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John Whicker English 151 March 2, 2012 Annotated Bibliography Throughout the history of language and literacy, writers have progressed and adapted to the newest or latest version of literacy technology that was available to them. The debate over whether or not technologies change how, where, why, and how much people write is nearly split down the middle with evidence supporting both views. This argument is mainly based on the newest technologies, such as computers, but I plan to show how the transformation from pens to computers has affected writers, plus many other technology changes. In this paper, I want to address this issue and give my own opinion on it. 1. Baron, Dennis. “From Pencils to Pixels: The Stages of Literacy Technologies.” Passions, Pedagogies, and 21st Century Technologies. Ed. Gail Hawisher and Cynthia Selfe. Logan: Utah State UP, 1999. 15-33. Print. In his article, From Pencils to Pixels: The Stages of Literacy Technologies, Dennis Baron argues the possibility of computers making us lazy, rather than expanding our knowledge about writing and reading. He describes the main stages of new technologies and the impacts they have on they have had on the literacy of our generation. He also says that the original writing instrument, the pencil, is not much different than computers. I plan on using this article to prove that the newer technologies, such as computers, have not caused people to write grammatically incorrect. I want to show how each writing technology, ranging from pencils, to ink pens, to typewriters; to the computers we have today have each taken time for us to establish them and understand how we can write more with them. 2. Bertram, Bruce. "Critical Issues, Literacy Technologies: What Stance Should We Take?." Journal of Literacy Research. 29.2 (1997): 289-309. Print. In his article, Literacy Technologies: What Stance Should We Take?, Bruce Bertram introduces the word technology at the beginning of his texts and he evaluates the use of literacy technologies. He takes several different standpoints and provides reasoning for each category. They include neutrality, opposition, utilitarian, skeptical, transformational, and aesthetic. He argues that technology is a part of writing now and is imbedded with our beliefs and values; therefore technology does not oppose anything from literacy. I am going to use this texts to show several different views regarding my argument and show how technology needs to be accepted as the new form of our everyday writing. 3. Bromley, Karen. “Picture a World Without Pens, Pencils, and Paper: The Unanticipated Future of Reading and Writing.” Journal of College Reading and Writing, 41.1 (Fall 2010): 97-108, Print. In her article, Picture a World Without Pens, Pencils, and Paper: The Unanticipated Future of Reading and Writing, Karen Bromley argues that the future of writing and reading will involve mainly speech
instead of actual writing. She starts out by giving a short history of writing and how we have evolved our forms of writing from the pen, pencil, and paper to the new forms of electronic reading and writing. She believes that “pens, pencils and papers will soon be artifacts of the past, electronic reading and writing will be pervasive, collaborative, and social events, and speech will replace most writing.” I want to incorporate some of the history of writing and reading into the beginning of my paper and expand on it. I’m probably not going to use this article to help prove whether or not writing technologies have hindered or helped us as writers, but in a way that provides some history. 4. Haas, Christina. "On the Relationship Between Old and New Technologies." Computers and Composition. 16.2 (1999): 209-228. Print. In her article, “On the Relationship Between Old and New Technologies, Christina Haas argues the different opinions of the relationship between old and new literacy technologies. She comes to the conclusion that old and new technologies exist together, such as pens and computers, and they impact each other. Both old and new literacy technologies were designed for the same purposes and they have progressively helped writing become easier for us to do. I want to use points from this article to help show that technologies will continue to help us as writers and they do not cause us to become poorer writers. This text will help me show the relationship between all of the literacy technologies that have been invented throughout the years. 5. Hartley, James, Michael Howe, and Wilbert McKeachie. "Writing Through Time: Longitudinal Studies of the Effects of New Technology on Writing." British Journal Of Educational Technology 32.2 (2001): 141-151. 1 Mar. 2012. Web. In their article, Writing Through Time: Longitudinal Studies of the Effects of New Technology on Writing, Hartley, Howe, and McKeachie debate whether or not people’s styles of writing and ways of thinking change when new technologies are invented. Over the thirty year span, the three came to the conclusion that their writing styles were surprisingly consistent, even though they used whichever new technology was popular at that time. I want to use some of the statistics in this article to show that year after year some new writing utensil is invented; however we still have similar literacy skills. So writers continue to work differently from decade to decade, whether it is with a pen, typewriter, or online blog, but their final products are relatively the same. 6. Hawisher, Gail E. and Selfe, Cynthia L. “The Rhetoric of Technology and the Electronic Writing Class.” College of Composition and Communication, Vol 42, No.1(Feb., 1991), pp.55-65. Print. In their article, The Rhetoric of Technology and the Electronic Writing Class, Hawisher and Selfe attempt to show the positive and negative effects of incorporating computers into classrooms. They argue that computers give students a more interesting way of writing and how people actually find some interest in their literacy skills when technology is involved. I want to use this article to prove my point that not all advancements in technologies have caused students to write poorer. With progressions in technologies, such as overheads, students become more involved with classroom discussions and it gives them more desire to write.
7. Keller, Josh. “Studies Explore Whether the Internet Makes Students Better Writers.” The Chronicle of Higher Education.Chronicle.com, 15 June 2009. 29 Feb 2012. Web. In his article, Studies Explore Whether the Internet Makes Students Better Writers, Josh Keller argues that constantly writing on the Web through media sites will negatively affects students’ writing skills. However younger kids benefit from the electronic media because they write more than they normally would at that age. I am going to use this article to consider that social media sites may cause people to be careless with their writing, but it also gives them more writing experience from a young age until they become proficient writers. 8. Leibowitz, Wendy R. "Technology Transforms Writing And The Teaching Of Writing." Chronicle Of Higher Education 46.14 (1999): A67. Academic Search Complete. 28 Feb 2012. Web. In her article, Technology Transforms Writing and the Teaching of Writing, Wendy Leibowitz argues that new writing technologies cause students to write longer, but with limited structure. She uses references to support her thoughts and supplies a few tips for teachers, as well as students, as to how they can improve their writing techniques. I plan on using a few key points that I gathered from this article that will touch more on how students can improve their writing and not so much on the way that new technological devices have hindered students’ ability to write. I don’t want to get into the argument of whether or not students have become worse writers as technology has advancement. 9. Pearson, A. Fiona. "Real Problems, Virtual Solutions: Engaging Students Online." Teaching Sociology 38.3 (2010): 207-214. Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson). 2 Mar. 2012. Web. In her article, Real Problems, Virtual Solutions: Engaging Students Online, Fiona Pearson shows how blogs can be beneficial tools for students to practice their summarization and argumentative skills. With blogs, it is easy for students to write whenever they have time, instead of doing it all in class. This is nice because a lot of people write better when they find their comfort zone, which is normally not in a populated classroom. I want to use this article to help me show how new technologies have changed where people write and how it is favored by most students. 10. Warschauer Mark. “Technology and Writing.” International Handbook of English Language Teaching. Springer US. 15. (2007): 907-919. Print. In his article, Technology and Writing, Mark Warchauer argues that some “computer-mediated communication links” enable people to write in a more formal style of writing, which will cause them to write more grammatically correct. People do like to write in an informal style through e-mails and other electronic texts, using smiley faces and multiple exclamation points. Teachers, who make their students do assignments in a sophisticated style with graphics, force their pupils to write scholarly, but they provide leeway, which helps their students stay interested in their work. I plan on using this text to help prove my point that not all computer-related texts are harmful to people’s writing since there is a variety of scholarly articles available for them to understand how they should write. My favorite part of this text is that it is not bias on one view because it shows the pros and cons of Internet facilities.