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16.333 Prof. J. P.


Handout #1 Sept 14, 2004 Due: Sept 28, 2004

16.333 Homework Assignment #1

1. Consider a glider ying in a vertical plane at an angle to the horizontal. As we discussed in class, for a glider < 0. In a steady glide, the force balance is given by: D + W sin = 0 L W cos = 0 (1) (2)

The kinematic equations for the system give us that the distance covered along the ground satises x = V cos and h = V sin . For small we showed that the ight velocity that gives the attest glide is given by

Vf g =
2 where CD = CD0 + KCL .

2W S


(a) Show that, for a given height, the distance covered with respect to the ground satises dx 1 = = E R = Eh dh where E = CL /CD and R is the range (assume a constant angle of attack so that E is constant during the glide). What speed does this suggest we should glide at to maximize the range? (b) Now consider the sink rate hs = h. Show that DV = hs V W

2W CD 3/2 S CL
CD 3/2 CL

This suggests that the sink rate is a minimum when that this corresponds to a ight speed of

is a minimum. Show

Vms =

2W S

K 0.76Vf g 3CD0

(Hint: nd the CL that minimizes

CD 3/2 ). CL

Discussion: The conclusion from this analysis is that to maximize range you y at the speed that minimizes drag but slightly slower than that to minimize sink rate. Sailplane pilots tend to y at Vms when in lift mode, i.e. nd an upward gust and then accelerate to Vf g when the updraft dies and they what to cover the most ground looking for another lift. 2. Consider the weathervane shown in the gure which allows us to explore some of the basics associated with aircraft motion. The aerodynamic surface (tail) acts like a wing, with a lift force proportional to the angle of attack . The drag of this wing can safely be ignored.

See Next Page

Figure 1: Test Conguration for Problem #2. (a) When the arm is moving with rate , nd the eective angle of attack for the tail. (b) Assuming small angles, linearize and nd the dierential equation that governs the dynamics of this system. Assume that the damping is added at the support post by a torsional spring and is proportional to . The damping is less than the critical level. (c) What are the roots of this system when: (i) the weathervane is as shown, and (ii) the vane is turned into the wind so that the tail is at the front? (d) Qualitatively discuss the response of the weathervane to a 20 degree change in the wind direction (U0 ). (e) Develop a simulink simulation of the full nonlinear equations and compare the response of the nonlinear and linear systems.

3. (Adapted from Etkin and Reid, 2.5) The following data apply to a 1/25th scale wind tunnel model of a transport airplane. The fullscale mass of the aircraft is 22,680kg. Assume that the aerodynamic data can be applied to the fullscale vehicle. For level unaccelerated ight at V=239 knots (123 m/s) of the fullscale aircraft, under the assumption that propulsion eects can be ignored, (a) Find the limits on the tail angle it and CG position h imposed by the conditions Cm0 and Cm < 0. (b) For trimmed ight with e = 0, plot it vs. h for the aircraft and indicate where this line meets the boundaries in part (a). Geometric data wing area S = 0.139m2 (so need to scale this are up by 252 lengths scale by 25) wing mean aerodynamic chord c = 15.61cm lt = 38.84cm Tail area St = 0.0342m2 Aerodynamic Data (does not need to scale) CLw = 0.077/deg (convert to radians) CLt = 0.064/deg
0 = 0.72
d0 /d = 0.30
Cmacw = 0.018
hn = 0.25 (notes page 24) = 1.225kg/m3 4. Stability (a) Draw a picture similar to those on 21 of the notes for a system that is statically stable, but not dynamically stable. (b) Consider a second order system such as a mass vibrating on a spring/damper. (i) The condition for static stability is that there be a restoring force when the system is displaced from equilibrium. What condition does that impose on the spring constant k? What does that imply about the roots of the second order system? (ii) What does the condition of dynamic stability imply about the damper con stant c? What does that condition imply about the roots of the system? (iii) Do these conditions support the claim that static stability is a necessary but not sucient condition for dynamic stability? 5. Download the Aerosim blockset discussed in the rst class. Modify navion demo1 so that you can plot the altitude as a function of time.

16.333 Prof. J. P. How

Handout #2 Sept 28, 2004 Due: Oct 12, 2004

16.333 Homework Assignment #2

Please include all code used to solve these problems. 1. Date of Lindberghs famous ight? When was the rst solo ight across the Pacic? 2. Sketchplot versus time the Euler angles for the various maneuvers starting at = = = 0 at t = 0.: (a) Half an inside loop followed by a snap roll at the top (Immelmann turn). (b) outside loop (c) coordinated turn (constant vehicle speed) 3. Consider a jet transport at 40,000 ft with the data given below: (a) Find the short period and phugoid roots. Be careful with the dimensionalization of these coecients (see Reid, page 119, 207). Compare the phugoid frequencies with Lanchesters approximation. (b) Plot the phugoid response and the short period time response (i.e., nd initial conditions that excite each of these modes separately). (c) Graph the equivalent response plots in Figs. 68, 610, 612, and 613. Are the results similar? Basic aircraft data Mach M=0.62 Nominal speed Density = 5.85 104 [slug/ft3 ] Tail distance Wing area S=2400 [ft2 ] Wing chord Mass m=5800 [slug] Moment of inertia Body pitch angle 0 = 0 U0 = 600 [ft/s] lt /c = 2.89 c=20.2 [ft] IY Y = 2.62 106 [slug ft2 ]

Basic Aerodynamic data Non dimensional Dimensional CXu = 0.088 Xu = SQ CXu U0 CX = 0.392 Xw = SQ CX U0 CZu = 1.48 ?
CZ = 4.46 Zw = SQ CZ
U0 SQ c CZ = 1.13 Zw = U0 2U0 CZ c CZq = 3.94 Zq = SQ 2U0 CZq CMu = 0 Mu = SQc CMu U0 CM = 0.619 Mw = SQc CM U0 CM = 3.27 ? c CMq = 11.4 Mq = SQc 2U0 CMq CZe = 0.246 Ze = SQCZe CMe = 0.710 Me = SQcCMe 1

4. For the general aviation Navion, nd the trim angle of attack (trim ) and elevator deection (etrim ) for the ight condition discussed in class. Note that from Nelson page 400 we have that CLe = 0.355 and CMe = 0.923. How do these trim values change if the tail incidence angle is changed to 3 ? 5. An aircraft has instruments that continuously record P , Q, R. Assuming that the initial ight conditions are known, develop a Simulink block diagram that can be used to calculate , , and for future time. Plot the angles as a function of time that result when P (t) = 0.01 rad/sec, Q(t) = 0.01 rad/sec, R(t) = 0.01 rad/sec starting from zero initial conditions. 6. The equations of motion for a spinning missile can be approximated as follows: Centerofmass moves in a straight line through inertial space (Vcm is constant). There is a constant rolling velocity P0 . The quantities , , Q, and R are always small enough to permit linearization. The Xforce equation and the rollingmoment equation may be assumed automat ically satised by proper deections of the control surfaces. The pitching moment, M , and yawmoment N consist mainly of moments, pro portional to W and V respectively which tend to restore the Xaxis parallelism with the ight direction. Under these approximations, show how Q and R can be eliminated from the remaining four equations of motion. (a) With U approximately constant, show how the last two equations become: W + (y /P0 )2 I1 W + (1 + I1 )V = 0 (1 + I2 )W + V + (z /P0 )2 I2 V = 0
d where () = d , and = P0 t, I1 = (Izz Ixx )/Iyy > 0, I2 = (Iyy Ixx )/Izz > 0, Ixz 0, and y is the natural frequency of the pitching oscillation in the absence of rolling (with the restoring moment, M ), and z is the natural frequency of the yawing oscillation in the absence of rolling (with the restoring moment, N ).

(b) Find the characteristic equation for this system, and identify the ranges of the parameters I1 , I2 , y /P0 , and z /P0 where the spinning systems is stable or unstable. 7. Discuss the main points in the paper by McRuer. In particular, answer the following questions: (a) What was the biggest change in aeronautics from 1956 onwards? (b) Who was Byron, and what did he contribute? (c) What was the primary reason for the gap in the tools used by the theoretician and the tinkerers? And what role did the YB49 serve in reducing this gap? (This gap is still very large!) (d) Why was the ight of Robert C. Lee so remarkable?

16.333 Prof. J. P. How

Handout #3 Oct 12, 2004 Due: Oct 26, 2004

16.333 Homework Assignment #3

Please include all code used to solve these problems. 1. What is the wing surface area of the Peacemaker B36? 2. For the F4C aircraft we get the data on the following page from the tables. There are three ight conditions. For each ight condition: (a) Find the phugoid and short period frequencies. (b) Comment on how these mode frequencies change with the ight condition, and how do the numbers compare with the B747 analyzed in class? (c) Find the Spiral, Dutch roll, and Roll modes frequencies. Comment on how these mode frequencies change with these ight conditions. How do the numbers com pare with the B747 analyzed in class? 3. The longitudinal model approximations are thought to be signicantly better than those developed for the lateral dynamics. (a) The Dutch roll approximate model is obtained by looking at sideslip and yawing motions, neglecting the rolling motion. Show that the resulting model is of the form:

v r

Yv /m Uo = (Izx Lv + Nv /Izz ) (Izx Lr + Nr /Izz )

v r

Yr /m (Izx Lr + Nr /Izz )

For the B747, examine this conjecture by plotting the following transfer functions for the actual and approximate models given below: Gvr (s) actual and Dutch roll approximate models Grr (s) actual and Dutch roll approximate models (b) Compare the accuracy of the approximate model in the frequency range near the mode that it approximates. Do your results support the conjecture given above? How well does this model approximate the actual dynamics in the other (higher and lower) frequencies ranges? (c) An approximate model for the spiral mode is obtained by looking at changes in the bank and heading angles. Sideslip is usually small (can ignore the side 1

force equation), but cannot ignore completely. Not much roll motion, so set p = p = = 0 = 0. The result is of the form: r + r r = 0 What is r , and how well does this model agree with the full dynamics? (d) An approximate roll model is given by the equation p + p p = 0 What is p , and how well does this model agree with the full dynamics? 4. Using classical techniques (PID or Lead/Lag), design a pitch attitude autopilot for the B747 Jet using pitch angle and/or rate feedback. Use the short period approximation of vehicle dynamics. The goal is to put the short period roots in the vicinity of wsp = 4 rad/sec and sp = 0.4. Assume there is an actuator servo that can be modeled as a rst order lag with a time constant of 0.1 sec and has a DC gain of 1. (a) Show how you arrived at your design (show a root locus or Bode plot). (b) Plot the time response to a step c command. (c) Check your pole locations on the full set of longitudinal dynamics. Is the response stable? (d) Use the short period model and design the controller using state space techniques. Develop a full state feedback controller that puts the regulator poles where re quired. Compare the time response to a step c command to your classical con troller.

5. The attached gures show the planform of the monocoupe that we have just started ying autonomously. Here are some key additional parameters: U0 = 20m/s Mass=9.55Kg,
= 0.9
it 0, iw 0 Tail section is (NACA 0009), so that Cl 6.25/rad CD min 0.017, Can assume CG at 1/4 chord point of the wing CLw = 4.4/rad. Given this information, estimate the four main longitudinal derivatives Xu , Zu , Mw , and Mq and use them to predict the frequency and damping of the Phugoid and short period modes. Some basic questions: (a) What is your estimate of the trim angle of attack. Recall that: CLT = CLw (b) What are CL0 and CD0 ? (c) What is Cmcg ? Cmcg = Cm0 + Cm Cm0 = Cmacw + VH CLt (0 + iw it )

d0 St + CLt 1 S d

Cm = CLw (h hn ) VH CLt

d 1 d

(d) Can you estimate the derivatives needed to form the more accurate estimates of the frequencies and damping (e.g., using the full approximations)?

F 4C S = 530 ft2 , b = 38.67ft c = 16 ft m = 1210slugs Condition U0 ft/sec h ft Ixx Iyy Izz Ixz 0 Xu Xw Zu Zw Zw Zq Mu Mw Mw Mq Yv Lv Lp Lr Nv Np Nr Xde Zde Mde Ydr Ldr Ndr Yda Lda Nda 1 1.4520e+3 4.5000e+4 2.5040e+4 1.2219e+5 1.3973e+5 3.0330e+3 0 8.7120e+0 2.4983e+1 1.4520e+1 5.9725e+2 4.3250e1 2.7104e+3 3.0548e+2 2.4354e+3 1.0267e+1 5.9629e+4 1.4275e+2 1.7206e+2 2.4614e+4 7.9878e+3 9.7965e+2 1.1178e+3 4.4294e+4 0 8.5511e+4 1.9550e+6 1.7364e+4 4.0064e+4 2.9008e+5 3.4969e+3 1.7022e+5 3.0042e+4 2 9.5200e+2 1.5000e+4 2.4970e+4 1.2219e+5 1.3980e+5 1.1750e+3 0 2.6015e+1 7.5371e+0 1.7424e+2 1.4022e+3 2.5420e+0 7.2600e+3 5.3764e+2 2.1820e+3 5.8656e+1 1.2133e+5 2.6018e+2 7.3048e+2 5.6532e+4 1.6930e+4 1.7578e+3 1.1184e+3 7.5632e+4 0 1.2947e+5 3.0548e+6 3.2368e+4 1.3199e+5 7.9211e+5 5.7487e+3 4.3648e+5 6.2491e+4 3 5.8400e+2 3.5000e+4 2.7360e+4 1.2219e+5 1.3741e+5 1.6432e+4 0 2.1296e+1 5.0244e+1 1.4036e+2 3.3607e+2 1.2245e+0 2.2022e+3 1.2219e+1 4.0319e+2 3.0129e+1 3.7512e+4 6.8477e+1 3.8660e+2 1.8796e+4 7.6882e+3 5.0705e+2 8.2446e+2 2.0474e+4 0 2.5386e+4 5.9873e+5 7.9860e+3 9.4666e+3 1.9279e+5 1.0672e+3 1.1609e+5 1.7039e+4

Scale Monocoupe 90A Units = SI

Wing Area = 0.9420 M2 Stab Area = 0.0628 M2 Elevator Area = 0.0418 M2

0.638 0.108












Scale Monocoupe 90A Units = SI

Fin Area = 0.0270 M2 Rudder Area = 0.0335 M2

0.146 0.159


0.894 0.311 0.149





Scale Monocoupe 90A Units = SI





Figure 1: Monocoupe Planform 5

16.333 Prof. J. P. How

Handout #4 Oct 26, 2004 Due: Nov 16, 2004

16.333 Homework Assignment #4

Please include all code used to solve these problems. 1. Given the following model of the aerosonde vehicle extracted from the (trim condition, level ight at 23 m/s at sea level) Gue (s) = Ge (s) = Gqe (s) = Ge (s) =
a Gut (s) =

a Gt (s) =

a Gqt (s) =

a Gt (s) =

152.2s + 913.1 (s) 25.72s2 2.439s 3.85 (s) 3 24.18s 99.13s2 9.672s (s) 2 24.18s 99.13s 9.672 (s) 1.236s3 + 10.46s2 + 131.4s + 38.5 (s) 2 1.192s + 0.3228s 0.1366 (s) 3 0.7646s + 3.058s (s) 0.7646s2 + 3.058 (s)

(s) = s4 + 8.28s3 + 105.1s2 + 14.22s + 24.29

3 a c and t = H(s)t , with H(s) = s+3 to capture the engine lag. The elevators on this aircraft are fast enough that they can be ignored.

Part of the system model available online is shown in the gure. u and are available as the rst and third outputs of VelW, q is available as the 5th element of States, and is available as the second element of Euler. The elevator is the second control input, c the throttle (t ) is the fourth. Note that a very simple roll loop has been added to facilitate analysis of the longitudinal dynamics. Compare the OL dynamics to the 747 any surprises? Given these dynamics, design an altitude autopilot 1

Use classical, multiloop closure techniques as discussed in class Use Full state feedback. Discuss you rationale for where to locate the regulator poles. Use output feedback with u, , and measurements. Discuss you rationale for where to locate the estimator poles. Use the simplied block diagram available on the class web page, implement the controller in simulink. Compare the nonlinear simulation response with your predictions any surprises? 2. Continue Question #4 of HW3, but this time use the short period model and design the controller using state space techniques. As part of this design, (a) Develop a full state feedback controller that puts the regulator poles where re quired. (b) Then develop a closedloop estimator for the system assuming that you can mea sure the pitch angle . Choose estimator pole locations that have the same imag inary part as the regulator poles, but a real part that is 34 times larger (in magnitude). (c) Put the regulator and estimator together to form the compensator Gc (s) that maps y = to u = e (recall that actually u = Gc y). To implement this design, perform the same trick that we did in the notes, and use u = Gc e, where e = c . You should now be able to perform closedloop simulations of the response of the system to a step in c . (d) Check your pole locations on the full set of longitudinal dynamics. Is the response stable? (e) Compare the frequency response of this state space controller and the controller that you designed in HW3. 3. Using the same approach given in class, design a heading autopilot for the F4C (i.e. one that can track a given d ) using the dynamics in condition 2. Assume that the actuator servo dynamics has the transfer function Hs (s) = 20/(s + 20). (a) This design will consist of a yaw damper, a roll controller, and a feedback on the heading . (b) Simulate the response to an interesting sequence (like a sequence of 45 deg turns) and comment on the performance. Include a limiter on the desired bank angle of 15 degs. 4. Write a brief summary of the paper by Vincenti that was handed out. In particular, be sure state his main point and whether or not you agree with it.

Figure 1: Simplied block diagram for the Aerosonde