protect and increase immigrant rights and inclusion because of the local connection to immigrants. and malleable than often recognized. is due in part to the structure of the U. local governments have used the disiuncture in normative mandates and legal prerogatives between the federal and subordinate levels of government to legitimate the passage of limited cooperation ordinances which not only restore to illegal immigrants rights and social services that are denied them at the federal level. Wells 02 [Miriam J. Legal advocates are important spearheaders of immigrant-inclusive challenges. University of California. Davis. All of these measures express. but also withdraw from the INS auxiliary personnel. value conflicts between the two levels. Thev provide support for William Sewell Jr. they can constrict the extent and shape the manner of its enforcement. Irnmiaant-inclusive outcomes are most likelv in localities where immigrants form a sizable ort ti on of local residents. and put the Dower of the local level of the state behind. in fact. and their frequent inclusion within the protected "we" of local communities as the law is enforced. are politic all^ active and influential. the disparity between the exclusion of illegal immigrants intended by federal policy. Davis. a challenge to federal policv and practice. from a Paper prepared for presentation at the AFL-CIOI Michigan State University Workers' Rights Conference. the varying. Department of Human and Community Development. and facilities which its agents commonly utilize and benefit from.'s claim (1 992) that the power inherent in social structures is actualized through the intervention of human agents deploving value-based arguments. and often conflicting responsibilities and rights of the different levels and branches of the state. Hannah. so as to mobilize the power of competing government elements to protect immigrants' rights. In this wav they both mediate.S. This study provides insight into the circumstances that give rise to and empower local disagreements with federal policy. as many of the principled grounds for contesting the practice of immigration law are rooted in legal culture. University of California. Davis. The States will and have protected immigrant rights and this action transforms social views on immigrants and immigration. Michigan. from a Paper prepared for presentation at the AFL-CIO/ Michigan State University Workers' Rights Conference. Sirni. 20021 In sum. which are embedded in and legitimated by legal culture. Jordan. them are much more varied. although in theory immigration volicv is (until recentlv) solely a federal responsibility.S. Lasky. while such ordinances do not alter the formal terms of national policy. Wells 02 [Miriam J. unpredictable. East Lansing. Department of Human and Community Development. and help to diffuse. three facets of state structural complexity have provided openings for such initiatives: its multiple levels. Professor. its decentralized agencies. Jacinth. This structural opening and form of argumentation are being widelv utilized to protect immigrants in another venue as well-that of labour and employment rights-through policies passed bv state and local governments that apply to firms that contract with them. as both have reason to oppose the apprehension of illegal immigrants and the former can wield considerable political clout. Seniors 2006-2007 LOPEZ CP SOLVENCY(113) Immigration Neg I1 I -- States are best to protect immigrant rights because of the levels and branches of State policy systems Wells 02 [Miriam J. Alliances between employer and immigrant advocate groups have also proven effective. and its diverse administrative branches. October. East Lansing. are hinhlv connected among themselves and with native-born co-ethnics. from a Paper prepared for presentation at the AFL-CIOI Michigan State University Workers' Rights Conference. information. October. That is. immigration policy and the role of the state in effecting. October.Michigan 7 Wk. University of California. They indicate as well that. 20021 These processes mean that the actual impacts of U. nation-state and the openings it creates for alternative representations and realizations of federal policy. Michigan.
as we have seen. in practice. can victimize all comparablv. University of California. in international political accords exposes the nation to international censure for its treatment of immigrants. I hope to show that the U. the status and treatment of unauthorized immi~rants the on ground are highly dependent on the political-economic features of local communities and the concerns and strategies of local actors.S. Jacinth. Department of Human and Community Development.S. in contrast to the characterizations of the "state" found in resource mobilization theories of social movements that portray it as a unitarv. Seniors 2006-2007 LOPEZ CP SOLVENCY (213) / Immigration Neg II The State is the best and only actor to increase immigrant inclusivity. state is comprised of multiple and intersecting administrative layers and branches with varying and often conflicting goals. And as thev do so. operating norms.Michigan 7 Wk. East Lansing. national and regional origin. Davis. forming bonds of common commitment to local place. University of California. 20021 This article argues that the divergence between the immigrant-exclusive intent of federal policy and its often immigrant-inclusive implementation is in part attributable to the multi-layered complexity of the American nation-state and the openings it creates for alternative interpretations and concretizations of federal policy. October. although in theory the capacitv to make and enforce immigration policv is reserved to the federal level of government. In such contexts. Lasky. Jordan. Will . populace and state contributes to immigrant-inclusive outcomes as well. melting the felt distinctions among them.S. East Lansing. the increasing transnational embeddedness of the U. and immigration status. opening new structural channels. And. Department of Human and Community Development. October. from a Paper prepared for presentation at the AFL-CIOI Michigan State University Workers' Rights Conference. from a Paper prepared for presentation at the AFL-CIO/ Michigan State University Workers' Rights Conference.S. Professor. transnational population flows have altered the composition and political dynamics of many U. Such individuals live and work alongside each other. Michigan. These are embedded in legal statutes and precedents which constitute a body of cultural principles that shape and legitimate the functioning of state structures and allocation of state resources. Simi. Tilly 1978). communities. and determinant structure whose operation effects an integrated and predictable pattern of intent and implementation that either provides or withholds resources from movement actors (Jenkins 1985. Hannah. federal policy only casts immigrants as outsiders. For their part. undocumented immigrants cast as outsiders bv federal policy are perceived as insiders by local residents. Wells 02 [Miriam J. they constitute a forum within which domestic labour standards enforcement can be challenged by forcing a nation's courts and executive institutions to evaluate the country's labour practices against international standards. bringing new meaning to the term "membership. Professor. 20021 Finally.S. Moreover. The treatment and protection of Immigrants should and does fall to the State Wells 02 [Miriam J. such challenges can alter domestic practice." Such communities are now comprised of individuals distinguished by multiple boundaries of inclusion and exclusion. Although agreements such as NAALC lack strong enforcement sanctions. and standards for their protection. The involvement of the U. language. and purviews of legitimate authoritv relating to immigrants' rights. Michigan. including ethnicity. discriminatow socio-political structures and practices within the U. audiences. That is. Davis. cohesive.
Hannah. 20021 The Anglo-American common law tradition increases the ambiguity and contestability of government policies. Simi. Professor. Because of the specificity of those circumstances and the weight given local custom in common law systems. I contend. standards. state within the fabric of international agreements enhances its structural complexity by creating new institutional pathways. are significantly decentralized. county. Seniors 2006-2007 LOPEZ CP SOLVENCY (313) Immigration Neg I1 / -- The CP is critical the inclusion of Immigrants into local communities and America as a whole. the bounds of civic inclusion are established and the vower inherent in state structure. so that mandates issued nationally may be modified or overridden locally. structure. creates opportunities for-even encoura~es+pponents of federal immigration policv to marshal normative arguments of their own as to the issues and principles at stake. Moreover.S. East Lansing. the terms of U. Lasky. The U. the increasing embeddedness of the U.Michigan 7 Wk. Jacinth. the status and treatment of unauthorized immigrants on the ground are significantly dependent on the political-economic features of local communities and the concerns and strategies of local actors. This multifaceted. Finally. Will . in practice. the state and local communities are the best to solve. federal system of government further widens the window for contestation.S. predictable. It is through such intervention. or consistent than might appear at first dance. in that it bases the law on legal precedents which interpret written statutes based on cases set in particular and varying circumstances. fostering their formation of divergent policies and norms. the applicability of a precedent is often unclear and always contestable. Davis. October. although in theory the capacity to make and enforce immigration policy is reserved to the federal level of government. ambiguous. and state governments fiom federal authority. and they are cruciallv impacted by culture and human agency. in that it protects the relative autonomy of city. actualized. Department of Human and Community Development.S. as well. and sanctions that can be mobilized around immigrants' rights. Wells 02 [Miriam J. so as to mobilize the power of competing government levels and branches in order to protect immigrants' rights. immigration policv and the role of the state in implementing it are much less fixed. and internally contradictory. Jordan. Administrative agencies. Michigan. fiom a Paper prepared for presentation at the AFL-CIO/ Michigan State University Workers' Rights Conference. University of California. As a result of this dynamic. I suggest.
Congress will not pass any reform that would change benefits for current and near-retirees. Personal retirement accounts can help accomplish this voal and would be a boon for all Americans. if these accounts were a bad idea.htm) <Bv including voluntarv versonal retirement accounts. has noted: "personal retirement accounts. http://www. Some Democrats.S. familv-oriented people. Like most Americans. "Reforming Social Security: Not all privatization schemes are created equat". we can take a promising step toward fixing: Social Securitv for future generations while still fullv protecting benefits for retirees and near-retirees. bv lumping together all reforms that involve personal retirement accounts (PRAs). Jacinth. increasing.. Social Securitv then will be forced to beg& cashinv in its stored bonds. HarvardMagazine.or middle-income iobs. "Personal Retirement Accounts Will Boost Social Security". people create nest evvs for themselves and their families.gov/mariodiazbalart~news/columns/0228O5~democratsocialsecurity. For the first time. Instead. <His~anics hard-working. then whv do members of Congress ~ a r t i c i ~ ainea program for their retirement similar to what President Bush is uroposina for even. 2005 (Mario. other t American? Trust me. members of Congress would never participate in them. added risk.Social Securitv is ~roiected receive less in oavroll taxes than it will oav out in benefits. it is for that very reason that we should allow people to create their own Social Security personal retirement accounts. is associate professor of public policy at the Kennedy School of Government. As for Social Security's financial future. a member of The Heritage Foundation's Mandate for Leadership Working Group on Social to Security Reform. a member of the House Budget Committee . and those that have few or no economic benefits to offset their high administrative costs. Given that a PRA-based plan may well be enacted in the next few years. Simi. 2005 (Jeffrey B.> PRAs solve the inherent racism of the current social security and dramatically solve poverty Diaz-Balart.html) <The current discussion of wavs to reform the U. Not onlv do we want to make Social Securitv uermanentlv solvent.gov/mariodiaz-balart/news/columns/O228O5~democratsocialsecurity. this voIarization obscures critical differences between PRA-based vlans that raise future standards of living and preserve the social-insurance features of the current svstem. including members of Congress. wealth in low-income and moderate-income households. Social Security is the only source of retirement income for 41 percent of elderly Hispanics. have an enormous ~otential boost retirement income and reduce ~overtv dramaticallv. Hispanics are a proud people who want to provide for their families. "Personal Retirement Accounts Will Boost Social Security".htm) February 2sth. and encouraging indenendence from the government. especiallv Hisvanics and other minorities. 2005 (Mario. In only 13 years . but tax President Bush and Republicans do." Hannah. Unfortunately. Democrats may not have a problem with this.http://www.house. even with modest rates of return. They support low taxes and prefer having a say in their retirement rather than rely on faceless bureaucrats.Michigan 7 Wk. low-income individuals would have the opportunity to pass nest egg on to their children or grandchildren. As Naomi Lopez Bauman. because manv His~anics currentlv work in low.ha~ardmagazine. we can h e l strengthen Social Securitv for future generations. Jordan. But if a versonal retirement account is such a gamble.most likelv with sharp ~avroll hikes and steeD benefit cuts." This divide unfortunatelv obscures the fact that the views of most Democrats and Republicans on the subiect are not that far apart: a bipartisan solution should be achievable. More imoortant. Personal retirement accounts also have the votential to promote intergenerational wealth for all socioeconomic ~rouvs. Ph. and reduced redistribution from rich to poor. http://www.com/on-line/0305S2. Seniors 2006-2007 PRAS COUNTERPLAN / -Immigration Neg I1 Bipartisan support for PRAs Liebman. The reality is that the oronram faces to serious problems down the road. Will .D. sav a versonal retirement account is a riskv gamble. it is critical that the public understand that all such plans are not created equal. so it is extremely important that elderly Americans continue to receive all of the benefits that have been promised to them. they want financial security and they also want an are opportunity to build nest eggs that they can pass on to their families. February 2gfh. but the federal government will need to nav for that shortfall somehow . if it is good enough for members of Congress. Let me be clear. B B create retirement income.bv 2018 . we also want to helr. many Democrats hold illusions that Social Security is fine. Social Securitv retirement svstem is becoming increasinglv polarized over the issue of "privatization. These accounts caq ~ helv give low-income families and minorities a better and brighter financial future. In any case. President Bush's Social Security reform principles fit them to a tee. '96. It allows them the opportunity to invest in our country while also giving them the opportunity to build a secure nest egg. Bv making a change that allows younger workers to voluntarilv place a small portion of their Social Securitv taxes in personal retirement accounts. Thev also are often too reoccupied with meeting their dav-to-dav and month-to-month financial needs to focus on saving for their retirement.house. then it should be good enough for every other American. thev lack the real oooortunitv to out anv monev aside for retirement.> PRAs will be able to solve the social security collapse Diaz-Balart. Lasky. March-April.
the fact that he or she owns it and is able to see how the monev is being used would help to Drevent future Con-messes from attempting to seize retirement monev for some uoliticallv motivated purwose. or left to family members.l8ll . Althouph the worker would not be able to use this monev until retirement. Because the PRA wlan would allow the worker the o~wortunitv to receive higher retirement benefits than the government-paid svstem could afford to uav.heritage.> PRAs would be voluntary . all workers above a certain age (which would be determined in part by the structure of the specific PRA plan) would also receive their full promised Social Securitv retirement benefits. 2004 (David C. At the same time. Simi. a church. Heritage Foundation ..cfm) <A kev feature of this svstem is that workers would own their accounts. Jacinth. Sweden.or~!Research/SocialSecuri~/brz18 11 . "How to Fix Social Security". Heritage Foundation . this age could be as high as 60 or as low as in the 40s. which will be known as Social Securitv Part B. In the event that the worker dies before retirement. Heritage Foundation. it would reflect the worker's age on the date that the plan goes into effect. 1 <In the future. Backgrounder #I811. "How to Fix Social Security". Social Securitv retirement benefits should come from both the current government-paid program. Research Fellow in Social Security and Financial Institutions in the Thomas A. Upon retirement. Lasky. November 17. Younger workers would have the ovuortunitv either to oven a PRA or to continue in the current svstem and accept whatever benefits it could afford to uav at their retirement. In most cases. and from the individual worker's PRA.herita~e. Research Fellow in Social Security and Financial Institutions in the Thomas A. Opting out could be accomplished by filing a simple form with the Social Security Administration or even by checking a box on the workers' income tax forms. November 17. PRAs can helw workers to irn~rove their retirement incomes without unreasonable risks. simply establishing PRAs is not sufficient. Heritage Foundation. 2004 (David C. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies at The Heritage Foundation. November 17. includin~ cost-of-living increases.workers would have the choice between the current system o r a personal one John. In addi-tion.cfin) <Current Retirees Would Not Be Affected.> PRAs work best when combined with the current social security system .. if the worker dies before retirement. even if it is announced well before then. including the United Kingdom. Switzerland.heritarze. Social Security Part B should be designed to give workers more control over how their retirement income is structured by allowing them to build nest eggs. htt~://www. which would become Social Securitv Part A. "How to Fix Social Security". Jordan.empirical solvency John. these nest eggs could be used to increase monthly income.orrz/Research/SocialSecurity/bgl811 . > PRAs won't effect the retired John. and Aus-tralia. Backgrounder #I811. Everv cent that goes into the PRA would benefit either the worker or the worker's familv. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies at The Heritage Foundation. http://www. Because thev would not have the abilitv to alter their retirement savings signifi-cantlv. amounts left in the PRA after providing for any survivors' benefits would PO into the worker's estate and could be left to the familv. "How to Fix Social Security". Depending on the plan. Research Fellow in Social Security and Financial Institutions in the Thomas A. Backgrounder #I81 1. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies at The Heritage Foundation. http://www.Michigan 7 Wk. This would also be true for workers near-inn retirement.org/Research/SocialSecurity/be. or anv other worthv cause designated bv the worker. Seniors 2006-2007 PRAS COUNTERPLAN 1 -Immigration Neg I1 PRAs allow people to actually keep their money which prevents a politically motivated congress from seizing retirement money John. workers would automaticallv have a PRA unless t thev o ~out of the svstem. Will .. No system of PRAs would affect current retirees in any way.. reserved for an emergency.> Hannah. 2004 (David C. Backgrounder #1811. 2004 (David C. November 17. that thev have been ~rornised. Workers should be able to choose whether to relv totallv on Part A or to invest a portion of their retirement taxes through Part B. these nest eggs would remain a part of the worker's estate and could be passed on to heirs. Thev would receive everv cent including an annual cost-of-living increase. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies at The Heritage Foundation. Research Fellow in Social Security and Financial Institutions in the Thomas A. As shown bv the experience of over 25 countries.cfn~) <PRAs would be voluntarv.
"How to Fix Social Security '. Will . Jacinth.herita~e. Seniors 2006-2007 PRAS COUNTERPLAN Immigration Neg I1 1 -- A PRA would solve the social security problems of the status quo John. includine an adiustment for inflation. Heritage Foundation . approximately 80 nercent of Americans aav more in aawoll taxes than in federal income u . Heritage Foundation . While some Representatives and Senators will be tempted to cover Social Securitv's deficits with higher taxes. The necessarv general revenue will have to come from some combination of borrowing additional monev. While current retirees and those close to retirement should receive everv cent that thev are due. *Create a sirn~le.org/Research/SocialSecuri/b1811 . This reauirement would nrotect taxpavers against retirees who could otherwise spent their entire P M s and then e x ~ e csome form of government handout to meet their monthlv expenses. *Create a svstem that allows workers flexibilitv in structuring their retirement benefits while ensuring that thev receive an adeauate monthlv benefit. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies at The Heritage Foundation. c <According to the Congressional Budget Office. Roe Institute for Economic Policy y Studies at The Heritage Foundation. htt~://www. but the directed portion should not be low-cost administrative structure for the accounts that uses the cur-rent less than 2 percent or more than 10 Dercent. Lasky. The necessarv amounts are so large that such a tax increase would consume enough resources to stall economic growth. and similar aension-grade investments.Michigan 7 Wk.or~/Research/SocialSecurit~lbn18h ) 11 . Backgrounder #18I 1. Usine the existing ~av-rolltax svstem would reduce costs.cfin) <A practical framework for establishing a successful PRA moeram would: "Create an account structure that uses a portion of existing pavroll taxes and allows workers of all income levels an o~uortunitv build familv nest eggs. the agencv overseeing the accounts should contract out fund management to nrofessional fund managers. government bonds. this is the wrong auuroach. About 5 nercent of income would be best. 2004 (David C. Initiallv. *Create a carefullv controlled set of investment options that includes an avurouriate default option.heritarse. "How to Fix Social Security". in 200 1 approximately one-third of retirees on Social Securitv received at least 90 Dercent of their income from that program.. *Adiust current Social Securitv benefits to a more sustainable level. *Create a realistic plan for pavine the general revenue cost of establishing a PRA svs-tem. Backgrounder #1811. The PRAs would be voluntary and would to not affect current retirees or those close to retirement in anv wav. These workers would likelv benefit the most from a PRA that allowed them to invest some of their uavroll taxe$. Simi. future benefit nromises must be scaled back to more realistic levels.> Personal Retirement Account solves a 1 the problems of the current social security system John. The Social Securitv PRAs should be funded bv directing a portion of their Social Securitv retirement taxes into their P u s . 2004 (David C. Rather than having the government invest PRA monev. reducin~ other government spending. A PRA plan should reauire all retirees to use some of that monev to purchase an annuitv that would guarantee at least a minimal level of income for life. Desaite uromises from both the left and the right to pav uromised benefits in full. workers would be allowed to uut their PRA contributions into anv one of three balanced and diversified mixes of stock index funds. Despite the presence of private methods to invest for retirement. Jordan. Research Fellow in Social Security and Financial Institutions in the Thomas A. Research Fellow in Social Security and Financial Institutions in the Thomas A. Almost two-thirds of them deuended on Social Securitv for at least 50 Dercent of their retirement income. [ l ] Today's Social Securitv svstem urovides retirees with a stable retirement income and a level of vrotection against uovertv caused bv disabilitv or the premature death of a uarent or spouse. pavroll tax svstem and vrofessional investment managers. collectine additional taxes.> t Hannah. November 17. November 17. this is simvlv not realistic. and reducin~ Social Securitv benefits.. http:/iwww.
They turn employers into enforcers of border control.e." Editorial. (Columnist) "Time to get a backbone on immigration. we will need a short lag time between the two provisions. not only will we solve the problem. Simi. It imprisons no one. they are pernicious. Quit stalling and build a border wall. Krauthammer 06 [Krauthammer. to demonstrate to the skeptics that the current wave of illegals is indeed the last. Start with the second.S. Employer sanctions were the heart of Simpson-Mazzoli. (Columnist) "Time to get a backbone on immigration. of course.. If one fence won't do it. And then build a road for patrols in between. Building a fence would virtually halt illegal immigration and allow the government to be infinitely more generous with current illegals in the U. If we do it right. future--illegal immigration. But sometimes necessitv trumps aesthetics. or some such mischief-making nonsense. sleep and use the facilities. as journalist Mickey Kaus and others have suggested. Can't be done? Israel's border fence has been extraordinarily successful in keeping out votential infiltrators who are far more determined than mere immiwants. But it doesn't have to be. So are the concrete barriers to keeu truck bombs from driving into the White House. Chicago Tribune 10 Apr. Put out lots of patrols. When you build a wall to keep people out. And don't tell me that this is our Berlin Wall. we're-not-kidding-this-timeamnesty. Build a barrier. It is simply ridiculous to say it cannot be done. Put sensors. Krauthammer 06 [Krauthammer. Put cameras. never-again. we will get it done as one nation. then build a second 100 yards behind it. And everyone knows it's uhony. Charles. The newest amnesty-the "earned legalization" now being dangled in fiont of them by urowosed Senate legislation--can only increase the flow. not landscapers. Will . This is not a compromise meant to appease both sides without achieving anything. It is not some piece of hybrid legislation that arbitrarily divides illegals into those with five-year-old "roots" in America and those without. That is the job of government. Jordan. and (2) to find a way to normalize and legalize the situation of the 1 1 million illegals among us. Chicago Tribune 10 Apr. Charles. Quit stalling and build a border wall. They are not only useless.1 My proposition is the following: A vast number of Americans who oppose legalization and fear new waves of immigration would change their minds if we could radically reduce new--i. And. This is full amnestv (earned with back taxes and learning English and the like) with full border controI. No one of goodwill wants to see these 11 million suffer. First. This is no time for mushy compromise. 2006. Jacinth. Forget employer sanctions. Once we humanizing the situation of our 11 million existing illegals. final ed. that's an expression of sovereignty. Then shortly thereafter. radical border control by physical means. final ed. We say. everything becomes vossible--most es~eciallv. that's a prison. Thev come nonetheless. It simplv has to reduce the river of illegals to a manageable trickle. The fence around your house is a perfectly legitimate expression of your desire to control who comes into your house to eat. can demonstrate that it can control future immigration. Of course. perhaps a year or two." Editorial. And we are now back at it again with 1 1 million new illegals in our midst. But the obvious problem is that legalization creates an enormous incentive for new illegals to come. The problem is that we say exactly the same thing with every new reform. Hannah.1 Every sensible immigration policv has two objectives: (1) to regain control of our borders so that it is we who decide who enters. When you build a wall to keep people in.: 19. Of course it will be ugly. Seniors 2006-2007 WALL COUNTERPLAN / -- Immigration Neg I1 Legalization would only create a greater incentive for illegal immigration. Nor have very many North Koreans crossed into South Korea in the last 50 years. To achieve national consensus on legalization.Michigan 7 Wk. A solution requires two acts of national will: the ugly act of putting up a fence and the supremely generous act of absorbing as ultimately full citizens those who broke our laws to come to America. How can it be otherwise? We already have a river of people coming every day knowing they're going to be illegal and verhaus even exploited. no barrier will be foolproof. If the government can do that. very final. What do you think was said when in 1986 we passed the Simpson-Mazzoli immigration reform? It turned into the largest legalization program in American history--nearly 3 million got permanent residency. 2006. Those who think employer sanctions will control immigration are dreaming. that may require that the two provisions be sequenced. there will be infinitely less resistance to dealing generously with the residual population of past immigration. radical legalization of those already here.: 19. that this will be the verv last. Lasky.
But if onlv one in a thousand were. that would still be ten terrorists who successfully crossed our borders. Seniors 2006-2007 WALL COUNTERPLAN Immigration Neg II 1 -- Building a border wall would dramatically lower the risk of terrorism in the U. If this is the case. Another example that has been made public is that of A1 Qaeda terrorist Farida Ahmed. He had entered the B i t e d Bates by bribing a Mexican official to wrovide him a visa to enter Mexico. Jordan. The empirical evidence of terrorist entw is significant. Will . and these cases demonstrate how effectively they have exploited it.3 We also know that for every one alien the Border Patrol apwehends. Hannah. Argentina. Moreover. Law @ U. Several cases are now publiclv known. in those sectors where substantial walls exist.722 aliens from nations that are either designated state sponsors of terrorism or places in which A1 Oaeda has operated. which makes illegal border crossing an even more attractive means of entrv. The construction of additional fencing on the borders is an absolutelv essential response to this terrorist threat. and then paying a coyote to smuggle him across the border into the United States. on January 15.S. and Paraguay. we know that Hezbollah and Hamas maintain an active presence in the tri-border region of Brazil. Kourani came to the attention of the INS while living with other illegal aliens in Dearborn and was initially imprisoned on immigration charges.2004. House International Relations. for conspiring to provide material support to a terrorist organization (Hezbollah). and was bound for New York Citv. In addition to these specific cases. there may be three aliens who are not caught. I/n. Simi.2004. Michigan.20061 It is undeniable that terrorists have entered the United States by crossing our land borders illegally. CQ Congressional Testimony. And since 9/11 we have increased our securitv at ports of entrv. July 5. Physical walls have been shown to dramatically reduce the flow of illegal aliens into the United States. In Fiscal Year 2005. Missouri-Kansas City). For example. Kobach 06 [Kobach. Terrorists know all about our porous southern border. "Border Vulnerabilities and International Terrorism". in FY 2005. Capitol Hill Hearing Testimony. Mahmoud Kourani was indicted in Dearborn. then more than 10. Kris (Prof.000 aliens from highrisk. Lasky. Obviously the majority of these aliens are not terrorists. It was later learned that he had trained with Hezbollah in Iran and Lebanon and was raising money for Hezbollah in the United States. She had waded across the Rio Grande. terroristaiHociated countries illegally entered the D i t e d Bates. Jacinth. Ahmed was arrested in McAllen. On July 19. there are statistics suggesting that the number of terrorists crossing our southern border may be much higher than we think.Michigan 7 Wk. the Border Patrol Apprehended 3. Texas after crossing into the B i t e d b t e s three days earlier.
"The Citizenship of Aliens. thev will enjoy "second-class" citizenship by definition. No. professor of law at Rutgers with a focus in immigration and citizenship law. Simi. citizenshir. hardening the distinction between citizen and non-citizen. the "existence of a liberal politv made up of free and equal citizens rests upon the existence of outsiders who are refused a share of. Bosniak. "Tactile Citizenship: Domestic Workers. 1998. Certainly. and views aliens as inferior."" For most liberal and civic republican theorists. while arguing that migrant workers who are admitted through democratic consent by the republic must be naturalized as members and given citizenship. count for more.granted by the person seeking citizenship as well as by the existing c i t i ~ e n r y This seemingly democratic "consensual" notion . in other words. pp. JSTOR." the more likely that we label." Social Text. As long as states do not accord citizenship automatically to every person who enters the national territory-something most states are not inclined to do-aliens will exist as a categ. '06. Bosniak." Social Text. The in-or-out boundary of citizenship is traditionally determined by principles of ius sanguinis (bloodline) and ius soli (birthplace). Project Muse." Walzer..Michigan 7 Wk. (Linda. but they are not quite like other groups (such as African Americans. '98. ."jO Membershin based on consent amplifies the division between "us" and "them. "The Citizenship of Aliens. (Charles T. professor of law at Rutgers with a focus in immigration and citizenship law. is onlv for those who are already "in" as members: onlv citizens of a particular state get to partake in citizen participation in that state. there can be "no stranger in this family. entails a devaluation of the figure of the alien. 56. citizenship must always refer primarily to nationality. '98. Seniors 2006-2007 AGAMBEN LINKS Immigration Neg II / -- Citizenship creates distinctions between "us" and "them. or by making it harder to obtain. among other things. in or out. Jordan. Lasky. member or stranger. Jacinth. there will always be distinctions between the privileged citizen and the '%econd-class" alien. aliens pose a special challenge for citizenship theory. But a citizenship project that is conceive in national terms arguably presupposes at least some divide between citizens and aliens: it arguably requires some limitations on access to citizens hi^ and the privileging of citizens over aliens.) In light of the foregoing. and undocumented citizen participation in the third space of mimicry." Giving undocumented workers citizenship only makes a boundary between an inside "family" and the "stranger" outsiders. and as long as they exist. the remainders of home.) What we are seeing in these various developments is an effort to reinvigorate. is persistently haunted by the "willful lawbreaker" of the illegal alien who "never consents to American laws. Schuck and Smith's vision of democratic consent. fortifies rather than loosens the binary distinction between citizens and outsiders. citizen or illegal." The John Hopkins University Press. Placing values on citizenship hardens the distinction between the citizen and the non-citizen. binaw logic of either/or. in legal parlance-and it means increased institutional exclusion of immimants on account of their alienage. make distinction of. as Honig argues."G he neglects that the family always carries the shadow of stranpers. aspects of aliens' treatment may appear to be uniust. or women. pp. As Judith Shklar points out. Unless universal citizenship is offered. Democratic theorists from Peter Schuck and Rogers Smith to Michael Walzer have charged against this "ascriptive" notion of citizenship based on immutable characteristics and propose instead a "consensual" conception of citizenship in which political membership is determined by mutual consent -. The effort to revalue citizenship. however. No. 2006. 29-35. or both. (Linda. its The more we put emphasis on national membership as that of a "familv. . 1998. "In any modern state and especially in an immigrant society."^ While for Walzer. nonetheless presents the imagery of the political communitv as a sacred "family" (rather than a neighborhood or a club) to re-demarcate the boundary between "members" and stranger^. or revalorize the legal status of citizenship in this countryeither by making citizenshir. Hannah. Revaluing citizenship in this context means.~ of citizenship. Lee. or citizen and alien. and 'we' never consent to his presence on 'our' territory. and ostracize the strangers as distant and unrelated others. Will . 29-35. Aliens suffer social exclusion within the communitv like other mar~inalized groups. lecturer in the Department of Political Science at the University of Southern California. 56.orv.) The first feature of citizenshiv basicallv means that conventional citizenship is defined by a dichotomous. For example. Autumn. Autumn. As Phil Cole argues. JSTOR. for example) whose historical exclusion from citizenship is now regarded as uniust.
July 2000.com) John McCain believes AmeriCorps should build in everv participant a sense of American values. senior fellow at the Academy of Leadership. forcing immigrants to assimilate. Now is the time for our national leaders to use the fervor of patriotic passion to act boldIv." This involves informing the applicant o f what it means to be an American. indulging their self-interest at the cost of their selfrespect. and the elimination of anv obligation to do national service. "National defense means more than military training. Simi. "It means the building up of physique. it did not fall from the sky. (Dr. the demise of Americanization programs that inculcated patriotic assimilation (multiculturalism denies the very existence or even desirability of a legitimate.cis.org/articles/cantigny/proceedings. (Robin. http://www. the United States has such an interest. www. "For a new kind of draft. Director of National Affairs and Senior Fellow at the American Jewish Committee. Seniors 2006-2007 ASSIMILATION LINKS / -Immigration Neg I1 Link-Citizenship: The process of granting citizenship forces immigrants to become Americanized.Michigan 7 Wk. he said. the death of civic education." There's no better way to teach duty than to live it: no better way to understand the blessings of liberty than to help secure them for another American.org/articlesL!O04/steinlight2. Gerber. professor of Political Science at the University of Toronto. These forces have been weakened bv the prevailing multiculturalist ideology that legitimizes and reinforces identity politics. he said. our demand of a commitment to the U. is to "Americanize" immigrants.cis.htmI) The overriding principle that ought to govern naturalization. Steinlight. Will . it is massive immigration itself that creates Balkanizing multiculturalism." The argument that other countries have no such concern for civic education is irrelevant. November 13.. who we are and where we came from. 2004. http://www. "Cantigny Conference Series. Fonte and Carens. High Noon to Midnight: Does Current American Immigration Policy Doom American Jewry?" Center for Immigration Studies. cohesive American culture). Jordan. the rise of bilingualism." The purpose of naturalization. is the conception of "binding vrosvective citizens to their new country.csmonitor. of character." Link-Civic education/National service: Civic education and national service have historically been tools to assimilate immigrants." Center for Immigration Studies. and a commitment to the "value and principles of liberal democracv. Senior Fellow and director for American Common Culture. Stephen M. 2001. and Joseph. With elegance. Jacinth. Lasky. Hannah. which means putting them through "a process of civic assimilation. American values into its participants. As noted. Constitution." Christian Science Monitor.2001." Eleanor Roosevelt said in 1940. 2004.htm1) Perhaps the most important distinction between todav's immigrants and those of yesteryear is the absence of the tacit and overt pressures that eventually forced assimilation upon even the most reluctant immigrant mouvs. and of a people conscious of what they owe to their country and what it means to them. University of Maryland. 2000 (John. Now is the time when the public will be receptive to the idea of compulsory service that teaches young people the meaning of being an American. Bahmueller said. and has had it for a long time. he writes that those "who claim their liberty but not their duty to the civilization that ensures it live a half-life.S. Link-AmeriCorps: AmeriCorps is used to instill patriotic.
we need to go beyond the nation-state. it reveals a profound transformation in the institution of citizenship. Tomas Hammar and others have referred to this territorially based membership as "denizenship.Michigan 7 Wk. To locate the changes. (Christian. both in its institutional logic and the way it is legitimated." is an inadequate description: "[Tlhe incorporation of guestworkers is no mere expansion of the scope of national citizenship. if you will-of the American membership system. '03. disentitling lawful immigrants from most means-tested social programs. Lasky. Jacinth. shows that if anv movement is taking place in US membership models. professor of poIitica1 and social sciences at the European University Institute. it is true that the extension of rights to non-citizens represents a fundamental shift in approach. nor is it an irremlaritv. Hannah. from the national perspective. pg. Copyright 2003. Joppke and Morawska. Will . "Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States. Indeed." Palgrave Macmillan: New York. Jordan. immigrants have been protected by the Constitution and federal laws against unfriendly state regulation. Simi." But she suggests that this concept. But the "incorporation" of immigrants in terms of membership rights has been and continues to be the rule-the logic. 120) As Soysal notes. Professor of Sociology and History at the University of Pennsylvania." Again. which "remain[s] within the confines of the nation-state model. At least since the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868. NY. it is a drift towards the nationalist model than towards the postnational model. that legislation. Rather. And the welfare state established in the twentieth centurv had generally been understood to benefit lawful immigrants as well as citizens-at least until the round of antiimmigration legislation enacted in the mid-1990s. and Ewa. Seniors 2006-2007 NATIONALISM LINKS I -- Immigration Neg 11 Changing immigration policies to incorporate guest workers in American membership is a move towards nationalism.
Moreover. 1996. Will . Lasky. 203-250. However. The matter is slightly more complicated for coerced assimilation. Assimilation may be coerced bv a group of origin when it expels a member and thus forces her to seek protection in another cultural environment. Baubock. Spring. '96. pp. In this case. defending voluntary assimilation therefore can be reconciled with their most basic claims. Hannah. Denied assimilation leads to cultural segregation and coerced assimilation to homogenization. In order to make assimilation truly voluntary. Assimilation should therefore be considered as involuntary if a state denies recognition to a minoritv culture. Changing a cultural membership (e. Individual freedom of choice is seriouslv infringed when assimilation is either denied or coerced. however. but will recognize them as members of the majority if they do. JSTOR. Assimilationist or segregationist regimes have often required remarkable internal stability by removing cultural conflict from the political agenda. Assimilation thus can be called voluntary only if all these constraints on individual choice are absent or rather weak. Jacinth. like the plan. voluntariness reauires more-the presence of several options and the absence of strow external pressure to choose among them. national majorities would have to refrain from undermining a minority's capabilitv of cultural reproduction and should not require abandoning a minority affiliation as a precondition for equal citizenship and opportunities. will regard minority members as capable of changing their cultural aflfrliation. encouraging a culture change. in the context of modern societies the denial of assimilation is often more harmful to minority members than coercion. 1. will normally not require them to assimilate. constraints are not only set by the group of present membership but also by the group of potential affiliation. No. Migration. Those individuals who try nevertheless are perceived as the most dangerous elements who subvert the racial purity of the dominant group. Racism attributes to certain minorities a natural inability to assimilate into the allegedly superior culture. "Cultural Minority Rights for Immigrants. Jordan. More frequently. Assimilation can only truly be voluntary when there aren't policies. Coercion is normally easy to recognize where a state imposes cultural segregation. However. quals. these negative demands of noninterference also imply some nositive claims for a reallocation of resources. Contrary to what many representatives of minorities think. Given the enormous amount of resources monopolized bv modern states and used in the service of cultural reproduction of majorities. by adopting a new language for daily use or converting to another religion) cannot be whollv involuntary because it involves an effort on the individual's side. Special Issue: Ethics." International Migration Review. these are illegitimate options for liberal democracy. individuals may also try to change their membership and assimilate into another culture. Assimilation is denied when people who want to change their cultural membership are prevented from doing so because their present group restricts exit or because the group they wish to join denies them entry. Simi. A liberal cultural majority.g. 30.Vol. Seniors 2006-2007 Immigration Neg I1 I -- Assimilation is an act of governmental coercion.) Thirdly.Michigan 7 Wk. (Rainer. but on the power of the group which they leave and of the group which they could join. dominant cultural groups coerce individuals who would prefer to remain attached to their culture or origin into assimilation by denying them the liberties and resources necessary to keep that culture alive. and Global Stewardship. Whether assimilation is an ovtion thus depends not just on individual efforts.
As reported in the United States and in Europe. 25) However. It doesn't help immigrants. Baumgartl and Favell 1995). pg. "Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States. '03. but rather blocks their opportunities. Lasky. and most painful. professor of political and social sciences at the European University Institute. Will . (Christian.e. Jacinth. Simi. Jordan. the coexistence of assimilation and sustained transnational identities and participation has often caused tensions in the lives of immigrants and their children. Judeo-Christian) religious membership and the blocking rather than opening of advancement opportunities." Palgrave Macmillan: New York. discomfort has been most common.. As Mary Waters observes in the US case. Hannah. and Ewa. for a similar situation in Europe see Wrench and Solomos 1993. internation into the host society entails also loss of the social status associated with nonwhite racial or non-Western (i. Professor of Sociology and History at the University of Pennsylvania. NY. Seniors 2006-2007 ASSIMILATION IMPACTS / -- Immigration Neg I1 Assimilation clashes with transnational identities. For these immigrants and their offspring. Copyright 2003.Michigan 7 Wk. Joppke and Morawska. for members of non-white immigrant groups as the result of the contradictory effects of assimilation and racial integration into the host societv." because acquiring the identitv of the receiving society now implies downward mobility (Waters 1999: 93. "this turns the basic assumption of assimilation theories [that host-country identitv bestows the higher status1 on its head.
(For an overview of these arguments. pg. Copyright 2003. calls have appeared in the new transnationalism literature to modify this view and to "bring the [sender and receiver1 state back in" as an important influence on the forms and scope of immigrant f transnationalism. Hollifield 2000). Immigrants and their offspring born in these societies escape the latter's control by engaging in transnational spaces. Simi. Will . O concern here. Seniors 2006-2007 STATE POLICIES AFFECT ASSIMILATION Immigration Neg I1 1 -- State policies influence the integration of immigrants into the receiver society. Professor of Sociology and History at the University of Pennsylvania. the consequences of transnational engagements for the integration of immigrants and their children into the receiver society. '03. 26) The new immigrant transnationalism was originally conceptualized as a strategy of resistance "from below" by members of marginalizes and underprivileged racial or ethnice groups from (semi-)peripheral parts of the world against the hegemonic powers of the "core" structures of white receiver societies. Jacinth. Joppke and Morawska. for example. professor of political and social sciences at the European University Institute. "Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States.Michigan 7 Wk. Lasky. the host nation-state's oolicies at both national and local levels are now being recognized as influencing the intensity. Geddes and Favell 1999." Palgrave Macmillan: New York. political. Faist 2000. Hannah. Jordan. (Christian. endurance. and. thereby contributing to the general decline of the nation-state's prerogatives to contain and regulate their economic. and symbolic activities and commitments. see. importantlv. NY. and Ewa. Recently.
Michigan 7 Wk. Seniors 2006-2007
CITIZENSHIP B A L R A C I S T
/ -Immigration Neg I1
Citizenship reinforces white supremacy. Jo, 2003. (Ji-Yeon O., Educational Research at the University of North Carolina. "Educating 'Good7 Citizens:'~magining Citizens of the ih Next Millennium." The H g School Journal - Volume 87, Number 2, December 2003-January 2004, pp. 34-43. Project Muse.) It is through this process of (de)legitimatin~certain bodies through the trope of citizenship that differentiated mobilities, forms of . institutional access, and capacities to particivate in political processes take s h a ~ e Whiteness. citizenship, and freedom function within these texts as a chain of equivalences. Whiteness becomes equated with citizenship. and citizenship with freedom, revealing the specific moves through which "this country's national identity, normalitv, and superiority are not independent. however. of the existence of The nation nonwhites. An integral part of defining free Americans is by contrast to those who are non-American and constructed bv this discourse empowers whites to associate their identities with freedom. Thomas Nakayama and Robert Krizek's study of college students, who were inclined to conflate white with majority, status, and American, reveals the extent to which these articulations .~ become internalized within U.S. ~ m e r i c a n sSuch equivalences are assumed, acted on, and thus provide the parameters for the social scripts we follow in our daily practices. In this sense, the discourse of whiteness explored within this section becomes a "material force"35 by defining citizenship as both white and free vis-a-vis immigrant alien as racialized and unfree, thus enabling the differentiated mobilities of citizens and noncitizens. The spatial formation of a nation in which whiteness is synonymous with fieedom articulates the nation as a free space for whites. in which they are able to move when and where they wish, while those whose bodies are marked through the tropes of race and class through which illegal alien is imagined may be detained, exploited. and abused. This means that citizenship is not merely an identity but is perhaps more adeauatelv understood as a function of space and power. For instance, many Latino [End Page 1241 citizens suffer abuse at the hands of the INS and other state officials. Even though their identities may be defined as U.S. citizens, they are not necessarily free to participate, move, or belong to U.S. America in the same ways as white Anglos, for whom the national space is defined.% When Latino students in Los Angeles hit the streets in protest of Proposition 187, Anglos passing by in cars shouted at them to "go back to Mexico." This case reveals that some citizens are freer to exercise their citizenship than others. The fact that Anglo motorists responded to Latino citizens as noncitizens, even as the latter were exercising their fundamental right to free speech, demonstrates the unevenness with which citizenship may be enacted. Here, white citizens' sense of ownership over the national svace is enacted as both a racist and a nationalist exclusion. While all people involved in the scenario are citizens, then, Latino citizenship is subordinated to a white sense of belonging (and a sense that Latinos do not belong), which is a material manifestation of the kinds of antiimmigration discourse legitimating such differentiated forms of belonging.
Hannah, Jacinth, Jordan, Lasky, Simi, Will
Michigan 7 Wk. Seniors 2006-2007
Immigration Neg I1
Notions of unified citizenship are ingrained with a nativist sentiment. Jo, 2003. (Ji-Yeon O., Educational Research at the University of North Carolina. "Educating 'Good' Citizens: Imagining Citizens of the Next Millennium." The High School Journal - Volume 87, Number 2, December 2003-January 2004, pp. 34-43. Project Muse.) In response to the diversified demographics of the United States. there is a movement toward building an Anglocized notion of citizenship under the rhetoric of maintaining the unitv and securitv of the nation. This traditional and nativist notion of citizenship does not recognize the inherent and obvious heterogeneitv that was woven into the historical fabric of American society (Marion, et.al. 1998), and the nonwhite immigrants' right to belong and their right to be different is constantly denied (Rosaldo, 1994). In this sense, t of immigrants and their descendents is always in auestion and their heritage languages cannot be recognized as "resources" of the nation (Peyton, et.al. 2001). Hage (2000) reiterates this relationship between national belonging and national capital: "National belonging tends to be proportional to accumulated national capital. Thus, a national subject born to the dominant culture who has accumulated national capital in the form of the dominant linguistic, physical and cultural dispositions will yield more national belonging than a migrant who has managed to acquire the dominant national accent and certain national cultural practices, but lacks the physical characteristics and dispositions of the dominant national 'type'." America's identitv politics is formed fiom the distinction between non-white immigrant ancestry and Anglo-citizenw that is found in national belonging and the national ca~ital is valued from such belonging. Because of that the identity politics in buildinp an Anglocized national 'citizenship,' non-white immimants' cultural and linguistic diversities are not reco~nizedin U.S. society and schools. This practice of building a national identity of the United States as a monolingual society positions students who speak languages other than English and who possess different physical characteristics other than white as "foreigners" or "outsiders" (Olsen,1996; Tse, 2001; Tuan,1998). They are often perceived as "un-American," and do not participate in the national movement toward building a solidified national identity (Hall, 1992). This unified notion of national identitv overlooks the different social classes, gender. and ethnic proups in the United States. Thus. the unified notion of national identities has to be challen~ed (Blackledge, 2002) and the effort to build hegemonic notions of citizenshix, under the umbrella of a homogenized national identity should be examined. Furthermore, with the rise of transnational migration to the United States, the boundaries of nation-states and clear connections among language-culture-nation (Susrez-Orozco, 2001) are increasingly transcended. blurred. and contested so that unified notions of citizenship become ever more problematic.
Hannah, Jacinth, Jordan, Lasky, Simi, Will
Michigan 7 Wk. Seniors 2006-2007
Immigration Neg I1
Naturalization is ingrained with racial undertones. This creates social citizenship, which results in racial class distinctions. Carbado, '05. (Devon, professor of law at the University of California, Los Angeles. "Racial Naturalization." The American Quarterly, Volume 57, issue 3. September 2005. Project Muse.) The third model lays naturalization onto broader social processes of race. The basic aim of this model is to demonstrate that race is implicated in naturalization not only as a prerequisite-that is, as a basis for determininp who nets to become an American citizen. Race also determines the kind of American citizenship status one occupies. Under this model. everyone who is naturalized acquires formal citizenship, a status that confers a set of rights and privile~es-for example. the rieht to vote. According to this model, formal citizenship interacts with race to produce social citizenship, a status that attempts to track the social conditions-economic, political, educational-of people's lives. The model delineates two categories of social citizenship: first class and second class. The former signifies a privile~ed social position in society, the latter a marginal position. The fundamental idea this model conveys is that naturalization occurs in a racial context, and this context shapes how citizenship is experienced. To make the point more concretelv. while a white Frenchman and a black they would not necessarilv have the same social Ethiopian would. under formal citizenship, have the same formal rights and privile~es. citizenship.
Hannah, Jacinth, Jordan, Lasky, Simi, Will
Simi. or the particular form that it takes. the boundary that divides citizen from alien is the same boundary that delimits the political communitv of the nation-state: the imaginative grip that this boundary vossesses is exception all^ difficult to cast off. '03. pg. Joppke and Morawska.) In this respect. '98.Michigan 7 Wk. 56." Palgrave Macmillan: New York. are to make of the recent invocations of citizenship as an aspirational ideal in political theory. 16) Some scholars have concluded from the upgrading of alien status in postwar European states. In the end. the phrase "citizenship of aliens" provides a pointed example of what Judith Butler has termed "a performative paradox. "The Citizenship of Aliens. 1998. In this aporoach. Jordan.derive(s) from transnational discourse and structures celebrating human rights as a world-level organizing principle. Seniors 2006-2007 ALTERNATIVES I -Immigration Neg I1 Guestworkers don't need to be deemed citizens. Lasky. Will . 29-35. No. pp. "Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States." Hannah. in the first instance.. This being the case. that national citizenship has become less relevant for the integration of immigrants. which I call post-national. the national commitments that most citizenship theorists maintain (whether explicitly and consciously or not) make it difficult for them to address the particular form of marginalization that that aliens experience." Calling for this "citizenship of aliens" would express a demand for their fair treatment and social empowerment. the auestion arises as to what those of us concerned with the social condition of non-citizens. but what will not usually appear uniust is the fact of this exclusion. The extent of the aliens' marginalization. NY." a global human rights regime: "This new model. by its terms. Professor of Sociology and History at the University of Pennsylvania. JSTOR. not as "citizens" but as "persons. (Linda." Advocating a new term. but at the same time. One possibilitv is to seize the term for our own use and to begin to advocate what we might call "the citizenship of aliens. to a certain degree also in the United States. or marginalization. mav appear to be uniust. Copyright 2003." This approach is closely in keeping with Bonnie Honig's argument that we ought to "encourage and enable those lacking juridical citizenship to act as (if they were) citizens. (Christian. They can establish an identity of "persons" that has transnational reach. it would require us to confront the nationalist premises that underlie most uses of the term citizenship-in much the same wav that calling for "global citizenship" does.." it is a claim that. puestworkers in postwar Europe have become integrated. Autumn. and Ewa. Bosniak. professor of law at Rutgers with a focus in immigration and citizenship law. Jacinth. professor of political and social sciences at the European University Institute. "the citizenship of aliens'' still demands fair treatment and social empowerment of immigrants while exposing problems with traditional citizenship. In Soyal's (1994: 3) concise formulation. or aliens. "exposers1 the rexclusionaryl character of previous conventional formulations of the universal." Social Text.
thus opening up the possibilities of undocumented workers' "citizen" participation." The John Hopkins University Press. In Bhabha's hands."almost the same. we thus need to pinpoint the moments and locations where "citizen" participation in the mode of mimicrv can function as useful intervention. is not to dispense with the notion but "to historically complicate it. Project Muse. they are "illegal aliens. I propose that we instead see undocumented immigrants through a third space lens of "neither1nor"-and-"bothland also.ll Mimicrv is a way of translatinn. transformed. Anne McClintock careklly notes that in his construction of the mimicry." In other words. the remainders of home. and undocumented citizen participation in the third space of mimicry." neither official legal citizen nor "unaffiliated" alien. transferred. 2006. Simi. Jacinth. but not quite. the undocumented subject is neither "in" nor "out." disregarding its insufficiency and passivity in redressing the urgent needs of the subordinate ~ l a s s e s . lecturer in the Department of Political Science at the University of Southern California. both a citizen and an outsider (and also with a difference). Lee. "Tactile Citizenship: Domestic Workers. (Charles T." but not quite like it. but both a member and a stranger. made into a simulacrum and so on.s From McClintock. Bhabha has a tendency in sliding historical agency into a fetishized abstraction of formal ambivalence that takes on a transhistorical ubiquity.. WiIl . displacing sense -imitating an original in such a way that the vrioritv of the original is not reinforced but by the very fact that it can be simulated. Jordan.Michigan 7 Wk. textual mimicry often functions as the celebratory resistant mode of a generalized (and privileged) "postcolonial. camouflages. '06."3b The third space of mimicry blurs. a way of imitatin~"but in a mischievous. copied. thereby This blurring the in-or-out boundary of citizen partici~ation. but not quite": they seem to be like us citizens. either.The point. Hannah.~ third space of citizenship further takes on what Homi Bhabha calls the camouflaging moment of mimicry -. Lasky." to ~ localize and contextualize mimicry. McClintock argues. and is able to resist the current hegemonic order.) Rather than seeing citizenship through this eitherlor construction. and destabilizes the in-orout boundarv of citizenship. and where it reaches the limits in resisting against the hegemonic order. Seniors 2006-2007 ALTERNATIVES Immigration Neg I T / -- Mimicry blurs the boundaries between the inlout dichotomy of citizenship.
Fall 2004. rights as full national citizens (Baubock 1994).Volume 15. On the political Right. it has taken on political overtones and has spawned a new policy paradigm that advocates the fiee flow of peoples across borders as the necessary correlate of the free flow of goods and services. we are not a melting pot but instead a variegated salad. multiculturalism teaches that American culture is actually inferior because of its stress on material success and thus is in need of constant infusions from other cultures to give it vitality and moral worth." Mediterranean Quarterly . Republican member of the US House of Representatives from Colorado. and Ewa. Project Muse. Sassen 1998). When such ideas begin to influence the public policy Eramework for immigration law. citizenship-in the sense of loyalty to a nation-state and its constitutional principles as a prerequisite to [End Page 71 participation in decision making-is seen as archaic. multiculturalism and globalism. Globalism is generally thought of as an economic concept describing a worldwide regime of fiee trade. while globalism provides a sophisticated economic rationale for the abandonment of national loyalties. Multiculturalism and globalism reinforce each other in their mutual rejection of traditional citizenship. because it can change our concept of national security itself. "Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States. In its more extreme form. An adherence to rules of participation based on citizenship can thus be a hindrance to economic development. Anyone living in the community is accepted as an equal partner and afforded the same rights and benefits as citizens. De facto citizenship grants all the rights and privileges of citizenship to all residents regardless of citizenship or immigration status. Language is retained as the vehicle for expressing and maintaining a native culture. it is being abandoned because of the popularity of the ideology of globalism. 4-15. pg. In this new paradigm. professor of political and social sciences at the European University Institute. (Christian. Accordingly. This grant of de facto citizenship can be done formally through new laws or it can be done functionally through the simple nonenforcement of laws that are based on legal distinctions like immigration status. serves on the International Relations Committee. they present a powerful cultural and political pressure toward what I call defacto citizenship. 196) A number of authors have identified the emergence of a new form of "postnational" citizenship or membership whereby rights now extend across borders. but can successfully sustain their claims to residence and welfare by referring to universal rights of "personhood" that have superseded national citizenshiu as the guarantor of migrant rights. '03. (Tom. there is no need for other cultures to assimilate into American values and institutions." Palgrave Macmillan: New York. Postnatianalists have taken the existence of these rights given to non-citizens as vroof of the erosion of national citizenshiv as the main source of rights. Hannah. the postnational argument draws on the empirical case of the experience of mestworkers. In the European context. Postnational citizenship gives the same rights as traditional forms of citizenship. Combined. many of whom stayed on and brought their families over after recruitment programs ground to a halt and restrictive immigration controls became the Western European norm. Simi. Soysal 1994. Multiculturalism teaches that all cultures are fundamentally equal in moral terms and that there is nothing inherently superior about Western civilization or American constitutionalism. Lasky. and supranational institutions and global legitimating discourses have suverimvosed their authoritv over the nationstate. people's concepts of national security and national security's place in the hierarchy of political values will change as well. Will 107 . However. They argue that migrants no longer even need to naturalize in the receiving countrv. Multiculturalism provides a pseudo-intellectual rationale for cuItural tribalism. The link of this argument to the discussion on transnationalism is that postnational rights obviously make it easier for migrants to move in transnational spaces: the more their rights are guaranteed and legitimated on the global level. "Immigration. Jacinth. In this view. Under pressure from these two forces.Michigan 7 W k Seniors 2006-2007 ALTERNATIVES I -Immigration Neg I1 A de facto citizenship that embraces multiculturalism and globalism is needed to overcome assimilation resulting from the traditional national citizenship.) Assimilation is being abandoned on the political Left because of the powerful influence of the ideology of multiculturalism. and National Security: The Silent Invasion. 2004. Number 4. the deterioration in the concept of citizenship and the blurring of the distinction between citizen and resident is accelerating. pp. thev nonetheless over time came to enjoy many of the same civil and social. Joppke and Morawska. Citizenship. and the less they depend on belonginn to a particular nation. Over the long term this idea may prove even more important in altering our views of national security. but in reality they reinforce each other. though not political. Although most former guestworkers did not take up national citizenship in the receiving countrv. wherein many cultures make singular contributions. Tancredo. NY. but guarantees that they are global and allows for free movement between transnational spaces. Professor of Sociology and History at the University of Pennsylvania. Jordan. then the more fieelv mierants can move in between national contexts without the risk of losing claims to rights and entitlements. a new species of political rEnd Page 6) identity that neither assumes nor requires assimilation into a common civic culture. Copyright 2003. The new concept of global citizenship is the other force undermining the traditional idea of assimilation. On a superficial level these two concepts seem contradictory. with the effect of rendering national citizenship increasin~lv irrelevant as a source of rights to migrants (Jacobson 1996. since there is nothing uniquely valuable in the American experience or in the workings of American institutions.
mieration undercuts the vision of a unitaw citizenship on the basis of equal a individual rights on which the liberal nation-state rests. This perspective asserts that recent waves of non-European migration--and Muslims in particular-have created strong pressures for granting migrants suecial rights. "Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States. Thus. Will . namely that of multicultural rights. multicultural rights are im~ortant because they imply a weakening of nation-states' claims on migrants to assimilate to the national culture and of pressures to sever ties to their countries and cultures of origin. and Ewa. For understanding transnationalism. Joppke and Morawska.development which is alternativelv seen as a necessary correction to "white" cultural hegemony. Jacinth. Copyright 2003. Jordan.Michigan 7 Wk. Simi. (Christian. professor of political and social sciences at the European University Institute. NY. Professor of Sociology and History at the Universiry of Pennsylvania. 199) In her version of the postnational argument. or as a threat to social cohesion and solidaritv. '03. she links up with the second theoretical issue that we briefly want to discuss. Seniors 2006-2007 ALTERNATIVES Immigration Neg Ii / -- Postnational citizenship is the best way to preserve cultural identity and resist "white" hegemony. or exemptions fiom duties on the basis of their cultural or religious difference fiom the rest of society. Lasky." Palgrave Macmillan: New York. Hannah. Soysal (2000) claims that postnational conventions and discourses provide an important legitmating framework for migrant claims to retain their own cultural identity. pg. Thus.
Thomas. On one hand. (Brook. Will . Civic multiculturalism. Number 3. Hannah. there is a national culture defined largely bv various universal civic ideals. some version of "boutique multiculturalism" might be the only version possible. a conflict that would expose civic nations as not being as culturallv tolerant as they claim. that all ethnic identities are contingent formations. Project Muse. if one believes. on the contrary. If. for to admit that various ethnic cultures carrv with them political values and principles would be to risk having those values and principles conflict with the nation's civic culture." which protects only those aspects of cultural identity that do not offend liberal sensibilities.Volume I. Winter 2001. it is not inconsistent to expect them to adopt certain Iiberal values. 1-35. its civic culture. that is.Michigan 7 Wk. but only when they do not threaten its nation's civic ethnos. as many do. one believes. just as other differences might result depending on whether the civic multiculturalism adopted limits itself to Habermas's "right to cultural membership" or adds Kymlicka's "external protections. however. it is a form of what Stanley Fish calls "boutique multiculturalism. D from UC-Santa Barbera. Is. therefore. subject to alteration. there is nothing wrong with doing so. but the ethnos that they create is what we can call a "civic ethnos" that adheres to the ideal that people of any ethnic or cultural background can potentially become a member. Nonetheless." Even so. On the other hand. there is the culture in mult'iculturalism. the cultures of specific ethnic groups within the nation. that different cultural systems inevitably produce incommensurable values. pp. operates with two different meanings of culture. as Fish seems to believe. Fish's label becomes pejorative only if one believes that an authentic ethnic identity exists immune to change. Professor of English at UCI. then "boutique multiculturalism" simply describes a situation in which an ethnic culture within a civic nation is not exactly the same as one within an ethnic nation." CR: The New CentenniaEReview .Ph. so long as they embrace the country's political values.) They may not have completely broken with the ethnic origin of nations. Seniors 2006-2007 AFF-MULTICULTURALISM PERM Immigration Neg I1 / -- Perm Solves: Civic multiculturalism can only function in juxtaposition to a national culture. Lasky. These two different meanings of culture-a national culture that is defined largelv bv the political and an ethnic culture that excludes it-minht [End Page 11) well be necessary for civic multiculturalism to hnction. If so. the second with groups that do not fit into narratives of consent. Jordan. "Civic Multiculturaisim and and the Myth of Liberal Consent: A Comparative Analysis. in all of these cases. Indeed. it is important to add that an ethnic culture in a civic nation adopting civic multiculturalism wiH have a different status from one in a civic nation lacking a version of official multiculturalism. if members of various ethnic groups consent to be members of a liberal society. Jacinth. 2001. Civic multiculturalism can embrace a multiplicity of ethnic cultures. The first has to do with the birthright citizenship of individuals. The national culture can be tolerant of ethnic cultures onlv insofar as the culture in multiculturalism excludes the political. 14 As I have already suggested. membership in civic nations really based on a principle of consent? There are two powerful challenges to that assumption. Simi.
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