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Advantages of Chemical Energy

Chemical energy is the most ubiquitous form of energy available on Earth. This article is aimed at presenting the advantages of chemical energy which make it the most used power source all over the world.

Our world is powered by the chemical energy released through various reactions. Our bodies use chemical energy released through conversion of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) into ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate), our vehicles are powered by fuels which derive chemical energy released through combustion reactions and our power plants are kept running by the burning of coal like fuels, leading to generation of electricity. Since ages, every source of energy used by man has had a chemical energy origin. In this Buzzle article, I list the advantages of chemical energy which have contributed to make it the most preferred source of energy, all over the world. What is Chemical Energy? The energy stored in chemical bonds, which can be released through exothermic reactions is called chemical energy. Earth abounding with various types of chemicals, the sources of chemical energy are many, ranging from wood, coal, crude oil to just about any combustible organic material. Depending on the nature of chemical bonds that are broken by a combustion reaction, the amount of chemical energy released through a reaction may vary. Crude oil being made up of a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, with multiple bonds, is one of the richest sources of chemical energy. The food we consume contains chemical energy that is derived through the process of cellular respiration. Advantages of Chemical Energy Chemical energy powers pretty much everything on Earth. Here are the prime advantages of

using this form of energy. It's the Most Copious Energy Source Available Quite easily, chemical energy sources are the most copiously available sources in the world. Crude oil which is extracted from underlying sedimentary layers of the Earth's crust is currently the most abundant chemical energy source used in the world. Crude oil is created from the chemical conversion of fossilized remains of dead plants and animals under high pressure exerted by layers of the Earth. The dependency of human kind on crude oil is so much, that condition of all world economies is directly affected by fluctuations in crude oil prices. Other abundant chemical energy sources are coal, wood and organic materials like wax. Chemical Energy Sources are Easily Combustible Compared to other energy source, chemical energy sources are easily combustible, providing instant energy in the form of heat. All it requires is the availability of an igniting source and air with adequate oxygen content. High Octane Fuels Provide Substantial Power The power packed in by high octane fuels derived through refinement of crude oil is substantially high compared to other energy sources, making the attainment of high vehicle speeds possible. The power provided by chemical energy released through combustion induced bond breakage in gasoline, is immense and it is one of the biggest contributing factors to its popularity as a fuel source. Combustion Efficiency of Chemical Energy Sources is High Another reason why chemical energy released by combustion of crude oil products is preferred over other sources is its high efficiency. Of course, the efficiency of combustion is dependent on the availability of oxygen and therefore the setup of an automobile engine has a large impact on the efficiency achieved. I think the three prime factors that have made it the default energy source are easy availability, easy combustibility and high efficiency. Despite the fact that all the source of chemical energy, including wood, coal and crude oil release the highest amount of pollutants, we continue using them because of the lack of an affordable and effective substitute. Renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy and geothermal energy, along with fuel cell technology are some other alternatives which we need to switch over to, in order to bring down the impact of greenhouse gases, causing global warming. Chemical energy dependence can never be entirely done away with but the creation of mechanisms which can use it more efficiently, may go a long way in reversing the damage that air pollution has already inflicted on nature. This concludes our short discussion on the various advantages of chemical energy that make it the most preferred energy source. By Gray Pilgrim Published: 6/28/2011

Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry


One of the two most vast branches of chemical science are organic and inorganic chemistry. In this article, I explain the difference between organic and inorganic chemistry for those of you who are planning to take up higher studies in chemistry.

Ads by Google American Chemical Society National Meeting Presentations Regio & Stereoselectivity acswebcontent.acs.org/edmc/ China Huitao Chemical Hydrobromic Acid in Acetic acid. Global supplier. Super-low price! www.huitaotech.com When taking up your first advanced courses in high school level science, you will find two separate courses named organic and inorganic chemistry listed in the course schedule. Till date, you might have taken up only a single course in basic chemistry and the bifurcation of this subject into two separate parts might baffle you. As a subject advances in its scope of applicability and complexity, it tends to get divided into sub-fields and chemistry is no exception to this. According to the kind of chemical reactions studied and the materials investigated, chemistry is divided into organic and inorganic chemistry. In this Buzzle article, I have elucidated the difference between organic and inorganic chemistry, for beginner students taking up advanced chemistry courses. What is Organic Chemistry? Organic chemistry, as the name itself suggests, deals with the study of all kinds of organic compounds. Earlier, the term - 'Organic' addressed compounds of biological origin but now it is broadly defined to apply to all carbon compounds and hydrocarbons (C-H compounds) in

particular. These includes alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic compounds, aliphatic compounds, polymers and biomolecules. It involves the study of structure, properties, synthesis, reactions and applications of organic compounds. Like any other field of chemistry, there is considerable lab work involved in a typical organic chemistry course which focuses on studying characterization, identification and analysis of organic reactions. Advanced courses in organic chemistry study biological reaction mechanisms like cellular respiration, protein synthesis, DNA replication and other such phenomena in substantial detail. What is Inorganic Chemistry? Inorganic chemistry focuses on studying the realm of non-organic compounds, which includes all naturally occurring and artificially synthesized metallic and non-metallic compounds. It involves the study of structure, properties and synthesis of these compounds. Advanced inorganic chemistry involves molecular quantum mechanics which provides an accurate description of the molecular structure of inorganic compounds. Reaction mechanisms involving inorganic compounds are studied in detail. Lab work in primary inorganic chemistry courses involves 'Inorganic Qualitative Analysis' aimed at training students in identifying the salts of various types through a series of investigative experiments. It also involves several quantitative analysis methods, like titration and actual synthesis of inorganic compounds. Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry After having defined the subject scope details of both chemistry branches, the differences between them should be already clear. While organic chemistry studies hydrocarbon compounds or organic compound complexes in general, inorganic chemistry studies the rest of subset of compounds, other than organic compounds. This clear distinction was necessary due to the higher complexity of organic compounds compared to inorganic compounds. This necessitates a different set of analytical tools and ideas, for studying both subjects, which justifies the bifurcation. The scope of organic chemistry is much more wider than inorganic chemistry as it naturally prepares a student for higher studies in biotechnology, genetic engineering, microbiology, biophysics and other advanced biological sciences. Theoretical inorganic chemistry is in fact quantum physics and people with an analytical bend of mind, with a love for physics and mathematics, will find it to be an exciting field. Both are sufficiently interesting subjects of study. If you plan to make a career in biotechnology, a grounding in organic chemistry is a must. Inorganic chemistry provides access to the highly interesting field of nanotechnology. I suggest that you take up both courses, if you plan to make a career as a chemist as both train you to understand the structure of matter in a range of different material manifestations. Thus the prime difference between organic and inorganic chemistry lies in the subjects of study. While one is primarily devoted to the study of carbon compounds including hydrocarbons, the other focuses on the study of the entire gamut of non-organic reactions. In organic chemistry, you will spend a considerable amount of time in rightly naming various types of organic compounds according to the right nomenclatures and then study the various synthesis methods of each different type of organic compound. This is just basic preparation. Real organic chemistry starts when you start understanding the underlying mechanisms that

make organic reactions possible and apply the knowledge in understanding various biological reactions. Inorganic chemistry will first focus on defining and describing various types of inorganic compounds, their structure and reactions. The division of a field into sub-parts is only for our own convenience. There are several phenomena where both inorganic and organic chemistry principles must overlap to provide us with some real answers. One such field where both fields merge is 'Organometallic Chemistry'. Hope this differentiation of organic and inorganic chemistry was an insightful read for you. By Gray Pilgrim Published: 6/28/2011

Types of Chemical Reactions


All the chemical reactions involve certain changes in the substances and energy. There are basic six types of chemical reactions. Here is some interesting information about the types of chemical reactions.

During any chemical reaction, there is a conversion of the reactants into a single or many products. A reactant means a substance or substances that are involved in a chemical reaction. The chemical reactions occur under the appropriate conditions of pressure and temperature in the presence of a catalyst. The catalyst plays a significant role in increasing the rate of a chemical reaction without actually getting involved in that reaction. Types of chemical reactions are characterized by the type of chemical changes. Any chemical reaction yields a single or more products, which are quite different from the reactants. The chemical reactions include some changes that involve the motion of electrons during the formation and breakage of chemical bonds. The chemical reactions could be written in a symbolic form. Chemical equations are used to describe a chemical transformation of elementary

particles, which takes place during the reaction. The chemical reactions involve a change in energy; either released or absorbed. Chemical reactions are described as exothermic reactions (in which energy is released) or endothermic reactions (in which energy is absorbed). Types of Chemical Reactions There are 6 basic types of chemical reactions such as synthesis reaction, decomposition reaction, single replacement reaction, double replacement reaction, combustion reaction and acid-base reaction.

Synthesis Reaction: In this reaction, two or more simple substances (reactants) combine together to yield a more complex substance. For example, hydrogen gas combines with oxygen to form a more complex product, water. The chemical equation of this reaction looks as follows: 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O Decomposition Reaction: In this type of chemical reaction, a complex substance breaks down into some simple substances. A single reactant produces two or more products. For example, a water molecule can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen. This chemical reaction can be presented as: 2H2O = 2H2+ O2 Single Replacement or Displacement Reaction: In this kind of reaction, a less active element is replaced by a more active element present in a compound. Two reactants produce two products. For example, when zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid, hydrogen molecule is replaced by zinc to form ZnCl2. This reaction looks like: Zn + 2HCL = ZnCl2 + H2 Double Replacement or Displacement Reaction: In this chemical reaction, the cations and anions of two different substances switch their places to yield two totally different compounds. For example, when silver nitrate reacts with sodium chloride, sodium and silver switch their places and there is a formation of sodium nitrate and silver chloride. The chemical equation of this reaction is: AgNO3 + NaCl = AgCl + NaNO3 Combustion: During this chemical reaction, a hydrocarbon is burnt in the presence of oxygen to form carbon dioxide (in complete combustion), or carbon monoxide (in partial combustion due to a limited amount of oxygen). This reaction can be presented as: C10H8 + 12O2 = 10CO2 + 4H2O Acid-base Reaction: It is a special type of double displacement reaction, which is characterized by the reaction between an acid and a base. In this chemical reaction, H+ ion in the acid reacts with OH- ion present in the base, leading to formation of water. Generally, the end products of this reaction are water and some ionic salts. For example, hydrobromic acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to yield water and NaBr. The equation of this chemical reaction is: HBr + NaOH = NaBr + H2O

Other types of chemical reactions include organic reactions, which involve the compounds having carbon as the major element. Some basic types of organic chemical reactions are addition

reaction, redox reaction, elimination reaction, rearrangement reaction, pericyclic reaction and substitution reaction. By Reshma Jirage