BXo'lui:ftllliOllPtlp'erSJ

J'O(J9

De.I1,i-l,,l1~111

fiiNU1'f'aflu;U'"'C.#OJJ¥
I

:

(t,l .4n5'Hlef all tlJe q!lM'tit(J~. M,(jtrll.f ati ,indialteti,tlgtlfn:st ach ql~rti('m, ('it) Ap.~~\'erto quefri£ms t'af'ryb~g 2 IPer.ks (Pari 'A' ~gl1esrion£ 1 fa 5ii sh().l1Jd nOl,ro;:('t!ed 30 l~',o.rd,~·ach. { (lib) Ihli!fW'er 10q~rest,ipn.~,·arryl~i;g5"1l!a"i/cs (P.w:.l' fj',_ &~liolj./, N; UI- Qll~$rim[~ u~o 16) ~ltQ,uh1 : f!lta'e;rf;,rJed
UJ'O WflN'S (!ti'c/r,

.

(iIiJ) Ans:'l<L?er10 ,quest1'(NTsca~i"l~ Ii m(Jl!'k$ {Pat'J' 'C"!..!· (lue&#om, ,17 ~ach,. ,(v,)p_arl ·D'frti.~ '(rtJ;wtlolfs ,Ms,ed
011

tJ/,I'fl

/1$) shouldnflf

d·r;e~it12jfJ' W€lrdf

J to~rceN.

{Vi) AUa,c,n1na,ps wlth
._

ti!'e

an:.wwer scripts (Part. 'S l

SIT-J

Ans!!l>1er all the" ,q,tu~£t1imsg,t~:-euhi!l'()~J ; ~~l. M>tllll:ioll tWI),i1illcat IUftl.!l:PII,Uti,f[cS 'of l'kahmami:Q;c"ordi I~gh,. ll)~anniilshast"3s. ~,IlS. (a) Br.a~,m<ln,s we;re" slIppm::led 'o s'hu:ly and te'1.l..cihhe Ved~. t (b) ney al:\m pe~f~,!n;H;:d ~fmrifkle's, ga\!\e and re"cei:vedBilt~_ .. LfJ!.l. SI:alcetwo Cil3!r:u::tel'i$Ucs, or Kr.l!sll:na, De'\i'a R:,ay~'~. nll~. 1; A..IiII>. (a) HIs nd~· was c~l.~rn~ttris¢J hyelq)all!lion,uld~(ln:sol~dationL .I.·.~eg;awhi\$empir,e thre~lc:cessm:t poli[1c;olI ~!aiiJ,iIlly by cl!e,iroting ili's eneUii les, FIe:aoqu ii:e.~ the ~~,tl;:hliilr OaJD. (T512). defcat.cdl~hc O ~U~t1i!J1of"(;:lriI>Jla (1.574) $f!41~~ Stl1t\'l1ll Qf13ijllp'lIX' (154:0.'). (0:) Duxi~ hisrdgll ViJ1l,:f<li!ilI3!@!'u:[IJo~d ufi.par,allclcd peace atQd-pi~{lSp~r~ly, TU<l!d~ t1'o,~d~hpd~l!1d re~!eIl.Ue8 from w:ade;wgmemtlljllie ~t1ll1li'~t[ll~Il;:l1ry. I~d. Why w~re'WOIll1~1iI ,cJ;)lmsiidl~mdj.1nim,>Od;lI1!t!re!l~g:n:~lin agra,lfi:a.Q S~liI:;lliny'! !WI ill:] iOIi!,h\iQ f~:!!!som!!f. l ·t\us. (a) WO'.I"mm were C"OIlS.lde'foed. :arU).jm~wnantreso~un;e i:J~caus¢ the-_yw~r't; dtild bearers ina stldc~.y
~le]XIn4eil'llt.ol1l~bo4r. HJigbmdr:t ..d.hyr~k::il: cliulEl FO'!,I'!llI'i.o;tl:~a~!tIms!lO!d f I~~:o~be .s.y$~m. tlfb'iddel1ltice Illiv(lll to '~I!; br.ide's rnmil.y.,

to. a.·~il6[t~ge; C1f wlves, lhh:

(~) WQm.eiJ:!.wQt~ed ~1il(!I:lJdl,'lr~o.s¥lQuldlc:rwi,lh m:eml.iflltin.(! ijeids. M9Teoivc •.', Oluis:ana:! tar.ksHkc spil1lnill~. nW!\ 'cm.b~'QM~ry iil:ldf .s~niJjg llrid ikil1e.. t1~[n:gc:I~Ili'y :fOir'pOII:Wt"y Wl:.e d!1lp'l!:lid~m oL~Ii;;'fI]aJ;e.!<1.bOUf. ,Q.A., MenUllIn Ull~ lrevenue SYS~~I1I.:i'lt~:mdl!l\:itOd the Brit~sh lin Bo,mbay lileclta.1iI wU!.i1~9-I;t~ ~~s by of m~jlli! cb::in::a¢.<tcrisUcs. Z' J\.!j!~., ~a)l The te,\!ieili!ue ~~~t:em .in.tr~du.Eed.' .~!l! Bormba:y DecCBIt'l Wa.t!l the i~(ltwad sys~erlJ[" .(If) In ~~s sy$!h:l1JJ1, the, -PcBliS·i![!t.V,<as teoog_tiised ss th:o ~wllie1r of ;his:. !lmd sAlbJect~o iPaYfl'f~mt·of la!fld <; tevell;~.e.Ul'ld reve<l)U1e WiIS fl",~d'mr ;I ppriQc;I ,of201JO 3 Q,l'ca1's n~'1iIl~in1iJe. Q.. .WlJ!;e~wll!ii U~e: 5 ti.r$t Anln~ill Ce!illi'tlS~t'tleH!.liIth!'d ? McmUolll M¥G finis cwrllya ims. 1 A.n!s.. (a) Th~ fiir$:l c:~tI$rI!lS was a fir.sr aU'el'l"l.prted in. ] 872. . ,!"~ (~} tt5airo WBSto me,;1Isll~his,todc~il CJiI.~e by [lec(m;H~g tJ1.iniWal'ld dL;;!'Iths!lnol emlul'U.lr8lling,rmrptce 8:c;co,]'d.i~to tmll!:ir ge, ;sex, caste ·~Iltdoecupiiiltiorl. a

1.IPART-RI

Sell':linW!~J A1.lmeralJJ' tJtl'~~ ojtlu::f(lllmviIJig qll~!l().~ i Q.6. D~r;iltlll briiE~'f1ybl,lliw~he cC!l!h!\~ ~f cwaft pWiEldiu.di'llln :<1 re ide!!l!tifil~d, I\ns. Arcnlleoll(!gislS u~ui'l~.lyIQok fOi~ tbello ][owillg ~ (a) ~w. m3ter~flls -5Uicl1 as ·~tOine,. ,shdls SiIUJ! .copiper'ore (M Too~s (~l' Ul1ifinish.edabJ'ecl:S •.fej.~I~ illld W<liSlllm~!ref!8JI:s, (tfJ, Wiliste is the best IIIJ;I~iCal\;),of araft: prodluetiDIa. for .exampie ~.f .sheU or a S

sttl~le W;lHI~Cut tl1l'

Qbjeds,.l~um pi~ce~ Qfs~ch lit'IaEeria~<lre lb-oillmd to 00;["01!Ifl.d as Wils~e (el TfOl,ce.s,of W<lSIIe'~l~.dlil ~~i1Yf:beenr ·~i:lmujJl lm:ilical\e· ~hil[ cm:ftproouctioll. il'J]small specillliiSied cen~ersbl:n 0I1:5JO.in I!ar:ge.cilies.

!iit

t[iqe, platec OICpl.'Cld!;lotlQI1.
1lr;l.d'Ll'1'tI1I:~:cn

make
(1I1J~y

was

nm

All'§.

Ql.'7.. De~Cl"i'tH1 Ul;fl ,SQI;l!:ll"C~. nfrccO'!!,sC,":I!!'I":tinlll tih~ hisili:H'J"S {)ftlh~ (~~ptll mlj!lrs. '{d) Hi~,t:Q.r:[~.~f the OllliP*<!mller$ I~ye Ibeen recQillstru:-C-1td1 from i[leratlllr'e"

:5
CQins

and inscrip~kllii~

~n:~,liu.d]ng prn":sll;l!lS,lis, (b) )?lrllshllllStls ; PlI'asl;tilli~js are :i1nscripdO:IlS'composedl tn, pirn~seof kirrn;g:sby em,ilMl:[U poets. (e) mast: import.ant i'm~ch<Ult~i5is the ·.AI1:a1mbadl PiUar [nscdptool:iJ whiclithas\ been Wl'itlJ::11! in - S.ulfikrH ilnd wil;s cOI:tlp0.!lJe_d by his. 'COtl" poet Hillhe.n<l. {d) Allli!llique illls.crijJtioll., H refe:rs to Sam.lJ:ara'fJlJIPU!. 'scbJlqties~ and 5~:gg~Sts ~ha[Lntl rnarn111'"th was a Ver"!iOliUlegen las, (e) Lifera;ry :SQ'!!IflC'e:i riO[ dillS p.~riod ,~rndudle ~hC! worKS Oif K:"aU:!ssa and VLsl:ta.kllada(I.:a,. Q,a; •. EXip]a.i:n ~IiIW in t!ll~ :U:~s~· ~j'SI~liIl1j!l'i~:ni,cUlhs d!!'vC\l~pcd arr(!lImd U!JI~\':aF~O'I.I!S II.Villlt:aE5 tlif tih~ ·

The

A

!lIS.

d~. Gu) 11'1 <li:;J.lnOl.v~sm, V
:avatMs' ·or
whene'!,l'erit~

o,r

Vishnj~ "vas w;or&:bll1'p'oo i[lcl1!m.at:tt::lJ~· of tbi's de,H:y.
~hreiOlJtel1ed

as theprilltc:iJiaJI ddt)\

c.nI~l:Sdovolop!:"{lM{MJiIil.d. the .

various

5

believed W make lheirElippearanCe to $il~e.the j,!!!'oIl'M 'by e;YII ftul;es. Ma:IlIy.(lf~l'Ierril navebeelil <!eflic~ed.lnvarious foC;y~p~ures. fe) A ~:L!~:~U!m:dicpicting 'Vh:ra!haor ~OaJL: 1livaUli'of VishnuJresclilillg the e<1il11il §O<ld!ess is to be r~):unrl ill AiIlOle .. AsCl:l.lpWre 'of Viishl1ili!lrec!ulring 011.tile se-..pem Shecshnag is ~obe [l)l1l1:1dfin DeO£Mh, (4) TIl.t! V.ilba la te'l!lp~e,s'itl!;!ar!:ed :at liiamp i was ·d«lkotted 10 Lord Visl:ml,l.'il'his lemip~e complex has miWllY build ~I'lg-s. B~$i'C!~B the Rlainshdne, it Jims (II KnJiyal1l~ M an.(t<lpa anid fl· Amtl1:Jil"l Sh d,ne. 'Qli!h lExpIDiiiiin~h,e ItJiOSJ~ ~1iII.plltt:II!J~:ililcll. of JainiMllIan~1 us. iRlllPac~ QIiI .[lJIdillll] th.i:nking. i ;S A.IlIS. ('i) Mlahiil:\llir~ dldl'la~recogn~e (}(,Jili 9$til(:~upl~en'f.eb.c,iingorCRmllf ofthe:i1l1:11v-en:e• .J~il'li~iI'I;1 re~ccl!!)dl iI;h,e~ut~h{)lizy'{lfthe V~d.as: @1'1j(1 l19't be~iev-e-i'!l W.e< .sUPI\I;i.!ilW.C)' of'the B'r.\lbm !!1;s. diil (b) i:ain.itii$ ~aidj em.p.h:asi~, 1'1 eq;ua~i~lit\Jf aU I:ulllm3n b~ilil.gs 3IIid' :lJ.lo~icl b:iJthllIl~11I1 aJJll:lwoilllulnro 'I~~ 0
ord;'l.un£di. .
,e:! i'd. !1:ot!(l:-Olld!W:ll

(h) l'en~v\a1"alf!l hilve been. k!em'iftred ~:o,m~

"

.{c} It be! i~~ in~liIc OOI'l:~Pt afK:anrtll'il.lind l'l1cfIlf'l)nl

the esste sy.])~mheHe\i'TIfIg..tlllm '" p~·~"O.ni!ibornin~o apa~UCUilar ~r\1: ;;Il:)CO-l'd.ing~g! deeds b~ 1il:1C ~rev~ow.> br~h+ hi~ (ti) Acc(lr,--diTl~ 10 J~:i[!j~m. eV$!}'tlttiltlg pO:S;[jl~S~SI if~"'llv,ti!1!I·sll(l!'lIlS, ~\9ck;s !I[Icli WfiI.'M,. PUl ims~ 'CD I' H01'l-linj'!l1}' lO Hving things wa:s.fue' can:i]rla~]lrim~,i~;leo.fJail1:rsm. ADWtdfrng It) MaMvl.'I'<.I. salya;~t()rn' or 'fireetiom([-om tiw eye ~e of bi~ ilItd cl!~th J~ [he mann goal of lUrc. this eM be ada ievcd.

eel A ttl.ll~Ja.il:li had

,~h:r_oU!¥l.Ahijm'sL'I and ~eVl!:'I'~ atflJ>~~rities ·b.msed en. ttl ~ake[ive VO:wE;. i.e" • To abi5lOl~J1fr-om km in.g;

sel:f~de:nia!.

pcrnlllfice

and'

mte.~fta~n.(ln,.

., TQ observe ce~.ib_acy • •, 1'0.'3.b:st!iin!il from s~Ii,~li'lg. ., 1'0 .-aibsta~nf:rom. Iykig, ., 10 9JbS.Ul.II'i oom p05siZ~!>ing pro-perw • f

.3SZ ~

~

His.tory l(;KllJ

A lub"e,' al'y

tw,(J

,fij'ifu!; Jol{olrVing quesJiolJs :

(!i. to., Why did ,Ab,IiIJ~F;aii!ldlcscrib'~ rthe ,f~!I!Jdre:nnue :a~"~:remIll!UeIfQtjio,~~ !!i;ov~f\e'j:gnlty'~ 'if'::tplai~I.5 of ? "Ans. (a) The M.ug~:a!ls belieeedln the DIrv:inlf! JRi.gI:~m Kingshrip •. that Haei:f' [plower came, dlrec1~y ffon:'! of G.ed. One !ofthe I,esen~s ,often qtlo1ed to pr,ClYe the,if po,int was t~i3I[ gffhe Mongo,1 ,cJ:ye!c:m AiantJuOi who wasin'llpregn!.!lte:d bya r'!li.)' ofsuliiIshwroe:. The' child she bore had~lils,Djvlm~l~ghu·and p'El.sscd rut one 'ffOiiJI ,generation t(). Q,ene~at~olil. (b) Abu'] Paz] plac.e~ Mugha~, Kingship as Ithe Mi§1;hestEluation in, the hierarchy of objects rceelvlng ~11:gh.t CIO~,iing from God. It was the~irr.s.lisufi Saint Shiha-buddin Suhr:aJwady who first bcl~cvcd that there was ,111 iJli1er,arch:y ]n whrn(;:hD.ivint:: Hght was ~ran~mitlrted ~D thel(ing. The king then beeamethe source ofsp.l.ritua] guid:Mli~e for hls .suhj,e,cts., (:c) Co'n:se.quemlHy fr·om the ·seve:nteenfu cernutry onward's M u:ghaJ .anisl:S 'beg,an. to portray IClnp"CJ()rs wearin,g t~e halo wldch was sup,posed 101 .SYllllbonze U~le Hght QfGod. (d) So.nr'C'i:gl1!Jrj aeccrdingto the: Mughlds, WalSili. secial contract the: ~tl'ilg's dUlly was to preteei the Ilife: pro1perty,. hotn:our and! fs.iit:h .Q If' the]r SlYbJec::~s. (e) ~nJ rennn the people iha(ho obClyrbe .Ki,ng andhe wasenth.led~Q a. S~a:rlil ef'the CIQilmt:ry~:;resources, Thus :a:crording $0 .Abu· ~Fazl land revenue was a. ~r,emunel'atlo'Ol of SOlvelJl'iC igl1l:ty'. . Q;;'II. IDe.s(l:riinc "~c\l'ari~ty of ta,siks ~nvo~'Vcd ~tJlJ c:re.atiion Qfmallu:scripts du.lf~ngth,e ni,gn ,.of U~t
MI!IJ~hals. 5

Allis..

(aJ Mugh:<Ji.1mal!fiItllScffpls were pn:u:lln:i(!,dinlfle irmperial kitabkhana.,

An.umbe:ro(IPi6ople

were .ilrlvolvcd

in ~his: prooes:s.
'(b) 'apefmS!ke:rs,n'liPaii~d the foHQ5, of~he m(ljm:l~:scri.p~~ ~nd calliHgra.pben.3i Olf; scribes-eopied the fext. The gHdter,stiJ,sk was tei llh:uuin;~re the p'Ilge:!l,. pai[1!H~erS ill~sU'"a®ed sce~esfran;'l~he te'X.t,fI'liI"d the bcukb.inder ,gav'l: Ihemalluscdp~.an.o!l.t1!amel]!wJcov.er. (c) The fiil11iisbied manuscri p,f was -a work of intellectual wealth .flnd beauty, It showed the pio't'it:e.r J'irs o patron, :lhe M ugha:~ em pr.:for whow8.S,a,b'le to br.~ng~'stlc:ha C{l'llll.pJex tfl!)k 10 :ffniil,i,on. .(a) Some of the peop"~e iiltlv,o.lved in produ.et~oli:lof Il'IJlnuscriprs \'\!',er,e hOliiloured. Calligr~yphy \,v(!JS cornsiitl,ered a st.i ,I~. (lfgrea~. j,llI'Ip'©iIi1f1!nCe and hence Call igrElphe:rs were he~d in h lgh esteem !iI~ we,:rc P,:dl!:l~ers•. Howeve:rat,he[s n ke paper 11ilIak.ers and bookb]n.dcrs rema;in:ed aJnoJ1J.yn~o us'. fe). CaB igraphy was praetlsed using (UfJerent 'styles ..Akbar );. favou~['ite .s:tyl!e wa!l.th.e n,:;l,sta Iitl. a Ou.iid s~~c 'w~th~Qng, horiiz~;nltal slrokes;. It was. w.r,itrel1l u~siQg a piece or 111"immed reed c1l.1 qa iaJllfl ted dipped ill:] carban ink (siyahi), Q.ll, ~pJ:a.jn.wli!lY 'Qand.b~.r W:i!J:S' ~ bQ"DC ·of !o::o'nbl::nt1io!l1l. bdwe,elil the,,s;a:f:a.v-.b:Jis alnd th,~ M.ugh:.;l.s. .5 Ans" Mugb":al poHdes sougtit ve ensure 'the safety oftheirfro~]tielrs"to promrot!e trade: aad ensure ~~fc pass!;l:g~rlJli :ll1icrch!!l::I~sall:d pii l:grim~,. (oJ' Tli:le~1ir~!!a,tjol'il!iwith Ir,amond Tur~n hinged..orn ma:inta.iningel'ffeC'ti;,fe'co:mr()]AJVer the nor~lh"'t"s~ frG',1iUer':for :s,trSli,egiG as we] l a~ econ.omlj,c reasens, 1':4 erth of Helrarl the H ~ndukas hm QUnla ius become less forbidd irng gl vt"ng fore lgn ~rnl'vader,s' .ea~y'!loc,es! te Norlh I ltd i.11. (e) The MU!gIDtla~:s, ba::veaJwa.y.!u·~edto ward. oR 1~~ispotentia~ dal~~er bYCO'l1ltraUing. the g:W[i)li:lg],C OlJi(POS.liS of .Kabu] and Qandl3ihar. (d) Qandah~r\¥M lalisQB:HimpodaJnt trade centre ,and mefchaflts fro.fII :3,I!IovlJ;:rAsi,'a flocked here and e.xcha:n,ged tl!l<e:i,rcQimm ad ities. th~IS iCOIn:tmlof Qandahi:li!i was ... ofvita]i nlipOFi[:iinceror the Mughals.,. (e) Though. reennq uered 'Itly A kbari n ~,$9:5, rueP~crswanscol:W(bmedto !lj,ta:kle· cil:atm to Qandah~.t. FinaUy lin 1,622 Qa.nCiahar·woo besi,e,ged and co.nque.red by the·pe:rsii,!!Ils.

(~l

Sedi!On-HI
AI,M'JHI'

an1' tl,'re:e of th,e [ollun'itlg
1

qtttlSlfiO,"s ,:

Q.13., E:'ll,p,EaiiD two reasons for tbe fail,IIR o,ftll!e Permanent,Settlement by th,e Brit,ish, in 8 e:n g~I.

o,Hbe land, revenue, inlrodiuccd
S

Ans. "

reason was tha:t, after 'I. S:] (I a,g,wcuJtura.l prtces rose: ililc:reasing ~he value o,f harve'S;E prodi1l!lcc' Emd enlarging the Benga,~ zami:ndar's, lneome, (b) Bu~ because the revenue demand w,i'js,flx!edunder the Permarneifl'l, Settlement~ the BdHsh could
(a) One

not claim ,any share

0

r the enhanced

tncome.

,(c) The :Blritlish were keen to maxirnlse their income, Therefbre, 'lihey did not extend Hire Permanent
S'~fil:1elnef!t'b)'~he areas they :!linliliexediA th:e l'9dl. ce~n1tUJry. .

. Cd)

Mor,eov,er, the th~nking: of the! po-Hey makers was shaped by the economic theorles of David Ricardo. A.coolI'd,in,g to' lUcan;! ian .~deasthe landowner sheu ld be given 0 nly t~e 'average rent' prevailJing, at 3 g~ven time, lfthe land yielded moreman the ~a,vemge!'rent, the landnwner had a surplus wh h::h need ed 'to ·be ta."(ed.

(e), If tax was not levi,ed, 'tIle~ncul'ti.v,mlo.rs, turned ~ntD i:"cntier5,. They wcu:ld 'then nc!'~invest theilf' , surplus, income 'in. improiving the land's p(loductivUy. As,in Blengllll.~he B:ritish were not cmit,llcd to ~ax ~he .surplus income. Many zamlndaes turned iinm rent~ers; Then~fore)tile :Srhlsh fell U

neces;sary to have a d ~ffet'enlt land revenue system. Q~]4. "The rumours: In 18:$7'began 001 m,ak,e s:ense w.he.Dseen :i:nthe ,eontext of 'fkepoliei.li.lS pursued bY'
tbe Bdti~ltl,rrom late 181:,Os.", Snp:pod y.ou:r an5-wer : Ans.,

wm~evideaee,

5

(a) ConservatiV'1! Indiens were angered bythe various soclelrefurms ini.ti:ated by the Br1tIsn.. The aboliitio.D of sat i an d legaUstf.lgo,fwidowreuul:fT i,age were regarded as unwanted interfercnee ~n imnalfl social customs. lodilan sentiments and wereti~a;rfUl

o'r

were als:o hurt by the Ch'fjstilln m:issi()lnar:ies open ridiic,ule of their religion being;, forcib:ly cOlverrec! to Chris,t[anil)r:.

(b) In. U:S:O,~begoveim;ment pas,sed the Hindu property law under wllli:ch even, aft,er ca,nvert:ing to Chriis.:iardty orne could inherh one's ancestra l :prop'c:ny. Tille peoples ~resenanenr was~rdIet fue U~ by the Mau iv]s, and Bf~.hmjli1:S whose cry; 'thru: their n~:sp,ec:U.v'ereligions were jig dilUger c.j:oa!ked their selfish interests as these two classes, now liosit

their fortrD.1erirnportanee.
Re1igioussemi ments were: aJI50 hgrt byltle ·O'fl1da! poi icy 0 f taxing lands belong~ng 'to terop les and mo.sq~es which were forme,rly exempt from Umati,on. (c) wrdOalho'lJ,sh~i wa.Dted 'to extend direct British ruleever ;;IS, h~.r-geanarea as pos:s,~bl,e crdC:r to .in ,expand tbe market fbr B,ritishg~ods. Therefore, he passed the Doctrine of Laps,e poJ:iey whereby when ~heruler-of's 'Juotec:ted S'tate died without a naitl.lral heir~ his stateweuld be annexed bytlu;l

Brlds:h.
(d)1 Many states :inc1uding Sarfi!:r& (1848) 'Nagpur and lhansi (i 8.54) w'ere annexed

under tl1.is Doctrine. Und,er th~s pol icy many sm2liilllslaies ~iikeSamba'i pur 6 f Ort$sa (1849)" B:a~bat (P u njab) and Ud,3Iipur (RajaJSthan) were .a~so'annexed by tfuisDoctf'ifl!~' ..

(,e) Oa.lhousiie also refused to, recegnise 'tbe tines of many ex-rulers lOr pay their peasiens. Thus. "(he !i~ietSo,fthe N"awaJlbs,of CamaJ~h:~. Surat andthe Raja of Tanj o lie-were extinguish,ed ... He' also stepped the pension of Nan a S:ah.i'bbecause he was an adopted
SOil,

Q!rs.

Examine the ,ree'omnlcndatiohs

efU~,e 'Cabinet M.ission and. ex:plain (h'e n~aSlOn5'rOf' rejee(iRg the
19·4·fiby

iflu~: Ca'b_,n,e* .M.iss:iogin Allis. Pli"oposams o'ft]n~ Cabin,e:tM:i:ss,ioQ :
'by

p'.IIa.Q. suggested

bot .. 'Con:g:fe'ssandMQ~i ••mL~ague..

S

(0) lndia ~holL1ld be a union Qirfederation vested

In the Prov inces .. {b),The B,riidshPrO'v~nc'es \\'Oulld be divided into' t.h~e groups, Or,Qlp A consisting

ofBr.idsh Provin'c:es and Indian states ha:'I,"]]'1g eentrel over fOirei.gn ,affairs~ defence and communication. AU subjecrs oth~1I" thaneesnral subjects would be

of Proviaces

havinga Hindu m~ority, GroupS w~Lh MlllsHm11lUtjo.rity ,andG.rnu.p Cwlth mixedpo:pll:lation. (c):Each group could d,r,aft Its O'W'-fl~ onst.elution. A Constituent ASiSemb~y 'Would be set up to frame C the Censtinnlon .of free India. Till the Constitud:on was framed 'and a. new g.Overn menl . .formed, an inrerlm gOlvernm,ent would c,af!'), out the administr,aUo'n. Cd) The' Cab inet M lssion sought to, make a cemprom i se between the oonfUcdng,c I'alms oftheCo1ilgrcs~ .and tffile:Muslim Leag:ue ';W1dmaLlilit'ain me un~tYl ladla, but the Mus,1lm ilLea,guccriticised the of IIII an ,beeanse It .rej;e,cred the i:dl,fa ofPak istan,

Rej eet~o ot'C'a bi,OlCft .Miis!ll'hmr.-.oposa I1s : n 1(.0)., The prepcsals were no:t accepted by 'both parties because both had mutually opposed
interp,.re:tat]ons 'of the p bm .. (:b) The teague wanted the g;roup'~ngto be compulso:ry with sections Band C developing 'into strong 'entities with "the r.ight to secede from the, un~on lin the fub:!rc .. (e) The C6n.gress",'anted the proviEII:.:es 10 be given the right. to jo.in apoup .. 11 did nor support the Cab~n.etMission's {:Iari.fication that thO!Ugh groupin,gs wcul d be compulis,olfy at fi:1"81"rJu~prQv~nce wilulfd have' the right to .!l.eoedle ;mfter the~.C.ons~1~uti!onhad bee~JfinillHse,d and eleetkms held, both parti~s re;jec:tiCldlthe' CabineiU M]s.s:kHl.,·S P'f,()jp'.osals maldll'lg par1l:w.t,ion ~nevi'tab]e. 'Q..Ui. :Ho:w WC'A th,£;,discussia.Ds wU'~:iin nile 'C(I<DsUtueo'CAssembly i,nn.uen,coo bylhe opi.nlions expressed by the p'iilople? Elpl'ain,. :5
TIUIS;,.

(cf)

Ans.

(a) The intense debates tihat look place wtth.in the Cons~ituelRt Assembly w,ere r~ported in the neW'S'p'apers and the proposals were publioly debated. Cri'ri.·cisms and counilf:r ,crirticisms in the press in. wmsha:ped the D8lUireofth,e consenSlllS, that was ultim;lIe]y reached en i-pc:c:iflc issues,
(0) In order to create ;3 sense 0;( €:oUecti.¥cpartk:iR,atio~ the public were .as;k'ed fot submissions, There were h!U1r1dr.edsof respoases which give an idea a!bout the 'con f1I ~Cit':ng iil'llt:er~'Ststhai ~ad to

be receaclled,
(c~) nrc AJ~.~ndia. Va:rnru;hia~a Sw.ajya
.,

$an.gh 'wanted Ulc;l onstilU'tWQn to be based on 'pri!'!ciples C
iORIS

Iaid dcwni n ancjeat Hindu books, The ]ow~r castes wanted reservat goverament bod les,

in l:egJSJ,a,l ures an d

(,d), UngJtIiSf~C:; minortties waated ,fneedom of speech regarding their mother tongue. ee) Rdig.iiOIUS minorities, asked for SipeCjijl) safe,guardls. Var:ious bodies ~.i,l!cethe Cemral Jewish Board of Bombay wanted adequ:a:t:e representa'tion 0:.0 all pub ~ic bod'h:s incl !.!din.gthe JegisJature.s.,

'Q.t.7. E~xp),iiI,in O~e teae.h~nG~ of Gurllll, .:Na,lIIiak.Diidl he 'Wblh to ,establish

,R new f'<eUgjOIil l'

8

Or

IEJpl;ain Ule textual l.r,adUions r-cgard~n,g reU,gioQs beUefs.
Ans. Gurul Nan-ak·: (t~J Guru

Nanakwas bom in 14,69 in 1:ailwand.i. (now known

~a.i.demphasis on. personal devot:i:olllitQGod fbr. atta~n[ng.salvatian.

,5 Nankana

iJ1 PaldstaJn),. Like Kabi.l'j he

(b) He also wanted to ach~e've n.synthe:lds between tlte dectriees 'of b;,I:am and Hinduism ,and create ,ana!t~c:sphere of ,goodwm:, peaeeand harmony". He bel ie"lii'oo!Illntihe purity CI'Id1~f,ac:~e.r'and conductand was ClppolSed to all forms of dis.ti.llictionsamong people. (c) Adv'QcaHng a fOlfinl ,ofolrguna bhakti. he firmly rrejected ribJ:aWi:sUc relwgion., He was thus a.gal.nst saeri nees, rjtual baths. ~mage worship Ilnd scrlpmres of both Hi nd!uism and Islam, (d) for him, God bad nCrg\endm ilr form, GOD, could br~'reached l:ruow~VleF by cont~l1Iuany Iie'l'nemhe:rmng and repeatingthe Diviae N'i\I!lne. i"le i:'e'comrn!ended the recitation cfSatnalJl. OF i:ts true twoname, He rOre!HevedIhat Satnam and :Meditation could lead to s:aJIvation. (e) IUs teachings were spread through his hymns called 'shabi!ld"" Vro'lhich ere composed ,tn the local w languages, He g:mg ties,~ hy.mJlJiswi,tl1 the 3.c'Dompa,i'ni.m.ef:i~ of :the r,aibab., a stringed insuument played by his a~le;ndimtM(Uidama. (j) Guru Nanak, organised his fl)~l,owe~rsinto a community ..He alsc set up rub", forcengregational worship (!ian~at) invoWvil1g collective rcci'Uldol1, (g)r "rhough 'he did not w~slh to estabUsh a new religion a 'after h~s deartillliniis foUowe:rs cUs:tinguishcd t:l'lr~nlSlehl"e.s from l1IotltlHilrldu.and Muslims. Founded. a rnew ii'reUg,iolTIlcalled S~k.hism. (hJ Guru Nanak appoiW1.~edA:n(gad·as his successor, apractice which cOIil6nu.c:d' for nea:r]:Jt'200 years, Uh~matelyGuru -Grobi,ndSingih ~nsJtituted the o:rder ofkhll.:Jsa·oll' ~be pure and ended the sy.s~em of personal ··gu:rush~p·.

01'
(~) Textual traditions regarding religious, bcUeJs include a w:idev3ti.ety and are' written ~n several different lan,guages ,and styWes. (:b) They ra:riIge, from like simpl.re, direct larnguag:e oftlte Vaehanes ofBasavanna to the; Oir~1U'l~'e Persian of Mugil'a[ rempclor"sforrnal1S .. (c) The ,Plu',anio rexts werewrl.nen ilill simple Sanskrit verse ,explidUy meant to be accessible [,0 worm en and S.hudr,1S whor ,"",ere generally ,excluded from VedIc teamin,g. (d) ~111 order to understand ~ach type oheJxt. the hi~torilan has to be aware ofthe snbde varlat:tons in sty~e ~hat ch!u';aelerwseeach ,g,enr~. (e) Moreover, allthese frcUg:iOtus tradiitions continue to t1oli!risiheV'en~oday. (j'J This ~s adv,antages:to thehistorlen as it allows th~m [0 ,cmn,pan:.l oOIiJ~ernpQr;ary practices w'ilh 'tbos'e described in te'XWa~traditions and 'to trace ehanges, (g) At ~he same time, tbese traDiUons are: part of'peoph~·,s,i.ive.d be;[iiefs. and: t!rie-re is o·ft:en ~ hlCk ,of acceptance of 11he plossibiili:ty that. these may have' rchanged O¥relr' (lime. {II} ThechaUen~hi~tolrian:stace is [0 undertake; such investiga!honswith sensiti;vity whir le fecogniising, a~the same t[methillM reUgi,o.l!ls, rradltions are also dynamic arid challg~ over time. Qr.lS .. }lOIW wa~ Qtdt India Mo,ve;ment gemdlillcdlY a Mass MOYem.,elui:il' E,.,:11ain" H
Or

Exam.ine th,e; differtnt :kinds:0" Siourf:e:s,lromwhicb, political o,f'the N at to lu.1 'Movemen;~ rcould be reeo Rsbtu.cted.

~;iII.r:eer .rG,iutdhiji and the :hisfoif), o

A,n,s.. (a) The 'Qu:it Ind [a was: genuinely HI malss.movement as i:tbrought hundr.eds orf tbousapds, o'f ord ~Inary Ind ~ans iflto the N ational Mov;em~;nt. (.b) As the n;liljor national :Ie:aders were Jailed young activists organ ~sed str.ikes and acts, of sabotage all over the country.
(c). In the' undergruand :re.sis:ran,ce oociallst mernbees lUm Jayarpli"rakash N.arayan were act! 'lie. (djr ln several districts; such as Satara and Mede:n ipur .i,nd'~pend~t gO"li~rn:ments were procta imed, (e) The' British 'inturn responded w~th brute force yet it took them. mort than a.year to suppress the
rebel Ilion ..

0,. (a) We come to kIlOW abeut Oilindhijw through his writings and speeches and that of his cOil1~empo~i!ries. M,aha,tma Oa1i1dh~aliso .rtl'ru~lar]y fliUb.l~s:hedin his jourliilall~ Harijan letterstha; other wren,e.'to !:Ijm. Nehru edited a. eelleenon of.let1ers WfiUen to him during the national

movement and publli.sh.(:d"'A Bunch of Old Letters,'.
(b) A_:_nQ~herIta] source is g,ovemlll1~n~,retlOrgs :fe,r ttn~ Bdtiish kep~a. Chl15C warehcn Oand hi';s V activiit[es. Theletters IUJdreport:swrirtten·by poUcemen and other officta.isar,e now accessible to

the public.
(C)I Yet another imp>ortant source were 'the comemperary newspapers pub~ishcd in En;g:llisllii as well as the vernaculars which ·tracked Gand:hijPs movements, and:' reported on his aetlvitles, Thqy rdSQI stated what the oommomil nU11n thouS,ht of .tdm. (d) .B,ut ne'ws:p,aper QOC!Cilunlscou:ld be' preJud:iced or biased .. This was, because they were published by people Who had ~Ilei~r wn ponlllc~d!opinlons and 'wor~d views. o I(e) Tbes,e views, slU:tl~h~idVihat \WS plilllbli~:iillllld,iilind t})i(~wa.y event's w'e:r!3 reporredl. AC~(J~.m1:sp b Iiish t!(l \ u ·in a Londea newspaper 'Would be different from a report in ,an Indian nati.onal.ist paper. For examp le the progress 'of the slh march can be traced through an Am!edc'llllilCfwS In~gaziacThe Tim;e..A~ first tlhis maga:z:ine seereed GandhijlPs physical apP,e;llfance and were sceptical or . the .saJt march r'each.ing, its, de.-s!inadon.Uut as the march garner,ed a massive foJllm,vi:l;lIg. The Time magazi ne changed ib 'ii!ttitude decJ;aJrifli~ th~t the .salt march had made the' Britis h 'S!UU10 it les I' very worried, the magazine w,e,nti:on to salute Gand.h~Ji as a s~dn~and a great statesman. (i)1 Moreov,er ()ifficial acccunts ,often. expressed what the higjher D'ffichll:s wantedto believe. l(gl. WlliJe be~lng aW,are of the JlGl.ss.iibUIties afa·rehelHon occurring, t:hey w,oul~, till like to pre'tend s 'that noth ~ng'was am iss. (h) A. study of the fOiftRiighfly reports of the DaDdi Marcil shows that fhe Home' Depastment was unwiUfng to believe that oand lim ,jli;s, ,ac~:h:m5bad ev'Ok~d IO:Y ent,husiastie re~p,onse' from the

masses. The msrch was seea as nil dr:ama or
unww.1U.ng to rise a.gains:tthe 'Bd~tsb.,

at.

desperate ,effort to

DlobiHse

people who were

(

SO'UtiCC'

B'used' QIfI!S,'ioI1r~ )

.Rl!ud i,he giV'(!n ex:tr:(lC(s etlreftdly lmd ~.9\"
l

(questinNS 1910' 21) thai /tlllmv z Ulow'~o~dd, men and wOlncjl ~liI:::lqire wea.llifh ?' U

tll,fS'!,J'er tl,,~ questitms

P;or men the Manusmritl declares, there EIre seven means of accqul.r;ing· weelth : ilnhe:r.i13nce, find,ing. ,pur~base"c~onquj,~~;in.ve11~tmen;work aceeptance cfgifts from good people, end For women there are s:ix means 0" a,oq!lll.i.dngweaJth ; what was gl ven in :fron'lloftbefi:re (mar:r lagle) '0r Ihe bddall p,rooess.ion. or as a tc:keo ofaf:fec!t:iclinMd what she got from bel' bm:Lhe:I', mother or father; She' cot:] ld a~so acqu in:' WleaJtbd1f1o~gh any sull:!:s.e1q:uemt ~ itt: and w.lta~eyer her "a:!iiecltiollaterl' hus,band
I J,

might gjve her. (11 Expl.ain the means how men couldacqeire weahh, accosding ~o~'anU5mliti. (ii)..!xpla:in uhe means ,of,acJq'u~rrul1lg'wea~th by 'Women.
(iii)

3

Sxpl,ain the resu[t of~av.ng differenit 'ways of acquEring wealth by m.en ;andwo:m:en. ,(ill) Do you agree \,\·ith, sueha dliv~sl\onof acquitrintg wealth or not ?OiJv'e one f'<e'3iflon.l]

:z 2

"

0'1" Tb'e' mOiSt an,de'ntsys:tem YJe,t diselvlG:redi About 'the d~aAin:s,Mackay noted, '; ~'II is ccrtfli.i:nly the most 'coU1lPh::te ancient system as yet discovered," Every, house was oonnecte4Itol~bes.treet dr,ains. The ma.fn"channe.s,wen,l made of bricks set in mortar and were covered with moose bricks tha't cou~d be removed fur c~eaning., 'En some eases, [imesmne was used li:orthecovers. House dralss first empded h~~oa sump or cesslIl,i;r into which so l:b;1 maner ~ettled wblle waste water flIowJed Qur mlJll~o street drains. Very long draifll~ae,channel~ were plrQv~,ded :al the, 'intervals, wj'tih sumps rOf 'cl'eani,ng,. lt i:s a wonder of.arcnaeol,o,gymat '''Uu:I:e heiltps,ofmateti.a~, mostly sand. have frequently belen found lyi.ngalcng$.lde, d rainage eh:annleJs.'lMhI~c:h, shows ••.. tl:1ia!tthe debr is was not always. carted a,way 'Will'E:nthe· d:llJn was, eleared"
s

From Ernest Mackay • .Early Indus Civifi:sali:r;1f11 .~ 948. Ura.ina.ge ~systel:il1s ere nat unique to' 'the ,iar,ger cities,! but we:refound m sma.~I.er se;U~emeTlts as well. w At lothal for ,~xample.whUe houses were built of mud bricks, drailillsw'Cre made e,f burnt bricks; (~) Expla,in the' ancient drn~na:g;e:system ofthe Harappans. 4.
1
(U,) What -are d'le ,adV:3itil!tages covered dr:a~ns '? :E~p Lain..:Z: of

Ans.

(I) Men ceuld acquire wea~th through their own ef('Oits.,j,e., through conquest~purchase, investment and work. They were alse endtled to inherititheweanh and property of their father, (ii)Women

iflheril property nOT work ~o create tllcir own wealth, 'fhe:~1i'aoquiliinglMe'a:hh was dependent.on W:h:att.hey go'tlT'om. their fam,Ui,es atl ~he time ,of mar:ri.age and therea'f\er:. G ifig from relati 'N~S·'and husbands were the other means of a.lc:quirin;g wealth ..
were denied such avenues
1:iI'01:

as they could.

(1ft) The di.:ff-erenoe In the Wi.l!y weal:thwW:i ac"ul~red meant th~t women were dependent on l:heir famUyall'ld husband, a!fld this afifectc'd their seclal status. 'Unabh: t,o indlepcm.denUy acquire 'We.ft.hh meant 'that they l~ad ,af:! iirlferi or soci:jlI] stil:tus. (Iv) I do not agree. I beUevle ~n glfnder equality a:lld bcUeve, ~I'm:twomen ,shcndd 'be: 11,llowe:d t,o,have equal tllpportuni.ties. to'pro:gress in life ..

0,
(0 [Uahr~.ge sys,tc'll : Ew'l)' 'hOUliie'was 'cc\l]n.ected to street drains ..The, Met drains were covered wlth loose bdcb tihat coulid be ren;ttoved 'or cl,eaning,. Hnsse Q.rah!is.firs.!i. emptied h'ilOS,.'SUlnp or cesspit into wh ich solid matter settled and was~e water tlowedinw the street draifls ..Si!Jich drairmge systems were non: on ~yfotiIlilid in Mobenj adam but i,n smaller settlements, as well,

00 The lower town consisted o'r'the residenti:aJ areas, The houses, hnr.'I;i\e 'va:rk~:d in size from small orle..roerned hau~es,'~obIg sp~cious home-oS.They were buil~ ofbricks_ Ume an.d 'gypsum, In order to meet the dan,g~1iof floods., the houses wer-e built on raised p'[ai~forms and gene,r.aHy had an uppe,r story. Rooms, were ,gcll'lemlty bum around an open oourty.i1JIlfd whIch was the hub IO.f all hou,se:holdact1vl'[Ies,p'!1IrlicUllar:ly d tlring the h,at and dry wea~h,eli'. In an att'e1l1,ptatp.rl\i'ac}~, Ino windows were 'found ~1fII the 'NanS at ground le;w!:ilnor did the main en'lrancegive a direct v~iewof
the interior or the .courtyard. &very house had a WieU~bathroom and were pro", i:ded '\:vith covered dratns which connected wi,th the street drains"

(im

Covered

drains p~ev'enl[ osqui:ws from, bfeed'i:ng. It aliso· IItre,vents, ni~s fli'(llmcQUectin,g here a.1ild m

spread ~ diseases, Ag,

35,8 7~

IlisLO.ry (XlI)

.Abu"l Fa:z:~gives a viv~d aocount o.fAkb.';s:

da:rlbar:

Wh'f.;nevew His Maj~5!ty (.AkbiJIw) h:D~ds c'\)ul1' (dai:1barJ a !arg_e dram ls beal-en,~:he :s:o~!Ilds O'f wh~ch O~l.fC: aC""C1QlIT:iIipaoEed Divlle prrtillis-e. In this mannler:t pl~opl!e of a] iclasses iteoe.ivis nOil~ce. H is M njes(yssons by i!ll1I:dgrandlchi.~dr:C'.n.~. gUflldees ohbe: Coun, and :aU'o~her me:nwho have adm.wUa1lic~~a:l1l!el'Dld to ;m ake ·tile the~Gmi8h~ .Blndrema~n .$~an-di.rilg i.n~iJIe,irptO'peT' pl,i!ices. lea:r.n~d men cfrenown and. sldlful mech:::lifilic"s : :Ililiythcir ~!i"OC~S.; and.~heoffleezs o.fJllUl,l:j'oe]l'fes1e:llittncLIi repeets ..llis M3J!esl'il~ with Ids, usual ~liisighrs" gi,v,esor:ders~and settles everyilldlB,in. a sa.l:ismctoqr manner. Dur~rngthe whole [imrUl't s.klIflllI. g~.adia~olrs a!nd\WIe:.s~~e'rs '"fOOiml aU eountries hO,ld lhen:tll!ehi'e'S linrea:d1i'l1!ess~andsing,eir.s" male mind femele, atre, in wait~ng,. C~e""er juggl,ers anidi fU!r:lI'":Y t.ulitlb~er,s:a~slC! a:reilll'ilKi.ol:!ls,[O e:xhi:bittfflle~r dexter ity· and ag~I ity.

'V)

Exiplam ma~naCI~v~tles taki.ng plseein the D'.arbar ofAkbar~

3

(IJ) &4pla~n diffe:ren,t "li~r:rn~. ef'saluratien 'to ~hellJ I,ef. 1(:fl.OHow d fdEmlp,emr begi n his day? EX,p'lawrn.

0,.
Tbe SYSICIID

or va I'P:as

This, is A]~B~run,iis

IS;CCI0I..!1Qt (I

f ~:he iysWfm lo'f vamas :

Th~ h mghecsteas~e 21:',e'the Hrahmaifii:t, oifwhcn:lI~he books of~he .~,i us tel! us t!hat. they were cre~ued in:d fi'oim tbe ibead (If B,rDihman. And ,as,~e, fl.rill~ma:n wsGin ~y"oilhe:r m;)a:nile~Qrthe, f"On~ecal lied natlLlfJC, and! tbe head ls, the highe:st ~PI~rE ·011'~be.... , body, the Bra~an,a are ~he, choice p~d ,of the who lie ,gen.us. 1(',bereill'oretib~ Hindus ,tons~der~h~m as t~e ve.lY best of mi1nl'td.nd.

The ne.rt easreere [)he Ks,h.ri.ya c,;yb,o welle ,creart:OO. las they say. fflomthe .8ihouhi,ef:sa~d hands of B,fabiman. Their dleiljree is not IUllu:h belew matef ~be B:rahnull1lJa. After ithelm. :fQUoW the Vilshya. 'who were crelf(ied 'From lhe~hig;h 0 fBra1bman, The' S hudra who were
l,

CI~e1ll~,edmm ~~ f i.steeL

Between me hllnfef two e las.s:~S:. therei s .no very great d is~ance·.Muc;h~h~we\ller~ as ~hese ,el~lSSCS,drir"(:'f &o:m leach e:ther, the)! nvc: to!,etile:r ffin~h,e same to:WinS andl v.i Uages, mixed toge'It-i(ll' ~!flthe same tlo:u:Sle,s
(lind ~odgings.

(~1'Bxplii3ihill AJ-ai:rUl~i·.s ~JCltountafliie'sy.stem

of vamas.

.4

(hl

D'o yo U.tl.CI!I;I:sidlell' type OIf division. ju:sr,i.fiI~d 7E;x:plaJrn with reasons .. thms
SlilltiC" 0 ffite ia:ls pre.Ren~ed rep'tllr~iSand maJde: requeses •. A:A:er ~h~s,i~s, ene, ski rnfu~ g[aJdiato:rs land wJ!\estl,clV,S fro~iI1 d d:ift'ef!entcc:u[litrjecs sftowtlu=i:r prawess. MaJe and female sin.ger.s arnuse wi.lhthek melod ruous \i'IO~ces. Jugg~&rs exh ~b:it·ltJeir d!eXwr i·ty and 1tliJ,U ~~, •

(ill), Ua:w was the sys~eml1lioil:quite rIgid in the ~ea,1 ?' Explain. lift An~s. (i) -l'Witek:ing ,conducts the pr,imary business ef his gevemmenr wrnthe Darbar.. Hese

(it) The form~ 'Gfsa,lllitat~gn.to ~h.e:ru~cn'ndicated~e persons st3!tl:lsi:n W.ehierarchy : de.~per prf;siJ~tiGn i

represented h i~jhe:r .smtlus. Alarm of cer.e-:..mon,ia.:l salumdon was the Kornish Wlw.~j,c:h~he ciourtier lp'~ac'edme palm ,ofh ls ri&ltth:a:nd, aga[ns't hilS 'fon':he:Fl~aod Iberrut~~sbe~d.The hi;ghe.stform Was sijda IQr cum!prne,te p:rostratj'OIn. Und:e:r Shi.!lh JaJiloo. ~hese werefepracied wU:hc.hatJar tastlm and
:z:al1llbinos {kiissing H1liI~groulild). (iU}Tille le,"pero:r~s dii:'Ybeganl1llt lffileenck ofda.wnwhen be ssld his.p:r.ay~.r!i.N'9:t he appe@jn~don a smaU ba~oDnyeal ~edlile ,JJmxojk,ai,Hefit a [ar-g~ crowd ,awaill~d his· darshan The: JlhaWiokha d:ars~~a,n:_ introd~c~d b~ Akbar ~{)ugh~ to b:r'Oiildenacoep~~nce 00 imperial! ,aillith'Clrj~y.
.e

Or

W

fa) AI-Bi'~rul'lli,Jsd,esCiri!pdon ofUTJie caste systOOlJ was ~tiln.uienc~dby his stu,d.y ofSansbit texts, ,eC!!'ea1ed from ltle I"u:lilcl 0 f the !h:us hri'sbes!t easte were me ,BraltooMls, u.~he-y \"¥'(lr

lhe
~

BrahHlains. .(b) The

.Kshatrryas were the next ,caste ,cre:M!ed.'from. [he :sliloul.de.rilia:ndbands of (he Br,81hlIUtn. The V~:ishyasalild Shudres were, created fr0,rnllh~ thigh! arul feet of the Bm:~man
resJH;:c1ti¥ely.

(c) He: s.oug~t to, uniCIJerstandlle: ~n;d~a:ncasre system by .!!01okingfor piara:~ 1!~lg ~n olher s!Ilcietites" Not~rlg thatanc.jentP,e[:S~al1l SQcil~[yY.i'a:S: dlivi.ded imt(r[OUf c·at.egorl,CS he realized d])a~s~cia] d~v,is,iol'1was not unIque to lJid~a. (d)Bu.t d~esp,i;te a!oceclJlfll]:g cure sy~~em he was a~uJ:n:Sf the lotion ef poUulkm., ftlC the beJieved. ~ha~aCCQftHng tethe :Iaw.s ofliu8itJl.IIr,eaill~hing which be_comes, impure ultimate!ly becomes [pure :a~.a~lil~,1:: ~ lihe .sun cl.carstile a.ir. The 'COrn:lCiep~ of social. PIOI~ e ~ utien is lhc b~df100k of ~he caste system. Thus Iilc caste 'SY'ste1m~:s accord ing 10. b im cOAtr~.!iY H~
l[in

rm
(Uf)

Ulle laws 0 f n:atUlre. Iris 11IiD~juS!ti.fiied beeauselr lis based hiisper,Sior1iality ,~nd sdf1as ta.h:twt birth aad no] merjL ~tplr,eve:nl.s a.person from de:-vrc]orpiug

.f'elill.Uu ,Ouit theca.lste sy:s~~m was, not as ris:wd as p'0rtra_yed ~-n the Sili:ilskrit te;x:ts.Polf ,cxamp leme UimtoulC:I:Ul)b.I,es WC!ftl ei!lpected tcprcvide in expensive ila:bnur to peasants and zam indars ..Tbu:s,~hoUigh t'hey were soc.ia.Uy oppreJlsedt'l:iJey -Ibnliled a v~~a.:~og in c the eCOinom lc lilletwod!: ..
tiC!

li,QWeV,er Am~B~mfL1 faUed

1 ~•

Am.be~l{lu· Q.n:s!epa rraf:e dflcit:or3,~it~ ~n r:espl~I1!Se~tQ Ma!harm.a (],~rildh ~!g ()PPOiS,W~~o~to demand For separatie -e]eolloratc;!I for 'the Deproesscd the: Cla-.sses~.Am.bcdkar wrote ,: Here' Is a class which is ul1ldoubted1yfliot~1iI a PQ~ruUIJ[I to SliSta~1lI ruts,elfin the strliilggl.e for ex istenee, The r,e,1 ig:iOIll, to w~)i!Chl:ihey.are trued,inste:ad of p,rovid.1inS tihenlan~ h:ololi:ra,ble p L®,!ce.~rands thomas 'lepers, not fitro'r lcmdin:a.ry .intercpurse. Bco~om.kaJly. it ~s.a class en:ti:re!ly dependent upon the high~c:i!;Sle HIndus for eailin~ngjts, dai I.y b:rei:ld win, .no hldilpclIldent w~y of rnivin'g opesto it. Nor 3Fe ,al~ l;v:ays, I c~o:sedby reason ·oftlheso't::]a~ prejudkies efthe H.~ndusbu~rhe.re is a. d~finj~ie an~mpt aU tbrou,gh our Hindu SccieLy tll) belt IBve:ry ~p,oss,[blle d,oo, soas liiIot~o allc,w the Dlepn::ssed (:rnaSSe:5 any !,J!PPOrllHl ~~y to rise in the seale of life. In tbese ,circumstillil1C;es. it "you~d be:S)r3il'1ted by aU faU'~m~ndtCJdlpefsons- tlllat as ~he only path' for (I IClClmmun.~t:y !!itO, han.d i:capped ~o succeed in the S[TU,~~~e for !liFe'. lnst Qr,~ilInised tyrannyj some .)harc aga of pol ili,ca.1IPGwe~r~l:iIorder I!:illt i~ may pr(Heet .itseU·lsa pia.ramQUrn~ I]jee!ess.w~y...•

W Examiine- me
1(:U)

favour o:f ~epaJ"alree~ec:mra~esrO[ dcppessoo classes. by Dr~ Ambedkarr and g:ive your reactions, ,3
arggmlllriiwgiv'enirn

Deserlbe t.h~ !position ,ef,~cQno.m:iea~iy dleprr,~ssfd c~ass.es1"
WU,YSE!O

l
1

(IU) Sugge~t someothee

provide an. hono~r,abb~:pos:~M.on(o, de'Pl'iess.ed classes,

Or
We have ne<Vlilr askied fjr p_rivUe,~es

Han:S:aJ ,et1ica. of JB,o.mbalY M demanded j usdee forwomern~ not reserved sei~ or :f.l:epar-a;[e eleercrases : \V,e have ~ev,er asked for prrivilegJCs. what·\iVIe ha:\i'!easikcd 'for tisoocIaljruslice., eccnemic justice and

po,1 il,ica~Justice. We !ha.ve aske-d for thar lequaU~ which alone can be the basis IOf mutual respect and I.mrderstandjng, wl~hqul:: whicih n=a.l COOpClil!Eon is, not pass,ibh! betw'een mIll'! and. woman.
(I)

How ,could the women be empowered eoonomicaUy ? Bxplain.,

3,

(ii]) WI1iYdldl;fansa Mehta. ~1Oitdemand .separate e~ect:o:r3ites r reserved sea,cgfor womlc:n ?El\lP~aJn.l o

AnSi'.

,e.l,ec~o;raies, were 'essenthl~tD p!ro~ecuhe depressed elasses from th;c.lynnA'y of 'the upper castes ,and .gJve' tjlel11 the much needed social status, (ii) Sochllty used 'the lalbour :and services ·aftlle dep,res:sed, cb18ses:bu~ k,ept'them at asccial ,cUs:tance. 'They were not all.,!Ywed ,entlY into ~'emp les, Intermmxhig ,Ind. ~n'er~dining with otllf:r castes was, nat a,nowed:. l~heyhad no acce.ssto education. (UI1' EdlucatiJoflishould be made: fh:~efor Ithem 50 tha:tthey can compete ,equally with other castes, They shea ld be givenalccess, to' pub Iie ;p.aoes" .

W Dr. AmbecH.::all' fe~~tJhat separste

W

O'r' 1'h,e)' ,should 'b e giv1e:1 equal rigillts to p'fop1el1y. Access, to, educ2Iitton so th,are:thillY can he ld j QIil:;: ' 'whh:-h. ouid empower them eccoDomi,caUy. Loa:nsand v3Jl"~OUS c 'Dtlter concesslens ;In d ~Ihe necessary tndn ingcouhll be tmpal1,ed -loenab~e them to, become ent"ep~cmeu:r:.

(U) Equ:aJity is 'the has is of mUlJM3m respect. among men an,tIIwomen. men it wou~d lead 'to'cooperation betwee:n~hem.

If'women are 'tlreat'ed 211par 'wi fh

(m) She:reali5ed tila!t demanding sep!31l11ite e~eCtor:altte and. reserved seats, would be divisive-lin nature and c:rea!te resemmeat, Moreove,r~ she .wanted women norte de'pcend en such crutches or priivUegJC:s bl~ to ,empOiWet themselves by dudr O'WD efforts.

J!

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23. On the

given poUtih::.a:11 (IlulUne map of lmllia fiv·eplaees under .Babar, .Ak:bar and Auranfl.lb hiltv'!!: IU.lenm.ar.ked as I, 1, 31~4" 5•.libmdry an.d write tbeir names; 'OD the lines drawPI ft{:ar them. 5

INDIA
POUTICAL
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3·64 7~

History (XII)

A[ls.

IND1A

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No(e': T.ht following iqi~li!ftlt;()n$au i.I'N,{Y fOlT the BUnf}' Can.dldate:s in tii!:u of t,;Jt' I,fUlP (If,e.'>timr!N 'fQi. No. )'2' DN(/;' 13),. :Z2.,Menti,QiO .U~C,ta.Ine of pla,eLls .of aiD:)' two m~jior Roe.k Edid5 Bnd' tlWf'ee PiiUarEdicb tJ'f'Alilbo,ka.~ l Or
Mel'lt:~(I!D 3,111>, :5 C>lill'(.f'e!j! ofl!h e Re'\l'o~t of .1857.,

1$. MeLDtwoiii. na,mles oi'amy 'r..\le.p~:u~es umd:cr' Ba.&ntlj,Akbn a~d AlJ,ra!llg;~eb bidl~. in

5

'Q.l. How were 1b~ S,itllkDs, who came' fr.Klll O~~t!iaJl A5in, ,re,~rdcd ibf!it lk:ncnvn tiller and ~l:Re his c(!),ntriiblilt:ililn",.

or

by 'thil' 8t'a,lliutlJllIUiD,~ '1'

QlD:e Itlle-ir
1;

Aill~.

Ga) Tile Silak:as were li'cgardedes ml.ccl:rd]hi;Ui,~1'barbasians by the Brnh:mfillaJs,

(h) The'1rb~t koo'w:iIIrul~!' W<liS RI1I.dra.dlfllm:fii:j who r~bll,inlhe Sudarshan.<l: !OIke. Q..::;t Menti:~n two NaSflI'IIS· fO·1" !h~lII'i'!l C co·u.fT-o.]i)Q: tile Nortberlll FrO'nt1icr~ 'iI·.1l i8}'1Ii .N~g~;(:. b.l' f.b~ Vlj ,sIilUa,Olsof Ih~e'!i:alJ,anill tbe Gllj~ati mlers ill'! Ot:lssa. 2,

A~:l!.These

two

rider.; Wa"Ulel control

otl:lte

'fe:rti Ie riv,~~v:a:llcysalldtbe

reseurees

g{mer~ted bylihe

Il.!cOIlivc

overSleWi,IIIlide.

Q:~.M:entiiOn two
Jndi;l.

r:!licklr.51DrenjOi"jlilc~oclldand,

E'i:lOl1(!),rn'llt pll'iviileg~'S by tbe

Zilmind,3r~hi 1!i~ l!gbl!~ UM
J

Ans.

(a) (b)

Cas~ewas !!nc factor di!,~t:a~tou!lled forthe e'l'evated stalll~of the ziimli'n1ars;. The other factor was, fulll they pe,rfoITi'I~ citlna:ill .se.nrices (K1IiIidl')lat) for tile state .

.A1iIs:.

(a} A1ichco:I~{)gjsl~: rocOf.lSInL~ttl'!e p~tb'ya SlUl,dy,~.fthtl:Olfillif~C1S; w:bi,clllh~y tillOOl[ij,_ The art.i(ac~:are (h)

c~~'\Sified if! terms' of.m,aterial:S sw:in ~s..!il'Qn~ cJiay, me.tt1. oQl'!e ""!ld i¥o:ry. Ar1:ifact are also -classified ttl tenlls of ful1ctiolls., ArchaoeQ,m-gi.s:tS deddewfiletliler t:hean~ra,iI. is a ~Cloliomam.on1. 0,1" .Sio.m;elbIrlg meant for ritual lise, (c) T.lw mnction of;my artlf~ct isgl~cd ~m ~tsrese.triJll.lancetop:rceselflt day dllf]gs~bci'ids, qiil~ren's . stene bla.(his etc, It is alse idel1l,~.~fl.:e:d .il1¥esligRtil1l,g the oo[l~eXt i;~whi~h it \:Ii,rll~ fOllnd,- i'!il 8 by ho~~ drain, s;r.tv·e or kihl, (to Recourse is also tnkeflcto ind.irect'elr',idencJe. 'or example jf traces o:f coUOI1,.,are fOlilnoat sense B'a:rapp.m sites" to find ou:l. its, use in cl:oilliin;g lndireet evldenee including dopictiolls brl 5C1II,lpture are I.ooked ,at.
(el' Arol1ll1;eo~O!1li,s1:!l a:lsQ~J,~!ii'~lop cMa.1:1I1 fr;;u.lle~· of td'enrCloe

roo ,Sj:m$y the

p'tlL5'f. Th~'

s i~il~'ficaiilce ,[if

tliLerust RE!n!ppafl' sea~ was I'\O,t ILlindet.>~omlHU ardlJaoorOG'.ilS,ts[iQad II context in wh ell '~~ IiI"u:c t1 ~.bptib ~Ilterms of the clillumi ~'1u~fice iliiwh.ith it was foulMl and ItOterms of cOI:I:lp,[dsoiii. ldn w tilld~, foundl illl:Mes.op'Ot<l:IUia" Q.9.De-.u'r'Jb0 bii'ieOy th ; ,eaF:ly Slupa~ at :S:an~hhllld~l!lll,rbl1l,t~ 5
A:Ii'!I.

Sialllc1h:iStlli~

;

• The Sand'lL Stupa. 'Wliiis bUilt by A~hillrn in the3n1 :CieIrtury B"C . •' It ls a ~e:'tni~ircul'nr dO.me 1ik·e stnliCtllte.'fn.egateway.s fOl!llIld at

the fOlir c~rdillail diircc~~I()l'IIs, are '!he IIlilOS[ ~'!:riJdn'lg realllf'e ,!)frhe stupa, Each g~te\!tlaJY has two, sCJju3Ji:e pllllars col)I.t:Iet.led by nhrec JiJO'ti()ot!ltal :liM slighU}, caJn'led pail'a:Uel stoo'le p ij1Ial:s, Be.'i:1lUtifu,1 c~rvedc.:~pi~a.ls. 8JJie placed abeve 'tilt,'! iP.tn~r·8iltdba~,tiI~'dI:!ehorizon'~!J.I 'bru;e.

• T,ne ,gateways de:p.icL ;lW~itl5f!CUmlne IH'(lof Ihuidihil! and g.~la:II:s, ",om Jataka stories, They.~ Iso depi~t. ill li!Ii I5c~pe·ofnee.s <lindfiomJ desin;@s~ .. m ,1mi.loolsand !birds, III Ihese paneis, .Buddha [I!;, nol
d~p'icted in human [Oml but th.rough vm:iQUS $)'Il1iboJs such as the horse, whfc!il f'(!:prt!llcn:ls 11 is

r-e:umciation {lr 1ihe B.od:hD~ce ..mich re.:pre~.. :I:;, enligimmm.ent:.. m
BilJ:ltmut Stl.llpa :
+

Bftar:hut Stup.!! was pil!in exc~pl' fo·£ th~ storie railiiiigs whk:h r~bled

a bamboo

Of

wooden

fellce. The ga!.eways \¥e'liericllllycove.red. <meli

flOU!l!Id,

al the f01l1' cArdillal poil'llS.

'0.,10. 'Wily dlid. traveUen., wb,o eame to, I::ndia,~s'olU,etimcs n,a.tU.r,a.1 tie of a ff~dr:s '1' Expla iJ). sia
A,II1I,~. ,(a} Trave]llers

to,o!ksocLal

nu~q1Ja.liit~es:for g:r,l]nN!d .l1S a
5,

Uk:e AI-:f3;i.friUJflfexp1ained ~he caste system by ~Qoking mr parr:aUel.s mmil,othcr socicl~~c~. He no~edthilim an.cien[,Persia, four social ca:tegor~es,were reoogni:sed.. Therefore, he fell. thaI social Idii'V~sio:ns were !DOt.un ique to' [nd~a, (0) :S~aves were openly sold like 31f.1)' ,00~bercomtnodU:yand regularty' ex,ah,aag,ed as 'gHi'l.s,. (e) This social inequity was often accepted by trav,ener,s: lik,e Ibn Batluta. (rdJ In fact~whel1i lbIlilB,81~~UI~,a, reaehed Sind he 'purchased. ::da,ve,sas g;iiU 'for Muham:niIad B,j:n Tughl:aq,., When. ~bn Battuta reached Mumtanhe pr,esented 'the GOivem.or with asia veand horses together with raia Lns and a]mands. ~e) This was probablyb~caruse these tta,V,e~ners came ffi6m cCl~m.tll'ies where shiv,ery am:r,ea.dy e:ds,ted.

.0

R'. J 3.

Elp~a.hlithe, f\eal in ten ooos:

0"

Bue ha naR'5 j aUfiney

i£io'["d:Es.

5

Ans .., (a) Francis Buc'ltlJin:m joum.eys w,ern lot in-spired by a h>vc' 'of ~and!!icalPe. r the~desir,e 'to d lseover the, o unknown, B,eing an ,cm:plcye>e of ,the B:rit:ish East, India Com:p~y he lookedmioli.natulral.reiource:s

which could be exploited. reb) Wlhc:re;v1er he \V(:n~ be carefuU'y studiedtheslones"
soil.

rocks and (be diffe:rent. strata

:!!iIi1lQ,

1:3iy,ersof

"co)

He searcll1edl fo; minerais, aJt:ldstones (hR

,Cd) He car,efu.Uy obse.rved local pr:acti.ces

iron-ere minin,g .. (e) When B:uCiharnan wrote about a ~a;nd:ic~pe~prio\ritywas to el,w'isage how j~eeuld be'lr,a:ns.fomu.-d
and made more productive. He would tfytofiig,ur0 Out what crops 'could be eulti'vatedl,wbich trecs,lcould be cbopp'ed ,of[,and which should be gr,own in ~Ileir pbice ..

or sa~,t-ma:kinG,ilnd

.'IiVe!e

commiC'rt:'laU,y valuable,

'Q. H;" :ExplaiQls,(j'l1IiIe ,ufthe h'arnJwin:g eXpell1liBeU o:fWDmen, i:n thos'l!;vltlienj: days 'Olf Parlit~,of:l.

5

An:s.

(:ar) WOOlen underwel1lt harmwing eocp'erielDces during p,;vt:iti'on,.These were raped, ,abdultwd and

cso:ld ,o:ftein manlY times Over. Often t!hey were :fo:~~d iQ settle cl.own~o Iife wi~h SU11ngers .i n unknewn ,c,i:rourtlsmnces" :D'eeplyb'au:mB'tis,ed~ many dcv,e1ope 'DeW'family 'bonds ln their cha:lllge:d ,circu:mstanc0s ..

(6) Burt no s!lom:::r did they d.G :SD, tJm,a,t bo~h gOIve:mmel:W~, lalU!llllchied at p:ro:gramme ~D .lnecove r the women who bad beena!bd'uciled, and mrcib1y manie.d.Wom.en were onte ,agawn, uprooted, to,rmaway

from their new r~tnUles :and sen~ back to ·thei:r earUer laeations:. Furthe:r lr,9iuma a:w,aited 'them
'I i

wil1en Ulle,irerstwnUefamme:-s

r:e'w:sedi'to'aooe~t t~ltrlTrli and 'thieywere roroed~o ,ckeou't a penu:riouli,

,liv1ing in ,as;hra:ms.

(c) B O'~hgovernments, did nOoE:con.lU U the ,concerned '''"YGmen. under:min i'l1,g:tlbeir l"ight~:o tn1k.edecisi ens regarding the ir own lives. In an J'~M)OOIwomen w~re recovered. 21.~OO:O us~[m 'W'omenand 800 M Hindus ,and Sn~h women. (d') T!he need and desire to pr:e:se.nreoommuni:ty honour (i,z.z;ar[)co.mpo~nd!ed wlomern'·s sUiff'ering. Manls/oou;lmuni't:y's honour depended on ltis/theirabUity to plrotec~ ihhl/tbe!i.fpossesslens zan (women) and zarnin (~a:nd)fi'om, outsIder,s ... (e) Thus it was wihernmen femed ~tbeiir~womel1-wi ei9:" dafllght"C!fS etc. would be vio iuedby~c Y
enemy they'tiUied the w,omenEL'he:..msel.ve:sas happened .in Tboa Kh,al.sa. These ideas, were a,lso 'belh iud the R,eCQlv'c<:ryPII"'PBII"$mm'e. 'WorRen were ~.us~reated as ,poS!sess.i,ons. d rnsihonour-ed. raped ,amd rescued a,t.wl U and given no say inthe mSI:tter,

Q.I.
A,lJs.

M,eif1l~~on :allil:,l tW'G :~de3~Of:C UJlia~lOUiS of Ks:h.3 tri.y:l.s ,ace.o.l'ldlngI0 Ditta :li"mI:a-S ~:a:Sitra,i!i.

:]

(a) The KSjhatlr~ya:s'w~esl:lp'PQ~:edro "V:Iil\!,e wage war ,ol~bejr lernemicsSln'Ci preteet the~r -:fj,UbjCCL'l. .• ~o (b) They alse adm in.istered j usmioo. i$ltudi,ed :the Vedas andgot sl!icr~.fices pflll"fq,r.I:ned.,

'Q.:l.Wb.o wc'r,e tb:e =l!,ma,r-.nayaka~ u.n:d.ertbc .rayas i~RVija)ra Na:ga.r '1 Willat did; they dlo 11 A.11I~.{a~l1be :a.mara.~.nayali\.asW'erem ~I~tUY commande.r,g, w!bo were gi vmil ce,rnai I\teirrf~olry by tl1liekh~g [rn
I~eu a:f sallary. (l})TheyeoHect-edl.aX,!e:s and o:t:ber dues from the~:rader!" peasanrs and crafim'1l.e,n I~v:in,gin. their fler:l'i~ory. The)'al~o, mairna~riled a sliipt!.lated ODDUtrug,eliilt of horses; Bil11:d e~ephuts to :a~dtbc k~l1l\2 diUFtDg; ~wm.esef war. Q.,). nef:inc~:htl fl!Jd~IOiwin:g~erms =

,e;: b:itle~a.r &Ban~:IIi r lind s.
.A.II:5.

2:

(a) C~lachu is .~nd which has' been IeAi f1l!Uow:Fof !lto 4 :Yca1fs. (b) Baujar ~s :Ian:d whilch nas been lieft uncultivated far :S years Oil more.

QI.lt)I,.

l)cs1cribc 'th.e "'carious ways j,lIlIwhi:ch :Ih!elia.rap'pllln$ p meured
I(a)

ula.lliellr~al for

era 'h:p rod ~,ItI!U:ou. 5

ADs..

'Tbe Hl1Ilfap]lillrnS, leededa.varlcily

of ml,at.e:r.i:a.~5,amdcquired~hcminvarilausway;s. a

!(b) 1n.·,gCinem~ :s.eU~e;ments were c:.smbUshed neM ~hesQu:rce:s afraw ma:~e[ials~ Thell"efQlfeSe~de.mcl1lts a we;rees:tabl~ihe.d ,~~Nag,esl:wwar Irncil Ba:~a!k;jjt wlflere :shieHw-a,s rread.H:y a.va.!~a:b~e. (.c) FrQ'Il1l S.tlortJUghillii. in Afgh:anlista:ll. :lap.isl:aJzmH :~ very lexpensive Mue s~on.e was ;got (dJi Lotiha~ \V,as ClernuaUy leeeted near sources ofcorrneHalllg,ot fro.m B,ha;rlllJc;h~stel!l4,~te (from Rajasthan ilirnd Guj.ra.t) :atnd metals (frOinii Rajasthan)., . {e}Raw :ffilatcrhl.~S werealse ,got by s!eruUng lexlPedi~ion:stQ a~l1Ief ,feas. fCH: example ~o SI~)lHhrnfld~a 3

UJ

for gotd .. These eXilled l'~WO:n..salso eSUI~bUsl1edoommuniC'at!!ons wlid~ ,~oca! OOWl,mtlrl i'des. In the 'Khevrrn .area of .Rajas.tihallan IUinusualweaJthofoopper objec;,15 has been fuund!r,oss:ib.~y'this',arlea .:!llJlpp,li!ed

~~pp(;.r 1.0 tbe H3!rapP'!Jililis" (g) Reoent Rrt1l'u.l:eomog~c:am finds .sl!lggeg;t '[hat copper "~as p.m'bably bro ugh:tfrQm Oman .. (/1) Chem~c.a.l 3Jl]jaly,si~ have ·si'lQ\l;".n tihat bo~h On'ullw!1. clOpper 31m1d. Hara;ppooaJ:tefacm hft'lo!e-.I[mces of mickiel' stllggesti.rng; a, cemmen ,odgiin.. 'Q.9. Descritiltthe R1ainfe:3 tu reS' of ca dy ~ii!:mlple-s., Iii ow (fi:d the ,CIil.I!C:"if ~cul.pnlr,c of the KaiJl:Dshh:mp:~t at EI~(!Irn cxpfles'Sed his nmaz.il:mewH: Ufil'Cf.uS eompl,etitoo? 4+ :1;;;;,5 Ans.

Ca) The c:a.r~y temple was a smal:1 SiCi;umoe to'ooo ealled the .ga.mhag:rih;;l!
wo:rsblpp1edl '00 enter and offer worshi,p' tn the image .

with a s~n~Je do.oO'llll.Y :for the

(b) Orad uaUy a ta~ I·cS~rnc~ure k:noiwn as 'Elbasbi:ilkill:a:m was buUt over the oe~u:a~ sbrine.

temple 'WHlllls
Qf

W13:re.oft.en -dlOCQr,~tJedwiuh seulp:ture. L~t-er ttmple.s were -for more

e!!a1b:ornm. hug;e

(o) Ollie of the un i.qUteFeatUll'es of !ear~y':tllil1l1iph:s lsthatsome w of-these- were he I Iowed out mc:l~s as al:il:Ulcwa~Ica,n;s.'iI.~be .trad rutmo:n ef bui l.ding Ilif[if:k:~a~ !CaVe'SW,ilisan old one •.

,Cd) Scome,oftlhe earnest ,oftbese we.r>e COtl:!l:u·u.cted in 'l:ft\Je hjlfd ,cen,turyEM:::iE on the (girders of Ahsoka ~ fC\liwUow,ers Qif the A_jv~ka Sect. 'Fti;li~ tlllid.~don 'eva lived through v:ar.lioll!.ls stages am culm [ili:Iit'ed iIlti Hrue8th century in the caryhllg. of InenM~e ~fmp!e\l t.e.• Kai Las:hana:tha~em:p !!e;, (e) ACQJilpe~['p,.[alte imS"criptwon recerds lne am:azernen~ of the elder :s.QU i.pJtur-ea:fier the co m ple:tilon 0 f 'he E.HO~Si ·~ewple. e ~srepo:rt;OO. to. ~ave said, ·'Oh! HOiw cUd. I mak,eit?~~. H

Q.lO
,I

'Exphlliill fhestr.ucture adopted by A.I:-Birun.iin eBc:b t.:h'apter of his w,orks., 5 Ais. (0') :rne Ktt-ab~lJr-Hind 'was wrjtte:n in Arabic by AJ~mruni. It is :simph~. luc~d ;and easy to understand.
I "

(6). A voluuninous ·le.x,t~it ~'-~ beelll. divided iifllt,O80 ell ~f!te'ls.~t ti)rU)cbesIpO~ ~Olfllics, as varied ss r,elEgion ,and phiLosbphy to customs, seeial Ufe and meteorolog~, " (c) A di,S!Hncdve:struc~lirewas ad:opted 'for Most Chil:lP~efS begin:njng with a queSlltiun fol!lowed by a description based ,on' g·;msikirit;mdi~ions and coucliliided with. a, comparison ~'ith other cultures. t (d) Some sc'ho.lars havle fe~tth:J~ fuiSStl:ucture known :ror its.prl~c.isJ(l'H lowed meeh to 'his mati]hematic 1311 abi lities, (e) AI:-B.i.runil i:ll~ended that bIs book should be read. by thosie who Uvea ;don!J'tihe frentiers of the submoontinent. H'e was fa:mUiM' w:ith Sal1Jsb~t, Pa]i andPrakdt te-Kts 1Wb.lch h!d been trans~iat.cd
i,riff!! A_Iilbic.,Bu~ he

was critical about the: 'Way the!" had been "vri,tilienDlndWaIliled

EO improve

O.n them. Q. u.., Exp:la in bow UU~'Pow,er'oftlhe
Zamindars.

iuleda Jrs;wit

h in'" ,I vUI:D.ge, was mOF'e effedive

til an Uud of' ,5

A.'IlS~ ,(a) The: jotedars W'eJ'cpower.ftd. bet:1liuse:they IOY.l'ne~vast acres of land. (b) They also conee lled IOQ]] b1Jde as well as m.cnl;Y ]~ndjng~ le.xe,rc:j:si:ngimmense power over ihe P Qor cultivators. ,(c) Mor~ve-J" u.nUke'

me ,zmniIll4ars.llley

Uvedin the vlllage and cO'ldd ,~xf!rcilse diire:cll con~raL

(r!)1 They often carne in~C!I anfl.ict wilthftte, zamindars, and mobilised c ,and del.:iber,ately del ayed payments o f 'I'evenueto ;the zamindillf.
"(e)

the ryots dependent on them

WheEl the Z3;llIIi.ntim:,sl' leSlame.s,we;rec a!lJc:~ruQnedhe·jolledars were the ftim's.t to purehase ~helil. t

Q.l.5. Examine! tbe: views of Ga.ndlhij:i &l.ai'liIIstthe PartUi,oD. of India", Aos. ~a)Oandhiji,f'elt that for both lIindus, and MusHms, India i:s thei.r homeland. (b) T.huy ha ve ,a cemmen ,clI!I.I.'tur,-e; Sl'eWc the same' ']anguage. :lIind (0) TinilY ha,ve:common eadng habiu ;md! have~thesame bJo;od. (~d)1.B nth comm.Ulniti,essacrifi:ceti, and fought, aga:i:n.st tile .British ..
(e)H_e' felt that thlcpol.itJCl3i:l and economic [n'terests coeld be s:afegua:r;ded w:ithln one nation i[:so.ir and W8.S tbereforeagains,t partitie». It was particul.arly' painfu] fc,r h fro, f:or hie had al ways encouraged Hhulu~MusJim un~ty.

o!!'

.p Exommanon : apers . ··
'. ,-_--_":-; , -, -. : . ,--',"'il

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