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CHAPTER 1 MEANING AND CONCEPT OF RECREATION, PLAY AN LEISURE

Recreation- an activity done after compulsory work Play- an activity just for fun/pleasure Leisure (free time) - An activity, a time for relaxation, enjoyment >Types of Leisure 1. Active Leisure- an activity done in freetime when you have to exert physical and mental energy (eg. Biking) 2. Passive Leisure- opposite of active leisure (eg. Watching t.v) Kinds of Play 1. Structural play (there are rules to be followed) 2. Unstructured play (rules are made by the group)

Types of Play 1. Active Play play that needs physical activity 2. Cooperative Play- play done with the group 3. Creative Play- play to explore the childs imagination and make something out of nothing 4. Dramatic Play- play that involves pretend and make-believe or whatever the imagination dreams 5. Manipulative Play- play that involves hand-eye coordination and motor skills 6. Quiet Play- play that keeps the childrens mouth shut but their minds open

Types of Leisure (opportunities available) 1. Immediately available at home 2. Available for free in the local communities 3. Available for a cost in the local community 4. Available by long distance travel

CHAPTER 2 INDOOR GAMES I. Scrabble - A word game in which two to four players score points by forming words from individual lettered tiles on a game board marked with a 15-by-15 grid. The words are formed across and down in crossword fashion and must appear in a standard dictionary. Official reference works (e.g. The Official Scrabble Players Dictionary) provide a list of permissible words. The Collins Scrabble checker can also be used to check if a word is allowed. - The game is sold in 121 countries; there are 29 different language versions. One hundred and fifty million sets have been sold worldwide, and sets are found in roughly one-third of American homes. A. HISTORY In 1938, American architect Alfred Mosher Butts created the game as a variation on an earlier word game he invented called Lexico. The two games had the same set of letter tiles, whose distributions and point values Butts worked out meticulously performing a frequency analysis of letters from various sources including The New York Times. The new game, which he called "CrissCrosswords," added the 15-by-15 game board and the crossword-style game play. He manufactured a few sets himself, but was not successful in selling the game to any major game manufacturers of the day. In 1948, James Brunot, a resident of Newtown, Connecticut and one of the few owners of the original Criss-Crosswords game bought the rights to manufacture the game in exchange for granting Butts a royalty on every unit sold. He also changed the name of the game to "Scrabble," a real word which means "to scratch frantically." The company's assets, including Scrabble and Parcheesi, were purchased by Hasbro. Scrabble was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 2004. B. GAME DETAILS The game is played by two to four players on a square (or nearly square) board with a 15-by-15 grid of cells (individually known as "squares"), each of which accommodates a single letter tile. In an English-language set the game contains 100 tiles, 98 of which are marked with a letter and a point value ranging from 1 to 10. The number of points of each lettered tile is based on the letter's frequency in standard English writing; commonly used letters such as E or O are worth one point, while less common letters score higher, with Q and Z each worth 10 points. The game also has two blank tiles that are unmarked and carry no point value. The blank tiles can be used as substitutes for any letter; once laid on the board, however, the choice is fixed. Other language sets use different letter set distributions with different point values.

C. SEQUENCE OF PLAY Before the game, a resource, either a word list or a dictionary, is selected for the purpose of adjudicating any challenges during the game. The letter tiles are either put in an opaque bag or placed face down on a flat surface. Opaque cloth bags and customized tiles are staples of clubs and tournaments, where games are rarely played without both. Next, players decide the order in which they play. The normal approach is for players to each draw one tile: The player who picks the letter closest to the beginning of the alphabet goes first, with the blank tiles taking precedence over A's. At the beginning of the game, and after each turn until the bag is empty (or until there are no more face-down tiles), players draw tiles to fill their "racks", or tile holders, with seven tiles, from which they will make plays. Each rack is concealed from the other players. During a turn, a player will have seven or fewer letter tiles on their rack. On each turn, a player has three options: 1. Pass, forfeiting the turn and scoring nothing 2. Exchange one or more tiles for an equal number from the bag, scoring nothing, an option available only if at least seven tiles remain in the bag 3. Play at least one tile on the board, adding the value of all words formed to the player's cumulative score D. SCORING Any tile played from the player's rack onto a previously vacant square that is a "double-letter" or "triple-letter" premium square has its point value doubled or tripled as indicated. The normal point value of all other letters in the word (whether newly played or existing) is added. For each newly played tile placed on a "double-word" premium square, the total of each word containing that tile is doubled (or redoubled). For each newly placed tile placed on a "triple-word" premium square, the total of each word containing that tile is tripled (or re-tripled). Premium squares affect the score of each word made in the same play by constituent tiles played upon those squares. Premium squares, once played upon, are not counted again in subsequent plays. Players occasionally achieve quadruple (4) or nonuple (9) word scores by spanning two double-word (called a "double-double") or two tripleword premium squares (called a "triple-triple") with a single word. Septenviguple (27) word scores spanning three triple-word squares are possible, if only in constructed games. If a player uses all seven of the tiles in the rack in a single play, a bonus of 50 points is added to the score of that play (this is called a "bingo" in Canada and the United States, a "Scrabble" in Spain and a "bonus" elsewhere). These bonus points are added after totaling the score for that turn.

E. ACCEPTABLE WORDS Words that are hyphenated, capitalized (such as proper nouns), or apostrophized are not allowed, unless they also appear as acceptable entries. Acronyms or abbreviations, other than those that have acceptable entries (such as AWOL, RADAR, LASER, and SCUBA), are not allowed. Variant spellings, slang or offensive terms, archaic or obsolete terms, and specialized jargon words are allowed if they meet all other criteria for acceptability. Foreign words are not allowed in the English language Scrabble unless they have been incorporated into the English language for example, the words "patisserie" and "glace". F. Challenges "Double Challenge", in which an unsuccessfully challenging player must forfeit the next turn. This penalty governs North American (NASPAsanctioned) tournaments, and is the standard for North American, Israeli and Thai clubs. Because loss of a turn generally constitutes the greatest risk for an unsuccessful challenge, it provides the greatest incentive for a player to "bluff", or play a "phony" a plausible word that they know or suspect to be unacceptable, hoping their opponent will not call them on it. Players have divergent opinions on this aspect of the double-challenge game and the ethics involved, but officially it is considered a valid part of the game. "Single Challenge"/"Free Challenge", in which no penalty whatsoever is applied to a player who unsuccessfully challenges. This is the default rule in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, as well as for many tournaments in Australia, although these countries do sanction occasional tournaments using other challenge rules. Modified "Single Challenge", in which an unsuccessful challenge does not result in the loss of the challenging player's turn, but is penalized by the loss of a specified number of points. The most common penalty is five points. The rule has been adopted in Singapore (since 2000), Malaysia (since 2002), South Africa (since 2003), New Zealand (since 2004), and Kenya, as well as in contemporary World Scrabble Championships (since 2001). Some countries and tournaments (including Sweden) use a 10-point penalty instead. In most game situations, this penalty is much lower than that of the "double challenge" rule. Consequently, such tournaments encourage a greater willingness to challenge and a lower willingness to play dubious words.

II.

Chess - A two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments. - Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns, each of these types of pieces moving differently. - The course of the game is divided in three phases. The beginning of the game is called the opening (with the development of pieces). The opening yields to the phase called the middlegame. The last phase is the endgame, generally characterized by the disappearance of queens. - The first official World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886. A. History Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwest India during the Gupta empire, where its early form in the 6th century was known as chaturaga (Sanskrit: four divisions [of the military] infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariotry, represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight, bishop, and rook, respectively) The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliest being in the 9th century. By the year 1000 it had spread throughout Europe. Around 1200, the rules of shatranj started to be modified in southern Europe, and around 1475, several major changes made the game essentially as it is known today. As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly. Many chess clubs, chess books, and chess journals appeared. The first modern chess tournament was held in London in 1851 and was won by German Adolf Anderssen, relatively unknown at the time. B. Rules Chess is played on a square board of eight rows (called ranks and denoted with numbers 1 to 8) and eight columns (called files and denoted with letters a toh) of squares. The colors of the sixty-four squares alternate and are referred to as "light squares" and "dark squares". The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player, and the pieces are set out as shown in the diagram, with each queen on its own color. The pieces are divided, by convention, into white and black sets. The players are referred to as "White" and "Black", and each begins the game with sixteen pieces of the specified color. These consist of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, and eight pawns. White always moves first. After the initial move, the players alternately move one piece at a time (with the exception of castling, when two pieces

are moved). Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, which is captured and removed from play. With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture opponent's pieces by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. A player may not make any move that would put or leave his king under attack. If the player to move has no legal moves, the game is over; it is either a checkmateif the king is under attackor stalemateif the king is not. Each chess piece has its own style of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares where the piece can move if no other pieces (including one's own piece) are on the squares between the piece's initial position and its destination. The king moves one square in any direction. The king has also a special move which is called castling and involves also moving a rook. The rook can move any number of squares along any rank or file, but may not leap over other pieces. Along with the king, the rook is involved during the king's castling move. The bishop can move any number of squares diagonally, but may not leap over other pieces. The queen combines the power of the rook and bishop and can move any number of squares along rank, file, or diagonal, but it may not leap over other pieces. The knight moves to any of the closest squares that are not on the same rank, file, or diagonal, thus the move forms an "L"-shape: two squares vertically and one square horizontally, or two squares horizontally and one square vertically. The knight is the only piece that can leap over other pieces. The pawn may move forward to the unoccupied square immediately in front of it on the same file; or on its first move it may advance two squares along the same file provided both squares are unoccupied; or it may move to a square occupied by an opponent's piece which is diagonally in front of it on an adjacent file, capturing that piece. The pawn has two special moves: the en passant capture and pawn promotion. C. Castling Once in every game, each king is allowed to make a special move, known as castling. Castling consists of moving the king two squares along the first rank toward a rook (which is on the player's first rank) and then placing the rook on the last square the king has just crossed. Castling is permissible only if all of the following conditions hold; Neither of the pieces involved in castling may have been previously moved during the game. There must be no pieces between the king and the rook.

The king may not be in check, nor may the king pass through squares that are under attack by enemy pieces, nor move to a square where it is in check.

D. En passant When a pawn advances two squares and there is an opponent's pawn on an adjacent file next to its destination square, then the opponent's pawn can capture it en passant (in passing), and move to the square the pawn passed over. However, this can only be done on the very next move, or the right to do so is lost. For example, if the black pawn has just advanced two squares from g7 to g5, then the white pawn on f5 can take it via en passant on g6 (but only on white's next move). E. Promotion When a pawn advances to the eighth rank, as a part of the move it is promoted and must be exchanged for the player's choice of queen, rook, bishop, or knight of the same color. Usually, the pawn is chosen to be promoted to a queen, but in some cases another piece is chosen; this is called under promotion. In the diagram on the right, the pawn on c7 can be advanced to the eighth rank and be promoted to an allowed piece. There is no restriction placed on the piece that is chosen on promotion, so it is possible to have more pieces of the same type than at the start of the game (for example, two queens). F. Check When a king is under immediate attack by one or two of the opponent's pieces, it is said to be in check. A response to a check is a legal move if it results in a position where the king is no longer under direct attack (that is, not in check). This can involve capturing the checking piece; interposing a piece between the checking piece and the king (which is possible only if the attacking piece is a queen, rook, or bishop and there is a square between it and the king); or moving the king to a square where it is not under attack. G. End of Game Although the objective of the game is to checkmate the opponent, chess games do not have to end in checkmateeither player may resign which is a win for the other player. It is considered bad etiquette to continue playing when in a truly hopeless position. Games also may end in a draw (tie). A draw can occur in several situations, including draw by agreement, stalemate, threefold repetition of a position, the fifty-move rule, or a draw by impossibility of checkmate (usually because of insufficient material to checkmate).

III.

Dominoes - Generally refers to the collective gaming pieces making up a domino set (sometimes called a deck or pack) or to the subcategory of tile games played with domino pieces. - The traditional Sino-European domino set consists of 120 dominoes, colloquially nicknamed bones, cards, tiles, tickets, stones, or spinners. - Each domino is a rectangular tile with a line dividing its face into two square ends. Each end is marked with a number of spots(also called pips) or is blank. - The backs of the dominoes in a set are indistinguishable, either blank or having some common design. A. History The name "domino" comes from the pieces' resemblance to Venetian Carnival masks known as domini, which were white with black spots. These masks were named because they resembled French priests' winter hoods, being black on the outside and white on the inside. The name ultimately derives from the Latin dominus, meaning "lord" or "master." The early 18th century witnessed dominoes making their way to Europe, making their first appearance in Italy. The game changed somewhat in the translation from Chinese to the European culture. Ivory Dominoes were routinely used in 19th century rural England in the settling of disputes over traditional grazing boundaries, and were commonly referred to as "bonesticks" B. Tiles and Suits Domino tiles, also known as bones, are twice as long as they are wide and usually have a line in the middle dividing them into two squares. The value of either side is the number of spots or pips. Tiles are generally named after their two values; e.g. 25 or 52 are alternative ways of describing the tile with the values 2 and 5. Tiles that have the same value on both ends are called doubles, and are typically referred to as double-zero, double-one etc. Tiles with two different values are called singles. Every tile belongs to the two suits of its two values, e.g. 03 belongs both to the blank suit (or 0 suit) and to the 3 suit. Naturally the doubles form an exception in that each double belongs to only one suit. In 42, the doubles are treated as an additional suit of doubles, so that, e.g., the double-six 6 6belongs both to the 6 suit and the suit of doubles. C. Domino Sets Sets Tiles Pips 28 168 Double-6 55 495 Double-9 91 1092 Double-12 136 2040 Double-15 Double-18 190 3420

D. Rules Most domino games are blocking games, i.e. the objective is to empty one's hand while blocking the opponents. In the end, a score may be determined by counting the pips in the losing players' hands. In scoring games the scoring is different and happens mostly during gameplay, making it the principal objective. The most basic domino variant is for two players and requires a double six set. The 28 tiles are shuffled face down and form the stock or boneyard. Each player draws seven tiles; the remainder are not used. Once the players begin drawing tiles, they are typically placed on-edge before the players, so that each player can see his own tiles, but none can see the value of other players' tiles. Every player can thus see how many tiles remain in the other players' hands at all times during gameplay. One player begins by downing (playing the first tile) one of their tiles. This tile starts the line of play, a series of tiles in which adjacent tiles touch with matching, i.e. equal, values. The players alternately extend the line of play with one tile at one of its two ends. A player who cannot do this draws another tile from the boneyard until they can use one in the line. The game ends when one player wins by playing their last tile, or when the game is blocked because neither player can play. If that occurs, whoever caused the block gets all of the remaining player points not counting their own. In the Draw game, players are additionally allowed to draw as many tiles as desired from the stock before playing a tile, and they are not allowed to pass before the stock is (nearly) empty. The score of a game is the number of pips in the losing player's hand plus the number of pips in the stock. Most rules prescribe that two tiles need to remain in the stock. The Draw game is often referred to as simply "dominoes". The line of play is the configuration of played tiles on the table. Typically it starts with a single tile, from which it grows in two opposite directions when the players add matching tiles. (In practice the players often play tiles at right angles when the line of play gets too close to the edge of the table.) The rules for the line of play often differ from one variant to another. In many rules the doubles serve as spinners, i.e. they can be played on all four sides, causing the line of play to branch. Sometimes the first tile is required to be a double, and serves as the only spinner. E. Scoring In blocking games the scoring happens at the end of the game. After a player has emptied their hand, thereby winning the game for their team, the score consists of the total pip count of the losing teams' hands. In scoring games each individual move potentially adds to the score. E.g. in Bergen, players score 2 points whenever they cause a configuration in which both open ends have the same value and 3 points if additionally one open end is formed by a double.

IV.

Sungka - A Philippine mancala game which is today also played wherever Philippine migrants are living; e.g. in Taiwan, Germany, and the USA. Like the closely related congkak it is traditionally a women's game. Sungka was first described outside of Asia in 1894 by the American ethnologist Stewart Culin. - Sungka is similar to many other Southern Asian mancala games such as naranj (Maldives), dakon (Java), congkak (Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia) and tchonka(Marianas). A. Culutural Significance Sungka is an important means for creating identity, particularly for Philippine migrants. This can be seen in sungka competitions, which are organized in the Philippines, and in the representation of Philippine culture at cultural festivals through Sungka demonstrations. Sungka is still used by fortunetellers and prophets, which are called on the Philippines bailan or maghuhula, for divinatory purposes. The game is usually played outdoors because there is a Filipino superstition about a house will burn down if it's played indoors. In past times sungka boards were also used for mathematical calculations, which were researched by Indian ethnomathematicians. Although the sungka rules are not much different from those of congkak, sungka is perceived as a genuinely Philippine game by native players. B. Rules The oblong game board (sungka(h)an), which is usually carved in wood (e.g. mahagany), consists of two rows of seven small pits each. In addition, there are at either end a large store (bahay) for the captured stones. Each player owns the store to his right. In each small pit are initially seven counters (sigay), usually cowrie shells. At each turn a player empties one of his small pits and then distributes its contents in a counterclockwise direction, one by one, into the following pits including his own store, but passing the opponents store. o If the last stone falls into a non-empty small pit, its contents are lifted and distributed in another lap. o If the last stone is dropped into the player's own store, the player gets a bonus move. o If the last stone is dropped into an empty pit, the move ends. o If the move ends by dropping the last stone into one of your own small pits you capture the stones in the opponent's pit directly across the board and your own stone. The captured stones are deposited in your store. However, if the opponent's pit is empty, nothing is captured. The first move is played simultaneously. After that play is alternately. The first player to finish the first move may start the second move. You must move if you can. If you can't a player must pass until he can move again. The game ends when no stones are left in the small pits. The player who captures most stones wins the game.

V.

Game of the Generals - The Game of the Generals, also called Salpakan in Tagalog, and GG as it is most fondly called, or simply The Generals, is an educational wargameinvented in the Philippines by Sofronio H. Pasola, Jr. in 1970. - It can be played within twenty to thirty minutes. It is designed for two players, each controlling an army, and a neutral arbiter or an adjutant. It needs the use of logic. - The game simulates armies at war trying to outflank and outmaneuver each other. As in actual warfare, the game allows only one side's plan to succeed. A. History This game was invented by Sofronio H. Pasola, Jr. with the inspiration of Ronnie Pasola (his son). The Pasolas first tried the Game of the Generals on a chessboard. Even then, the pieces had no particular arrangement. There were no spies in the experimental game; but after Ronnie Pasola remembered the James Bond movies and Mata Hari, he added the spies. Making the pieces hidden was the idea of the Pasolas after remembering card games. The Game of the Generals' public introduction was on February 28, 1973. B. Objective The objective of the game is to eliminate or capture the flag of the opponent, or to maneuver one's flag to the other end of the board. C. The Pieces The player's set of pieces or soldiers with the corresponding ranks and functions consist of the following 21 pieces. A higher ranking piece will eliminate any lower ranking piece, with the exception of the spy, which eliminates all pieces except the private. The pieces are bent at an angle in order to hide the piece's rank or insignia from the opponent. Apart from the flag (the Philippine flag) and the spy (a pair of prying eyes), the insignias used in the game are those used in the Philippine Army. Pieces No. of Pieces 1 1 1 1 1 1 Function Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag.

Five-star General Four-star General Three-star General Two-star General One-star General Colonel

Lt. Colonel Major Captain 1st Lieutenant 2nd Lieutenant Sergeant Private Spy Flag

1 1 1 1 1 1 6 2 1

Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Eliminates the sergeant, the private, and the flag. Eliminates the private, and the flag. Eliminates the spy, and the flag. Eliminates all officers from the rank of Sergeant up to 5-Star General & the flag. Eliminates the opposing flag as long as it takes the aggressive action against the enemy flag.

D. Challenging A challenge is signaled by placing one's piece on top of the opposing piece occupying one of the squares. The arbiter then examines the ranks of the opposing pieces and removes the lowerranked piece off the board and returns it to the owner regardless of who initiated the challenge. The arbiter must take care not to reveal the ranks of the pieces to the opposition. The game can also be played without an arbiter. In this case, when a challenge is made, both players must state the ranks of their pieces before removing the lower-ranked piece. Therefore, the presence of the arbiter, though not compulsory, is especially important to ensure secrecy until the game is over. It should be noted, however, that official games are conducted with an arbiter. E. Determining Who Wins the Challenge Any one of the player's pieces can capture the opposing flag. This includes the player's own flag. Any piece eliminates the private except the spy and the flag. Officers eliminate other officers that are ranked below it (e.g. a four-star general eliminates a lieutenant-colonel). A spy eliminates all officers (including the five-star general). Only the private can eliminate the spy. If both pieces are of the same rank, both are removed from the board. If a flag reaches the opposite end of the board, the opponent has one turn left although it is not announced. After the turn, the player reveals the flag. If the flag was not challenged, the player wins the game. If it was challenged, the player loses. NOTE:If both soldiers are of equal rank, both are eliminated.

VI.

Checkers or Dama A. History Checkers, called Draughts in most countries, has been traced back to the 1300s, though it may indeed stretch further into history than that. These are the standard U.S. rules for Checkers. Checkers (also known as Draughts) dates back to at least the sixteenth century. B. How to Play Checkers is played by two players. Each player begins the game with 12 colored discs. (Typically, one set of pieces is black and the other red.) The board consists of 64 squares, alternating between 32 dark and 32 light squares. It is positioned so that each player has a light square on the right side corner closest to him or her. Each player places his or her pieces on the 12 dark squares closest to him or her. Black moves first. Players then alternate moves. Moves are allowed only on the dark squares, so pieces always move diagonally. Single pieces are always limited to forward moves (toward the opponent). A piece making a non-capturing move (not involving a jump) may move only one square. A piece making a capturing move (a jump) leaps over one of the opponent's pieces, landing in a straight diagonal line on the other side. Only one piece may be captured in a single jump; however, multiple jumps are allowed on a single turn. When a piece is captured, it is removed from the board. If a player is able to make a capture, there is no option -- the jump must be made. If more than one capture is available, the player is free to choose whichever he or she prefers. When a piece reaches the furthest row from the player who controls that piece, it is crowned and becomes a king. One of the pieces which had been captured is placed on top of the king so that it is twice as high as a single piece. Kings are limited to moving diagonally, but may move both forward and backward. (Remember that single pieces, i.e. nonkings, are always limited to forward moves.) Kings may combine jumps in several directions -- forward and backward -- on the same turn. Single pieces may shift direction diagonally during a multiple capture turn, but must always jump forward (toward the opponent). A player wins the game when the opponent cannot make a move. In most cases, this is because all of the opponent's pieces have been captured, but it could also be because all of his pieces are blocked in.

Partido State University Goa, Camarines Sur 2nd Semester A/Y 2011-2012

(Recreational Activities)
Prepared by:

Quennie N. Quiobe BSED 2A


Prepared for:

Mrs. Edna Poloan

OUTLINE OF THE LESSONS IN P.E 3 (Recreational Activities)

MEANING AND CONCEPT OF RECREATION, PLAY AND LEISURE

INDOOR GAMES: a. SCRABBLE b. CHESS c. DOMINOES d. SUNGKA e. GAME OF THE GENERALS f. CHECKERS OR DAMA