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ßoï!hes/ J JOseph ßeuys//NiCOlos ßOuïïiouO/ J
Pe!eï ßuïgeï
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COlleC!iVe PC!iOns//£Oo Culeï//Guy DebOïO/ J Jeïemy
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GïOup No!eïioµ JFélix Guo!!oïi/ JThOmos HiïsChhOïn/ J
Coïs!en HOlleï/ J Pllon KopïOw J JLoïs ßong Loïsen/ J
Jeon-LuC NonCy J JNOlly NesbiÇ JHons UlïiCh Cbïis![ J
HéliO Ci!iCiCo/ J AOïion Pipeï/ J JoCques RonCièïe/ J
Diïk 5Chwoï8e//Riïkti! TiïoVonijo
PoïliCipo!iOn
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DOCumen!s Ol COn!empOtoty At!
lnӵrecentӵdecadesӵartЋstsӵ haveӵpro¿ressivelyӵexpandedӵthρӵ
ѯ
undariesӵofӵarӵ
theyӵ haveӵ sou¿htӵ toӵ en¿a¿eӵ withӵ anӵ increasin¿lyӵ pluralisticӵ environmӵ
Teachin¿,ӵcuratin¿ӵandӵunderstandin¿ӵofӵartӵandӵ visualӵ cultureӵareӵ likewis̓ӵ
lon¿erӵ¿roundedӵinӵtraditionalӵaestheticsӵbutӵcentredӵonӵsi¿nificantӵideas,ӵto
͎ӵ
andӵthemesӵran¿in¿ӵfromӵtheӵeverydayӵtoӵtheӵuncanny,ӵtheӵpsychoanalytic˟ӵ
theӵpolitical.ӵ
TheӵDocumentsӵofӵContemporaryӵArtӵseriesӵemer¿esӵ fromӵ thisӵcontext.ӵ İʎ
volumeӵ focusesӵ onӵ aӵ speciIĊcӵ sub¡ectӵorӵ bodyӵ ofӵwritin¿ӵthatӵ hasӵ beenӵ ofӵ
inIluenceӵinӵcontemporaryӵartӵinternationally.ӵFditedӵandӵintroducedӵbyӵaӵschˠӵ
artist,ӵcriticӵorӵcurator,ӵeachӵofӵtheseӵsourceӵbooksӵprovidesӵaccessӵtoӵaӵpluralitӵ
voicesӵandӵperspectivesӵdefinin¿ӵaӵsi¿nificantӵthemeӵorӵtendency.ӵ
ForӵoverӵaӵcenturyӵtheӵWhitechapelӵCalleryӵhasӵofferedӵaӵpublicӵplatformӵ
artӵ andӵ ideas.ӵ lnӵ theӵ sameӵ spirit,ӵ eachӵ ¿uestӵ editorӵ representsӵ aӵ distinctӵ
diverseӵapproachӵ- ratherӵthanӵoneӵinstitutionalӵpositionӵorӵschoolӵofӵthou¿ʵӵ
andӵ hasӵconceivedӵeachӵvolumeӵtoӵaddressӵnotӵonlyӵaӵprofessionalӵaudienceӵ
allӵinterestedӵreaders.ӵ
Scricsͥcditor.ͥlwonaͥ6laïwickͥ
ĈditorialͥAdvisoryͥ6oard.ͥ ko¿crͥConovcr,ͥNcilͥ Cummin¿s,ͥĈmmaͥDcxtcr,ͥMarkͥFrancisͥ
Commissionin¿ͥcditor:ͥIanͥFarrͥ
INTRCDUCTICN//01U
TH£CR£TICAL FRAN£WCRK5//01ß
ARTI5T5' WRITING5//094
CRITICAL AND CURATCRIAL PC5ITICN5//16ß
ßICGRAPHICAL NCT£5//J9ó
ßIßLICGRAPHY//200
IND£X//204
ACKNCWL£DG£N£NT5//20ß
TH£CR£TICAL FRAN£WCRK5
Umbeï!O £CO The POe!iCs O! !he Cpen WOïk, 19ó2//020
ROlonO ßoï!hes The Deo!h O! !he Au!hOï, 19óß//041
Pe!eï ßuïgeï The Nego!iOn O! !he Au!OnOmy O! Aï!
by !he AVon!-goïOe, 1974//04ó
Jeon-LuC NonCy The InOpeïo!iVe COmmuni!y, 19ßó//064
ÉOOuoïO Glisson! POe!iCs O! Relo!iOn, 1990//071
Félix Guo!!oïi ChoOsmOsis: An £!hiCO-Aes!he!iC
PoïoOigm, 1992//079
JoCques RonCièïe PïOblems onO Tïons!Oïmo!iOns
in Cïi!iCol Aï!, 2004//0ß3
ARTI5T5' WRITING5
Guy DebOïO TOwoïOs o 5i!uo!iOnis! In!eïno!iOnol,
1967//09ó
.
Allon KopïOw NO!es On !he £limino!iOn O! !he
AuOienCe, 19óó//102
HéliO Ci!iCiCo DonCe in Ny £xpeïienCe, 19ó6~óó//106
Lygio Cloïk onO HéliO Ci!iCiCo Le!!eïs 19óß~ó9//110
GïoCielo CoïneVole PïOjeC! !Oï !he £xpeïimen!ol
Aï! 5eïies, ROsoïiO, 19óß//117
JOseph ßeuys onO Diïk 5ChwoïZe RepOï! O! o Doy's
PïOCeeOings o! !he DUïOOU ÍOI ÏÍìOCÍ ÏODOCìOCy,
1972/[120
JOseph ßeuys I Am 5eoïChing £Oï £ielO ChoïoC!eï,
1973//126
COlleC!iVe AC!iOns Ten AppeoïonCes, 19ßó//127
AOïion Pipeï NO!es On £unk, I¬II, 19ß3¬ß6//130
GïOup No!eïiol Cn DemOCïocy, 1990//136
£Oo Cu!eï 1ìOISIOC!OIO!O/ A JOuïney !ïOm ¡he £os¡
¡O ¡he Wes¡, 199ó//13ß
Coïs!en HOlleï The ßouOOuin/ßOuOewijn £xpeïimen¡:
A De!iOeïo¡e, NOn-£o¡olis!iC, Loïge-5Cole GïOup
£xperimen¡ in DeVio!!On, 2000//144
Jetemy Dellet The ßo!!le O! CtgteoVe, 2002//14ó
Ritkti! TitoVonijo NO GhOs!s in !he Woll, 2004//149
ThOmos HitsChhOtn 24h £OuCoul!, 2004//164
CRITICAL AND CURATCRIAL PC5ITICN5
NiCOlos ßOuttiouO Relo!iOnol Aes!he!iCs, 1998//1ó0
Lots ßong Lotsen 5OCiol Aes!he!iCs, 1999//172
NOlly Nesbi!, Hons UltiCh Cbtis!, Ritkti! TitoVonijo
Who! is o 5!o!iOn?, 2003//184
Hol £Os!et Cho! ROOms, 2004//19Û
C!Oire BishOp
InIrOOUCI¡OnJ JV¡ewers Os PrOOUCers
Theӵ pointӵ ofӵdepartureӵ forӵ theӵ selectionӵ ofӵ textsӵ inӵ thisӵ readerӵisӵ theӵ socal
dimensionӵofӵparticipationӵ - ratherӵ thanӵ activationӵ ofӵtheӵ individualӵviewerӵinӵ
so-calledӵ 'interactive'ӵ artӵ andӵinstallation.ӵTheӵlatterӵ tra¡ectoryӵ hasӵ beenӵ wellӵ
rehearsedӵelsewhere.ӵ theӵ explosionӵofӵnewӵtechnolo¿iesӵandӵ theӵbreakdownӵofӵ
medium-specificӵartӵinӵtheӵ Ď960sӵprovidedӵmyriadӵopportunitiesӵforӵphysicallyӵ
en¿a¿in¿ӵtheӵviewerӵinӵaӵworkӵofӵart.ƇӵLessӵfamiliarӵisӵtheӵhistoryӵofӵthoseӵartisticӵ
practicesӵ sinceӵ theӵ Ď960sӵ thatӵ appropriateӵ socal formsӵ asӵ aӵwayӵtoӵ brin¿ӵ artӵ
closerӵ toӵ everydayӵ life.ӵ intan¿ibleӵ experiencesӵ suchӵ asӵ dancin¿ӵ sambaӵ ¦Hélioӵ
Diticica)ӵ orӵ funlˡӵ ¦Adrianӵ Piper),ӵ drinkin¿ӵ beerӵ ¦Tomӵ Marioni),ӵ discussin¿ӵ
philosophyӵ ¦lanӵ Wilson)ӵ orӵ politicsӵ njosephӵ Beuys),ӵ or¿anizin¿ӵ aӵ ¿ara¿eӵ saleӵ
¦Marthaӵ Rosler),ӵ runnin¿ӵ aӵ caféӵ ¦Allenӵ Ruppersber¿,ӵ Danielӵ Spoerri,ӵ Cordonӵ
Matta-Clark),ӵaӵhotelӵ ¦Ali¿hieroӵ Boetti,ӵ Ruppersber¿)ӵorӵaӵtravelӵa¿encyӵ¦Christoӵ
andӵ Şeanne-Claude).ӵ Althou¿hӵ theӵ photo¿raphicӵ documentationӵ ofӵ theseӵ
pro¡ectsӵ impliesӵ aӵ relationshipӵ toӵ performanceӵ art,ӵ theyӵdifferӵ inӵ strivin¿ӵ toӵ
collapseӵ theӵ distinctionӵ betweenӵ performerӵ andӵ audience,ӵ professionalӵ andӵ
amateur,ӵproductionӵandӵreception.ӵTheirӵemphasisӵ isӵonӵcollaboration,ӵandӵtheӵ
collectiveӵdimensionӵofӵsocialӵexperience.ӵ
Theseӵsocially-orientedӵpro¡ectsӵanticipateӵmanyӵartisticӵdevelopmentsӵthatӵ
proliferatedӵ sinceӵ theӵ Ď990s,ӵ butӵ theyӵ alsoӵ formӵ partӵ ofӵ aӵ lon¿erӵ historicalӵ
tra¡ectory.ӵ Theӵ mostӵ importantӵ precursorsӵ forӵ participatoryӵ artӵ tookӵ placeӵ
aroundӵ Ď920.ӵ Theӵ Parisӵ 'Dada˰Season'ӵ ofӵ Aprilӵ Ď92Ďӵ wasӵ aӵ seriesӵ ofӵ
manifestationsӵthatӵsou¿htӵtoӵinvolveӵtheӵcity'sӵpublic,ӵtheӵmostӵsalientӵbein¿ӵanӵ
excursionӵ toӵtheӵchurchӵofӵSaintӵŞulienӵ leӵ Pauvreӵ whichӵ drewӵ moreӵ thanӵoneӵ
hundredӵpeopleӵdespiteӵtheӵpourin¿ӵrain.ӵAӵmonthӵlater,ӵDadaӵartistsӵandӵwritersӵ
heldӵ aӵ mockӵtrialӵ ofӵtheӵanarchistӵauthorӵturnedӵ nationalistӵ MauriceӵBarręs,ӵ inӵ
whichӵ membersӵ ofӵ theӵ publicӵ wereӵ invitedӵ toӵ sitӵ onӵ theӵ ¡ury.ӵ Andréӵ Bretonӵ
coinedӵ theӵ phraseӵ 'Artificialӵ Hells'ӵ toӵ describeӵ thisӵ newӵ conceptionӵ ofӵ Dadaӵ
eventsӵthatӵmovedӵoutӵofӵtheӵcabaretӵhallsӵandӵtookӵtoӵtheӵstreets.ʶӵAtӵtheӵotherӵ
extremeӵfromӵ theseӵcollaborativeӵ ¦yetӵ hi¿hlyӵ authored)ӵ experiencesӵ wereӵ theӵ
Sovietӵmassӵspectaclesӵthatӵsublatedӵindividualismӵintoӵpropa¿andisticӵdisplaӡҞӵ
oϏӵcollectivity.ӵTheӵStormin¿ӵofӵtheӵWinterӵPalaceӵ¦Ď920),ӵforӵexample,ӵwasӵheldӵ
onӵ theӵ thirdӵ anniversaryӵ ofӵtheӵ Dctoberӵ Revolutionӵ andӵ involvedӵ overӵ 8,000ӵ
performersӵ inӵ resta¿in¿ӵ theӵmomentousӵ eventsӵ thatӵhadӵ ledӵ toӵ theӵ Bolshevikӵ
victory.ƅӵTheӵcollectiveӵ fervourӵ ofӵtheseӵtheatricalӵ spectaclesӵwasӵparalleledӵ byӵ
newӵproletarianӵmusicӵsuchӵasӵtheӵHooterӵSymphonies.ӵcelebrationsӵofӵmachinicӵ
¡Ċ//lNTRODUCTlONĸ
noiseӵ¦factoryӵ sirens,ӵmotors,ӵturbines,ӵhooters,ӵetcƽ)ӵperformedӵ byӵhundredsӵ ofӵ
participants,ӵ directedӵ byӵ conductorsӵ si¿nallin¿ӵ fromӵ theӵ rooftops.ʃӵ Theseӵ twoӵ
approachesӵ continueӵ toӵ beӵ seenӵ throu¿houtӵ theӵ multipleӵ instancesӵ ofӵ
participatoryӵartӵthatӵdevelopӵinӵ theirӵwake.ӵ anӵauthoredӵtraditionӵthatӵseeksӵtoӵ
provokeӵparticipants,ӵandӵaӵdeĜauthoredӵlinea¿eӵthatӵaimsӵtoӵembraceӵcollectiveӵ
creativity,ӵ oneӵ isӵ disruptiveӵ andӵ interventionist,ӵ theӵ otherӵ constructiveӵ andӵ
ameliorative.ӵ lnӵbothӵinstances,ӵtheӵ issueӵ ofӵparticipationӵbecomesӵincreasin¿lyӵ
inextricableӵfromӵtheӵquestionӵofӵpoliticalӵcommitmentƺӵ
Dneӵ ofӵ theӵ firstӵ textsӵ toӵ elaborateӵ theoreticallyӵ theӵ politicalӵ statusӵ ofӵ
participationӵ ƚatesӵ fromӵ Ď984,ӵ byӵ theӵ left-win¿ӵ Cermanӵ theoristӵ Walterӵ
Ben¡amin.ӵHeӵar¿uedӵthatӵwhenӵ¡ud¿in¿ӵaӵwork'sӵpolitics,ӵweӵ shouldӵnotӵlookӵatӵ
theӵ artist'sӵ declaredӵsympathies,ӵ butӵ atӵ theӵ positionӵ thatӵ theӵ workӵ occupiesӵ inӵ
theӵ productionӵrelationsӵofӵitsӵ time.ӵReferrin¿ӵdirectlyӵtoӵ theӵ exampleӵ ofӵSovietӵ
Russia,ӵBen¡aminӵ maintainedӵ thatӵtheӵ workӵofӵartӵ shouldӵ activelyӵ interveneӵ inӵ
andӵ provideӵ aӵ modelӵ forӵ allowin¿ӵviewersӵ toӵ beӵ involvedӵ inӵtheӵ processesӵ ofӵ
production.ӵ 'thisӵ apparatusӵisӵ better,ӵtheӵ moreӵconsumersӵitӵisӵ ableӵtoӵturnӵintoӵ
producersӵ- thatӵis,ӵtheӵmoreӵreadersӵorӵspectatorsӵintoӵcollaborators'.ʷӵByӵwayӵofӵ
exampleӵ heӵcitesӵtheӵlettersӵ pa¿eӵ ofӵaӵ newspaper,ӵ butӵ hisӵ idealӵ liesӵ inӵ theӵplaysӵ
ofӵ hisӵ contemporary,ӵ theӵ Cermanӵ dramatistӵ Bertoltӵ Brecht.ӵ Asӵ Ben¡aminӵ
explains,ӵBrechtianӵtheatreӵabandonsӵlon¿ӵcomplexӵplotsӵinӵfavourӵofӵ'situations'ӵ
thatӵinterruptӵtheӵnarrativeӵthrcu¿hӵaӵdisruptiveӵelement,ӵsuchӵasӵson¿.ӵThrou¿hӵ
thisӵ techniqueӵ ofӵmonta¿eӵandӵ¡uxtaposition,ӵaudiencesӵwereӵledӵtoӵbreakӵtheirӵ
identificationӵ withӵtheӵ prota¿onistsӵonӵsta¿eӵandӵ beӵincitedӵtoӵcriticalӵdistance.ӵ
Ratherӵthanӵpresentin¿ӵtheӵillusionӵofӵactionӵonӵsta¿eӵandӵfillin¿ӵtheӵaudiencesӵ
withӵ sentiment,ӵ Brechtianӵtheatreӵcompelsӵ theӵ spectatorӵtoӵtakeӵupӵaӵpositionӵ
towardsӵthisӵaction.ӵ
Byӵtoday'sӵstandards,ӵmanyӵwouldӵ ar¿ueӵ thatӵtheӵ Brechtianӵ modelӵ offersӵ aӵ
relativelyӵpassiveӵmodeӵofӵspectaӇorship,ӵsinceӵitӵreliesӵonӵraisin¿ӵconsciousnessӵ
throu¿hӵ theӵ distanceӵ ofӵ criticalӵ thinkin¿ Byӵ contrast,ӵ aӵ paradi¿mӵ ofӵphjsical
involvementӵ- takin¿ӵitsӵleadӵ fromӵ AntoninӵArtaud'sӵTheatreӵ ofӵ Crueltyӵ amon¿ӵ
othersӵ Ĥ sou¿htӵ toӵ reduceӵ theӵ distanceӵ betweenӵ actorsӵ andӵ spectators.Ƅӵ Thisӵ
emphasisӵ onӵ proximityӵ wasӵ crucialӵ toӵ myriadӵ developmentsӵ inӵ avantĥ¿ardeӵ
theatreӵofӵtheӵĎ960s,ӵandӵwasӵparalleledӵbyӵupheavalsӵinӵvisualӵartӵandӵpeda¿o¿y.ӵ
lnӵ thisӵ framework,ӵphysicalӵinvolvementӵisӵ consideredӵanӵessentialӵprecursorӵtoӵ
socialӵchan¿e.ӵTodayӵthisӵequationӵisӵnoӵlessӵpersistent,ӵbutӵitsӵtermsӵareӵperhapsӵ
lessӵ convincin¿.ӵTheӵ ideaӵ ofӵcollectiveӵpresenceӵhasӵ¦forӵbetterӵorӵwoěse)ӵbeenӵ
scrutinizedӵandӵdissectedӵbyӵnumerousӵphilosophers̭ӵonӵaӵtechnicalӵlevel,ӵmostӵ
contemporaryӵ artӵ isӵ collectivelyӵ producedӵ ¦evenӵ ifӵ authorshipӵ oftenӵ remainsӵ
resolutelyӵindividual),ӵ participationӵisӵusedӵbyӵbusinessӵ asӵ aӵtoolӵforӵ improvin¿ӵ
efficiencyӵ andӵ workforceӵ morale,ӵ asӵ wellӵ asӵ bein¿ӵ all-pervasiveӵ inӵ theӵ mass-
ßiShop/ĸ /ViewetSĸOSĸPtoducetS/ĸ /llĸ
mediaӵinӵtheӵformӵofӵrealityӵtelevision.ʸӵAsӵanӵartisticӵmedium,ӵthen,ӵparticipationӵ
isӵar¿uablyӵnoӵmoreӵintrinsicallyӵpoliticalӵorӵoppositionalӵthanӵanyӵother.ӵ
Despiteӵ thisӵ chan¿in¿ӵ context,ӵ weӵ canӵ neverthelessӵ drawӵ attentionӵ toӵ
continuitiesӵ betweenӵ theӵ participatoryӵ impulseӵ ofӵ theӵ 1960sӵ andӵ today.ӵ
Recurrently,ӵ callsӵ forӵanӵartӵofӵparticipationӵtendӵtoӵbeӵalliedӵtoӵoneӵorӵallӵofӵtheӵ
followin¿ӵa¿endas.ӵTheӵ firstӵconcernsӵtheӵdesireӵtoӵcreateӵ anӵactiveӵ sub¡ect,ӵ oneӵ
whoӵwillӵbeӵempoweredӵbyӵtheӵexperienceӵofӵphysicalӵorӵsymbolicӵparticipation.ӵ
Theӵ hopeӵ isӵ thatӵ theӵ newly-emancipatedӵ sub¡ectsӵ ofӵ participationӵ willӵ findӵ
themselvesӵ ableӵtoӵdetermineӵtheirӵownӵsocialӵ andӵpoliticalӵreality.ӵAnӵaestheticӵ
ofӵparticipationӵthereforeӵderivesӵle¿itimacyӵfromӵaӵ¦desired)ӵcausalӵrelationshipӵ
betweeўӵtheӵexperienceӵofӵaӵworkӵofӵartӵandӵ individualjcollectiveӵ a¿ency.ӵTheӵ
secondӵ ar¿umentӵ concernsӵ authorship.ӵ Theӵ ¿estureӵ ofӵ cedin¿ӵ someӵ orӵ allӵ
authorialӵcontrolӵisӵconventionallyӵre¿ardedӵasӵmoreӵe¿alitarianӵandӵdemocraticӵ
thanӵ theӵ creationӵofӵaӵworkӵbyӵ aӵ sin¿leӵ artist,ӵwhileӵ sharedӵ productionӵisӵ alsoӵ
seenӵ toӵ entailӵ theӵ aesthetПӵ benefitsӵ ofӵ ¿reaterӵ riskӵ andӵ unpredictability.ӵ
Collaborativeӵ creativityӵ isӵ thereforeӵ understoodӵ bothӵ toӵ emer¿eӵ from,ӵ andӵ toӵ
produce,ӵ aӵ moreӵ positiveӵ andӵ non-hierarchicalӵ socialӵ model.ӵ Theӵ thirdӵ issueӵ
involvesӵ aӵ perceivedӵ crisisӵ inӵ communityӵ andӵ collectiveӵ responsibility.ӵ Thisӵ
concernӵhasӵbecomeӵmoreӵacuteӵsinceӵtheӵfallӵ ofӵCommunism,ӵalthou¿hӵitӵtakesӵ
itsӵ leadӵ fromӵ aӵ traditionӵ ofӵ Marxistӵ thou¿htӵ thatӵ indictsӵ theӵ alienatin¿ӵ andӵ
isolatin¿ӵeffectsӵ ofӵcapitalism.ӵDneӵofӵtheӵmainӵimpetusesӵbehindӵparticipatoryӵ
artӵ hasӵ thereforeӵ beenӵ aӵ restorationӵ ofӵ theӵ socialӵ bondӵ throu¿hӵ aӵ collectiveӵ
elaborationӵofӵmeanin¿.ӵ
Theseӵthreeӵ concernsӵ - activation,ӵ authorship,ӵ communityӵ - areӵtheӵ mostӵ
frequentlyӵ citedӵ motivationsӵ forӵ almostӵ allӵ artisticӵ attemptsӵ toӵ encoura¿eӵ
participationӵ inӵ artӵ sinceӵ theӵ 1960s.ӵ ltӵ isӵsi¿niIĊcantӵ thatӵallӵthreeӵappearӵi nӵtheӵ
writin¿ӵ ofӵCuyӵ Debord,ӵ co-founderӵ ofӵtheӵ Situationistӵ lnternational,ӵ sinceӵ itӵ isӵ
invariablyӵa¿ainstӵtheӵbackdropӵofӵhisӵcritiqueӵofӵcapitalistӵƲspectacle'ӵthatӵdebatesӵ
onӵ participationӵ comeӵ toӵ beӵ sta¿ed.ӵ Theӵ spectacleӵ - asӵ aӵ socialӵ relationshipӵ
betweenӵpeopleӵmediatedӵbyӵima¿esӵ- isӵpaciŽin¿ӵandӵdivisive,ӵunitin¿ӵusӵonlyӵ
throu¿hӵourӵseparationӵfromӵoneӵanother

Theӵ specializationӵ ofӵ theӵ massӵ spectacleӵ constitutesӵ Šӵ. . . ӵŷӵ theӵ epicentreӵ ofӵ
separationӵandӵnoncommunication̍ҟӵ
Theӵspectacleӵ isӵbyӵdefinitionӵimmuneӵ fromӵ humanӵ activity,ӵ inaccessibleӵtoӵanyӵ
pro¡ectedӵ reviewӵorӵcorrection.ӵltӵisӵtheӵoppositeӵofӵdialo¿ue.ӵŠӵ. q .ӵ| ltӵisӵtheӵ sunӵ thatӵ
neverӵ setsӵ onӵtheӵ empireӵofӵmodernӵ passivity.̟ӵ
lfӵ spectacleӵ denotesӵ aӵ modeӵ ofӵpassivityӵ andӵ sub¡u¿ationӵ thatӵ arrestsӵ thou¿htӵ
l2/ĸ /¡NTRODUCT¡ONĸ
andӵ preventsӵdeterminaticnӵcfӵcne'sӵreality,ӵ thenӵitӵisӵpreciselyӵasӵanӵin¡uncticnӵ
tcӵ act! vitj thatӵ Debcrdӵ advccatedӵ theӵ ccnstructicnӵ cfӵ 'situaticns'ūӵ These,ӵ heӵ
ar¿ued,ӵwereӵaӵlc¿icalӵdevelcpmentӵcfӵBrechtianӵtheatre,ӵbutӵwithӵcneӵimpcrtantӵ
differenceȌӵtheyӵwculdӵinvclveӵtheӵaudienceӵfuncticnӵdisappearin¿ӵaltc¿etherӵinӵ
theӵ newӵ cate¿cryӵ cfӵ vivcu: ¦cneӵ whcӵ lives).ӵ Ratherӵ thanӵ simplyӵ awakenin¿ӵ
criticalӵccnscicusness,ӵasӵinӵtheӵ Brechtianӵmcdel,ӵ'ccnstructedӵsituaticns'ӵaimedӵ
tcӵprcduceӵnewӵsccialӵrelaticnshipsӵandӵthusӵnewӵsccialӵrealities.ӵ
Theӵ ideaӵcfӵccnstructedӵsituaticnsӵ remainsӵanӵ impcrtantӵpcintӵcfӵreferenceӵ
fcrӵ ccntempcraryӵ artistsӵ wcrkin¿ӵ withӵ liveӵ eventsӵ andӵ pecpleӵ asӵ privile¿edӵ
materials.ӵ ltӵ is,ӵ fcrӵ example,ӵ frequentlyӵ citedӵ byӵ Nicclasӵ Bcurriaudӵ inӵ hisӵ
RcIational Acsthctics ¦Ď998),ӵaӵccllecticnӵcfӵthecreticalӵessaysӵthatӵhasӵcatalyzedӵ
muchӵ debateӵ arcundӵ theӵ statusӵ cfӵccntempcraryӵparticipaticnČӵ lnӵ parallelӵwithӵ
thisӵdebate,ӵandӵperhapsӵaddressin¿ӵtheӵsenseӵcfӵunrealizedӵpcliticalӵpctentialӵinӵ
theӵ wcrkӵ thatӵ Bcurriaudӵ describes,ӵ aӵ subsequentӵ ¿eneraticnӵ cfӵ artistsӵ haveӵ
be¿unӵ tcӵ en¿a¿eӵ mcreӵ directlyӵ withӵ specificӵ sccialӵ ccnstituencies,ӵ andӵ tcӵ
interveneӵ criticallyӵ inӵ participatcryӵ fcrmsӵ cfӵ massӵ mediaӵ entertainment.ӈѰӵTheӵ
textsӵ inӵ thisӵ readerӵhaveӵ beenӵ selectedӵ withӵ theӵ develcpmentӵ cfӵ thisӵ wcrkӵ inӵ
mind.ӵTheӵaimӵhasӵbeenӵtcӵprcvideӵaӵhistcricalӵandӵthecreticalӵlinea¿eӵfcrӵrecentӵ
scciallyĥccllabcrativeӵ art,ӵ presentin¿ӵ aӵ varietyӵ cfӵ pcsiticnsӵ thatӵ willӵ allcwӵ
studentsӵ andӵ researchersӵ tcӵ thinkӵ mcreӵ widelyӵ abcutӵ theӵ claimsӵ andӵ
implicaticnsӵcfӵtheӵartisticӵin¡uncticnӵtcӵparticipate.ӵ
Theӵ bcckӵ isӵ dividedӵ intcӵ threeӵ secticns.ӵ Theӵ firstӵ cffersӵ aӵ selecticnӵ cfӵ
thecreticalӵframewcrksӵthrcu¿hӵwhichӵtcӵccnsiderӵparticipaticn.ӵltӵbe¿insӵwithӵ
keyӵstructuralistӵtextsӵ byӵUmbertcӵFccӵandӵ Rclandӵ Barthes,ӵ whichӵ ccncernӵtheӵ
newӵ rcleӵ cfӵtheӵ viewerӵ inӵ relaticnӵ tcӵ mcdernӵ art,ӵ musicӵ andӵ literature.ӵ ltӵ isӵ
fcllcwedӵbyӵPeterӵBƩr¿er'sӵclassicӵMarxistӵcritiqueӵcfӵbcur¿ecisӵartӵasӵaӵfailureӵtcӵ
fuseӵ artӵ andӵ sccialӵ praxis.ӵŞean-Lucӵ Nancy,ӵ addressin¿ӵ theӵ impasseӵ cfӵMarxistӵ
thecryӵ inӵ theӵ Ď980s,ӵ attemptsӵ tcӵ rethinkӵ pcliticalӵ sub¡ectivityӵ cutsideӵ theӵ
ccnventicnalӵ framewcrkӵ cfӵ activaticn.ӵ Heӵ pcsitsӵ aӵ ccmmunityӵ thatӵ isӵ
'incperative'ӵ crӵ 'unwcrked'ӵ ¦dêsøcuv:êc), fcundedӵ nctӵ cnӵ theӵ abscluteӵ
immanenceӵ cfӵmanӵ tcӵ manӵ ¦fcrӵexample,ӵ theӵ 'bein¿-in-ccmmcn'ӵ cfӵnaticns,ӵ
ccmmunitiesӵ crӵ lcvers),ӵ butӵ cnӵ theӵ presenceӵ cfӵ thatӵ whichӵ impedesӵ suchӵ
immanence,ӵ thatӵ is,ӵ curӵ ccnscicusnessӵ cfӵ death.ӵ Cillesӵ Deleuzeӵ andӵ Félixӵ
Cuattariӵ haveӵ prcvidedӵ theӵ fcundaticnӵ fcrӵ severalӵ ccntempcraryӵ thecriesӵ cfӵ
pcliticalӵ acticn,ӵ mcstӵ nctablyӵ Michaelӵ Hardtӵ andӵ Antcnicӵ Ne¿ri'sӵ influentialӵ
£mpirc ¦2000),ӵcneӵcfӵtheӵkeyӵtextsӵcfӵtheӵanti-¿lcbalizaticnӵmcvement.ӵ(£mpirc
isӵ availableӵcnline,ӵandӵtherefcreӵhasӵnctӵ beenӵincludedӵinӵ thisӵreader,ӵtheӵmcstӵ
relevantӵ passa¿eӵ isӵ secticnӵ 4.8ӵ cnӵ theӵ multitude.)ӵ Tenӵyearsӵ pricrӵ tcӵ £mpirc,
Ŵ
dcuardӵ Clissantӵ usedӵ Deleuzeӵ andӵ Cuattariӵ asӵ theӵ thecreticalӵ basisӵ cfӵ hisӵ
'pceticsӵ cfӵ relaticn',ӵ anӵ ar¿umentӵ fcrӵ theӵ creativeӵ subversicnӵ cfӵ cclcnialistӵ
ßiShop/ĸ /ViewetSĸOSĸPtoducetS//¡öĸ
cultureӵbyӵthoseӵsub¡u¿atedӵtoӵ itsӵlan¿ua¿e.ӵ Ĵuattari'sӵ Chaosmos!s ¦l992)ӵandӵ
Rancięre'sӵMala!sc dans I'csthêt!quc(2uu4) bothӵofferӵaӵtripartiteӵhistoryӵofӵart'sӵ
development,ӵ andӵ bothӵ ar¿ueӵ forӵ aӵ culminatin¿ӵ phaseӵ inӵ whichӵ artӵ hasӵ anӵ
inte¿ralӵ relationӵ toӵ otherӵ spheres.ӵ forӵ Ĵuattariӵ theӵ ethical,ӵ forӵ Rancięreӵ theӵ
political.ӵ
Sectionӵ twoӵ comprisesӵ artistʮsӵ writin¿s,ӵ theӵ selectionӵ ofӵ whichӵ hasӵ beenӵ
partiallyӵ determinedӵ byӵ theӵ desireӵ toӵ presentӵ informativeӵ textsӵ relatin¿ӵ toӵ
substantialӵ worksӵ ofӵ art.ӵ Anotherӵ desireӵ wasӵ toӵ showӵ aӵ ran¿eӵ ofӵ differentӵ
approachesӵ toӵ theӵ documentationӵ andӵ analysisӵ ofӵ theseӵ oftenӵ elusiveӵ andӵ
ephemeralӵ pro¡ects.ӵ Theӵ chosenӵ textsӵ representӵ aӵ varietyӵ ofӵ proposalsӵ forӵ
recordin¿ӵ process-basedӵ participationӵ onӵ theӵ pa¿e.ӵ theӵ manifestoӵ formatӵ
¦Debord,ӵKaprow,ӵBeuys),ӵtheӵpro¡ectӵdescriptionӵ¦Carnevale,ӵHƣller,ӵHirschhorn),ӵ
theӵdetailedӵlo¿ӵofӵeventsӵ¦SchwarzeӵonӵBeuys),ӵreflectionsӵafterӵtheӵeventӵ¦Piper,ӵ
Cufer,ӵ Deller),ӵdialo¿uesӵinӵ theӵformӵofӵcorrespondenceӵ¦Diticicaӵandӵ Clark),ӵandӵ
aӵ retrospectiveӵ surveyӵ inӵ theӵ formӵ ofӵ aӵ third-personӵ narrativeӵ ¦Tiravani¡a).ӵ
Limitationsӵ ofӵ spaceӵ haveӵ preventedӵ aӵ fullerӵ presentationӵ ofӵ theӵ Collectiveӵ
Actionsӵ ¿roup,ӵ whoseӵ methodicalӵ approachӵ toӵ documentationӵ erasedӵ theӵ
boundaryӵ betweenӵcollaboration,ӵeventӵandӵ reflection.ӵ theӵparticipantsӵ inӵ eachӵ
workӵ wereӵ invitedӵ toӵ documentӵ theirӵ responseӵ toӵ it.ӵ !cn Appca:anccs, forӵ
example,ӵ isӵaccompaniedӵ byӵ lon¿,ӵ detailξdӵtextsӵbyӵtheӵartistӵllyaӵKabakovӵandӵ
theӵpoetӵVsevolodӵNekrasov.ӵ
Theӵ finalӵ sectionӵ presentsӵ aӵ selectionӵ ofӵ recentӵ curatorialӵ andӵ criticalӵ
positions.ӵltӵbe¿insӵwithӵexcerptsӵfromӵBourriaud'sӵRclational Acsthct!cs, partӵofӵ
whichӵ formedӵ theӵ catalo¿ueӵ essayӵforӵhisӵ¿roupӵ exhibitionӵ7raÛc ¦l995).ӵLarsӵ
Ban¿ӵ Larsen'sӵ 'Socialӵ Aesthetics'ӵ ¦l999)ӵ isӵ anӵ attemptӵ toӵ presentӵ connectionsӵ
betweenӵtoday'sӵparticipatoryӵpracticeӵandӵ historicalӵ precursorsӵ ofӵ theӵ l960s,ӵ
hereӵ withӵ aӵ focusӵ onӵ Scandinavia.ӵ Dneӵ ofӵ theӵ mostӵ memorableӵ curatorialӵ
¿esturesӵ ofӵ theӵ presentӵ decadeӵ wasӵ ltop!a btat!on ¦Veniceӵ Biennale,ӵ 2008),ӵaӵ
collaborativeӵexhibitionӵwhoseӵpro¡ectӵdescriptionӵdrawsӵaӵconnectionӵbetweenӵ
activatedӵspectatorshipӵandӵ activism.ӵ Theӵfinalӵessayӵinӵtheӵbook,ӵ byӵHalӵFoster,ӵ
isӵ moreӵ cautious,ӵ andӵ reIlectsӵ onӵ theӵ limitationsӵ ofӵ theӵ participatoryӵ impulse.ӵ
Theӵscopeӵ ofӵ thisӵ readerӵthereforeӵ ran¿esӵ fromӵtheӵ l950sӵ toӵ theӵ presentӵ day,ӵ
althou¿hӵ thereӵ areӵ importantӵ examplesӵ ofӵ socialӵ participationӵ inӵ theӵ historicӵ
avant-¿arde,ӵ itӵ isӵ notӵ untilӵ theӵ eveӵ ofӵ theӵ sixtiesӵ thatӵ aӵ coherentӵ andӵ well-
theorizedӵ bodyӵ ofӵ workӵ emer¿es.ӵ Situationismӵ inӵ France,ӵ Happenin¿sӵ inӵ theӵ
UnitedӵStates,ӵandӵ Neo-Concretismӵ inӵBrazil.ӵ
Manӟӵwritin¿sӵoutsideӵtheӵdisciplineӵofӵartӵhistoryӵcouldӵhaveӵbeenӵaddedӵtoӵ
thisӵ antholo¿y,ӵ particularlyӵ textsӵ thatӵ drawӵ attοntionӵ toӵ theӵ historyӵ ofӵ
participationӵinӵtheatre,ӵarchitectureӵandӵpeda¿o¿y.ɿӵlmportantӵworkӵremainsӵtoӵ
beӵ doneӵ inӵconnectin¿ӵtheseӵ historiesӵ toӵ participationӵ inӵ visualӵ art.ӵ Rancięre'sӵ
ßíShop/ĸ /VíewetSĸOSĸPtoducetS/ĸ /¡õĸ
unpublishedӵessayӵ'TheӵFmancipatedӵSpectator'ӵ¦2004)ӵhasӵbe¿unӵtoӵdoӵpreciselyӵ
thisӵ task,ӵ drawin¿ӵ linksӵ betweenӵ theӵ historyӵ ofӵ theatreӵ andӵ education,ӵ andӵ
questionin¿ӵ theoriesӵ thatӵequateӵspectacleӵwithӵ passivity.ʀӵHeӵar¿uesӵthatӵ theӵ
oppositionӵofӵ'active'ӵandӵ'passive'ӵ isӵriddledӵwithӵpresuppositionsӵaboutӵlookin¿ӵ
andӵknowin¿,ӵwatchin¿ӵandӵactin¿,ӵappearanceӵandӵreality.ӵThisӵ isӵbecauseӵtheӵ
binaryӵ ofӵ activejpassiveӵ alwaysӵ endsӵ upӵ dividin¿ӵ aӵ populationӵ intoӵ thoseӵ withӵ
capacityӵonӵoneӵ side,ӵ andӵ thoseӵwithӵincapacityӵonӵtheӵother.ǯӵAsӵ such,ӵ itӵisӵanӵ
alle¿oryӵofӵinequality.ӵDrawin¿ӵanalo¿iesӵwithӵtheӵhistoryӵofӵeducation,ӵRancięreӵ
ar¿uesӵthatӵemancipationӵ shouldӵ ratherӵbeӵtheӵpresuppositionӵofӵ cquali] theӵ
assumptionӵ thatӵeveryoneӵ hasӵ theӵ sameӵ capacityӵ forӵ intelli¿entӵ responseӵ toӵ aӵ
book,ӵaӵ playӵorӵaӵworkӵofӵart.ӵRatherӵthanӵ suppressin¿ӵ thisӵ mediatin¿ӵob¡ectӵinӵ
favourӵofӵcommunitarianӵimmediacy,ӵRancięreӵar¿uesӵthatӵitӵshouldӵbeӵaӵcrucialӵ
thirdӵ termӵ whichӵ bothӵ partsӵ referӵ toӵ andӵ interpret.ӵ Theӵ distanceӵ thatӵ thisӵ
imposes,ӵ heӵ writes,ӵ isӵ notӵ anӵ evilӵ thatӵ shouldӵ beӵ abolished,ӵ sinceӵ itӵ isӵ theӵ
preconditionӵofӵanyӵcommunication.ӵ
Spectatorshipӵ isӵ notӵtheӵ passivityӵ thatӵ hasӵ toӵ beӵturnedӵ intoӵ activity.ӵ ltӵ isӵ ourӵ
normalӵ situation.ӵ Weӵ learnӵandӵ teach,ӵweӵactӵ andӵ knowӵasӵ spectatorsӵ whoӵ linkӵ
whatӵtheyӵseeӵwiƦhӵwhatӵtheyӵhaveӵ seenӵandӵtold,ӵdoneӵandӵdreamt.ӵThereӵisӵnoӵ
privile¿edӵmediumӵasӵthereӵisӵnoӵprivile¿edӵstartin¿ӵpointƾӵ
lnӵcallin¿ӵforӵspectatorsӵwhoӵareӵactiveӵas inrcrprcrc¡>, Rancięreӵ impliesӵthatӵtheӵ
politicsӵ ofӵ participationӵ mi¿htӵ bestӵ lie,ӵ notӵ inӵ anti-spectacularӵ sta¿in¿sӵ ofӵ
communityӵ orӵ inӵ theӵ claimӵ thatӵ mereӵ physicalӵ activityӵ wouldӵ correspondӵ toӵ
emancipation,ӵbutӵinӵputtin¿ӵtoӵworkӵtheӵideaӵthatӵweӵareӵallӵequallyӵcapableӵofӵ
inventin¿ӵourӵownӵtranslations.ǰӵUnattachedӵtoӵaӵprivile¿edӵartisticӵmedium,ӵthisӵ
principleӵ wouldӵ notӵ divideӵ audiencesӵ intoӵ activeӵ andӵ passive,ӵ capableӵ andӵ
incapable,ӵbutӵinsteadӵwouldӵinviteӵusӵallӵtoӵappropriateӵworksӵforӵourselvesӵandӵ
makeӵuseӵofӵtheseӵinӵwaysӵthatӵtheirӵauthorsӵmi¿htӵneverӵhaveӵdreamedӵpossible.ӵ
SccͥlorͥcxamplcͥCcrmanoͥǁclant,ͥAmbicntc/Artc daI Futurismo aIa ßody ȷ̥̈́(VcniccŬͥĈdiïioniͥ
Lͥ 6icnnalcͥ diͥ Vcncïia,ͥ I977 6ascdͥ onͥ Ambicntc/Artc cxhibition,ͥ I97G Vcniccͥ 6icnnalc)Ćͥ
NicholasͥdcͥIJlivicrƼLj,ͥct al., lnstaIIation Art in thc Ncw MiIIcnium (London.ͥThamcsͥandͥHudson,ͥ
200J); Claircͥ6ishop,ͥInstaIIation Art. A CriticaI ĸisto(¦London- TatcͥFublishin¿,ͥ200J).
2 SccͥAndrcͥ6rcton,ͥ'ArtilicialͥHclls,ͥInau¿̇ationͥolͥthcͥ¨I92I DadaͥScason'Ňͥ(I92I), trans.ͥMatthcwͥ
S.ͥVitkovskyͥ inͥOctobcr, I0J, Summcrͥ 200J, IJ9 'Dadaͥcvcntsͥccrtainlyͥinvolvcͥaͥ dcsircͥothcrͥ
thanͥtoͥscandaliïc.ͥScandal,ͥlorͥallͥitsͥlorccͥ(oncͥmayͥcasilyͥtraccͥitͥlromͥ6audclaircͥtoͥthcͥprcscnt),ͥ
wouldͥbcͥinsullicicntͥtoͥclicitͥthcͥdcli¿htͥthatͥoncͥmi¿htͥcxpcctͥlromͥanͥartilicialͥhcll.ͥOncͥshouldͥ
alsoͥkccpͥinͥmindͥthcͥoddͥplcasurcͥobtaincdͥinͥ"takin¿ͥtoͥthcͥstrcct"ͥorͥ"kccpin¿ͥonc'sͥlootin¿",ͥ
soͥtoͥspcakͥįͥ ŜŜͥ ıͥ6yͥcon¡oinin¿ͥthou¿htͥwithͥ¿csturc,ͥDadaͥhasͥlcltͥthcͥrcalmͥolͥshadowsͥtoͥvcnturcͥ
ló/ĸ /¡NTRODUCT¡ONĸ
ontoͥsoI|dͥ¿roundťͥ
J Forͥaͥdcta|Icdͥcr|t|caIͥcommcntaryͥsccͥFrant|sckͥDcak,ͥ'kuss|anͥMassͥSpcctacIcs',ͥDrama Rcvicw,
voI.ͥ I9, no.ͥ?,]uncͥI97J, 7-22
1 Forͥaͥl|rst-handͥaccountͥolͥthcscͥcvcntsͥsccͥkcncͥF˚ƅlüpơMůIcrĝͥ7hc Mind and Iacc ol ßoIshcvism
(Londonͥ andͥNcwͥYork:ͥ FutnamsͥandͥSonsͥLtd,ͥ I929) l81
J WaItcrͥ 6cn¡am|n,ͥ 'Thcͥ Authorͥ asͥ Froduccr',ͥ |nͥ 6cn¡am|n,ͥ ScIcctcd Writin¿s, voI.ͥ 2, partͥ 2,
I9JI-J1 (Cambr|d¿c,ͥMassachusctts:ͥ Harvardͥ Un|vcrs|tyͥFrcss,ͥ 200J) 777
G ThcͥFrcnchͥ pIaywr|¿htͥ andͥd|rcctorͥAnton|nͥArtaudͥdcvcIopcdͥ thcͥtcrmͥ'Thcatrcͥ olͥCrucIIy'ͥ |nͥ
thcͥIatcͥI9J0s. Hcͥuscdͥ|tͥ toͥdcnotcͥaͥ Iypcͥ olͥ r|tuaI|st|cͥdramaͥthatͥ a|mcd,ͥ throu¿hͥ tcchn|caIͥ
mcthodsͥ (sound,ͥ I|¿ht|n¿,ͥ ¿csturc),ͥ toͥ cxprcssͥ starkͥ cmot|onsͥ andͥ thcrcbyͥ dcscns|t|ïcͥ thcͥ
aud|cncc,ͥaIIow|n¿ͥthcmͥtoͥconlrontͥthcmscIvcs.ͥSccͥArtaud,ͥ7hcatrc and Its DoubIc (Ɛondon.ͥ
CaIdcrͥandͥ6oyars,ͥ I970)
7 OnͥaͥpoI|t|caIͥ Icvcɒͥ part|c|pat|onͥ|sͥ|ncrcas|n¿Iyͥcons|dcrcdͥaͥpr|v|Ic¿cdͥmcd|umͥlorͥ6r|t|shͥandͥ
EUͥ ¿ovcrnmcntͥ cuIturaIͥ lund|n¿ͥ poI|c|csͥ scck|n¿ͥ toͥ crcatcͥ thcͥ |mprcss|onͥ olͥ soc|aIͥ |ncIus|onĞͥ
Sccͥ FranȰo|sͥ Matarasso,ͥ usc or Omamcnt? 7hc SocíaI lmpact ol Particípation in thc Arts
(LondonħͥComʦd|a,ͥI997) |nͥ6r|ta|n,ͥMatarasso`sͥrcportͥhasͥbccnͥkcyͥtoͥthcͥlormuIat|onͥolͥNcwͥ
LbourĔsͥ lund|n¿ͥlorͥthcͥ arts;ͥlorͥaͥco¿cntͥ cr|t|qucͥolͥ |tsͥ cIa|ms,ͥsccͥFaoIaͥ McrIŅ,ͥ 'EvaIuat|n¿ͥthcͥ
Soc|aIͥlmpactͥolͥFart|c|patǦ |onͥ|nͥArtsͥAct|v|t|cs.ͥAͥCr|t|caIͥkcv|cwͥolͥFran͙o|sͥMatarasso'sͥusc or
Omamcnt?. IntcmationaI(ouma| oI CuIturaI PoIicy, voI.ͥ8, noĞͥ I,2002, I07-I8
8 Cuyͥ Dcbord,ͥ c|tcdͥ |nͥ Tomͥ McDonou¿h,ͥ cd.,ͥ Cuy Dcbord and thc Situationist lntcmationaI
(Cambr|d¿cěͥMassachusctts:ͥThcͥMlTͥFrcss,ͥ2002) I1J.
9 CuyͥDcbord,ͥSocicty ol thc SpcctacIc |I9G7) (NcwͥYork:ͥZoncͥ6ooks,ͥ I997) I7
I0 SccͥlorͥcxampIcͥMatth|cuͥLaurcttc'sͥ7hc Crcat £xchan¿c|2000), aͥtcIcv|s|onͥpro¿rammcͥ|nͥwh|chͥ
thcͥpubI|cͥcxchan¿cͥ¿oodsͥolͥpro¿rcss|vcIyͥIcssͥvaIucͥwcckͥbyͥwcck,ͥandͥFh|IͥCoII|ns,ͥ7hc Rctum
ol thc RcaI|200J), wh|chͥ|nvoIvcdͥaͥprcssͥconlcrcnccͥlorͥlormcrͥstarsͥolͥTurk|shͥrcaI|tyͥtcIcv|s|onNjͥ
II SccͥlorͥcxampIcͥFaoIoͥFrc|rc,ͥPcda¿o¿y ol thc Opprcsscd(London:ͥFcn¿u|n,ͥ I970), Au¿ustoͥ6oaI,ͥ
7hcatrc ol thc Opprcsscd (˲ondỏ:ͥ FIutoͥ Frcss,ͥ I979), Oskarͥ Hanscn,ͥ 7owards Opcn Form
(WarsawŦͥFoksaIͥCaIIcryͥFoundat|onjWarsawͥAcadcmyͥolͥF|ncͥArtsͥMuscum,ͥ200J).
I2 |acqucsͥkanc|èrc,ͥ'ThcͥEmanc|patcdͥSpcctator',ͥunpubI|shcdͥconlcrcnccͥpapcr,ͥFranklurt,ͥȲu¿ustͥ
2001, http:jjthcatcr.kc|n.or¿jͥ
IJ 6cͥ th|sͥaͥd|spara¿cmcntͥolͥthcͥspcctatorͥbccauscͥhcͥdocsͥnoth|n¿,ͥwh|Icͥthcͥpcrlormcrsͥonͥsta¿cͥ
doͥsomcth|n¿ͥ- orͥthcͥ convcrscͥ cIa|mͥ thatͥ thoscͥwhoͥactͥarcͥ|nlcr|orͥtoͥthoscͥwhoͥarcͥabIcͥtoͥ
I00Iě.ʎ contcmpIatcͥ |dcas,ͥ andͥ havcͥ cr|t|caIͥ d|stanccͥ onͥ thcͥ worId.ͥ Thcͥ twoͥ pos|t|onsͥ canͥ bcͥ
sw|tchcdͥbuʭͥthcͥstructurcͥrcma|nsͥ thcͥsamcĀͥSccͥ kanc|èrc,ͥ 'ThcͥEmanc|patcdͥSpcctator'.ͥ
I1 Aͥ s|m|Iarͥ ar¿umcntͥ lorͥ consumpt|onͥ asͥ crcat|vcͥ |sͥ putͥ lorwardͥ byͥ M|chcIͥ dcͥ Ccrtcauͥ |nͥ 7hc
Practicc ol £tcryday liIc (I980) L|tcraryͥvar|antsͥolͥ th|sͥ |dcaͥ canͥ bcͥ loundͥ |nͥ koIandͥ 6arthcsĔͥ
'DcathͥolͥthcͥAuthor'ͥ(I9G8) andͥ'FromͥWorI:ͥtoͥTcxt'ͥ|I97I), andͥ|nͥ|acqucsͥDcrr|da'sͥ|dcaͥolͥthcͥ
'Countcrs|¿naturc',ͥPara¿raph, voI.ͥ27, noĞͥ2, |uIyͥ2001, 7-12.
ßiShĉp/ĸ /ViewetSĸOSĸPtoducetS/ĸ /l7ĸ
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The POetiCs Of the Open WOrkJ Jl9ò2
lru|íunŔscmíorícíunŔUmccrroŔLcoŔísŔoncŔo]ŔrncŔpíonccrsŔo]ŔrcuJcrŔrcsponscŔrncoç.ŔTheӵ
DpenӵWcrkӵ(Iº52) uJJrcsscsŔrncŔopcn-cnJcJŔunJŔu|curo@ŔnururcŔo]ŔmoJcrnŔmusíc,Ŕ
|írcrururcŔunJŔurr,Ŕpoínrín¿ŔroŔ rncŔwíJcrŔímp|ícuríonsŔo]ŔrnísŔ ncwŔmoJcŔo]ŔucsrncrícŔ
rcccpríonŔ]orŔsocío|o¿ŔunJŔpcJu¿o¿,Ŕ unJŔ]orŔncwŔ]ormsŔo]Ŕcommunícuríon.Ŕ
Aӵ numberӵ cfӵ recentӵ piecesӵ cfӵ instrumentalӵ musicӵ areӵ linkedӵ byӵ aӵ ccmmcnӵ
feature.ӵ theӵccnsideraΒleӵautcncmyӵleftӵtcӵtheӵindividualӵperfcrmerӵinӵtheӵwayӵ
heӵ chccsesӵ tcӵ playӵ theӵ wcrk.ӵ Thus,ӵ heӵ isӵ nctӵ merelyӵ freeӵ tcӵ interpretӵ theӵ
ccmpcser'sӵinstructicnsӵfcllcwin¿ӵhisӵcwnӵdiscreticnӵ¦whichӵ inӵ factӵhappensӵinӵ
traditicnalӵmusic),ӵbutӵheӵmustӵimpcseӵhisӵ¡ud¿mentӵcnӵtheӵfcrmӵcfӵtheӵpiece,ӵasӵ
whenӵheӵdecidesӵhcwӵlcn¿ӵtcӵhcldӵaӵncteӵcrӵinӵwhatӵcrderӵtcӵ¿rcupӵtheӵscunds.ӵ
allӵ thisӵamcuntsӵtcӵ anӵactӵcfӵimprcvisedӵ creaticn.ӵ Hereӵareӵscmeӵ cfӵtheӵ best-
kncwnӵexamplesӵcfӵtheӵprccess.ӵ
Ď.ӵ lnӵ ß|uvícrsrĮickŔ X/,Ŕ byӵ Karlheinzӵ Stcckhausen,ӵ theӵ ccmpcserӵ presentsӵ theӵ
perfcrmerӵaӵ sin¿leӵlar¿eӵsheetӵcfӵmusicӵ paperӵwithӵaӵ seriesӵcfӵncteӵ¿rcupin¿s.ӵ
Theӵ perfcrmerӵthenӵ hasӵtcӵ chccseӵ amcn¿ӵtheseӵ¿rcupin¿s,ӵfirstӵfcrӵtheӵ cneӵ tcӵ
startӵtheӵpieceӵand,ӵnext,ӵfcrӵtheӵsuccessiveӵunitsӵinӵtheӵcrderӵinӵwhichӵheӵelectsӵ
tcӵ weldӵ themӵ tc¿ether.ӵ lnӵ thisӵ typeӵ cfӵ perfcrmance,ӵ theӵ instrumentalist'sӵ
freedcmӵisӵaӵfuncticnӵcfӵtheӵ'narrative'ӵstructureӵcfӵtheӵpiece,ӵwhichӵallcwsӵhimӵ
tcӵ'mcunt'ӵtheӵsequenceӵcfӵmusicalӵunitsӵinӵtheӵcrderӵheӵchccses.ӵ
2.ӵlnӵLuciancӵBeric'sӵ5cqucnccŔ]orŔ5o|oŔF|urc,Ŕtheӵccmpcserӵpresentsӵtheӵperfcrmerӵ
aӵ textӵ whichӵ predeterminesӵ theӵ sequenceӵ andӵ intensityӵ cfӵtheӵ scundsӵ tcӵ beӵ
played.ӵ Butӵtheӵperfcrmerӵisӵfreeӵtcӵ chccseӵ hcwӵ lcn¿ӵtcӵ hcldӵ aӵ ncteӵ insideӵtheӵ
fixedӵ framewcrkӵ impcsedӵ cnӵ him,ӵ whichӵ inӵ turnӵ isӵ establishedӵ byӵ theӵ fixedӵ
patternӵcfӵtheӵmetrcncme'sӵbeat.ӵ
8. ӵHenriӵPcusseurӵhasӵcfferedӵtheӵfcllcwin¿ӵdescriptiѬnӵcfӵhisӵpieceӵ5cumcí:Ŕ
ącomČíŔisӵnctӵscӵmuchӵaӵmusicalӵccmpcsiticnӵasӵaӵfieldӵcfӵpcssibilities,ӵanӵexplicitӵ
invitaticnӵtcӵexerciseӵchcice.ӵltӵisӵmadeӵupӵcfӵsixteenӵ secticns.ӵ Fachӵcfӵtheseӵcanӵ
beӵ linkedӵ tcӵ anyӵ twcӵ cthers,ӵ withcutӵ weakenin¿ӵ theӵ lc¿icalӵ ccntinuityӵ cfӵ theӵ
musicalӵprccess.ӵTwcӵcfӵitsӵsecticns,ӵfcrӵexample,ӵareӵintrcducedӵbyӵsimilarӵmctifsӵ
¦afterӵwhichӵtheyӵ evclveӵ inӵ diver¿entӵpatternsƈ,ӵanctherӵpairӵcfӵsecticћs,ӵ cnӵ theӵ
20/ĸ/THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORKĸ
contrary,ӵtcndsӵtoӵdcvclopӵtowardsӵthcӵsamcӵclimax˙ӵSinccӵthcӵpcrformcrӵcanӵstartӵ
orӵfinishӵwithӵanyoncӵscction,ӵaӵconsidcrablcӵ numbcrӵofӵscɓucntialӵpcrmutationsӵ
arcӵmadcӵavailablcӵtoӵhimƾӵFurthcrmorc,ӵthcӵtwoӵscctionsӵwhichӵbc¿inӵonӵthcӵsamcӵ
motifӵ canӵ bcӵ playcdӵ simultancously,ӵ soӵ asӵtoӵprcscntӵ aӵmorcӵcomplcxӵstructuralӵ
polyphony.ӵĒtӵisӵnotӵoutӵofӵthcӵ Ѻucstionӵthatӵwcӵconccivcӵthcscӵformalӵnotationsӵasӵ
aӵ markctablcӵ productŰӵ ifӵ thcyӵ wcrcӵ tapc-rccordcdӵ andӵ thcӵ purchascrӵ hadӵ aӵ
sufficicntlyӵsophisticatcdӵrcccptionӵapparatus,ӵthcnӵthcӵ¿cncralӵpublicӵwouldӵbcӵinӵ
aӵpositionӵtoӵdcvclopӵaӵprivatcӵ musicalӵconstructӵofӵ itsӵownӵandӵ aӵncwӵcollcctivcӵ
scnsibilityӵinӵmattcrsӵofӵ musicalӵ prcscntationӵandӵdurationӵcouldӵcmcr¿cČӵ
4.ӵ lnӵ PicrrcӵBoulcz'sӵ!nírJŔ5onuruŔ]orŔIíuno,Ŕ thcӵ firstӵscctionӵ¸Anrípnoníc,ŔIormunrŔ
I) isӵmadcӵupӵofӵtcnӵdiffcrcntӵpicccsӵonӵtcnӵcorrcspondin¿ӵshcctsӵofӵmusicӵpapcr.ӵ
Thcscӵcanӵbcӵarran¿cdӵinӵ diffcrcntӵscqucnccsӵ likcӵaӵstackӵofӵIilin¿ӵcards,ӵthou¿hӵ
notӵ allӵ possiblcӵ pcrmutationsӵ arcӵ pcrmissiblc.ӵ Thcӵ sccondӵ partӵ ¸FormunrŔ 2,
!nropc)Ŕ isӵ madcӵ upӵ ofӵ fourӵ partsӵ withӵ anӵ intcrnalӵ circularity,ӵ soӵ thatӵ thcӵ
pcrformcrӵ canӵ commcnccӵ withӵ any oncӵ ofӵ thcm,ӵ linkin¿ӵitӵ succcssivclyӵ toӵ thcӵ
othcrsӵ untilӵ hcӵ comcsӵ roundӵ fullӵ circlc.ӵ Noӵ ma¡orӵ intcrprctativcӵ variantsӵ arcӵ
pcrmittcdӵinsidcӵthcӵvariousӵscctions,ӵbutӵoncӵofӵthcm,ӵIurcnrnĖsc.Ŕopcnsӵwithӵaӵ
prcscribcdӵtimcӵbcat,ӵwhichӵisӵfollowcdӵbyӵcxtcnsivcӵpauscsӵinӵwhichӵthcӵbcatӵisӵ
lcftӵ toӵ thcӵ playcr'sӵ discrction.ӵ Aӵ furthcrӵ prcscriptivcӵ notcӵ isӵ cvinccdӵ byӵ thcӵ
composcr'sӵ instructionsӵ onӵ thcӵ manncrӵ ofӵ linkin¿ӵ oncӵ picccӵ toӵ thcӵ ncxtӵ ¦forӵ
cxamplc,ӵsunsŔrcrcnír,ŔcncnuĜncrŔsunsŔínrcrrupríon,Ŕ andӵsoӵonƈ.ӵ
Whatӵ isӵ immcdiatclyӵ strikin¿ӵ inӵ suchӵ cascsӵ isӵ thcӵ macroscopicӵ divcr¿cnccӵ
bctwccnӵ thcscӵ formsӵ ofӵ musicalӵ communicationӵ andӵ thcӵ timc-honourcdӵ
traditionӵofӵthcӵclassics.ӵThisӵdiffcrcnccӵcanӵbcӵformulatżdӵinӵclcmcntaryӵtcrmsӵ
asӵfollows.ӵ aӵclassicalӵcomposition,ӵ whcthcrӵitӵbcӵaӵBachӵfu¿uc,ӵVcrdiċsӵAįJu,Ŕorӵ
Stravinsky'sӵ kírcŔ o]Ŕ 5prín¿

positsӵ anӵ asscmbla¿cӵ ofӵ soundӵ unitsӵ whichӵ thcӵ
composcrӵarran¿cdӵinӵaӵcloscd,ӵwcll-dcfincdӵmanncrӵbcforcӵprcscntin¿ӵitӵtoӵthcӵ
listcncr.ӵ Hcӵ convcrtcdӵ hisӵ idcaӵ intoӵ convcntionalӵ symbolsӵ whichӵ morcӵ orӵ lcssӵ
obli¿cdӵ thcӵ cvcntualӵ pcrformcrӵ toӵ rcproduccӵ thcӵ formatӵ dcviscdӵ byӵ thcӵ
composcrӵhimsclf,ӵ whcrcasӵthcӵncwӵmusicalӵworksӵ rcfcrrcdӵtoӵabovcӵrc¡cctӵthcӵ
dcIinitivc,ӵ concludcdӵ mcssa¿cӵ andӵ multiplyӵ thcӵ formalӵ possibiliticsӵ ofӵ thcӵ
distributionӵ ofӵ thcirӵ clcmcnts.ӵThcyӵappcalӵ toӵ thcӵ initiativcӵ ofӵ thcӵ individualӵ
pcrformcr,ӵandӵhcnccӵthcyӵoffcrӵthcmsclvcsӵnotӵasӵfinitcӵworksӵwhichӵprcscribcӵ
spccificӵrcpctitionӵalon¿ӵ¿ivcnӵstructuralӵcoordinatcsӵbutӵasӵ'opcn'ӵworks,ӵwhichӵ
arcӵ brou¿htӵ toӵ thcirӵ conclusionӵ byӵ thcӵ pcrformcrӵ atӵ thcӵ samcӵ timcӵ asӵ hcӵ
cxpcricnccsӵthcmӵonӵanӵacsthcticӵplanc.ǵӵ
Toӵavoidӵanyӵconfusionӵinӵtcrminolo¿y,ӵitӵisӵimportantӵtoӵsѴcciŽӵthatӵhcrcӵthcӵ
dcfinitionӵ ofӵ thcӵ 'opcnӵ work',ӵ dcspitcӵ itsӵ rclcvanccӵ inӵ formulatin¿ӵ aӵ frcshӵ
Eco/ĸ /TheĸPoe!icSĸo!ĸ!heĸOpenĸWotk/ĸ/2lĸ
dialecticsӵ betweenӵ theӵ workӵ ofӵ artӵ andӵ itsӵ performer,ӵ stillӵ requiresӵ toӵ beӵ
separatedӵfromӵotherӵconventionalӵapplicationsӵofӵthisӵterm.ӵAestheticӵtheorists,ӵ
forӵexample,ӵoftenӵhaveӵrecourseӵtoӵtheӵnotionsӵofӵ'completeness'ӵandӵ'openness'ӵ
inӵconnectionӵwithӵaӵ¿ivenӵworkӵofӵart.ӵTheseӵtwoӵexpressionsӵreferӵtoӵaӵstandardӵ
situationӵofӵwhichӵweӵareӵallӵawareӵinӵourӵreceptionӵofӵaӵworkӵofӵartűӵweӵseeӵitӵasӵ
theӵ endӵproductӵofӵ anӵ author'sӵeffortӵtoӵarran¿eӵaӵ sequenceӵofӵ communicativeӵ
effectsӵ inӵ suchӵ aӵwayӵ thatӵeachӵ individualӵ addresseeӵ canӵrefashionӵtheӵori¿inalӵ
compositionӵ devisedӵ byӵ theӵ author.ӵ Theӵ addresseeӵ isӵ boundӵ toӵ enterӵ intoӵ anӵ
interplayӵofӵstimulusӵandӵ responseӵ whichӵdependsӵonӵ hisӵ uniqueӵ capacityӵforӵ
sensitiveӵ receptionӵ ofӵ theӵ piece.ӵ lnӵ thisӵ senseӵ theӵauthorӵpresentsӵ aӵ finishedӵ
productӵ withӵ theӵ intentionӵ thatӵ thisӵ particularӵ compositionӵ shouldӵ beӵ
appreciatedӵandӵreceivedӵinӵtheӵ sameӵformӵasӵheӵdevisedӵit.ӵAsӵ heӵreactsӵtoӵtheӵ
playӵ ofӵ stimuliӵ andӵ hisӵ ownӵ responseӵ toӵ theirӵ patternin¿,ӵ theӵ individualӵ
addresseeӵ isӵ boundӵ toӵ supplyӵ hisӵ ownӵ existentialӵ credentials,ӵ theӵ senseӵ
conditionin¿ӵ whichӵ isӵ peculiarlyӵ hisӵ own,ӵ aӵ definedӵ culture,ӵ aӵ setӵ ofӵ tastes,ӵ
personalӵ inclinationsӵ andӵ pre¡udicesƶӵ Thus,ӵ hisӵ comprehensionӵ ofӵ theӵ ori¿inalӵ
artefactӵisӵalwaysӵ modifiedӵ byӵ hisӵ particularӵ andӵindividualӵperspective.ӵlnӵfact,ӵ
theӵformӵofӵtheӵworkӵofӵartӵ¿ainsӵitsӵaestheticӵvalidityӵpreciselyӵinӵproportionӵtoӵ
theӵ numberӵ ofӵ differentӵ perspectivesӵ fromӵ whichӵ itӵ canӵ beӵ viewedӵ andӵ
understood.ӵTheseӵ¿iveӵ itӵaӵ wealthӵofӵdifferentӵresonancesӵandӵechoesӵwithoutӵ
ÌPµdlIlu¿ llS 0Il¿ÌudÍ cSScuCc. d I0d0 lIdI|ÌC Sl¿u, 0u lBc 0lBcI Bduu, Cdu 0c
viewedӵ inӵonlyӵoneӵ sense,ӵ and,ӵ ifӵitӵisӵtransfi¿uredӵ intoӵsomeӵfantasticӵmeanin¿ӵ
byӵanӵima¿inativeӵdriver,ӵ itӵmerelyӵceasesӵtoӵbeӵrnurŔparticularӵtrafficӵsi¿nӵwithӵ
thatӵparticularӵmeanin¿.ӵAӵworkӵofӵart,ӵtherefore,ӵisӵaӵcompleteӵandӵc|oscJŔformӵ
inӵ itsӵ uniquenessӵ asӵ aӵ balancedӵ or¿anicӵ whole,ӵ whileӵ atӵ theӵ sameӵ timeӵ
constitutin¿ӵ anӵ opcnŔ productӵ onӵ accountӵ ofӵ itsӵ susceptibilityӵ toӵ countlessӵ
differentӵinterpretationsӵwhichӵdoӵnotӵimpin¿eӵonӵitsӵunadulterableӵspecificity.ӵ
Hence,ӵ everyӵ receptionӵ ofӵ aӵ workӵ ofӵ artӵ isӵ bothӵ anӵ ínrcrprcruríonŔ andӵ aӵ
pcr]ormunccŔ ofӵ it,ӵ becauseӵ inӵ everyӵ receptionӵ theӵ workӵ takesӵ onӵ aӵ freshӵ
perspectiveӵforӵitself.ӵ
Nonetheless,ӵitӵisӵobviousӵthatӵworksӵlikeӵthoseӵofӵBerioӵandӵStockhausenӵareӵ
'open'ӵ inӵaӵfarӵmoreӵtan¿ibleӵsense.ӵ lnӵprimitiveӵtermsӵweӵcanӵsayӵthaӁӵtheyӵareӵ
quiteӵliterallyӵ'unfinished'.ӵtheӵauthorӵseemsӵtoӵhandӵthemӵonӵtoӵtheӵperformerӵ
moreӵ orӵ lessӵ likeӵ theӵ componentsӵ ofӵ aӵ constructionӵ kit.ӵ Heӵ seemsӵ toӵ beӵ
unconcernedӵaboutӵtheӵmannerӵofӵtheirӵeventualӵdeployment.ӵThisӵisӵaӵlooseӵandӵ
paradoxicalӵ interpretationӵ ofӵ theӵ phenomenon,ӵ butӵ theӵ mostӵ immediatelyӵ
strikin¿ӵ aspectӵ ofӵ theseӵ musicalӵ formsӵ canӵ leadӵ toӵ thisӵ kindӵ ofӵ uncertainty,ӵ
althou¿hӵtheӵveryӵfactӵofӵourӵuncertaintyӵisӵitselfӵaӵpositiveӵfeatureűӵ itӵinvitesӵusӵ
toӵ considerӵɥǓӠӵ theӵ contemporaryӵ artistӵ feelsӵ theӵneedӵtoӵworkӵ inӵ thisӵ kindӵ ofӵ
direction,ӵtoӵtryӵtoӵworkӵoutӵwhatӵhistoricalӵevolutionӵofӵaestheticӵsensibilityӵledӵ
22//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORąĸ
upӵ toӵ itӵ andӵ whichӵ factorsӵ inӵ modernӵ cultureӵ reinforcedӵ iṫӵ Weӵ areӵ thenӵ inӵ aӵ
positionӵtoӵsurmiseӵhowӵtheseӵexperiencesӵshouldӵbeӵviewedӵinӵtheӵspectrumӵofӵ
aӵtheoreticalӵaesthetics.ӵ
Pousseurӵ hasӵ observedӵ thatӵ theӵ poeticsӵ ofӵ theӵ 'open'ӵ workӵtendsӵtoӵencoura¿eӵ
Ćactsӵ ofӵ consciousӵ freedom'ӵ onӵtheӵ partӵofӵ theӵ performerӵandӵ placeӵ himӵ atӵtheӵ
focalӵpointӵofӵ aӵ networkӵofӵ limitlessӵinterrelations,ӵ amon¿ӵ whichӵheӵ choosesӵ toӵ
setӵupӵ hisӵ ownӵ formӵ withoutӵ bein¿ӵinfluencedӵ byӵ anӵ externalӵ ncccssíŐ¸Ŕ whichӵ
definitivelyӵprescribesӵtheӵor¿anizationӵofӵ theӵworkӵinӵhanţl.ʯӵAtӵthisӵpointӵoneӵ
couldӵ ob¡ectӵ ¦withӵ referenceӵ toӵ theӵ widerӵ meanin¿ӵ ofӵ 'openness'ӵ alreadyӵ
introducedӵ inӵ thisӵ essay)ӵthatӵanyӵworkӵofӵart,ӵevenӵifӵitӵisӵnotӵ passedӵonӵtoӵtheӵ
addresseeӵ inӵ anӵ unfinishedӵ state,ӵ demandsӵ aӵ free,ӵ inventiveӵ response,ӵ ifӵ onlyӵ
becauseӵitӵcannotӵreallyӵbeӵappreciatedӵunlessӵtheӵperformerӵsomehowӵreinventsӵ
itӵ inӵ psycholo¿icalӵ collaborationӵ withӵ theӵ authorӵ himself̈ӵ Ɩetӵ thisӵ remarkӵ
representsӵtheӵtheoreticalӵperceptionӵofӵcontemporaryӵaesthetics,ӵachievedӵonlyӵ
afterӵpainstakin¿ӵconsiderationӵofӵtheӵfunctionӵofӵartisticӵperformance,ӵcertainlyӵ
anӵartistӵofӵaӵfewӵcenturiesӵa¿oӵwasӵfarӵfromӵbein¿ӵawareӵofӵtheseӵissues.ӵlnsteadӵ
nowadaysӵitӵisӵprimarilyӵtheӵartistӵwhoӵisӵawareӵofӵitsӵimplications̆ӵlnӵfact,ӵratherӵ
thanӵ submitӵ toӵ theӵ 'openness'ӵ asӵ anӵ inescapableӵ elementӵ ofӵ artisticӵ
interpretation,ӵheӵsuȫsumesӵitӵintoӵaӵpositiveӵaspectӵofӵhisӵproduction,ӵrecastin¿ӵ
theӵwoſkӵsoӵasӵtoӵexposeӵitӵtoӵtheӵmaximumӵpossibleӵ'openƠn¿'.ӵ
Theӵforceӵofӵtheӵsub¡ectiveӵelementӵinӵtheӵinterpretationӵofӵaӵworkӵofӵartӵ¦anyӵ
interpretationӵ impliesӵ anӵinterplayӵbetweenӵtheӵ addresseeӵandӵtheӵworkӵasӵanӵ
ob¡ectiveӵ factƈӵ wasӵ noticedӵ byӵ classicalӵ writers,ӵ especiallyӵ whenӵ theyӵ setӵ
themselvesӵ toӵ considerӵ theӵ fi¿urativeӵ arts.ӵ lnӵ theӵ 5opnísrŔ Platoӵ observesӵ thatӵ
paintersӵ su¿¿estӵ proportionsӵ notӵ byӵ followin¿ӵ someӵ ob¡ectiveӵ canonӵ butӵ byӵ
¡ud¿in¿ӵ'themӵinӵrelationӵtoӵtheӵan¿leӵfromӵwhichӵtheyӵareӵseenӵbyӵtheӵobserver'.ӵ
Vitruviusӵmakesӵaӵdistinctionӵbetweenӵ'symmetry'ӵandӵ'eurhythmy',ӵmeanin¿ӵbyӵ
thisӵlatterӵtermӵanӵad¡ustmentӵofӵob¡ectiveӵproportionsӵtoӵtheӵrequirementsӵofӵaӵ
sub¡ectiveӵ vision.ӵ Theӵ scientificӵ andӵ practicalӵdevelopmentӵofӵ theӵ techniqueӵ ofӵ
perspectiveӵ bearsӵ witnessӵ toӵ theӵ ¿radualӵ maturationӵ ofӵ thisӵ awarenessӵ ofӵ anӵ
interpretativeӵsub¡ectivityӵpittedӵa¿ainstӵtheӵworkӵofӵart.ӵƖetӵitӵisӵequallyӵcertainӵ
thatӵthisӵawarenessӵhasӵledӵtoӵaӵtendencyӵtoӵoperateӵa¿ainstӵtheӵ'openness'ӵofӵtheӵ
work,ӵtoӵfavourӵitsӵ 'closin¿ӵout'.ӵTheӵvariousӵdevicesӵofӵperspectiveӵwereӵ¡ustӵsoӵ
manyӵ differentӵ concessionsӵ toӵ theӵ actualӵ locationӵ ofӵ theӵ observerӵ inӵ orderӵ toӵ
ensureӵthatӵheӵ lookedӵatӵtheӵfi¿ureӵinӵrncŔon|¸Ŕpossíc|cŔrí¿nrŔwu¸Ŕ thatӵis,ӵtheӵwayӵ
theӵ authorӵofӵ theӵ workӵ hadӵ prescribed,ӵbyӵ providin¿ӵvariousӵvisualӵ devicesӵforӵ
theӵobserver'sӵattentionӵtoӵfocusӵon.ӵ
Letӵusӵconsiderӵanotherӵexample.ӵlnӵtheӵMiddleӵA¿esӵthereӵ¿rewӵupӵaӵtheoryӵ
ofӵ alle¿oryӵ
whichӵ positedӵ theӵ possibilityӵ ofӵ readin¿ӵ theӵ Scripturesӵ (andӵ
Eco//TheĸPoe!icSĸo!ĸ!heĸOpenĸWotk/ĸ /2öĸ
ķeȚrǦʎŚoɰsseɱrʎƝtƹƩʎbʅʎūȈbertoʎįƕoʎǥȘʎũeʎŗȹeșʎűȭɇdz,¬)6zʎ
eventuallyӵpoetry,ӵ fi¿urativeӵ arts)ӵ notӵ¡ustӵ inӵ theӵliteralӵ senseӵbutӵalsoӵ inӵthreeӵ
otherӵ sensesŰӵ theӵ moral,ӵ theӵalle¿oricalӵandӵ theӵana¿o¿icaɱ.ӵThisӵtheoryӵisӵwellӵ
knownӵfromӵaӵpassa¿eӵinӵDante,ӵbutӵitsӵrootsӵ¿oӵbackӵtoӵSaintӵPaulӵ¦'vidcmusŔnuncŔ
pcrŔspccu|umŔínŔucní¿mutc.ŔtuncŔuutcmjuccŔudjuccm`)Ŕ['Forӵnowӵweӵseeӵthrou¿hӵ
aӵ ¿lass,ӵ darkly,ӵ butӵ thenӵ faceӵ toӵ face'ĉ̉ӵ andӵ itӵ wasӵ developedӵ byӵ Saintӵ|erome,ӵ
Au¿ustine,ӵBede,ӵScotusӵFri¿ena,ӵHu¿hӵandӵRichardӵofӵSaintӵVictor,ӵAlainӵofӵ Lille,ӵ
Bonaventure,ӵAquinasӵandӵothersӵ inӵsкchӵaӵwayӵasӵtoӵrepresentӵaӵcardinalӵpointӵ
ofӵ medievalӵ poetics.ӵ Aӵ workӵ inӵ thisӵ senseӵ isӵ undoubtedlyӵ endoweΟlӵ withӵ aӵ
measureӵ ofӵ 'openness'Ėӵ Theӵ readerӵofӵ theӵ textӵknowsӵ thatӵ everyӵ sentenceӵ andӵ
everyӵtropeӵisӵ'open'ӵtoӵaӵ multiplicityӵofӵ meanin¿sӵwhichӵheӵmustӵ huntӵforӵandӵ
find.ӵ lndeed,ӵ accordin¿ӵtoӵ howӵ heӵ feelsӵ atӵoneӵ particularӵ moment,ӵ theӵ readerӵ
mi¿htӵ chooseӵ aӵ possibleӵ interpretativeӵ keyӵwhichӵ strikesӵ himӵ asӵexemplaryӵofӵ
thisӵ spiritualӵ state.ӵ Heӵ willӵ uscŔ theӵ workӵaccordin¿ӵ toӵ theӵ desiredӵ meanin¿ӵ
¦causin¿ӵitӵtoӵcomeӵaliveӵa¿ain,ӵsomehowӵdifferentӵfromӵtheӵwayӵheӵviewedӵitӵatӵ
anӵearlierӵreadin¿).ӵHowever,ӵinӵthisӵвƫpeӵofӵoperation,ӵ'openness'ӵisӵfarӵremovedӵ
fromӵ meanin¿ӵ'indefiniteness'ӵofӵcommunication,ӵ'infinite'ӵpossibilitiesӵofӵform,ӵ
andӵcompleteӵfreedomӵofӵreception.ӵWhatӵinӵfactӵisӵmadeӵavailableӵisӵaӵran¿eӵofӵ
ri¿idlyӵpre-establishedӵ andӵ ordainedӵ interpretativeӵ solutions,ӵ andӵ theseӵ neverӵ
allowӵtheӵreaderӵtoӵmoveӵoutsideӵtheӵstrictӵcontrolӵofӵtheӵauthor.ӵDanteӵsumsӵupӵ
theӵissueӵinӵhisӵthirteenthӵLetter̳ӵ
We shƘllӵ considerӵ theӵ followin¿ӵ linesӵ inӵ orderӵtoӵ makeӵ thisӵtypeӵ ofӵ treatmentӵ
clearer̬ӵ lnŔ cxítuŔ lsroclŔ dcŔ cĤpto,Ŕ domusŔijucocŔ dcŔ populoŔcurcuro,ŔĚuctuŔ cstŔĴudcuŔ
sunctĭěicutíoŔcius,ŔlsroclŔpotcstusŔcĬus.Ŕ[Whenӵlsraelӵwentӵoutӵofӵij¿ypt,ӵtheӵhouseӵofӵ
|acobӵfromӵaӵpeopleӵofӵstran¿eӵlan¿ua¿e,ӵ|udΉhӵwƘsӵ hisӵsanctuary,ӵandӵlsraelӵhisӵ
dominion˚šӵľowӵifӵweӵŤustӵconsiderӵtheӵliteralӵmeanin¿,ӵwhatӵisӵmeantӵhereӵisӵtheӵ
departureӵofӵtheӵchildrenӵofӵlsraelӵfromӵF¿yptӵatӵtheӵtimeӵofӵMoses.ӵlfӵweӵconsiderӵ
theӵ alle¿ory,ӵ whatӵ isӵ meƘntӵ isӵ ou҉ӵ humanӵ redemptionӵ throu¿hӵ ŝhrist.ӵ lfӵ weӵ
considerӵ theӵ moralӵ sense,ӵ whatӵ isӵ meantӵ isӵ theӵ conversionӵ ofӵ theӵ soulӵ fromӵ theӵ
tormentӵandӵa¿onyӵofӵsinӵtoӵaӵstateӵofӵ¿race.ӵFinally,ӵifӵweӵconsiderӵtheӵƘna¿o¿icalӵ
sense,ӵ whatӵ isӵ meantӵ isӵ theӵ releaseӵ ofӵ theӵ spiritӵ fromӵ theӵ bonda¿eӵ ofӵ thisӵ
corruptionӵtoӵtheӵfreedomӵofӵeternalӵ¿lory.ӵ
ltӵ isӵobviousӵatӵthisӵpointӵthatӵallӵavailableӵpossibilitiesӵofӵinterpretationӵhaveӵ
beenӵ exhausted.ӵTheӵ readerӵ canӵ concentrateӵ hisӵ attentionӵonӵ oneӵ senseӵratherӵ
thanӵonӵanother,ӵ inӵtheӵlimiteǍӵspaceӵofӵthisӵ four-tieredӵ sentence,ӵ butӵheӵmustӵ
alwaysӵ followӵ rulesӵthatӵ entailӵ aӵ ri¿idӵ univocality.ӵTheӵmeanin¿ӵofӵalle¿oricalӵ
fi¿uresӵandӵemblemsӵwhichӵtheӵmedievalӵreaderӵisӵlikelyӵtoӵencounterӵisӵalreadyӵ
prescribedӵ byӵ hisӵ encyclopaedias,ӵ bestiariesӵ andӵ lapidaries.ӵ Anyӵ symbolismӵ isӵ
ob¡ectivelyӵ definedӵ andӵ or¿anizedӵ intoӵaӵ system.ӵ Underpinnin¿ӵ thisӵ poeticsӵ ofӵ
Eco/ĸ/TheĸPoe!icSĸo!ĸ!heĸOpenĸWotk/ĸ/2õĸ
theӵnecessaryӵandӵtheӵunivocalӵisӵanӵorderedӵcosmos,ӵaӵhierarchyӵofӵessencesӵandӵ
lawsӵ whichӵ poeticӵ discourseӵ canӵ clarifyӵ atӵ severalӵ levels,ӵ butӵ whichӵ eachӵ
individualӵmustӵunderstandӵinӵtheӵonlyӵpossibleӵway,ӵtheӵoneӵdeterminedӵbyӵtheӵ
creativeӵ|c¿cs.ŔTheӵorderӵofӵaӵworkӵofӵartӵinӵthisӵperiodӵisӵaӵmirrorӵofӵimperialӵandӵ
theocraticӵsociety.ӵTheӵlawsӵ¿overnin¿ӵtextualӵinterpretationӵareӵtheӵlawsӵofӵanӵ
authoritarianӵre¿imeӵwhichӵ¿uideӵtheӵindividualӵinӵhisӵeveryӵaction,ӵprescribin¿ӵ
theӵendsӵforӵhimӵandӵofferin¿ӵhimӵtheӵmeansӵtoӵattainӵthem.ӵ
Ētӵisӵ notӵthatӵtheӵȷŔɢťӵsolutionsӵofӵtheӵalle¿oricalӵ passa¿eӵareӵquantitativelyӵ
moreӵ limitedӵ thanӵ theӵmun¸Ŕ possibleӵ solutionsӵofӵaӵ contemporaryӵ'open'ӵwork.ӵ
AsӵĒӵ shallӵ tryӵtoӵ show,ӵitӵisӵaӵdifferentӵvisionӵofӵtheӵworldӵwhichӵliesӵ underӵtheseӵ
differentӵaestheticӵexperiences.ӵ
Ēfӵweӵlimitӵourselvesӵtoӵaӵnumberӵofӵcursoryӵhistoricalӵ¿limpses,ӵweӵcanӵfindӵ
oneӵ strikin¿ӵ aspectӵ ofӵ 'openness'ӵ inӵ theӵ 'openӵ form'ӵ ofӵ Baroque.ӵ Hereӵ itӵ isӵ
preciselyӵ theӵ staticӵ andӵ unquestionableӵ definitivenessӵ ofӵ theӵ classicalӵ
Renaissanceӵformӵwhichӵisӵdenied.ӵtheӵcanonsӵofӵspaceӵextendedӵroundӵaӵcentralӵ
axis,ӵclosedӵinӵbyӵsymmetricalӵlinesӵandӵshutӵan¿lesӵwhichӵca¡oleӵtheӵeyeӵtowardӵ
theӵcentreӵ inӵ suchӵ aӵwayӵasӵtoӵ su¿¿estӵ anӵideaӵofӵ'essential'ӵ eternityӵ ratherӵ thanӵ
movement.ӵBaroqueӵformӵisӵdynamicDžӵ itӵtendsӵtoӵanӵindeterminacyӵofӵeffectӵ¦inӵ
itsӵ playӵ ofӵ solidӵ andӵ void,ӵ li¿htӵ andӵ darkness,ӵ withӵitsӵ curvature,ӵ itsӵ brokenӵ
surfaces,ӵitsӵwidelyӵdiversifƠedӵan¿lesӵofӵinclination),ӵitӵconveysӵtheӵideaӵofӵspaceӵ
bein¿ӵpro¿ressƠvelyӵdilated.ӵ ĒtsӵsearchӵforӵkineticӵǐxcƠtǐmentӵandӵillusoryӵeffectӵ
leadsӵ toӵ aӵ situationӵ whereӵ theӵ plasticӵ massӵ inӵ theӵ Baroqueӵ workӵ ofӵ artӵ neverӵ
allowsӵ aӵ privile¿ed,ӵ definitive,ӵfrontalӵ view,ӵ rather,ӵ itӵ inducesӵ theӵ spectatorӵtoӵ
shiftӵ hisӵ positionӵ continuouslyӵ inӵ orderӵ toӵ seeӵ theӵ workӵ inӵ constantlyӵ newӵ
aspects,ӵ asӵ ifӵ itӵwereӵ inӵ aӵ stateӵ ofӵperpetualӵ transformation.ӵ Nowӵ ifӵBaroqueӵ
spiritualityӵisӵtoӵbeӵseenӵasӵtheӵfirstӵclearӵmanifestationӵofӵmodernӵcultureӵ andӵ
sensitivity,ӵ itӵ isӵ becauseӵ here,ӵforӵtheӵfirstӵtime,ӵ manӵ optsӵ outӵ ofӵtheӵ canonӵ ofӵ
authorizedӵresponsesӵandӵfindsӵthatӵheӵisӵfacedӵ(bothӵinӵartӵandӵinӵscience)ӵbyӵaӵ
worldӵ inӵ aӵ ǒuidӵ stateӵwhichӵ requiresӵ correspondin¿ӵcreativityӵonӵhisӵ part.ӵTheӵ
poeticӵtreatisesӵconcernin¿ӵ'muruví¿ću',Ŕ'wit',ӵ'u¿uJczus',Ŕandӵsoӵonӵreallyӵstrainӵtoӵ
¿oӵ furtherӵthanӵ theirӵapparentlyӵ Byzantineӵappearanceűӵ theyӵ seekӵtoӵ establishӵ
theӵnewӵman'sӵinventiveӵrole.ӵHeӵisӵnoӵlon¿erӵtoӵseeӵtheӵworkӵofӵartӵasӵanӵob¡ectӵ
whichӵdrawsӵonӵ¿ivenӵlinksӵwithӵexperienceӵandӵwhichӵdemandsӵtoӵ beӵen¡oyed,ӵ
nowӵheӵseesӵ itӵasӵaӵ potentialӵmysteryӵtoӵbeӵsolved,ӵaӵroleӵtoӵfulIil,ӵaӵ stimulusӵ toӵ
quickenӵhisӵima¿ination.ӵNonetheless,ӵevenӵ theseӵconclusionsӵhaveӵbeenӵcodifiedӵ
byӵmodernӵcriticismӵandӵor¿anizedӵintoӵaestheticӵcanons.ӵ lnӵfact,ӵitӵwouldӵbeӵrashӵ
toӵ interpretӵBaroqueӵpoeticsӵasӵaӵconsciousӵtheoryӵofӵtheӵ'openӵwork'.ӵ
Betweenӵ classicismӵ andӵ theӵ Fnli¿htenment,ӵ thereӵ developedӵ aӵ furtherӵ
conceptӵ whichӵ isӵ ofӵinterestӵtoӵ usӵ inӵ theӵpresentӵcontext.ӵTheӵ conceptӵ ofӵ'pureӵ
poetry'ӵ ¿ainedӵ currencyӵ forӵ theӵveryӵreasonӵ thatӵ¿eneralӵ notionsӵ andӵ abstractӵ
2ó//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
canonsӵ fcllӵ outӵ outӵ fashion,ӵ whilcӵ thcӵ traditionӵ ofӵ Fn¿lishӵ cmpiricismӵ
incrcasin¿lyӵar¿ucdӵinӵfavourӵ ofӵthcӵŖfrccdom'ӵofӵthcӵpoctӵandӵsctӵthcӵsta¿cӵforӵ
thcӵcomin¿ӵthcoricsӵofӵcrcativity.ӵFromӵBurkc'sӵdcclarationsӵaboutӵthcӵcmotionalӵ
powcrӵofӵwords,ӵitӵwasӵaӵshortӵstcpӵtoӵ NȪvalis'ӵvicwӵofӵthcӵpurcӵcvocativcӵpowcrӵ
ofӵpoctryӵasӵanӵartӵofӵblurrcdӵscnscӵandӵva¿ucӵoutlincs.ӵAnӵidcaӵisӵnowӵhclţгӵtoӵbcӵ
allӵthcӵmorcӵori¿inalӵandӵstimulatin¿ӵinӵsoӵfarӵasӵitӵ'allowsӵforӵaӵ¿rcatcrӵintcrplayӵ
andӵ mutualӵ convcr¿cnccӵ ofӵ conccpts,ӵ lifc-vicwsӵ andӵ attitudcs.ӵ Whcnӵ aӵ workӵ
offcrsӵ aӵ multitudcӵ ofӵ intcntions,ӵ aӵ pluralityӵ ofӵ mcanin¿,ӵ andӵ abovcӵ allӵ aӵ widcӵ
varictyӵofӵdiffcrcntӵwaysӵofӵbcin¿ӵundcrstoodӵandӵapprcciatcd,ӵthcnӵundcrӵthcscӵ
conditionsӵwcӵcanӵonlyӵconcludcӵthatӵitӵisӵ ofӵvitalӵ intcrcstӵandӵthΊtӵitӵisӵaӵ purcӵ
cxprcssionӵofӵpcrsonality.
ƃӵ
Toӵ closcӵourӵconsidcrationӵofӵthcӵRomanticӵpcriod,ӵitӵwillӵbcӵuscfulӵtoӵrcfcrӵtoӵ
thcӵ IĊrstӵ occasionӵ whcnӵ aӵ consciousӵ pocticsӵ ofӵ thcӵ opcnӵ workӵ appcars.ӵ Thcӵ
momcntӵisӵlatc-ninctccnth-ccnturyӵSymbolism,ӵthcӵtcxtӵisӵVcrNJainc'sȔҊӂӵIocriçuc.Ŕ
ÐcŔĻoŔmŏĽsiçucŔovonrŔrourcŔčnosc,Ŕ
crŔpourŔĎcloŔprēĞrcŔ|'impoirŔ
plusŔvoģucŔcrŔpļusŔsoluċlcŔđonsŔ|´oirŔ
sonsŔľĪcnŔcnŔluiŔçuiŔpĔscŔcrŔçuiŔ
posc.Ŕ
MusicӵbcforcӵcvcrythɊn¿ӵclsc,ӵ
and,ӵtoӵthatӵcnd,ӵprcfcrӵthcӵuncvcnӵ
morcӵva¿ucӵandӵmorcӵsolublcӵinӵairӵ
withӵnothin¿ӵinӵitӵthatӵisӵhcavyӵorӵ stilƒӵ
Mallarmé˯sӵ pro¿rammaticӵstatcmcntӵisӵcvcnӵ morcӵ cxplicitӵandӵ pronounccdӵ
inӵthisӵcontcxtƍӵ'NommcrŔunŔocjcrŔc'csrŔsupprimcrŔ|csŔ rroisŔ çuorrsŔ dcŔ |oŔjouissonccŔ
duŔpocmc,ŔçuiŔcsrŔıoircŔduŔconncurŔdcŔdcvincrŔpcuŔoŔpcu.ŔlcŔsu@crcrŔ. . . Ŕvoi|oŔlcŔrĕvc'Ŕ
¦˛Toӵnamcӵanӵ ob¡cctӵisӵ toӵ supprcssӵthrcc-fourthsӵofӵ thcӵcn¡oymcntӵofӵ thcӵ pocm,ӵ
whichӵisӵcomposcdӵofӵthcӵplcasurcӵofӵ¿ucssin¿ӵlittlcӵbyӵlittlc.ӵtoӵsu¿¿cstӵ. . . ӵthcrcӵ
isӵthcӵ drcamċ).ӵThcӵ importantӵthin¿ӵisӵtoӵprcvcntӵaӵ sin¿lcӵscnscӵfromӵimposin¿ӵ
itsclfӵ atӵ thcӵ vcryӵ outsctӵ ofӵ thcӵ rcccptivcӵ proccss.ӵ Blankӵ spaccӵ surroundin¿ӵ aӵ
word,ӵtypo¿raphicalӵad¡ustmcnts,ӵandӵspatialӵcompositionӵinӵthcӵpa¿cӵscttin¿ӵofӵ
thcӵpocticӵtcxtӵˮ allӵcontributcӵtoӵcrcatcӵaӵhaloӵofӵindcfɊnitcncssӵandӵtoӵmakcӵthcӵ
tcxtӵprc¿nantӵwithӵinfinitcӵsu¿¿cstivcӵpossibilitics.ӵ
Thisӵscarchӵforӵsu@csrívcncssŔ isӵaӵdclibcratcӵmovcӵtoӵ'opcn'ӵthcӵworkӵtoӵthcӵ
frccӵrcsponscӵofӵthcӵaddrcsscc.ӵAnӵartisticӵworkӵthatӵsu¿¿cstsӵisӵalsoӵoncӵthatӵcanӵ
bcӵ pcrformcdӵ withӵ thcӵ fullӵ cmotionalӵ andӵ ima¿inativcӵ rcsourccsӵ ofӵ thcӵ
intcrprctcr.ӵ Whcncvcrӵ wcӵrcadӵ poctryӵ thcrcӵ isӵ aӵ proccssӵbɨӵwhichӵ wcӵ tryӵtoӵ
adaptӵourӵpcrsonalӵworldӵtoӵthcӵcmotionalӵworldӵproposcdӵbyӵthcӵtcxt.ӵThisӵisӵallӵ
ECo/ĸ /TheĸPoe!icSĸo!ĸ!heĸOpenĸWotk/ĸ /27ĸ
theӵ moreӵ trueӵ ofӵ poeticӵworksӵ thatӵ areӵ deliberatelyӵbasedӵ onӵ su¿¿estiveness,ӵ
sinceӵtheӵtextӵsetsӵoutӵtoӵstimulateӵtheӵprivateӵworldӵofӵtheӵaddresseeӵsoӵthatӵheӵ
canӵ drawӵ ȸҋomӵ insideӵ himselfӵsomeӵ deeperӵ responseӵ thatӵ mirrorsӵ theӵ subtlerӵ
resonancesӵunderlyin¿ӵtheӵtext.ӵ
Aӵ stron¿ӵ currentӵ inӵ contemporaryӵ literatureӵ followsӵ thisӵ useӵ ofӵsymbolӵ asӵ aӵ
communicativeӵchannelӵforӵtheӵindefinite,ӵopenӵtoӵconstantlyӵshiftin¿ӵresponsesӵ
andӵ interpretativeӵ stances.ӵ ltӵ isӵ easyӵ toӵ thinkӵ ofӵKafka'sӵ workӵ asӵ 'open'.ӵ trial,ӵ
castĚe,ӵwaitin¿,ӵpassin¿ӵsentence,ӵsickness,ӵmetamorphosisӵandӵtortureӵ- noneӵofӵ
theseӵnarrativeӵsituationsӵisӵtoӵbeӵunderstoodӵinӵtheӵimmediateӵliteralӵsense.ӵBut,ӵ
unlikeӵtheӵconstructionsӵofӵmedievalӵalle¿ory,ӵwhereӵtheӵsuperimposedӵlayersӵofӵ
meanin¿ӵ areӵ ri¿idlyӵ prescribed,ӵ inӵ KaIkaӵ thereӵ isӵ noӵ confirmationӵ inӵ anӵ
encyclopaedia,ӵ noӵ matchin¿ӵ paradi¿mӵ inӵ theӵ cosmos,ӵ toӵ provideӵ aӵ keyӵtoӵ theӵ
symbolism.ӵ Theӵvariousӵexistentialist,ӵtheolo¿ical,ӵ clinicalӵ andӵ psychoanalyticӵ
interpretationsӵ ofӵ Kafka'sӵ symbolsӵ cannotӵ exhaustӵ allӵ theӵ possibilitiesӵ ofӵ hisӵ
works.ӵTheӵworkӵremainsӵinexhaustibleӵinӵ soӵ farӵasӵitӵisӵƲopen',ӵbecauseӵ inӵitӵanӵ
orderedӵ worldӵbasedӵ onӵuniversallyӵacknowled¿edӵ lawsӵ isӵbein¿ӵreplacedӵbyӵaӵ
worldӵbasedӵonӵambi¿uity,ӵbothӵinӵtheӵne¿ativeӵsenseӵthatӵdirectionalӵcentresӵareӵ
missin¿ӵandӵinӵaӵpositiveӵsense,ӵbecauseӵvaluesӵandӵdo¿maӵareӵconstantlyӵbein¿ӵ
placedӵinӵquestion.ӵ
Fvenӵwhenӵitӵisӵdifficultӵtoӵdetermineӵwhetherӵaӵ¿ivenӵauthorӵhadӵsymbolistӵ
intentiǜnsӵorӵwasӵōimin¿ӵatӵeffectsӵ ǜfӵambivōlenceӵǜrӵindeterminacy,ӵthereӵisӵaӵ
schoolӵofӵcriticismӵnowadaysӵ whichӵtendsӵtoӵviewӵallӵmodernӵliteratureӵasӵbuiltӵ
uponӵsymbolicӵpatterns.ӵW.Y.ӵTindall,ӵinӵhisӵbookӵonӵtheӵliteraryӵsymbol,ӵoffersӵ
anӵ analysisӵ ofӵ someӵ ofӵ theӵ ¿reatestӵ modernӵ literaryӵ worksӵ inӵ orderӵ toӵ testӵ
Valéry'sӵ declarationӵ thatӵ 'ílŔ n'¸Ŕ uŔ pusŔ JcŔ vʼn:íŔscnsŔ J'unŔ rcxrc'Ŕ ¦'thereӵ isӵnoӵ trueӵ
meanin¿ӵofӵaӵtext').ӵTindallӵeventuallyӵconcludesӵthatӵaӵworkӵofӵartӵisӵaӵconstructӵ
whichӵ anyoneӵatӵall,ӵ includin¿ӵitsӵauthor,ӵ canӵ putӵtoӵ anyӵuseӵwhatsoever,ӵasӵheӵ
chooses.ӵ Thisӵ typeӵ ofӵ criticismӵ viewsӵ theӵ literaryӵ workӵ asӵ aӵ continuousӵ
potentialityӵofӵ'openness'ӵ ƹ inӵotherӵwords,ӵ anӵ indefiniteӵ reserveӵofӵmeanin¿s.ӵ
ThisӵisӵtheӵscopeӵofӵtheӵwaveӵofӵAmericanӵstudiesӵonӵtheӵstructureӵofӵmetaphor,ӵ
orӵofӵmodernӵworkӵonӵ'typesӵofӵambi¿uity'ӵofferedӵbyӵpoeticӵdiscourse.ʰӵ
Clearly,ӵtheӵworkӵofӵēamesӵēoyceӵisӵaӵma¡orӵexampleӵofӵanӵĆopen'ӵmode,ӵsinceӵ
itӵdeliberatelyӵseeksӵtoӵofferӵanӵima¿eӵofӵtheӵontolo¿icalӵandӵexistentialӵsituationӵ
ofӵtheӵcontemporaryӵworld.ӵTheӵ'Wanderin¿ӵRocks'ӵchapterӵinӵU|¸sscsŔ amountsӵ
toӵ aӵ tinyӵ universeӵ thatӵ canӵ beӵ viewedӵ fromӵ differentӵ perspectivesűӵ theӵ lastӵ
residueӵofӵAristotelianӵcate¿oriesӵhasӵ nowӵdisappeared.ӵēoyceӵisӵnotӵconcernedӵ
withӵaӵconsistentӵunfoldin¿ӵofӵtimeӵorӵaӵplausibleӵspatialӵcontinuumӵinӵwhichӵtoӵ
sta¿eӵ hisӵ characters'ӵ movements.ӵ Fdmundӵ Wilsonӵ hasӵ observedӵ that,ӵ likeӵ
Proust'sӵorӵWhitehead'sӵorӵFinstein'sӵworld,ӵ'ēoyce'sӵworldӵisӵalwaysӵchan¿in¿ӵasӵ
itӵisӵperceivedӵbyӵdifferentӵobserversӵandӵbyӵthemӵatӵdifferentӵtimes.
ƃӵ
2ß/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
lnӵ IinncgunsŔ WukcŔ weӵ areӵ facedӵ withӵ anӵ evenӵ moreӵ startlin¿ӵ processӵ ofӵ
Ŗopenness'Űӵ theӵbookӵisӵmouldedӵintoӵaӵcurveӵthatӵbendsӵbackӵonӵitself,ӵlikeӵtheӵ
Finsteinianӵ universeğӵTheӵ openin¿ӵ wordӵ ofӵtheӵ firstӵ pa¿eӵ isӵ theӵ sameӵ asӵ tĠeӵ
closin¿ӵwordӵofӵtheӵlastӵpa¿eӵ ofӵtheӵnovel.ӵThus,ӵtheӵworkӵisӵIJinitcŔ inӵoneӵsense,ӵ
butӵinӵanotherӵsenseӵitӵisӵunlímírcd.ŔFachӵoccurrence,ӵeachӵwordӵstandsӵinӵaӵseriesӵ
ofӵpossibleӵ relationsӵ withӵallӵ theӵ othersӵ inӵ theӵ text̊ӵAccordin¿ӵtoӵtheӵ semanticӵ
choiceӵwhichӵweӵmakeӵinӵtheӵ caseӵofӵoneӵunit,ӵsoӵ¿oesӵtheӵwayӵweӵinterpretӵallӵ
theӵotherӵunitsӵinӵtheӵtext.ӵThisӵdoesӵnotӵmeanӵthatӵtheӵbookӵlacksӵspecificӵsense.ӵ
lfӵ͒oyΠeӵdoesӵintroduceӵsomeӵkeysӵ intoӵtheӵtext,ӵitӵisӵpreciselyӵbecauseӵheӵwantsӵ
theӵ workӵ toӵ beӵ readӵ inӵ aӵ certainӵ sense.ӵ Butӵ thisӵ particularӵ Ŗsense'ӵ hasӵ allӵ theӵ
richnessӵofӵtheӵ cosmosӵitself.ӵAmbitiously,ӵtheӵauthorӵintendsӵhisӵboolˀӵtoӵ implyӵ
theӵtotalityӵofӵspaceӵandӵtime,ӵofӵallӵspacesӵandӵallӵtimesӵthatӵareӵ possible.ӵTheӵ
principalӵ toolӵ forӵ thisӵ all-pervadin¿ӵ ambi¿uityӵ isӵ theӵ pun,ӵ theӵ cu|cmcour,Ŕ byӵ
whichӵtwoįӵthreeӵorӵevenӵtenӵdĢfferentӵetymolo¿icalӵ rootsӵareӵcombinedӵinӵsuchӵ
aӵ wayӵthatӵaӵsin¿leӵwordӵ canӵsetӵupӵaӵ knotӵofӵdifferentӵsub-meanĢn¿s,ӵeachӵofӵ
whichӵ inӵ turnӵ coincidesӵ andӵ interrelatesӵ withӵ otherӵ localӵ allusions,ӵ whichӵ areӵ
themselvesӵ'open'ӵtoӵnewӵconfi¿urationsӵandӵprobabilitiesӵofӵinterpretatĢon.ӵTheӵ
readerӵofӵIínncgunsŔ WukcŔisӵinӵaӵ positionӵsimilarӵtoӵthatӵofӵtheӵpersonӵ listenin¿ӵ
toӵpostӵ -dodecaphonicӵserialӵcompositionӵasӵheӵappearsӵinӵaӵstrikin¿ӵdefinitionӵbyӵ
Pousseur.ӵ'Sinceӵtheӵphenomenaӵareӵnoӵlon¿erӵtiedӵtoӵoneӵanotherӵbyӵaӵterm-to-
termӵ determination,ӵĢtӵĢƥӵ upӵtoӵ theӵ lĢƥtenerӵtoӵ plōceӵ hĢmƥelfӵdelĢberōtelyӵ Ģnӵ theӵ
midstӵofӵanӵinexhaustibleӵnetworkӵofӵrelationshipsӵandӵtoӵchooseӵforӵhimself,ӵsoӵ
toӵspeakįӵ hisӵ ownӵmodesӵofӵapproach,ӵ hisӵ referenceӵpointsӵandӵhisӵscale,ӵandӵ toӵ
endeavourӵtoӵ useӵ asӵmanyӵdimensionsӵasӵheӵpossiblyӵcanӵatӵtheӵ sameӵtimeӵ andӵ
thusӵ dynamize,ӵ multiplyӵ andӵ extendӵ toӵ thπӵ utmostӵ de¿reeӵ hisӵ perceptualӵ
facultiesħƄӵ
Norӵshouldӵweӵima¿ineӵthatӵtheӵtendencyӵtowardӵ opennessӵoperatesӵonlyӵatӵ
theӵ levelӵ ofӵ indefiniteӵ su¿¿estionӵ andӵ stimulationӵ ofӵ emotionalӵ response.ӵ lnӵ
Brecht'sӵ theoreticalӵ workӵ onӵ drama,ӵ weӵ shallӵ seeӵ thatӵ dramaticӵ actionӵ isӵ
conceivedӵ asӵtheӵproblematicӵ expositionӵ ofӵspecificӵ pointsӵ ofӵtension.ӵ Havin¿ӵ
presentedӵtheseӵtensionӵpoĢntsӵ¦byӵfollowin¿ӵtheӵwell-knownӵtechniqueӵofӵepicӵ
recitation,ӵ whichӵ doesӵ notӵ seekӵtoӵ influenceӵtheӵ audience,ӵ butӵratherӵtoӵofferӵaӵ
seriesӵ ofӵ factsӵ toӵ beӵ obsȲŒƪed,ӵ employin¿ӵ theӵ deviceӵ ofӵ 'defamiliarization'),ӵ
Brecht'sӵ playsӵdoӵnot,ӵinӵtheӵstrictӵsense,ӵdevĢseӵsolutionsӵ atӵall.ӵ ltӵisӵupӵtoӵtheӵ
audienceӵtoӵdrawӵitsӵ ownӵ conclusionsӵ fromӵ whatӵitӵhasӵ seenӵonӵsta¿e.ӵBrecht'sӵ
playsӵalsoӵendӵinӵaӵsituationӵofӵambi¿uityӵ¦typically,ӵandӵmoreӵthanӵanyӵother,ӵhisӵ
Cu|ílco),Ŕalthou¿hӵitӵisӵnoӵlon¿erӵtheӵmorbidӵambi¿uousnessӵofӵaӵhalf-perceivedӵ
infinitudeӵ orӵ anӵ an¿uish-ladenӵ mysteryįӵ butӵ theӵ specificӵ concretenessӵ ofӵ anӵ
ambi¿uityӵ inӵ socialӵ intercourse,ӵ aӵ conflictӵ ofӵ unresolvedӵ problemsӵ taxin¿ӵ theӵ
in¿enuityӵofӵplaywri¿ht,ӵactorsӵandӵaudienceӵalike.ӵHereӵtheӵworkӵisӵ'open'ӵinӵtheӵ
ECo/ĸ /TheĸPoe!ícSĸO!ʎ!heĸOpenĸWork/ĸ /2ºĸ
sameӵsenseӵthatӵaӵdebateӵisӵ'open'.ӵAŔsolutionӵisӵseenӵasӵdesirableӵandӵisӵactuallyӵ
anticipated,ӵbutӵitӵmustӵcomeӵfromӵtheӵ collectiveӵenterpriseӵofӵ theӵaudience.ӵlnӵ
thisӵ caseӵ theӵ 'openness'ӵ isӵ convertedӵ intoӵ anӵ instrumentӵ ofӵ revolutionaryӵ
peda¿o¿ics.ӵ
lnӵallӵtheӵphenomenaӵweӵhaveӵsoӵfarӵexamined,ӵlӵhaveӵemployedӵtheӵcate¿oryӵofӵ
'openness'ӵ toӵ defìneӵ widelyӵdifferin¿ӵ situations,ӵ butӵ onӵtheӵ wholeӵ theӵsortsӵofӵ
worksӵ takenӵ intoӵ considerationӵ areӵ substantiallyӵ differentӵ fromӵ theӵ post-
Webernianӵmusicalӵcomposersӵwhomӵlӵconsideredӵatӵtheӵopenin¿ӵofӵthisӵessay.ӵ
Fromӵ theӵ Baroqueӵ toӵ modernӵ Symbolistӵ poetics,ӵ thereӵ hasӵ beenӵ anӵ ever-
sharpenin¿ӵawarenessӵofӵtheӵ conceptӵofӵ theӵ workӵ susceptibleӵtoӵ manyӵ differentӵ
interpretations.ӵ However,ӵ theӵ examplesӵ consideredӵ inӵ theӵ precedin¿ӵ ҝectionӵ
proposeӵ anӵ 'openness'ӵ basedӵ onӵ theӵ rncorcricu|,Ŕ mcnru|Ŕ collaborationӵ ofӵ theӵ
ȃӵ
consumer,ӵ whoӵ mustӵ freelyӵ interpretӵ anӵ artisticӵ datum,ӵ aӵ productӵ whichӵ hasӵ
alreadyӵbeenӵor¿anizedӵinӵitsӵstructuralӵentiretyӵ¦evenӵifӵthisӵstructureӵallowsӵforӵ
anӵindefiniteӵpluralityӵofӵinterpretations).ӵDnӵtheӵotherӵhand,ӵaӵcompositionӵlikeӵ
5cumcī,ŔbyӵPousseur,ӵrepresentsӵaӵfreshӵadvance.ӵ Somebodyӵ listenin¿ӵtoӵaӵwoŃőӵ
byӵ Webernӵ freelyӵ reor¿anizesӵ andӵ en¡oysӵ aӵ seriesӵ ofӵ interrelationsӵ insideӵ theӵ
contextӵ ofӵ theӵ soundӵ systemӵ offeredӵ toӵ himӵ inӵ thatӵ particularӵ ¦alreadyӵ fullyӵ
producedƈӵcomposition.ӵButӵinӵlistenin¿ӵtoӵ5cumciŔtheӵauditorӵisӵrequiredӵtoӵdoӵ
someӵofӵthisӵor¿anizin¿ӵandӵstructurin¿ӵofӵtheӵmusicalӵdiscourse.ӵHeӵcollaboratesӵ
withӵtheӵcomposerӵinӵmukingŔ theӵcomposition.ӵ
Noneӵofӵthisӵar¿umentӵshouldӵbeӵconceivedӵasӵpassin¿ӵanӵaestheticӵ¡ud¿mentӵ
onӵ theӵ relativeӵ validityӵ ofӵ theӵ variousӵ typesӵ ofӵ worksӵ underӵ consideration.ӵ
However,ӵ itӵisӵclearӵthatӵaӵcompositionӵ suchӵ asӵ5cumciŔposesӵaӵcompletelyӵnewӵ
problem.ӵ ltӵinvitesӵ usӵ toӵ identifyӵ insideӵtheӵcate¿oryӵofӵ 'open'ӵ worksӵ aӵfurther,ӵ
moreӵ restrictedӵ classificationӵ ofӵ worksӵ whichӵ canӵ beӵ definedӵ asӵ 'worksӵ inӵ
movement',ӵ becauseӵ theyӵ characteristicallyӵconsistӵofӵunplannedӵ orӵphysicallyӵ
incompleteӵstructuĬalӵunits.ӵ
lnӵtheӵpresentӵculturalӵcontext,ӵtheӵphenomenonӵofӵ theӵ'workӵinӵmovement'ӵ
isӵcertainlyӵnotӵlimitedӵtoӵmusic.ӵThereӵare,ӵforӵexample,ӵartisticӵproductsӵwhichӵ
displayӵanӵintrinsicӵmobility,ӵaӵkaleidoscopicӵcapacityӵtoӵ su¿¿estӵ themselvesӵ inӵ
constantlyӵrenewedӵ ΋spectsӵtoӵtheӵconsumer.ӵAŔsimpleӵexampleӵisӵprovidedӵbyӵ
Calder'sӵ mobilesӵ orӵ byӵ mobileӵ compositìonsӵ byӵ otherӵ artìstsűӵ elementaryӵ
structuresӵwhichӵcanӵmoveӵinӵtheӵ airӵandӵ assumeӵ differentӵspatialӵdispositions.ӵ
TheyӵcontinuouslyӵcreateӵtheirӵownӵspaceӵandӵtheӵshapesӵtoӵϔllӵiӃӵ
lfӵweӵ turnӵtoӵliteraryӵproductionӵtoӵtryӵtoӵ isolateӵanӵexampleӵofӵ aӵ 'workӵ inӵ
movement',ӵ weӵareӵimmediatelyӵobli¿edӵ toӵtakeӵintoӵconsiderationӵMallarmé'sӵ
Livrc,Ŕ aӵ colossalӵ andӵ far-reachin¿ӵ work,ӵ theӵ quintessenceӵ ofӵ theӵ poet'sӵ
production.ӵ Heӵconceivedӵ itӵasӵ theӵworkӵwhichӵ wouldӵ constituteӵ notӵ onlyӵ theӵ
ö0/ĸ /THEORET¡CALĸFRANEWORK5ĸ
¿calӵcfӵ hisӵ activitiesӵ butӵ alscӵ theӵ endӵ ¿calӵ cfӵ theӵ wcrldŰӵ 'lcŔ mondcŔcxístcŔpourŔ
utoutírŔ u unŔ |ívrc.Ŕ [ĆTheӵ wcrldӵ existsӵ tcӵ endӵ upӵ inӵ aӵ bcckŗ̋ӵǁӵ MaͰarméӵ neverӵ
finishedӵtheӵbcck,ӵalthcu¿hӵheӵwcrkedӵcnӵitӵatӵdifferentӵpericdsӵthrcu¿hcutӵhisӵ
life.ӵButӵthereӵ areӵ skeӄchesӵfcrӵtheӵendin¿ӵwhichӵhaveӵ recentlyӵbeenӵbrcu¿htӵtcӵ
li¿htӵbyӵtheӵacuteӵphilclc¿icalӵresearchӵcfӵ|acquesӵSchérer̮ӵ
Theӵ metaphysicalӵ premisesӵ fcrӵMallarmʁċsӵlívrcŔ areӵ encrmcusӵ andӵ pcssiblyӵ
questicnableƊӵlӵwculdӵpreferӵtcӵleaveӵthemӵasideӵinӵcrderӵtcӵ ccncentrateӵcnӵtheӵ
dynamicӵstructureӵcfӵthisӵartisticӵcb¡ectӵwhichӵdeliberatelyӵsetsӵcutӵtcӵvalidateӵaӵ
specificӵ pceticӵ principle.ӵ 'UnŔ |ívrcŔ ncŔ commcnccŔ níŔ ncŔ]ínít,Ŕ toutŔuuŔ p|usŔ]uít-í|Ŕ
scmt|unt`Ŕ|'AŔbcckӵneitherӵbe¿insӵncrӵends,ӵitӵcnlyӵpretendsӵtcӵdcӵscʼnǁӵTheӵLívrcŔ
wasӵccnceivedӵasӵaӵ mcbileӵapparatusćӵnctӵ¡ustӵ inӵtheӵmcbileӵandӵ 'cpenŗӵsenseӵcfӵ
aӵccmpcsiticnӵsuchӵasӵUnŔcoupŔJcŔdcsŔ. . . Ŕ|AŔInrowŔo]ŔtncŔDíccŔ. . + ĉ,ӵwhereӵ¿rammar,ӵ
syntaxӵ andӵ typesettin¿ӵ intrcducedӵ aӵ pluralityӵ cfӵ elements,ӵ pclymcrphcusӵ inӵ
theirӵindeterminateӵrelaticnӵtcӵeachӵcther.ӵ
Hcwever,ӵMaNJlarmé'sӵimmenseӵenterpriseӵ wasӵutcpian:ӵ itӵwasӵ embrcideredӵ
withӵeverӵmcreӵdisccncertin¿ӵaspiraticnsӵandӵin¿enuities,ӵandӵitӵisӵnctӵsurprisin¿ӵ
thatӵitӵwasӵneverӵbrcu¿htӵtcӵccmpleticn.ӵWeӵ do˜nctӵkncwӵwhether,ӵhadӵtheӵwcrkӵ
beenӵccmpleted,ӵtheӵwhcleӵprc¡ectӵwculdӵhaveӵhadӵanyӵrealӵvalue.ӵ ltӵmi¿htӵwellӵ
haveӵturnedӵcutӵtcӵbeӵaӵίubicusӵmysticalӵandӵesctericӵincarnaticnӵcfӵaӵdecadentӵ
sensitivityӵ thatӵ hadӵ reachedӵ theӵ extremeӵ pcintӵ cfӵ itsӵ creativeӵ parabcla.ӵ lӵ amӵ
inclinedӵ tcӵ thisӵ seccndӵ view,ӵ butӵ itӵisӵcertainlyӵ interestin¿ӵtcӵ findӵ atӵtheӵƕeȘĿӵ
threshcldӵ cfӵ theӵ mcdernӵ pericdӵ suchӵ aӵ vi¿crcusӵ prc¿rammeӵ fcrӵ aӵ worĶŔ ínŔ
movcmcnt,Ŕ andӵ thisӵ isӵ aӵ si¿nӵ thatӵ certainӵ intellectualӵ currentsӵ circulateӵ
imperceptiblyӵuntilӵtheyӵareӵadcptedӵandӵ¡ustifiedӵasӵculturalӵdataӵwhichӵhaveӵtcӵ
beӵinte¿ratedӵcr¿anicallyӵintcӵtheӵpancramaӵcϋaӵwhcleӵpericd.ӵ
lnӵeveryӵcentury,ӵtheӵwayӵthatӵartisticӵ fcrmsӵareӵ structuredӵreflectsӵtheӵwayӵinӵ
whichӵ scienceӵ crӵ ccntempcraryӵ cultureӵ viewsӵ reality.ӵ Theӵ clcsed,ӵ sin¿leӵ
ccncepticnӵinӵaӵwcrkӵbyӵaӵmedievalӵartistӵreIlectedӵtheӵccncepticnӵcfӵtheӵccsmcsӵ
asӵaӵhierarchyӵcfӵfixed,ӵ pre-crdainedӵcrders.ӵTheӵwcrkӵasӵaӵpeda¿c¿icalӵvehicle,ӵ
asӵaӵmcnccentricӵandӵnecessaryӵapparatusӵ(incѭrpcratin¿ӵaӵri¿idӵinternalӵpatternӵ
cfӵmetreӵandӵrhymes)ӵsimplyӵreflectsӵtheӵsyllc¿istic˝system,ӵaӵlc¿icӵcfӵnecessity,ӵ
aӵ deductiveӵ ccnscicusnessӵ byӵ meansӵ cfӵ whichӵ realityӵ cculdӵ beӵ madeӵ manifestӵ
stepӵ byӵ stepӵ withcutӵ unfcreseenӵ interrupticns,ӵ mcvin¿ӵ fcrwardӵ inӵ aӵ sin¿leӵ
directicn,ӵprcceedin¿ӵfrcmӵfirstӵprinciplesӵcfӵscienceӵwhichӵwereӵseenӵasӵcneӵandӵ
theӵsameӵwithӵtheӵfirstӵprinciplesӵcfӵreality.ӵTheӵcpennessӵandӵdynamismӵcfӵtheӵ
Barcqueӵmark,ӵ inӵfact,ӵ theӵadventӵcfӵaӵ newӵ scientificӵ awareness:ӵ theӵ tuctí|cŔ isӵ
replacedӵbyӵ theӵvísuu|Ŕ(meanin¿ӵ thatӵtheӵsub¡ectiveӵelementӵccmesӵtcӵprevail)ӵ
andӵattenticnӵisӵshiftedӵfrcmӵtheӵcsscnccŔtcӵtheӵuppcurunccŔcfӵarchitecturalӵandӵ
pictcrialӵ prcducts.ӵ ltӵ reIlectsӵ theӵrisin¿ӵ interestӵ inӵ aӵ psyΡhclc¿yӵ cfӵ impressicnӵ
ECo/ĸ /Theĸ Poe!icSĸo!ĸ!heĸ OpenĸWotk/ĸ /ö¡ĸ
andӵsensationӵƹ inӵshort,ӵanӵempiricismӵwhichӵconvertsӵtheӵAristotelianӵconceptӵ
ofӵrealӵsubstanceӵintoӵaӵ seriesӵofӵperceptionsӵbyӵtheӵviewer.ӵDnӵtheӵotherӵhand,ӵ
byӵ¿ivin¿ӵupӵtheӵessentialӵfocusӵofӵtheӵcompositionӵandӵtheӵprescribedӵpointӵofӵ
viewӵforӵitsӵviewer,ӵaestheticӵinnovationsӵwereӵinӵfactӵmirrorin¿ӵtheӵCopernicanӵ
visionӵ ofӵ theӵ universe.ӵ Thisӵ definitivelyӵ eliminatedӵ theӵnotionӵofӵ¿eocentricityӵ
andӵ itsӵalliedӵ metaphysicalӵ constructs.ӵ lnӵ theӵ modernӵ scientificӵ universe,ӵ asӵ inӵ
architectureӵ andӵ inӵBaroqueӵ pictorialӵ production,ӵtheӵvariousӵcomponentӵpartsӵ
areӵallӵendowedӵwithӵequalӵvalueӵandӵdi¿nity,ӵandӵtheӵwholeӵconstructӵexpandsӵ
towardӵaӵtotalityӵwhichӵisӵcloseӵtoӵtheӵinfinite.ӵ
ʱ
ltӵrefusesӵtoӵbeӵhemmedӵinӵbyӵanyӵ
idealӵ normativeӵ conceptionӵ oόӵtheӵ world.ӵ ltӵ sharesӵ inӵ aӵ ¿eneralӵ ur¿eӵ towardӵ
discoveryӵandӵconstantlyӵrenewedӵ contactӵwithӵ reality.ӵ
lnӵ itsӵ ownӵ way,ӵ theӵ 'openness'ӵ thatӵ weӵ meetӵ inӵ theӵ decadentӵ sӅrainӵ ofӵ
Symbolismӵreflectsӵaӵculturalӵstrivin¿ӵtoӵunfoldӵnewӵvistas.ӵForӵexample,ӵoneӵofӵ
Mallarmé'sӵpro¡ectsӵforӵaӵmultidimensional,ӵdeconstructibleӵbookӵenvisa¿edӵtheӵ
breakin¿ӵdownӵofӵtheӵinitialӵunitӵintoӵsectionsӵwhichӵcouldӵbeӵreformulatedӵ andӵ
whichӵ couldӵ expressӵ newӵ perspectivesӵ byӵ bein¿ӵ deconstructedӵ intoӵ
correspondin¿lyӵ smallerӵ unitsӵ whichӵ wereӵ alsoӵ mobileӵ andӵ reducible.ӵ Thisӵ
pro¡ectӵ obviouslyӵ su¿¿estsӵ theӵ universeӵ asӵ itӵ isӵ conceivedӵ byӵ modern,ӵ non-
Fuclideanӵ¿eomeƦries.ӵ
Hence,ӵ itӵisӵnotӵoverambitiousӵtoӵdetectӵinӵ theӵ poeticsӵofӵ theӵ'open'ӵworkӵ-
andӵevenӵlessӵsoӵinӵtheӵ'workӵinӵmovement'ӵ- moreӵorӵlessӵspecificӵovertonesӵofӵ
trendsӵ inӵ contemporaryӵ scientificӵ thou¿ht.ӵ Forӵ example,ӵ itӵ isӵ aӵ criticalӵ
commonplaceӵtoӵreferӵtoӵtheӵspatio-temporalӵcontinuumӵinӵorderӵtoӵaccountӵforӵ
theӵstructureӵofӵ theӵuniverseӵinӵ|oyce'sӵ works.ӵ Pousseurӵhasӵofferedӵaӵ tentativeӵ
definitionӵofӵhisӵ musicalӵworkӵwhichӵinvolvesӵ theӵ termӵ'fieldӵofӵ possibilities'.ӵl nӵ
fact,ӵthisӵshowsӵthatӵheӵi sӵpreparedӵtoӵborrowӵtwoӵextremelyӵrevealin¿ӵtechnicalӵ
termsӵ fromӵcontemporaryӵculture.ӵTheӵ notionӵ ofӵ 'IieldƯӵ isӵ providedӵ byӵ physicsӵ
andӵ impliesӵ aӵ revisedӵ visionӵ ofӵ theӵ classicӵ relationshipӵ positedӵbetweenӵ causeӵ
andӵeffectӵasӵaӵri¿id,ӵone-directionalӵsystem.ӵnowӵaӵcomplexӵinterplayӵofӵmotiveӵ
forcesӵisӵenvisa¿ed,ӵaӵconfi¿urationӵofӵ possibleӵevents,ӵaӵcompleteӵdynamismӵofӵ
structure.ӵ Theӵ notionӵ ofӵ 'possibility'ӵ isӵ aӵ philosophicalӵ canonӵ whichӵ reдlectsӵ aӵ
widespreadӵ tendencyӵ inӵ contemѵoraryӵ science,ӵ theӵ discardin¿ӵ ofӵ aӵ static,ӵ
syllo¿isticӵ viewӵ ofӵ order,ӵ andӵ aӵ correspondin¿ӵ devolutionӵ ofӵ intellectualӵ
authorityӵtoӵpersonalӵdecision,ӵchoiceӵandӵsocialӵcontext.ӵ
lfӵ aӵ musicalӵ patternӵ noӵ lon¿erӵ necessarilyӵ determinesӵ theӵ immediatelyӵ
followin¿ӵone,ӵifӵthereӵisӵnoӵtonalӵbasisӵwhichӵallowsӵtheӵlistenerӵtoӵinferӵtheӵnextӵ
stepsӵ inӵ theӵ arran¿ementӵ ofӵ theӵ musicalӵ discourseӵ fromӵ whatӵ hasӵ physicallyӵ
precededӵ them,ӵ thisӵ isӵ ¡ustӵ partӵ ofӵ aӵ ¿eneralӵ breakdownӵ inӵ theӵ conceptӵ ofӵ
causation.ӵ Theӵ two-valueӵ truthӵ lo¿icӵ whichӵ followsӵ theӵ classicalӵ uur-uur,Ŕ theӵ
dis¡unctiveӵ dilemmaӵ betweenӵrōcŔ andӵ]u|sc,Ŕ aӵ factӵandӵ itsӵ contradictory,ӵ isӵnoӵ
ö2/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
lcn¿erӵtheӵ cnlyӵinstrumentӵcfӵphilcscphicalӵ experimenťӵ Multi-valueӵlo¿icsӵareӵ
ncwӵ ¿ainin¿ӵ currency,ӵ andӵ theseӵ areӵ quiteӵ capableӵ cfӵ inccrpcratin¿ӵ
indcrcrmínuc¸Ŕ asӵaӵvalidӵsteppin¿Ʒstoneӵinӵtheӵcc¿nitiveӵprccess.ӵlnӵthisӵ¿eneralӵ
intellectualӵ atmosphere,ӵtheӵpceticsӵ cfӵtheӵ cpenӵ wcrkӵ isӵ peculiarlyӵ relevant:ӵ itӵ
pcsitsӵtheӵwcrkӵofӵartӵstrippedӵofӵnecessaryӵandӵ fcreseeableӵccnclusions,ӵwcrksӵ
inӵ whichӵ theӵ performer'sӵ freedcmӵ functicnsӵ asӵpartӵcfӵtheӵ disconrínuíqŔwhichӵ
contemporaryӵphysicsӵrecc¿nizes,ӵnctӵasӵanӵelementӵcfӵdisorientaticn,ӵbutӵasӵanӵ
essentialӵsta¿eӵinӵallӵscientificӵverificaticnӵproceduresӵandӵalscӵasӵtheӵverifiableӵ
patternӵcfӵeventsӵinӵtheӵsubatcmicӵwcrld.ӵ
Frcmӵ Mallarmé'sӵ livrcŔ tcӵ theӵ musicalӵ compositicnsӵ whichӵ weӵ haveӵ
considered,ӵ thereӵ isӵ aӵ tendencyӵ tcӵ seeӵ everyӵ executicnӵ cfӵ theӵ wcrkӵ cfӵartӵ asӵ
divorcedӵ fromӵ itsӵ ultimateӵ definiticn.ӵ Fveryӵ perfcrmanceӵ cxp|uinsŔ theӵ
ccmpcsiticnӵ butӵ dcesӵ nctӵ cxnuusrŔ it.ӵ Fveryӵ perfcrmanceӵ makesӵ theӵ wcrlʲӵ anӵ
actuality,ӵbutӵisӵitselύӵ onlyӵccmplementaryӵtcӵallӵpcssibleӵotherӵperfcrmancesӵofӵ
theӵwcrk.ӵlnӵshcrt,ӵweӵcanӵsayӵthatӵeveryӵperfcrmanceӵoffersӵ usӵaӵcompleteӵandӵ
satisŽin¿ӵversicnӵcfӵtheӵwcrk,ӵbutӵatӵtheӵsameӵtimeӵmakesӵitӵincompleteӵfcrӵus,ӵ
becauseӵitӵcannctӵsimultaneouslyӵ¿iveӵallӵtheӵctherӵaҌtisticӵscluticnsӵwhichӵtheӵ
wcrkӵmayӵadmit.ӵ
Perhapsӵitӵisӵnoӵaccidentӵthatӵtheseӵpceticӵsystemsӵemer¿eӵatӵtheӵsameӵpericdӵ
asӵtheӵphysicists'ӵprincipleӵcfӵcomp|cmcnrurí!¸,Ŕwhichӵrulesӵthatӵitӵisӵnctӵpossibleӵ
tcӵ indicateӵ theӵ differentӵ behavicurӵ patternsӵ cfӵ anӵ elementaryӵ particleӵ
simultanecusly.ӵTcӵ describeӵtheseӵdifferentӵbehaviourӵpatterns,ӵdifferentӵmodc|s,Ŕ
whichӵ Heisenber¿ӵ hasӵdefinedӵasӵadeѻuateӵ whenӵ prcperlyӵutilized,ӵ areӵ putӵtoӵ
use,ӵ but,ӵ sinceӵ theyӵ ccntradictӵ oneӵ ancther,ӵ theyӵ areӵ therefcreӵ alsoӵ
ccmplementary.ʴӵPerhapsӵweӵareӵinӵaӵpcsiticnӵtѮӵstateӵthatӵfcrӵtheseӵwcrksӵofӵartӵ
anӵ inccmpleteӵ kncwled¿eӵ cfӵtheӵ systemӵ isӵ inӵ factӵ anӵ essentialӵ featureӵ inӵ itsӵ
formulation.ӵ Henceӵ cneӵ couldӵ ar¿ue,ӵ withӵ Bchr,ӵ thatӵtheӵ dataӵccllectedӵ inӵ theӵ
ccurseӵcfӵexperimentalӵ situaticnsӵ cannctӵbeӵ¿atheredӵinӵ oneӵima¿eӵbutӵshculdӵ
beӵccnsideredӵasӵccmplementary,ӵsinceӵcnlyӵtheӵsumӵcfӵallӵtheӵphenomenaӵcculdӵ
exhaustӵtheӵpossibilitiesӵofӵinfcrmation.ʳӵ
Abcveӵ lӵ discussedӵ theӵ principleӵ cfӵ ambi¿uityӵ asӵ moralӵ dispcsitionӵ andӵ
prcblematicӵccnstruct.ӵA¿ain,ӵmcdernӵpsychclo¿yӵandӵ phenomenclc¿yӵuseӵtheӵ
termӵ'perceptiveӵambi¿uities',ӵ whichӵindicatesӵtheӵavailabilityӵofӵnewӵcc¿nitiveӵ
pcsiticnsӵthatӵfallӵ shortӵcfӵccnventionalӵepistemolc¿icalӵstancesӵ andӵ thatӵallowӵ
theӵcbserverӵtcӵconceiveӵtheӵwcrldӵinӵaӵfreshӵdynamicsӵcfӵpctentialityӵbeforeӵtheӵ
fixativeӵprccessӵcfӵhabitӵandӵfamiliarityӵcomesӵintcӵplay.ӵHusserlӵcbservedӵthatӵ
eachӵstateӵofӵccnsciousnessӵimѶliesӵtheӵexistenceӵofӵaӵhorizonӵwhichӵvariesӵwithӵ
theӵmcdiϕcationӵcfӵitsӵconnectionsӵto¿etherӵwithӵctherӵstates,ӵ andӵalscӵwithӵ itsӵ
cwnӵphasesӵ cfӵdurationӵ. . . ӵlnӵeachӵexternalӵ percepticn,ӵfcrӵinstance,ӵ theӵsidesӵ cfӵ
Eco//TheĸPoe!icSĸo!ĸ!heĸOpenĸWotĠĸ /ööĸ
theӵ ob¡ectsӵ whichӵ areӵ actuallyӵ ¡cïcc|vc0 su¿¿estӵ toӵ theӵ viewer'sӵ attentionӵ theӵ
unperceivedӵ sidesӵ which,ӵ atӵ theӵ present,ӵ areӵ viewedӵ onlyӵ inӵ aӵ non-intuitiveӵ
mannerӵandӵareӵexpectedӵtoӵbecomeӵelementsӵofӵtheӵsucceedin¿ӵperception.ӵThisӵ
processӵisӵsimilarӵtoӵaӵcontinuousӵpro¡ectionӵwhichӵtakesӵonӵaӵnewӵmeanin¿ӵwithӵ
eachӵ phaseӵ ofӵ theӵ perceptiveӵ processƼӵ Moreover,ӵ perceptionӵ itselfӵ includesӵ
horizonsӵwhichӵencompassӵotherӵperceptiveӵpossibilities,ӵsuchӵasӵaӵpersonӵmi¿htӵ
experienceӵ byӵchan¿in¿ӵ deliberatelyӵ theӵ directionӵ ofӵ hisӵ perceptionŬӵ byӵturnin¿ӵ
hisӵeyesӵoneӵwayӵ insteadӵofӵanother,ӵorӵbyӵtakin¿ӵaӵstepӵforwardӵorӵsideways,ӵandӵ
soӵ forth.Ь͘ӵ
Sartreӵnotesӵthatӵtheӵexistentӵob¡ectӵcanӵneverӵbeӵreducedӵtoӵaӵ¿ivenӵseriesӵofӵ
manifestations,ӵbecauseӵ eachӵofӵtheseӵ isӵ boundӵtoӵ standӵ inӵ relationshipӵ withӵ aӵ
continuouslyӵ alterin¿ӵ sub¡ect.ӵ Notӵ onlyӵ doesӵ anӵ ob¡ectӵ presentӵ differentӵ
AcscnuttungcnŔ¦orӵprofiles)Ȇӵbutӵalsoӵdifferentӵpointsӵofӵviewӵareӵavailableӵbyӵwayӵ
ofӵtheӵsameӵAcscnurtung.Ŕlnӵorderӵtoӵbeӵdefined,ӵtheӵob¡ectӵmustӵbeӵrelatedӵbackӵ
toӵtheӵ totalӵ seriesӵ ofӵwhi
ӳ
h,ӵbyӵ virtueӵ ofӵbein¿ӵ oneӵ possibleӵ apparition,ӵ itӵisӵaӵ
member.ӵ lnӵ thisӵwayӵtheӵtraditionalӵdualismӵbetweenӵbein¿ӵandӵappearanceӵisӵ
replacedӵbyӵaӵstrai¿htӵpolarityӵofӵfiniteӵandӵinfinite,ӵwhichӵlocatesӵtheӵinfiniteӵatӵ
theӵveryӵcoreӵofӵtheӵfinite.ӵThisӵsortӵofӵ'openness'ӵ isӵatӵtheӵheartӵofӵeveryӵactӵofӵ
perception.ӵltӵcharacterizesӵeveǤyӵmomentӵofӵourӵco¿nitiveӵexperience.ӵltӵmeansӵ
thatӵ eachӵ phenomenonӵ seemsӵ toӵ beӵ 'inhabited'ӵ byӵaӵ certainӵpowcrŔ¯ inӵotherӵ
words,ӵ'theӵabilityӵtoӵmanifestӵitselfӵbyӵaӵseriesӵofӵrealӵorӵlikelyӵфanifestationşӵ
Theӵ problemӵ ofӵtheӵ relationshipӵ ofӵ aӵ phenomenonӵ toӵ itsӵ ontolo¿icalӵ basisӵ isӵ
alteredӵ byӵ theӵ perspectiveӵ ofӵ perceptiveӵ 'openness'ӵ toӵ theӵ problemӵ ofӵ itsӵ
relationshipӵ toӵ theӵ multiplicityӵ ofӵ different-orderӵ perceptionsӵ whichӵ weӵ canӵ
deriveӵfromӵit.ЪЫӵ
ThisӵintellectualӵpositionӵisӵfurtherӵaccentuatedӵinӵMerleau-Ponty.ӵ
Howӵ canӵ anythin¿ӵ everӵ presentӵ itselfӵ trulyӵ toӵ usӵ sinceӵ itsӵ synthesisӵ isӵ neverӵ
completedųӵ Howӵ couldӵ lӵ ¿ainӵ theӵ experienceӵ ofӵ theӵ worldėӵ asӵ lӵ wouldӵ ofӵ anӵ
individualӵactuatin¿ӵhisӵownӵ existence,ӵ sinceӵnoneӵofӵtheӵviewsӵorӵperceptionsӵ lӵ
haveӵofӵitӵcanӵ exhaustӵitӵandӵtheӵhorizonsӵremainӵ foreverӵopenųӵ. . . ӵTheӵbeliefӵinӵ
thin¿sӵandӵinӵtheӵworldӵcanӵonlyӵexpressӵtheӵassǙơmptionӵofӵaӵcompleteӵsynthesis.ӵ
ltsӵ completion,ӵ however,ӵ isӵ madeӵ impossibleӵ byӵ theӵ veryӵ natureӵ ofӵ theӵ
perspectivesӵtoӵbeӵconnected,ӵsinceӵeachӵofӵthemӵsendsӵbackӵtoӵotherӵperspectivesӵ
throu¿hӵitsӵownӵhorizonsӵ. . . ӵTheӵ contradictionӵwhichӵweӵfeelӵexistsӵbetweenӵtheӵ
world'sӵrealityӵandӵitsӵincompletenessӵisӵidenticalӵtoӵtheӵoneӵthatӵexistsӵbetweenӵ
theӵ ubiquityӵ ofӵ conscioơơsnessӵ andӵ itsӵ commitmentӵ toӵ aӵfieldӵ ofӵpresence.ӵ Thisӵ
ambi¿uousnessӵdoesӵnotӵrepresentӵanӵimperfectionӵinӵtheӵnatureӵofӵexistenceӵorӵ
ö4/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
Ŏnӵ ɠhatӵ cfӵ ccnscŎcusness̴ӵ Ŏtӵ Ŏsӵ itsӵ veryӵ deώЇќŎtŎcnӵ İ Č . ӵ ̽cnscŎcusness,ӵ whichӵ isӵ
ccmmcnlyӵtakenӵasӵanӵeɦtremelyӵenli¿htenedӵre¿icn,ӵis˞ӵcnӵtheӵccntrary,ӵtheӵveryӵ
re¿icnӵcfӵindeterminaticn.
'
̗̚ӵ
Theseӵareӵtheӵscrtsӵcfӵprcblemsӵwhichӵphencmenclc¿yӵpicksӵcutӵatӵtheӵveryӵ
heartӵ cfӵcurӵ existentialӵ situaticn.ӵ ltӵ prcpcsesӵ tcӵ theӵ artist,ӵ asӵ wellӵ asӵ tcӵ theӵ
philcscpherӵandӵtheӵpsychclc¿ist,ӵaӵseriesӵcfӵdeclaraticnsӵwhichӵareӵbcundӵtcӵactӵ
asӵ aӵ stimulusӵ tcӵ hisӵ creativeӵ activityӵ inӵ theӵ wcrldӵ cfӵ fcrms. ӵ 'ltӵ isӵ therefcreӵ
essentialӵ fcrӵ anӵ cb¡ectӵ andӵ alscӵ fcrӵ theӵ wcrldӵ tcӵ presentӵ themselvesӵ tcӵ usӵ asӵ
ƭcpenǪӵ. . . ӵandӵasӵalwaysӵprcmisin¿ӵfutureӵpercepticnsħǯӵ
ltӵwculdӵbeӵquiteӵnaturalӵfcrӵusӵtcӵthinkӵthatӵthisӵfli¿htӵawayӵfrcmӵ theӵ cld,ӵ
sclidӵ ccnceptӵ cfӵ necessityӵ andӵ theӵ tendencyӵ tcwardӵ theӵ ambi¿ucusӵ andӵ theӵ
indeterminateӵ reflectӵ aӵcrisisӵcfӵccntempcraryӵ civilizaticn.ӵ Dnӵ theӵ ctherӵhand,ӵ
weӵ mi¿htӵ seeӵ theseӵ pceticalӵ systems,ӵ inӵ harmcnyӵ withӵ mcdernӵ science,ӵ asӵ
expressin¿ӵtheӵpcsitiveӵ pcssibiliɠyӵcfӵthcu¿htӵandӵ acticnӵ madeӵavailableӵtcӵanӵ
individualӵ whcӵ isӵ cpenӵ tcӵ theӵ ccntinucusӵ renewalӵ cfӵ hisӵ lifeӵ patternsӵ andӵ
cc¿nitiveӵ prccesses.ӵ Suchӵ anӵ individualӵ isӵ prcductivelyӵ ccmmittedӵ tcӵ theӵ
develcpmentӵ cfӵ hisӵ cwnӵ mentalӵ facultiesӵ andӵ experientialӵ hcrizcns.ӵ Thisӵ
ccntrastӵisӵtccӵ facileӵandӵ Manichaean.ӵ Durӵmainӵintentӵhasӵ beenӵtcӵ pickӵ cutӵ aӵ
numberӵ cfӵanalc¿iesӵ whichӵ revealӵ aӵ reciprccalӵ playӵ cfӵprcblemsӵ inӵ theӵ mcstӵ
disparateӵ areasӵ cfӵ ccntempcraryӵ cultureӵ andӵ whichӵ pcintӵ tcӵ theӵ ccmmcnӵ
elementsӵinӵaӵnewӵwayӵcfӵlcckin¿ӵatӵtheӵwcrld.ӵ
Whatӵisӵatӵstakeӵisӵaӵccnver¿enceӵcfӵnewӵcanonsӵandӵrequirementsӵwhichӵtheӵ
fcrmsӵ cfӵartӵ reIlectӵbyӵwayӵcfӵwhatӵweӵcculdӵtermӵsrrucruŊ|Ŕ nomo|ogics.Ŕ Thisӵ
needӵnctӵccmmitӵusӵtcӵassemblin¿ӵaӵri¿crcusӵparallelismӵ- itӵisӵsimplyӵaӵcaseӵcfӵ
phencmenaӵ likeӵ theӵ 'wcrkӵ inӵ mcvement'ӵ simultanecuslyӵ reIlectin¿ӵ mutuallyӵ
ccntrastedӵepistemclc¿icalӵsituaticns,ӵasӵyetӵccntradictcryӵandӵnctӵsatisfactcrilyӵ
reccnciled.ӵ Thus,ӵ theӵ ccnceptsӵ cfӵ 'cpenness'ӵ andӵ dynamismӵ mayӵ recallӵ theӵ
terminclc¿yӵcfӵquantumӵ physics.ӵ indeterminacyӵ andӵ disccntinuity.ӵ Butӵ atӵ theӵ
sameӵtimeӵtheyӵalscӵexemplifyӵaӵnumberӵcfӵsituaticnsӵinӵFinsteinianӵphysics.ӵ
Theӵmultipleӵpclarityӵcfӵaӵserialӵccmpcsiticnӵinӵ music,ӵwhereӵtheӵlistenerӵi sӵ
nctӵ facedӵ byӵ anӵ abscluteӵ ccnditicnin¿ӵ centreӵ cfӵreference,ӵ requiresӵ hi mӵ tcӵ
ccnstituteӵ hisӵ cwnӵ systemӵ cfӵauditcryӵ relaticnships.ǰӵ Heӵ mustӵ allcwӵ suchӵ aӵ
centreӵtcӵ emer¿eӵfrcmӵtheӵ scundӵ ccntinuum.ӵHereӵareӵ ncӵ privile¿edӵ pcintsӵcfӵ
view,ӵandӵallӵavailableӵperspectivesӵareӵequallyӵvalidӵandӵ richӵinӵpctential.ӵNcw,ӵ
thisӵ multipleӵ pclarityӵisӵ extremelyӵ clcseӵ tcӵ theӵ spatic-tempcralӵ ccncepticnӵ cfӵ
theӵ universeӵ whichӵ weӵ cweӵ tcӵ Finstein.ӵ Theӵ thin¿ӵ whichӵ distin¿uishesӵ theӵ
Finsteinianӵccnceptӵcfӵtheӵuniverseӵfrcmӵquantumӵepistemclc¿yӵisӵpreciselyӵthisӵ
faithӵ inӵ tІеeӵ tctalityӵ cfӵ theӵ universe,ӵ aӵ universeӵ inӵ whichӵ disccntinuityӵ andӵ
indeterminacyӵcanӵ admittedlyӵ upsetӵ usӵwithӵtheirӵsurpriseӵappariticnsįӵbutӵi nӵ
ECo//TheĸPoe!icSĸo!ĸ!heĸ OpenĸWotk//öõĸ
fact,ӵtoӵuseӵFinstein'sӵwords,ӵpresupposeӵnotӵaӵĴodӵplayin¿ӵrandomӵ¿amesӵwithӵ
diceӵ butӵ theӵ Divinityӵ ofӵ Spinoza,ӵ whoӵ rulesӵ theӵ worldӵ accordin¿ӵ toӵ perfectlyӵ
re¿ulatedӵlaws.ӵ lnӵ thisӵ kindӵofӵuniverse,ӵrelativityӵ meansӵ theӵinfiniteӵvariabilityӵ
ofӵexperienceӵasӵwellӵasӵtheӵinfiniteӵmultiplicationӵofӵpossibleӵwaysӵofӵmeasurin¿ӵ
thin¿sӵandӵviewin¿ӵtheirӵposition.ӵButӵtheӵob¡ectiveӵsideӵofӵtheӵwholeӵsystemӵcanӵ
beӵfoundӵinӵtheӵinvarianceӵofӵtheӵsimpleӵformalӵdescriptionsӵ¦ofӵtheӵdifferentialӵ
equations)ӵ whichӵ establishӵ onceӵ andӵ forӵ allӵ theӵ relativityӵ ofӵ empiricalӵ
measurement.ӵ
Thisӵ isӵ notӵ theӵ placeӵ toӵ passӵ ¡ud¿mentӵ onӵ theӵ scientificӵ validityӵ ofӵ theӵ
metaphysicalӵ constructӵ impliedӵ byӵ Finstein'sӵ system.ӵ Butӵ thereӵ isӵ aӵ strikin¿ӵ
analo¿yӵbetweenӵhisӵuniverseӵandӵ theӵ universeӵofӵtheӵworkӵinӵ movement.ӵTheӵ
Ĵodӵ inӵ Spinoza,ӵ whoӵ isӵ madeӵ intoӵ anӵ untestableӵ hypothesisӵ byӵ Finsteinianӵ
metaphysics,ӵ becomesӵ aӵ co¿entӵ realityӵ forӵ theӵ workӵ ofӵ artӵ andӵ matchesӵ theӵ
or¿anizin¿ӵimpulseӵofӵitsӵcreator.ӵ
Theӵ possícílirícsŔ whichӵ theӵ work'sӵ opennessӵ makesӵ availableӵ alwaysӵ workӵ
withinӵaӵ ¿ivenӵ]ícldŔo]Ŕrclurions.Ŕ Asӵ inӵ theӵ Finsteinianӵ universe,ӵ inӵ theӵ Ʋworkӵ inӵ
movement'ӵweӵmayӵwellӵdenyӵthatӵthereӵisӵaӵsin¿leӵprescribedӵpointӵofӵview.ӵButӵ
t
ϣ
isӵdoesӵnotӵmeanӵcompleteӵchaosӵinӵitsӵinternalӵrelations.ӵWhatӵitӵdoesӵimplyӵ
isӵanӵor¿anizin¿ӵruleӵwhichӵ¿overnsӵtheseӵrelations.ӵTherefore,ӵtoӵsumӵup,ӵweӵcanӵ
sayӵ thatӵ theӵ 'workӵ inӵ movement'ӵ isӵ theӵ possibilityӵ ofӵ numerousӵ differentӵ
personalӵinterventions,ӵbutӵitӵisӵnotӵanӵ amorphousӵinvitationӵtoӵ indiscriminateӵ
participation.ӵ Theӵ invitationӵ offersӵ theӵ performerӵ theӵ opportunityӵ forӵ anӵ
orientedӵinsertionӵintoӵsomethin¿ӵwhichӵalwaysӵremainsӵtheӵwor
ldӵintendedӵbyӵ
theӵ author.ӵ
lnӵ otherӵ words,ӵ theӵ authorӵ offersӵ theӵ interpreter,ӵ theӵ performer,ӵ theӵ
addressee,ӵaӵworkӵɥʎccŔcomplcrcd.ŔHeӵdoesӵnotӵknowӵtheӵexactӵfashìonӵinӵwhichӵ
hisӵworkӵwillӵ beӵ concluded,ӵ butӵ heӵ isӵawareӵ thatӵonceӵcompletedӵ theӵ workӵinӵ
questionӵwillӵstillӵbeӵhisӵown.ӵltӵwillӵnotӵbeӵaӵdifferentӵwork,ӵ and,ӵatӵtheӵendӵofӵ
theӵinterpretativeӵdialo¿ue,ӵaӵformӵwhichӵisӵnísŔformӵwillӵhaveӵbeenӵor¿anized,ӵ
evenӵthou¿hӵitӵmayӵhaveӵbeenӵassembledӵbyӵanӵoutsideӵpartyӵinӵaӵ
particularӵwayӵ
thatӵ heӵcouldӵnotӵh
aveӵforeseen.ӵTheӵauthorӵisӵ theӵoneӵ whoӵ proposedӵaӵnumberӵ
ofӵ possibiliƦiesӵ whichӵ hadӵ alreadyӵ beenӵ rationallyӵ or¿anized,ӵ orientedӵ andӵ
endowedӵwìthӵspecìficatìonsӵforӵproperӵdevelopment.ӵ
Berio'sӵ 5cqucncc,Ŕ whichӵ isӵ playedӵ byӵ differentӵ flutists,ӵ Stockhausen'sӵ
ßluvicrsrĊckŔXl,Ŕ orӵPoǙŒsseur'sӵMocílcs,Ŕwhichӵareӵplayedӵbyӵdiffeɖentӵpianistsӵ¦orӵ
performedӵ twiceӵ overӵbyӵ theӵ sameӵ pianists),ӵ willӵ neverӵbeӵquiteӵtheӵ sameӵ onӵ
differentӵoccasions.ӵYetӵtheyӵwillӵneverӵbeӵ¿ratuitouslyӵdifferent.ӵTheyӵareӵtoӵbeӵ
seenӵasӵtheӵactualizationӵofӵaӵseriesӵofӵconsequencesӵwhoseӵpremisesӵareӵȸЈrmlyӵ
rootedӵinӵtheӵori¿inalӵdataӵprovidedӵbyӵtheӵauthor.ӵ
öó//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORKĸ
Thisӵ happensӵ inӵtheӵmusicalӵworksӵwhichӵweӵhaveӵalreadyӵexamined,ӵandӵitӵ
happensӵ alsoӵ inӵ theӵ plasticӵ artefactsӵweӵ considered.ӵ Theӵ commonӵ factorӵ isӵ aӵ
mutabilityӵwhichӵ isӵalwaysӵdeployedӵwithinӵtheӵ specificӵ limitsӵofӵaӵ¿ivenӵtaste,ӵ
orӵ ofӵ predeterminedӵ formalӵ tendencies,ӵ andӵ isӵ authorizedӵ byӵ theӵ concreteӵ
pliabilityӵofӵtheӵmaterialӵofferedӵforӵtheӵperformer'sӵmanipulation.ӵBrecht'sӵplaysӵ
appearӵtoӵ elicitӵfreeӵandӵ arbitraryӵ responseӵ onӵtheӵpartӵofӵtheӵaudience.ӵƖetӵ theyӵ
areӵ alsoӵ rhetoricallyӵ constructedӵ inӵ suchӵ aӵ wayӵasӵ toӵ elicitӵ aӵ reactionӵ orientedӵ
toward,ӵandӵultimatelyӵanticipatin¿,ӵaӵMarxistӵdialecticӵlo¿icӵasӵtheӵbasisӵforӵtheӵ
wholeӵIĊeldӵofӵpossibleӵresponses.ӵ
Allӵtheseӵexamplesӵofӵ'open'ӵworksӵandӵĆworksӵinӵmovement'ӵhaveӵthisӵlatentӵ
characteristic,ӵwhichӵ¿uaranteesӵthatӵtheyӵwillӵalwaysӵbeӵseenӵasӵĆworks'ӵandӵnotӵ
¡ustӵ asӵ aӵ con¿lomerationӵ ofӵ rӯandomӵ components,ӵ readyӵ toӵ emer¿eӵ fromӵ theӵ
chaosӵ inӵ whichӵ theyӵ previouslyӵ stoodӵ andӵ permittedӵ toӵ assumeӵ anyӵ formӵ
whatsoever.ӵ
Now,ӵ aӵ dictionaryӵ clearlyӵ presentsӵ usӵ withӵ thousandsӵ uponӵ thousandsӵ ofӵ
wordsӵ whichӵ weӵ couldӵ freelyӵ useӵ toӵ composeӵ poetry,ӵ essaysӵ onӵ physics,ӵ
anonymousӵlettersӵorӵ¿roceryӵlists.ӵlnӵthisӵsenseӵtheӵdictionaryӵisӵclearlyӵopenӵtoӵ
theӵ reconstitutionӵ ofӵ itsӵ rawӵ materialӵ inӵ anyӵwayӵ thatӵtheӵmanipulatorӵwishes.ӵ
Butӵthisӵdoesӵnotӵmakeӵitӵaӵ 'work'.ӵTheӵ'openness'ӵandӵdynamismӵofӵanӵartisticӵ
workӵ consistӵ inӵ factorsӵ whichӵ makeӵ itӵ susceptibleӵ toӵ aӵ wholeӵ ran¿eӵ ofӵ
inte¿rations.ӵTheyӵ provideӵ itӵwithӵor¿anicӵcomplementsӵwhichӵ theyӵ¿raftӵ intoӵ
theӵstructuralӵvitalityӵwhichӵtheӵworkӵalreadyӵpossesses,ӵevenӵifӵitӵisӵincomplete.ӵ
Thisӵ structuralӵ vitalityӵ isӵ stillӵ seenӵ asӵ aӵ positiveӵ propertyӵ ofӵ theӵ work,ӵ evenӵ
thou¿hӵitӵadmitsӵofӵallӵkindsӵofӵdifferentӵconclusionsӵandӵsolutionsӵforӵit.ӵ
Theӵprecedin¿ӵobservationsӵareӵnecessaryӵbecause,ӵwhenӵweӵspeakӵofӵaӵworkӵofӵ
art,ӵ ourӵWesternӵ aestheticӵtraditionӵforcesӵ usӵ toӵ takeӵ'work'ӵ inӵ theӵ senseӵ ofӵ aӵ
personalӵ productionӵ whichӵ mayӵ wellӵvaryӵ inӵ theӵ waysӵ itӵcanӵ beӵ receivedӵ butӵ
whichӵalwaysӵ maintainsӵaӵ coherentӵidentityӵofӵitsӵownӵandӵwhichӵdisplaysӵtheӵ
personalӵ imprintӵ thatӵ makesӵ i tӵ aӵ specific,ӵ vitalӵ andӵ si¿nificantӵ actӵ ofӵ
communication.ӵ Aestheticӵ theoryӵ isӵ quiteӵ contentӵtoӵ conceiveӵ ofӵ aӵ varietyӵ ofӵ
differentӵpoetics,ӵbutӵultimatelyӵitӵaspiresӵtoӵ¿eneralӵdefinitions,ӵnotӵnecessarilyӵ
do¿maticӵorӵsucŔspccícŔuctcŀítutis,Ŕwhichӵareӵcapableӵofӵapplyin¿ӵtheӵcate¿oryӵofӵ
theӵ'workӵofӵart'ӵbroadlyӵspeakin¿ӵtoӵaӵwholeӵvarietyӵofӵexperiences,ӵwhichӵcanӵ
ran¿eӵ fromӵ theӵ DívíncŔ CoŁcd¸Ŕ to,ӵ say,ӵ electronicӵ compositionӵ basedӵ onӵ theӵ
differentӵpermutationsӵofӵsonicӵcomponents.ӵ
Weӵ have,ӵ therefore,ӵ seenӵ thatӵ ¦̘)ӵ 'open'ӵ works,ӵ inӵ soӵ farӵ asӵ theyӵ areӵ ínŔ
movcmcnt,Ŕareӵcharacterizedӵbyӵtheӵ invitationӵ toӵ mukcŔ tncŔworkŔto¿etherӵ withӵ
theӵauthorӵandӵ thatӵ¦iж)ӵonӵaӵwiderӵlevelӵ ¦asӵaӵ suc¿cnusŔ inӵtheӵspccícsŔ 'workӵ inӵ
movement')ӵthereӵexistӵworksӵwhich,ӵthou¿hӵor¿anicallyӵcompleted,ӵareӵ'open'ӵ
EcO/ĸ /TheĸPOe!ícSĸO!ĸ!heĸOpenĸWOtk/ĸ /ö7ĸ
tcӵ aӵ ccntinucusӵ ¿eneraticnӵ cfӵ interѝalӵ relaticnsӵ whichӵ theӵ addresseeӵ mustӵ
unccverӵandӵselectӵinӵ hisӵactӵcfӵperceivin¿ӵtheӵtctalityӵcfӵinccmin¿ӵstimuli.ӵ(iii)ӵ
Lvc@Ŕwcrkӵcfӵart,ӵevenӵthcu¿hӵitӵisӵpƀcducedӵbyӵfcllcwin¿ӵanӵexplicitӵcrӵimplicitӵ
pceticsӵcfӵnecessity,ӵisӵeffectivelyӵcpenӵtcӵaӵvirtuallyӵunlimitedӵran¿eӵcfӵpcssibleӵ
readin¿sėӵeachӵcfӵwhichӵcausesӵtheӵwcrkӵtcӵacquireӵnewӵvitalityӵinӵtermsӵcfӵcneӵ
particularӵtaste,ӵcrӵperspective,ӵcrӵperscnalӵpcr]crmuncc.Ŕ
Ccntempcraryӵaestheticsӵhasӵfrequentlyӵpcintedӵcutӵthisӵlastӵcharacteristicӵcȷӵ
cvcçŔwcrkӵcfӵart.ӵAcccrdin¿ӵtcӵ Lui¿iӵPareyscn.ӵ
Theӵ wcrkӵcfӵartӵ .ʂӵ isӵaӵfcrm,ӵ namelyӵcfӵmcvement,ӵthatӵhasӵbeenӵ ccncluded̵ӵ crӵ
weӵcanӵseeӵitӵasӵanӵinfiniteӵ ccntainedӵwithinӵfinitenessӵ. Č . ӵTheӵwcrkӵtherefcreӵhasӵ
infiniteӵaspects,ӵwhichӵareӵnctӵŤustӵ'partsċӵcrӵfra¿mentsӵcfӵit,ӵbecauseӵeachӵcfӵthemӵ
ccntainsӵtheӵtctalityӵcfӵtheӵwcrɌ,ӵandӵrevealsӵitӵacccrdin¿ӵtcӵ aӵ¿ivenӵperspective.ӵ
Scӵ theӵ varietyӵ cfӵ perfcrmancesӵ isӵ fcundedӵ bcthӵ inӵ theӵ ccmplexӵ factcrӵ cfӵ theӵ
perfcrmer'sӵ individualityӵandӵinӵthatӵcfӵtheӵwcrkӵtcӵbeӵperfcrmedӵ . . . ӵTheӵinfiniteӵ
pcintsӵcfӵviewӵcfӵtheӵperfcrmersӵandӵtheӵinfiniteӵaspectsӵcfӵtheӵwcƀkӵinteractӵwithӵ
eachӵcther,ӵccmeӵintcӵŤuxtapcsiticnӵandӵclariϛӵeachӵctherӵbyӵaӵreciprccalӵprccess,ӵ
inӵsuchӵaӵwayӵthatӵaӵ¿ivenӵpcintӵcfӵviewӵisӵcapableӵcfӵrevealin¿ӵtheӵwhcleӵwcrkӵ
cnlyӵ ifӵ itӵ ¿raspsӵ itӵ inӵ theӵ relevant,ӵ hi¿hlyӵ perscnalizedӵ aspect.ӵ Analc¿cusly,ӵ aӵ
sin¿leӵaspectӵcfӵtheӵwcrkӵcanӵcnlyӵrevealӵtheӵtctalityӵcfӵtheӵwcrɌӵinӵaӵnewӵli¿htӵifӵ
itӵ isӵ preparedӵ tcӵ waitӵ fcrӵ theӵ ri¿htӵ pcintӵ cfӵ view,ӵ capableӵ cfӵ ¿raspin¿ӵ andӵ
prcpcsin¿ӵtheӵwcrkӵinӵallӵ itsӵvitality.ӵ
Theӵfcre¿cin¿ӵallcwsӵPareyscnӵtcӵmcveӵ cnӵtcӵtheӵasserticnӵthatӵ
allӵperfcrmancesӵ areӵ defЉnitiveӵ inӵtheӵ senseӵthatӵ eachӵcneӵisӵfcrӵtheӵperfcrmer,ӵ
tantamcuntӵ tcӵ theӵ wcrkӵ itself,ӵ eɓually,ӵ allӵ perfcrmancesӵ areӵ bcundӵ tcӵ beӵ
prcvisicnalӵ inӵ theӵ senseӵ thatӵ eachӵ perfcrmerӵkncwsӵ thatӵ heӵ mustӵ alwaysӵ tryӵtcӵ
deepenӵ hisӵ cwnӵ interpretaticnӵcfӵtheӵwcrk.ӵ lnӵ scӵfarӵasӵtheyӵareӵ definitive,ӵtheseӵ
interpretaticnsӵ areӵ parallel,ӵ andӵ eachӵ cfӵthemӵ isӵ suchӵ asӵ tcӵ excludeӵ theӵ cthersӵ
withcutӵinӵanyӵwayӵne¿atin¿ӵthem.ɲ̜ӵ
Thisӵ dcctrineӵ canӵ beӵ appliedӵ tcӵ allӵ artisticӵ phencmenaӵ andӵ tcӵ artwcrksӵ
thrcu¿hcutӵtheӵa¿es.ӵ Butӵitӵisӵusefulӵtcӵ haveӵunderlinedӵthatӵ ncwӵisӵtheӵpericdӵ
whenӵaestheticsӵhasӵ paidӵ especialӵ attenticnӵ tcӵ theӵ whcleӵncticnӵ cfӵ'cpennessċӵ
andӵ scu¿htӵ tcӵ expandӵ it.ӵ lnӵaӵ senseӵ theseӵ requirements,ӵ whichӵ aestheticsӵ hasӵ
referredӵwidelyӵtcӵeveryӵtypeӵcfӵartisticӵpƀcducticn,ӵareӵtheӵsameӵasӵthcseӵpcsedӵ
byӵtheӵpceticsӵcfӵtheӵ'cpenӵwcrk'ӵinӵaӵmcreӵdecisiveӵandӵexplicitӵfashicn.ӵYetӵthisӵ
dcesӵ nctӵmeanӵthatӵtheӵexistenceӵcfӵ'cpen'ӵwcrksӵandӵ cfӵ'wcrksӵinӵmcvement'ӵ
addsӵabsclutelyӵ ncthin¿ӵ tcӵ curӵexperience,ӵ becauseӵ everythin¿ӵ inӵ theӵwcrldӵ isӵ
öß/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
alreadyӵ impliedӵ andӵ subsumedӵ byӵeverythin¿ӵelse,ӵ frcmӵtheӵ be¿innin¿ӵcfӵtimeĂӵ
inӵtheӵsameӵwayӵthatӵitӵncwӵappearsӵthatӵeveryӵdisccveryӵhasӵalreadyӵbeenӵmadeӵ
byӵ tĠeӵ Chinese.ӵ Hereӵ weӵhaveӵ tcӵ distin¿uishӵ betweenӵ theӵ thecreticalӵ levelӵ cfӵ
aestheticsӵasӵaӵphilcscphicalӵdisciplineӵwhichӵattemptsӵtcӵfcrmulateӵdefiniticnsӵ
andӵ theӵpracticalӵ levelӵ cfӵpceticsӵasӵ prc¿rammaticӵprc¡ectsӵ fcrӵcreaticn.ӵWhileӵ
aestheticsӵ brin¿sӵ tcӵ li¿htӵ cneӵ cfӵ theӵ fundamentalӵ demandsӵ cfӵ ccntempcraryӵ
culture,ӵitӵalscӵrevealsӵtheӵlatentӵpcssibilitiesӵcfӵaӵcertainӵtypeӵcfӵexperienceӵi nӵ
everyӵ artisticӵ prcduct,ӵ independentlyӵ cf ӵtheӵ cperativeӵ criteriaӵ whichӵ presidedӵ
cverӵitsӵ mcmentӵcfӵincepticn.ӵ
Theӵ pceticӵ thecryӵ crӵ practiceӵ cfӵ theӵ 'wcrkӵ inӵ mcvementċӵ sensesӵ thisӵ
pcssibilityӵ asӵ aӵ specificӵvccaticn.ӵ ltӵ alliesӵ itselfӵ cpenlyӵ andӵ selfccnscicuslyӵ tcӵ
currentӵtrendsӵinӵscientificӵmethcdӵandӵputsӵ intcӵacticnӵandӵ tan¿ibleӵfcrmӵtheӵ
veryӵ trendӵ whichӵ aestheticsӵ hasӵ alreadyӵ ackncwled¿edӵ asӵ theӵ ¿eneralӵ
back¿rcundӵ tcӵ perfcrmance.ӵTheseӵ pceticӵsystemsӵrecc¿nizeӵ Ćcpenness'ӵ asӵ tncŔ
fundamentalӵpcssibilityӵcfӵtheӵ ccntempcraryӵartistӵcrӵ ccnsumer.ӵTheӵ aestheticӵ
thecretician,ӵ inӵ hisӵ turn,ӵ willӵ seeӵaӵccnfirmaticnӵcfӵ hisӵ cwnӵ intuiticnsӵ inӵtheseӵ
practicalӵmanifestaticns,ӵ theyӵccnstituteӵtheӵ ultimateӵrealizaticnӵcfӵaӵreceptiveӵ
mcdeӵwhichӵcanӵfuncticnӵatӵmanyӵdifferentӵlevelsӵcfӵintensity.ӵ
Certainlyӵthisӵnewӵ receptiveӵmcdeӵvis-a-visӵtheӵwcrkӵcfӵ artӵcpensӵupӵ aӵmuchӵ
vasterӵ phaseӵ inӵ cultureӵ andӵ inӵthisӵ senseӵ isӵ nctӵ intellectuallyӵ ccnfinedӵ tcӵ theӵ
prcblemsӵcfӵaesthetics.ӵTheӵpceticsӵcfӵtheӵ'wcrkӵinӵ mcvement'ӵ¦andӵpartlyӵ thatӵ
cfӵtheӵ'cpen'ӵwcrž)ӵsetsӵinӵmcticnӵaӵnewӵcycleӵcfӵrelaticnsӵbetweenӵtheӵartistӵandӵ
hisӵaudience,ӵaӵnewӵmechanicsӵcfӵaestheticӵpercepticn,ӵaӵdifferentӵstatusӵfcrӵtheӵ
artisticӵprcductӵinӵccntempcraryӵscciety.ӵltӵcpensӵaӵnewӵpa¿eӵinӵscciclc¿yӵandӵinӵ
peda¿c¿y,ӵ asӵwellӵasӵaӵnewӵchapterӵinӵtheӵ hisӆcryӵcfӵart.ӵ ltӵpcsesӵnewӵpracticalӵ
prcblemsӵbyӵcr¿anizin¿ӵnewӵccmmunicativeӵsituaticns.ӵlnӵshcrt,ӵitӵinstallsӵaӵnewӵ
relaticnshipӵbetweenӵtheӵ conrcmp|urionŔ andӵtheӵuri|izutíonŔcfӵaӵwcrkӵcfӵartƼӵ
Seenӵ inӵ theseӵtermsӵandӵ a¿ainstӵtheӵback¿rcundӵcfӵhistcricalӵinǒuencesӵandӵ
culturalӵinterplayӵwhichӵlinksӵartӵbyӵanalc¿yӵtcӵwidelyӵdiversifiedӵaspectsӵcfӵtheӵ
ccntempcraryӵwcrldӵview,ӵtheӵsituaticnӵcfӵartӵhasӵncwӵbeccmeӵaӵsituaticnӵinӵtheӵ
prccessӵ cfӵ develcpment.ӵFarӵfrcmӵ bein¿ӵfullyӵacccuntedӵ fcrӵandӵcatalc¿ued,ӵ itӵ
deplcysӵ andӵ pcsesӵ prcblemsӵ inӵ severalӵ dimensicns.ӵ lnӵ shcrt,ӵ itӵ isӵ anӵ 'cpen'ӵ
situaticn,ӵínŔmovcmcnr.ŔAŔwcrkӵinӵprc¿ress.ӵ
Hcrcͥwcͥ mustͥ climinatcͥ aͥpossiblcͥmisundcrstandin¿ͥstrai¿htͥaway:ͥthcͥ practicalͥ intcrvcntionͥ
olͥ aͥ 'pcrlormcr`ͥ (thcͥ instrumcntalistͥ whoͥ playsͥaͥ picccͥ olͥ musˬͥ orͥ thcͥ actorͥ whoͥ rccitcsͥ aͥ
passa¿c)ͥisͥdillcrcntͥlromͥthatͥolͥanͥintcrprctcrͥinͥthcͥscnscͥolͥconsumcrͥ(somcbodyͥwhoͥlooksͥ
atͥaͥpicturc,ͥsilcntlyͥrcadsͥaͥpocm,ͥorͥlistcnsͥtoͥaͥmusicalͥcompositionͥpcrlormcdͥby ̳omcbodyͥ
clsc).ͥ Forͥ thcͥ purposcsͥ olͥ acsthctiīͥ analysis,ͥ howcvcr,ͥ bothͥ cascsͥ canͥ bcͥ sccnͥ asͥ dillcrcntͥ
manilcstationsͥ olͥ thcͥ samcͥ intcrprctativcͥ attitudc.ͥ Evcryͥ 'rcadin¿',ͥ 'contcmplation'ͥ orͥ
Eco/ĸ /!heĸPoe!icSĸo!ĸ!heĸOpenĸWotk/ĸ /öºĸ
'cn¡oymcnI'ͥolͥaͥworkͥolͥarIͥrcprcscnIsͥaͥIaciIͥorͥprivaIcͥ lormͥolͥ 'pcrlormanccĕģͥ
?ͥ HcnriͥFousscur,ͥ'LͥnuovaͥscnsiDiIiIaͥmusicaIc',ͥluC0u/I! mu5!Cul!, ?ͥ(Mayͥ1958)ͥ?5.ͥ
3ͥ ForͥIhcͥcvoIuIionͥolͥ prc-komanIicͥandͥkomanIicͥpocIsͥinͥIhisͥscnsc,ͥsccͥLʎAnccschi,ͥAu/0|I0m!0
8d 8/8I0u0m!u d8ll´0ï/8. ?ndͥcd.ͥ(FIorcncc:ͥVaIIccchi,ͥ1959).ͥ
4ͥ Sccͥ W.Y.ͥ TindaII,ͥ!08 (!/8Iur) o)m00l (Ncwͥ York.ͥ CoIumDiaͥ UnivcrsiIyͥ Frcss,ͥ 1955).ͥ Forͥ anͥ
anaIysisͥolͥIhcͥacsIhcIicͥimporIanccͥolͥIhcͥnoIionͥolͥamDi¿uiIy,ͥsccͥIhcͥuscluIͥoDscI͈aIionsͥandͥ
DiDIio¿raphicaIͥrclcrcnccsͥinͥCiIIoͥDorlIcs,ͥII d!V8u!ï8 d8ll8 0ï/! (Turin:ͥ EinaudŲͥ 1959)ͥ51ͥ ll.ͥ
5ͥ EdmundͥWiIson,ͥAx8l'5 C05/l8 (London:ͥCoIIins,ͥFonIanaͥLiDrary,ͥ 1951)ͥ178.ͥ
5ͥ Fousscur,ͥ`ŎǼʎ nuovaͥscnsiDiIiIaͥmusicaIc`.ͥ?5.ͥ
7ͥ ].ͥSchcrcr.ͥ(8 '(!vr8' d8 MulluIm0 Ïr8m!0I85 ï8C08rC085 5uI d85 d0Cum8u/5 !u0d!l) (Faris.ͥCaIIimard,ͥ
1957).ͥSccͥinͥparIicuIarͥIhcͥIhirdͥchapIcr,ͥ'FhysiqucͥduͥIivrcʼn.ͥ
8ͥ WcrncrͥHciscnDcr¿,ͥÏ0)5!C5 0ud Ï0!l050¡0) (London.ͥAIIcnͥandͥUnwin,ͥ1959)ͥch.ͥ3.ͥ
9ͥ NicIsͥ 6ohr,ͥ inͥ hisͥ cpisIcmoIo¿icaIͥ dcDaIcͥwiIhͥ EinsIcin;ͥ sccͥ F.A.ͥ SchIipp,ͥ cd.,ͥAl08I/ L!u5/8!u.
|0!l050¡08ï-òC!8u/!5/ (EvansIon,ͥ 111.ͥ LiDraryͥ olͥ Livin¿ͥ FhiIosophcrs,ͥ 1949)Ĥͥ EpisIcmoIo¿icaIͥ
Ihinkcrsͥ connccIcdͥ wiIhͥ quanIumͥ mcIhodoIo¿yͥ havcͥ ri¿hIIyͥ warncdͥ a¿ainsIͥ anͥ in¿cnuousͥ
IransposiIionͥ olͥ physicaIͥcaIc¿oricsͥinIoͥ Ihcͥ licIdsͥ olͥ cIhicsͥandͥpsychoIo¿yͥ (lorͥ cxampIc,ͥIhcͥ
idcnIilicaIionͥ olͥ indcIcrminacyͥ wiIhͥ moraIͥ lrccdom;ͥ sccͥ F.ͥ Frank,ͥ Ïï858u/ K0l8 0] òC!8uC8,
Opcnin¿ͥAddrcssͥ Ioͥ IhcͥScvcnIhͥ|nIçaIionaIͥCon¿rcssͥolͥFhiIosophy,ͥVcnicc,ͥScpIcmDcrͥ1958).ͥ
Hcncc,ͥiIͥwouIdͥnoIͥDcͥ¡usIilicdͥIoͥundcrsIandͥmyͥlormuIaIionͥasͥ makin¿ͥanͥa
͚
aIo¿yͥ DcIwccnͥ
Ihcͥ sIrucIurcsͥ olͥ Ihcͥ workͥ olͥ arIͥ andͥ Ihcͥ supposcdͥ sIrucIurcsͥ olͥ Ihcͥ worId.ͥ lndcIcrminacy,ͥ
compIcmcnIariŃy,ͥ nonźau̬aIiŃyͥ arcͥ no̴ͥmud85 0] 08!u¿ inͥ Ńhcͥ phy̭iźaIͥ worId,ͥ ʓuIͥ 5ʄ5ɟƸȇ5ʎ]0I
d85CIl0!u¿ iIͥ inͥ aͥ convcnicnIͥ way.ͥ Thcͥ rcIaIionshipͥwhichͥ conccrnsͥ myͥ cxposiIionͥ isͥ noIͥ Ihcͥ
supposcdͥ ncxusͥ DcIwccnͥ anͥ 'onIoIo¿icaI'ͥsiIuaIionͥ andͥ aͥ morphoIo¿icaIͥ lcaIurcͥ inͥ Ihcͥ workͥ olͥ
arI,ͥDuIͥIhcͥ rcIaIionͥ DcIwccnͥ anͥopcraIivcͥ proccdurcͥlorͥcxpIainin¿ͥphysicaIͥ proccsscsͥandͥ anͥ
opcraIivcͥ proccdurcͥ lorͥcxpIainin¿ͥIhcͥproccsscsͥolͥarIisIicͥproducIionͥandͥ rcccpIion.ͥ InͥoIhcrͥ
words,ͥIhcͥrcIaIionshipͥDcIwcc
͛ͥ
aͥ5C!8u/!]C m8/00d0l0¿y andͥaͥ¡08/!C5.
10ͥ EdmundͥHusscr|,ͥM0d!/0/!0u5 C0ï/05!8uu85, Mcd.ͥ?,ͥ par.ͥ 19ͥ(Faris:ͥ Vrin,ͥ 1953)ͥ39ōͥ ̘ƆƑcͥIransIaIionͥ
olͥIhisͥpassa¿cͥisͥDyͥAnncͥFaDrc-Lucc.ͥ
11ͥ ]can-FauIͥ SarIrc,ͥLL/ï8 8/ I8 u00u/ (Faris.ͥCaIIimard,ͥ1943)ͥch.ͥ i.ͥ
1?ͥ Mauriccͥ McrIcau-FonIy,ͥ Phcnomcno|o¡ic dc Ia ¡crcc¡tíon (Faris.ͥ CaIIimard,ͥ1945)ͥ381-3.ͥ
13ͥ Ibíd., 384.ͥ
14ͥ Onͥ Ihisͥ'ccIaIcmcnIͥ muIIidirccIionnclͥ dcsͥsIrucIurcs',ͥ sccͥA.ͥ6oucourcchIicv,ͥ 'FroDIèmcsͥdcͥ Iaͥ
musiqucͥmodcrnc',ͥNouvclc rcvuc lran;aisc (DcccmDcrǜ]anuaryͥ1950-51).ͥ
15ͥ Lui¿iͥFarcyson,ͥ£stctìca: tcoria dcla Iormativìta, ?ndͥcd.ͥ(6oIo¿naąͥZanichcŰi,ͥ1950)ͥ194ͥll.,ͥandͥ
inͥ¿cncraIͥIhcͥwhoIcͥolͥchapIcrͥ8,ͥ'LcIIura,ͥinIcrprcIaïioncͥcͥcriIica`.ͥ
UmDcrIoͥ Eco,ͥ U¡8ïu 0¡8I/0 (MiIan:ͥ 6ompiano,ͥ 195?);ͥ Irans.ͥ Annaͥ Canco¿ni,ͥ !08 U¡8u W0rk
(CamDrid¿c,ͥMassachuscIIs.ͥHarvardͥUnivcrsiIyͥFrcss,ͥ1989)ͥ1-?3ǧͥ
40//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
ROIOnO BOr¡hes
The DeOIh Oï Ihe AUIhOïJ JI9ò6
ko|undŔ8urrncs'ŔsnorrŔcssu¸Ŕ 'IncŔDcurnŔo]ŔrncŔAurnor'Ŕ( |958)Ŕsnou|dŔídcu||¸ŔtcŔrcudŔ
u|on¿sídcŔ'IromŔ WorkŔroŔ!cxr'Ŕ(|97|)ŔusŔnísŔkc¸ŔsrurcmcnrŔonŔrncŔídcuŔrnurŔuŔwork'sŔ
mcunín¿Ŕ ísŔ norŔ dcpcndcnrŔ onŔ uurnoríu|Ŕ ínrcnríonŔ turŔ onŔ rncŔ índívíduu|ŔpoínrŔ o]Ŕ
ucrívcŔrcccpríon.Ŕ8urrncsŔwusŔconccmcdŔprímurí|¸ŔwírnŔ|í!crururcŔturŔnísŔínsí¿nrsŔurcŔ
unu|o¿ousŔ roŔ mucnŔ conrcmporur¸Ŕ urrŔ o]Ŕ rnísŔ pcríod,Ŕ purrícu|ur|¸Ŕ worksŔ rnurŔ
cmpnusízcŔrncŔvícwcr'sŔro|cŔínŔrncírŔcomp|críon.Ŕ
lnӵhisӵstoryӵ5urrusíncŔ Balzac,ӵ describin¿ӵaӵcastratoӵ dis¿uisedӵ asӵaӵ woman,ӵ writesӵ
theӵ followin¿ӵ sentence:ӵ 'Thisӵ wasӵ womanӵ herself,ӵ withӵ herӵ suddenӵ fears,ӵ herӵ
irrationalӵwhims,ӵ herӵinstinctiveӵworries,ӵherӵimpetuousӵboldness,ӵherӵfussin¿s,ӵ
andӵherӵdeliciousӵsensibilityȋӵWhoӵisӵspeakin¿ӵthus?ӵlsӵitӵtheӵheroӵofӵtheӵstoryӵbentӵ
onӵremainin¿ӵi¿norantӵofӵtheӵcastratoӵhiddenӵbeneathӵtheӵwoman?ӵlsӵitӵBalzacӵtheӵ
individual,ӵfurnishedӵbyӵhisӵpersonalӵexperienceӵwithӵaӵphilosophyӵofӵWoman?ӵlsӵ
itӵ Balzacӵ theӵ authorӵ professin¿ӵ 'literary'ӵ ideasӵ onӵ femininity?ӵ lsӵ itӵ universalӵ
wìsdom?ӵ Romanticӵpsycholo¿y?ӵ Weӵ shallӵneverӵknow,ӵforӵtheӵ¿oodӵreasonӵ thatӵ
wrìtìn¿ӵisӵtheӵdestru΢tionӵofӵeveryӵvoice,ӵofӵeveryӵpointӵofӵori¿in.ӵWrìtìn¿ӵìsӵ thōtӵ
neutral,ӵ composite,ӵ obliqueӵ spaceӵ whereӵ ourӵ sub¡ectӵ slipsӵ away,ӵ theӵ ne¿ativeӵ
whereӵallӵidentityӵisӵlost,ӵstartin¿ӵwithӵtheӵveryӵidentityӵofӵtheӵbodyӵwritin¿.ӵ
Noӵdoubtӵitӵhasӵalwaysӵbeenӵthatӵway.ӵAsӵsoonӵasӵaӵfactӵisӵnurňurcdŔnoӵlon¿erӵ
withӵaӵviewӵtoӵactin¿ӵdirectlyӵonӵrealityӵbutӵiǞЊtransitively,ӵthatӵisӵtoӵsayįӵfinallyӵ
outsideӵofӵanyӵfunctionӵotherӵthanӵthatӵofӵtheӵveryӵpracticeӵofӵtheӵsymbolӵitself,ӵ
thìsӵ dìsconnectionӵ occursįӵ theӵvoiceӵlosesӵitsӵ ori¿ìn,ӵ theӵauthorӵentersӵìntoӵhìsӵ
ownӵdeath,ӵwritin¿ӵbe¿ins.ӵTheӵsenseӵofӵthisӵphenomenon,ӵhoweverįӵhasӵvaried,ӵ
inӵethno¿raphicӵsocietiesӵtheӵresponsibilityӵforӵaӵnarrativeӵisӵneverӵassumedӵbyӵ
aӵ personӵ butӵ byӵ aӵ mediatorįӵ shamanӵ orӵ relatorӵ whoseӵ 'performance'ӵ - theӵ
masteryӵofӵtheӵnarrativeӵcodeӵĤ mayӵpossiblyӵbeӵadmiredӵbutӵneverӵhisӵ'¿enius'ƶӵ
Theӵ authorӵisӵaӵ modernӵfì¿ure,ӵ aӵ productӵofӵ ourӵ societyӵ inӵ soӵ farӵ as,ӵ emer¿in¿ӵ
fromӵ theӵ Middleӵ A¿esӵ withӵ Fn¿lishӵ empiricism,ӵ Frenchӵ rationalismӵ andӵ theӵ
personalӵfaìthӵofӵtheӵReformatìon,ӵìtӵdìscoveredӵtheӵpresti¿eӵofӵtheӵìndìvìdual,ӵof,ӵ
asӵitӵisӵmoreӵnoblyӵput,ӵtheӵ'humanӵperson'.ӵltӵisӵthusӵlo¿icalӵthatӵinӵliteratureӵitӵ
shouldӵ beӵthisӵpositivism,ӵtheӵepitomeӵ andӵ culminationӵ ofӵcapitalistӵ ideolo¿y,ӵ
whichӵ hasӵ attachedӵ theӵ ¿reatestӵ importanceӵ toӵ theӵ 'person'ӵofӵ theӵ author.ӵ Theӵ
uurnorŔstillӵ rei¿ns,ӵ inӵ historiesӵ ofӵ literature,ӵ bio¿raphiesӵ ofӵ writers,ӵ interviews,ӵ
ma¿azines,ӵasӵinӵtheӵveryӵconsciousnessӵofӵmenӵofӵ lettersӵ anxiousӵtoӵuniteӵtheirӵ
personӵandӵtheirӵworkӵthrou¿hӵdiariesӵandӵmemoirsƶӵTheӵima¿eӵofӵ literatureӵtoӵ
ßOt!heS//TheĸDeO!hĸo!ĸ!heĸAu!hot//4¡ĸ
beӵfoundӵinӵordinaryӵcultureӵisӵtyrannicallyӵcentredӵonӵtheӵauthor,ӵhisӵperson,ӵhisӵ
life,ӵ hisӵ tastes,ӵ hisӵ passions,ӵ whileӵ criticismӵ stillӵ consistsӵ forӵ theӵ mostӵpartӵ inӵ
sayin¿ӵthatӵBaudelaire'sӵworkӵisӵtheӵfailureӵofӵBaudelaireӵtheӵman,ӵVanӵCo¿h'sӵhisӵ
madness,ӵTchaikovsky'sӵhisӵvice.ӵTheӵcxp|unuríonŔ ofӵaӵworkӵ isӵ alwaysӵsou¿htӵinӵ
theӵmanӵorӵwomanӵwhoӵproducedӵit,ӵasӵifӵitӵwereӵalwaysӵinӵtheӵend,ӵthrou¿hӵtheӵ
moreӵorӵlessӵ transparentӵalle¿oryӵofӵtheӵfiction,ӵtheӵvoiceӵofӵaӵsin¿leӵperson,ӵtheӵ
uurnorŔ'confidin¿'ӵinӵ us.ӵ
Thou¿hӵ theӵ swayӵ ofӵtheӵAuthorӵ remainsӵ powerfulӵ ¦theӵ newӵcriticismӵ hasӵ
oftenӵ doneӵ noӵ moreӵ thanӵ consolidateӵ it),ӵ itӵ ¿oesӵ withoutӵ sayin¿ӵ thatӵ certainӵ
writersӵ haveӵ lon¿ӵ sinceӵ attemptedӵ toӵ loosenӵ itĞӵ lnӵ France,ӵ Mallarméӵ wasӵ
doubtlessӵ theӵ firstӵ toӵ seeӵ andӵ toӵ foreseeӵ inӵ itsӵ fullӵ extentӵ theӵ necessityӵ toӵ
substituteӵlan¿ua¿eӵitselfӵforӵtheӵpersonӵwhoӵuntilӵthenӵhadӵbeenӵsupposedӵtoӵbeӵ
itsӵ owner.ӵForӵ him,ӵ forӵ˧usӵtoo,ӵ itӵ isӵ lan¿ua¿eӵ whichӵ spealʖs,ӵ notӵ theӵauthor,ӵ toӵ
writeӵis,ӵthrou¿hӵaӵprerequisiteӵimpersonalityӵ¦notӵatӵallӵtoӵbeӵconfusedӵwithӵtheӵ
castratin¿ӵ ob¡ectivityӵ ofӵ theӵ realistӵ novelist),ӵ toӵ reachӵ thatӵ pointӵ whereӵ onlyӵ
lan¿ua¿eӵ acts,ӵ 'performs',ӵ andӵ notӵ 'me'.ӵ Mallarmé˨sӵ entireӵ poeticsӵ consistsӵ inӵ
suppressin¿ӵtheӵ authorӵinӵtheӵinterestsӵofӵwritin¿ӵ¦whichӵis,ӵasӵwillӵbeӵseen,ӵtoӵ
restoreӵ theӵplaceӵofӵtheӵ reader).ӵValéry,ӵencumberedӵbyӵaӵpsycholo¿yӵofӵtheӵF¿o,ӵ
considerablyӵdilutedӵMallarmé'sӵtheoryӵbut,ӵ hisӵtasteӵforӵclassicismӵleadin¿ӵhimӵ
toӵturnӵtoӵtheӵlessonsӵ ofӵrhetoric,ӵ heӵ neverӵ stoppedӵ callin¿ӵintoӵquestionӵ andӵ
deridin¿ӵtheӵAuthor,ӵheӵstressedӵtheӵlin¿uisticӵand,ӵasӵitӵwere,ӵ'hazardous'ӵnatureӵ
ofӵ hisӵ activity,ӵ andӵ throu¿houtӵ hisӵ proseӵ worksӵ heӵ militatedӵ inӵ favourӵ ofӵtheӵ
essentiallverbalӵconditionӵofӵliterature,ӵinӵtheӵfaceӵofӵwhichӵallӵrecourseӵtoӵtheӵ
writer'sӵinteriorityӵseemedӵtoӵhimӵpureӵsuperstition.ӵProustӵhimself,ӵdespiteӵtheӵ
apparentlyӵpsycholo¿icalӵ characterӵofӵwhatӵareӵcalledӵ hisӵ unul¸scs,Ŕ wasӵ visiblyӵ
concernedӵwithӵtheӵtaskӵofӵinexorablyӵblurrin¿,ӵbyӵanӵextremeӵsubtilization,ӵtheӵ
relationӵbetweenӵtheӵwriterӵandӵĠġsӵȱЭaractersʗ,ӵbyӵm΃Мin¿ӵofӵtheӵnarratorӵnotӵheӵ
whoӵhasӵseenӵandӵfeltӵnorӵevenӵheӵwhoӵisӵwritin¿,ӵbutӵheӵwhoӵísŔ¿oín¿ŔroŔwrírcŔ
¦theӵ youn¿ӵ manӵ inӵtheӵnovel - but,ӵi nӵfactėӵhowӵoldӵ isӵheӵandӵ whoӵ isӵ heųӵ ĝ wantsӵ
toӵ writeӵ butӵcannotƏӵ theӵ novelӵ endsӵ whenӵ writin¿ӵ atӵ lastӵ becomesӵ possible),ӵ
Proustӵ¿aveӵmodernӵwritin¿ӵitsӵepic.ӵByӵaӵradicalӵreversal,ӵinsteadӵofӵputtin¿ӵhisӵ
lifeӵintoӵhisӵnovel,ӵasӵisӵsoӵoftenӵmaintained,ӵheӵmadeӵofӵhisӵveryӵlifeӵaӵworkӵforӵ
whichӵhisӵownӵ bookӵwasӵtheӵmodel,ӵsoӵ thatӵitӵisӵclearӵtoӵusӵ thatӵCharĚӵusӵdoesӵnotӵ
imitateӵMontesquieuӵ butӵ thatӵ Montesquieuӵĝ inӵ hisӵanecdotal,ӵhistoricalӵrealityӵ
- isӵ noӵmoreӵ thanӵaӵ secondaryӵ fra¿ment,ӵderivedӵ fromӵCharĚӵus.ӵLastly,ӵtoӵ¿oӵ noӵ
furtherӵthanӵthisӵprehistoryӵofӵmodernityėӵSurrealism,ӵthou¿hӵ unableӵtoӵaccordӵ
lan¿ua¿eӵaӵsupremeӵplaceӵ¦lan¿ua¿eӵbein¿ӵsystemӵandӵtheӵaimӵofӵtheӵmovementӵ
bein¿,ӵ romantically,ӵ aӵ directӵ subversionӵ ofӵcodesӵ - itselfӵ moreoverӵ illusory.ӵ aӵ
codeӵcannotӵbeӵdestroyed,ӵonlyӵ'playedӵof̖'),ӵcontributedӵtoӵtheӵdesacrilizationӵofӵ
theӵ ima¿eӵ ofӵ theӵ Authorӵ byӵ ceaselesslyӵ recommendin¿ӵ theӵ abruptӵ
42/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
disappointmentӵ ofӵ expectationsӵ ofӵ meanin¿ӵ ¦theӵ famousӵ surrealistӵ ʘ¡olt'),ӵ byӵ
entrustin¿ӵtheӵ handӵwithӵtheӵtaskӵofӵwritin¿ӵasӵquicklyӵasӵ possibleӵwhatӵtheӵheadӵ
itselfӵ isӵ unawareӵ ofӵ ¦automaticӵ writin¿),ӵ byӵ acceptin¿ӵ theӵ principleӵ andӵ theӵ
experienceӵ ofӵ severalӵ peopleӵ writin¿ӵ to¿ether.ӵ Leavin¿ӵ asideӵ literatureӵ itselfӵ
¦suchӵdistinctionsӵreallyӵbecomin¿ӵinvalid),ӵlin¿uisticsӵhasӵrecentlyӵprovidedӵtheӵ
destructionӵ ofӵtheӵ Authorӵwithӵ aӵ valuableӵ analyticalӵtoolӵ byӵshowin¿ӵ thatӵ theӵ
wholeӵ ofӵtheӵ enunciationӵ isӵ anӵ emptyӵ process,ӵ functionin¿ӵ perfectlyӵ withoutӵ
thereӵ bein¿ӵ anyӵ needӵ forӵ itӵ toӵ beӵ filledӵ withӵ theӵ personӵ ofӵtheӵ interlocutors.ӵ
Lin¿uistically,ӵ theӵ authorӵ isӵ neverӵ moreӵ thanӵ theӵ instanceӵ writin¿,ӵ¡ustӵ asӵ IŔ isӵ
nothin¿ӵ otherӵ thanӵ theӵ instanceӵ sayin¿ӵ /:Ŕ lan¿ua¿eӵ knowsӵ aӵ 'sub¡ectŗćӵ notӵ aӵ
'person',ӵandӵthisӵsub¡ect̀ӵemptyӵoutsideӵofӵtheӵveryӵenunciationӵwhichӵdefinesӵ
it,ӵsufficesӵtoӵmakeӵlan¿ua¿eӵ'holdӵto¿ether',ӵsuffices,ӵthatӵisӵtoӵsay,ӵtoӵexhaustӵit.ӵ
Theӵremovalӵ ofӵtheӵ Authorӵ ¦oneӵ couldӵ talkӵhereӵ withӵ Brechtӵofӵaӵveritableӵ
'distancin¿',ӵtheӵAuthorӵdiminishin¿ӵlikeӵaӵfi¿urineӵatӵtheӵfarӵendӵofӵtheӵliteraryӵ
sta¿e)ӵ isӵnotӵmerelyӵanӵhistoricalӵ factӵ orӵanӵactӵofӵwritin¿,ӵ itӵutterlyӵtransformsӵ
theӵmodernӵtextӵ¦orӵ- whichӵ isӵtheӵsameӵthin¿ӵ- theӵtextӵisӵhenceforthӵmadeӵandӵ
readӵinӵsuchӵaӵwayӵthatӵatӵallӵitsӵlevelsӵtheӵauthorӵisӵabsent).ӵTheӵtemporalityӵisӵ
different.ӵTheӵAuthor,ӵwhenӵbelievedӵin,ӵisӵalwaysӵconceivedӵofӵasӵtheӵpastӵofӵhisӵ
ownӵ book.ӵ bookӵandӵauthorӵstandӵautomaticallyӵonӵaӵsin¿leӵ lineӵdividedӵintoӵaӵ
tc]orcŔ andӵanӵu]rcr.Ŕ TheӵAuthorӵisӵthou¿htӵtoӵnourísnŔ theӵbook,ӵ whichӵ isӵ toӵ sayӵ
thatӵ heӵ existsӵ beforeӵ it,ӵ thinks,ӵ suffers,ӵ livesӵ forӵ it,ӵ isӵ inӵ theӵ sameӵ relationӵ ofӵ
antecedenceӵtoӵhisӵworkӵasӵaӵfatherӵtoӵhisӵchild. lnӵcompleteӵcontrast,ӵtheӵmodemӵ
scriptorӵisӵbornӵsimultaneouslyӵwithӵtheӵtext,ӵisӵinӵnoӵwayӵequippedӵwithӵaӵbein¿ӵ
precedin¿ӵ orӵ exceedin¿ӵ theӵ writin¿,ӵ isӵ notӵ theӵ sub¡ectӵ withӵ theӵ bookӵ asӵ
predicate,ӵ thereӵisӵnoӵotherӵtimeӵthanӵthatӵofӵtheӵenunciationӵandӵeveryӵ textӵisӵ
eternallyӵ writtenӵ ncrcŔ undŔ now.Ŕ Theӵ factӵ isӵ ¦or,ӵ itӵfollows)ӵ thatӵwrítín¿Ŕcanӵ noӵ
lon¿erӵdesi¿nateӵanӵoperationӵofӵrecordin¿,ӵnotation,ӵrepresentation,ӵ'depiction'ӵ
¦asӵtheӵClassicsӵwouldӵsay),ӵrather,ӵitӵdesi¿natesӵexactlyӵwhatӵlin¿uists,ӵreferrin¿ӵ
toӵ Dxfordӵ philosophy,ӵ callӵaӵperformative,ӵ aӵrareӵverbalӵformӵ¦exclusivelyӵ¿ivenӵ
inӵ theӵfirstӵpersonӵ andӵ inӵ theӵ presentӵ tense)ӵ inӵ whichӵ theӵ enunciationӵ hasӵ noӵ
otherӵcontentӵ¦containsӵnoӵotherӵproposition)ӵthanӵtheӵactӵbyӵwhichӵitӵisӵutteredӵ
- somethin¿ӵlikeӵtheӵIŔdcclurcŔofӵkin¿sӵorӵtheӵlŔsín¿ŔofӵveryӵancientӵpoetsĕӵHavin¿ӵ
buriedӵtheӵAuthor,ӵtheӵmodernӵscriptorӵcanӵthusӵnoӵlon¿erӵbelieve,ӵasӵaccordin¿ӵ
toӵ theӵ patheticӵ viewӵ ofӵ hisӵ predecessors,ӵ thatӵ thisӵ handӵ isӵ tooӵ slowӵ forӵ hisӵ
thou¿htӵorӵ passionӵ andӵthatӵconsequently,ӵ makin¿ӵaӵ lawӵ ofӵnecessity,ӵheӵmustӵ
emphasizeӵthisӵdelayӵandӵindefinitelyӵ'polish'ӵhisӵform.ӵForӵhim,ӵonӵtheӵcontrary,ӵ
theӵhand,ӵcutӵoffӵfromӵanyӵvoice,ӵborneӵbyӵaӵpureӵ¿estureӵofӵinscriptionӵ¦andӵnotӵofӵ
expression),ӵtracesӵaӵheldӵwithoutӵori¿inӵ- orӵwhich,ӵatӵleast,ӵhasӵnoӵotherӵori¿inӵ
thanӵlan¿ua¿eӵitself,ӵlan¿ua¿eӵwhichӵceaselesslyӵcallsӵintoӵquestionӵallӵori¿ins.ӵ
Weӵ knowӵnowӵthatӵaӵtextӵisӵnotӵaӵlineӵofӵwordsӵreleasin¿ӵaӵsin¿leӵ'theolo¿ical'ӵ
ßOt!heS/ĸ /TheĸDeO!hĸo!ĸ!heĸAu!hot/ĸ /4öĸ
meanin¿ӵ (tȾeӵ'messa¿e'ӵ ofӵtheӵAutȾor-Cod)ӵ butӵaӵ multi-dimensionalӵ spaceӵ inӵ
whichӵaӵvarietyӵofӵwritin¿s,ӵnoneӵofӵthemӵori¿inalˑӵblendӵandӵclash.ӵTheӵtextӵisӵaӵ
tissueӵofӵquotationsӵdrawnӵfromӵ theӵ innumerableӵcentresӵofӵculture.ӵSimilarӵtoӵ
Bouvardӵ andӵ Pécuchet,ӵ thoseӵ eternalӵ copyists,ӵ atӵ onceӵ sublimeӵ andӵ comicӵ andӵ
whoseӵ profoundӵ ridiculousnessӵ indicatesӵ preciselyӵ theӵ truth,ӵ ofӵ writin¿,ӵ theӵ
writerӵcanӵonlyӵimitateӵaӵ¿estureӵthatӵisӵalwaysӵanterior,ӵneverӵori¿inal.ӵHisӵonlyӵ
powerӵisӵtoӵmixӵwritin¿s,ӵtoӵcounterӵtheӵonesӵwithӵtheӵothers,ӵinӵsuchӵaӵwayӵ
asӵ
neverӵtoӵrestӵonӵanyoneӵofӵthem.ӵDidӵheӵwishӵtoӵcxprcssŔnímsc(ę,Ŕheӵou¿htӵatӵleastӵ
toӵknowӵthatӵtheӵinnerӵ'thin¿'ӵheӵthinksӵtoӵ'translate'ӵisӵitselfӵonlyӵaӵready-formedӵ
dictionary,ӵ itsӵ wordsӵ onlyӵ explainableӵ throu¿hӵ otherӵ words,ӵ andӵ soӵ onӵ
indeIɆnitely,ӵsomethin¿ӵexperiencedӵinӵexemplaryӵfashionӵbyӵtheӵyoun¿ӵThomasӵ
deӵ͝uincey,ӵ heӵwhoӵwasӵ soӵ¿oodӵ atӵ Creekӵthatӵinӵ orderӵtoӵtranslateӵabsolutelyӵ
modernӵideasӵandӵima¿esӵintoӵthatӵdeadӵlan¿ua¿e,ӵheӵhad,ӵsoӵBaudelaireӵtellsӵusӵ
(inӵ IuruJísŔArtíİicícls),Ŕ 'createdӵ forӵ himselfӵanӵ unfailin¿ӵdictionary,ӵ vastlyӵ moreӵ
extensiveӵandӵcomplexӵthanӵthoseӵresultġn¿ӵfromӵtheӵordġnaryӵpatienceӵofӵpurelyӵ
literaryӵthemes'.ӵSucceedin¿ӵtheӵAuthor,ӵtheӵscriptorӵnoӵlon¿erӵbearsӵwithinӵhimӵ
passions,ӵ humours,ӵ feelin¿s,ӵ impressions,ӵ butӵ ratherӵ thisӵ immenseӵdictionaryӵ
fromӵwhichӵheӵdrawsӵaӵwritin¿ӵthatӵcanӵknowӵnoӵhalt:ӵlifeӵneverӵdoesӵmoreӵthanӵ
imitateӵtheӵbook,ӵandӵtheӵbookӵitselfӵisӵonlyӵaӵtissueӵofӵsi¿ns,ӵanӵimitationӵthatӵisӵ
lost,ӵinIɆnitelyӵdeferred.ӵ
Dnceӵ theӵ Authorӵ isӵ removed,ӵ theӵ claimӵ toӵ decipherӵ aӵ textӵ becomesӵ quiteӵ
futile.ӵToӵ¿iveӵaӵtextӵanӵAuthorӵisӵtoӵimposeӵaӵlimitӵonӵthatӵtext,ӵtoӵfurnishӵġtӵwithӵ
aӵhnalӵsi¿nihed,ӵtoӵcloseӵtheӵwritin¿.ӵSuchӵaӵconceptionӵsuitsӵcriticismӵveryӵwell,ӵ
theӵlatterӵthenӵallottin¿ӵitselfӵtheӵimportantӵtaskӵofӵdiscoverin¿ӵtheӵAuthorӵ(orӵitsӵ
hypostases:ӵsociety,ӵhistory,ӵpsyche,ӵliberty)ӵbeneathӵtheӵworkĻӵ whenӵtheӵAuthorӵ
hasӵbeenӵfound,ӵtheӵ textӵisӵ'explained'ӵ- victoryӵtoӵtheӵ critic.ӵHenceӵthereӵisӵnoӵ
surpriseӵġnӵtheӵfactӵthat,ӵhistorically,ӵtheӵrei¿nӵofӵtheӵAuthorӵhasӵalsoӵbeenӵthatӵ
ofӵtheӵCritic,ӵnorӵa¿ainӵinӵtheӵfactӵthatӵcriticismӵ(beӵitӵnew)ӵisӵtodayӵunderminedӵ
alon¿ӵ Ɨithӵ theӵ Author.ӵ ĵnӵ theӵ multiplicityӵ ofӵ writin¿,ӵ everythin¿ӵ isӵ toӵ beӵ
Jíscntun¿lcJ,Ŕ nothin¿ӵJccipncrcJ,Ŕ theӵstructureӵcanӵ beӵ followed,ӵ 'run'ӵ (likeӵ theӵ
threadӵ ofӵ aӵ stockin¿)ӵ atӵ everyӵ pointӵ andӵ atӵ everyӵ level,ӵ butӵ thereӵ isӵ nothin¿ӵ
beneath:ӵ theӵ spaceӵ ofӵ writin¿ӵ isӵ toӵ beӵ ran¿edӵ over,ӵ notӵ pierced,ӵ writin¿ӵ
ceaselesslyӵpositsӵmeanin¿ӵceaselesslyӵtoӵevaporateӵit,ӵcarryin¿ӵoutӵaӵsystematicӵ
exemptionӵofӵmeanin¿.ӵlnӵ preciselyӵthisӵwayӵliteratureӵ(itӵwouldӵ beӵbetterӵfromӵ
nowӵ onӵtoӵsayӵwrirĩn¿),Ŕbyӵ refusin¿ӵtoӵassi¿nӵaӵ'secret',ӵanӵ ultimateӵmeanin¿,ӵtoӵ
theӵ textӵ (andӵ toӵ theӵ worldӵ asӵ text),ӵ liberatesӵ whatӵ mayӵ beӵ calledӵ anӵ antiɩ
theolo¿icalӵactivity,ӵanӵactivityӵthatӵisӵ trulyӵ revolutionaryӵsinceӵtoӵ refuseӵ toӵ hxӵ
meanin¿ӵ is,ӵinӵtheӵ end,ӵtoӵrefuseӵCodӵandӵ hisӵ hypostasesӵ- reason,ӵ science,ӵlaw.ӵ
Letӵ usӵ comeӵ backӵ toӵ theӵ Balzacӵ sentence.ӵ Noӵ one,ӵ noӵ 'person',ӵ saysӵ itļӵ itsӵ
source,ӵitsӵvoice,ӵ isӵnotӵtheӵtrueӵplaceӵofӵtheӵwritin¿,ӵwhichӵ isӵ readin¿.ӵ Anotherӵ-
9/ĸ/THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORKĸ
verӝӵ preciseӵ - exampleӵ willӵ helpӵ toӵ makeӵ thisӵ clearȌӵ recentӵ researchӵ nj.-P.ӵ
Vernant)
Ƈӵ
hasӵ demonstratedӵ theӵ constitutivelyӵ ambi¿uousӵ natureӵ ofӵ Creekӵ
tra¿edyėӵ itsӵ textsӵ bein¿ӵ wovenӵfromӵ wordsӵ withӵ doubleӵ meanin¿sӵ thatӵ eacĠӵ
ch΄racterӵ understandsӵunilaterallyӵ¦thisӵ perpetualӵmisunderstandin¿ӵisӵ exactlyӵ
theӵ 'tra¿icŗ);ӵ thereӵ is,ӵ however,ӵ someoneӵ whoӵ understandsӵ eachӵ woŃdӵ inӵ itsӵ
duplicityӵ andӵ who,ӵ inӵ addition,ӵ hearsӵ theӵ veryӵ deafnessӵ ofӵ theӵ charactersӵ
speakin¿ӵinӵfrontӵofӵhimӵ ƹ thisӵ someoneӵbein¿ӵpreciselyӵtheӵ readerӵ¦orӵhereӵ theӵ
listener).ӵ Thusӵ isӵ revealedӵ theӵ totalӵ existenceӵ ofӵ writin¿:ӵ aӵ textӵ isӵ madeӵ ofӵ
multipleӵwritin¿s,ӵdrawnӵfromӵmanyӵculturesӵandӵenterin¿ӵintoӵmutualӵrelationsӵ
ofӵdialo¿ue,ӵparody,ӵcontestation,ӵbutӵthereӵisӵoneӵplaceӵwhereӵthisӵmultiplicityӵ
isӵfocusedӵandӵthatӵplaceӵisӵtheӵreader,ӵnot,ӵasӵwasӵhithertoӵsaid,ӵtheӵauthor.ӵTheӵ
readerӵ isӵ theӵ spaceӵ onӵ whichӵ allӵ theӵ quotationsӵ thatӵ makeӵ upӵ aӵ writin¿ӵ areӵ
inscribedӵwithoutӵanyӵofӵthemӵbein¿ӵlostȐӵ aӵtextŗsӵ unityӵliesӵnotӵinӵ itsӵ ori¿inӵbutӵ
inӵitsӵdestination.ӵYetұhisӵdestinationӵcannotӵanyӵlon¿erӵbeӵpersonal.ӵtheӵreaderӵ
isӵwithoutӵhistory,ӵbio¿raphy,ӵpsycholo¿y,ӵ heӵisӵsimplyӵthatӵscmccncŔwhoӵholdsӵ
to¿etherӵinӵaӵsin¿leӵfieldӵallӵtheӵtracesӵbyӵwhichӵtheӵwrittenӵtextӵisӵconstituted.ӵ
Whichӵ isӵ whyӵ itӵ isӵ derisoryӵ toӵ condemnӵ theӵ newӵ writin¿ӵ inӵ theӵ nameӵ ofӵ aӵ
humanismӵ hypocriticallyӵ turnedӵ championӵ ofӵ theӵ reader'sӵ ri¿hts.ӵ Classicӵ
criticismӵhasӵneveŃӵpaidӵanyӵattentionӵtoӵtheӵreaderȏӵforӵit,ӵtheӵwriterӵisӵtheӵonlyӵ
personӵinӵliterature.ӵWeӵ areӵnowӵbe¿innin¿ӵtoӵletӵourselvesӵbeӵfooledӵnoӵlon¿erӵ
byӵ theӵ arro¿antӵ antiphrasticalӵ recriminationsӵ ofӵ¿oodӵ societyӵ inӵ favourӵ ofӵ theӵ
veryӵ thin¿ӵ itӵ setsӵ aside,ӵ i¿nores,ӵ smothersӵ orӵ destroys,ӵ weӵ lӢnowӵ thatӵ toӵ ¿iveӵ
writin¿ӵitsӵfuture,ӵitӵisӵnecessaryӵDʎ overthrowӵtheӵmythȍӵ theӵbirthӵofӵtheӵreaderӵ
mustӵbeӵatӵtheӵcostӵofӵtheӵdeathӵofӵtheӵAuthor.ӵ
Sccͥ|can-F|crrcͥVcrnanI,ͥ w|Ihͥ FicrrcͥVidaIǝNaqucI.ͥ M)/0c c/ lï0¿0dlc cu Cï8Cc 0uCIcuuc (Farisͥ
197?),ͥcspcciaIIyͥpa¿csͥ 19-40;ͥ 99-131.ͥ [TransIaIorjͥ
koIandͥ 6arIhcs,ͥ 'Lͥ morIͥ dcͥ ɼ'auIcurʼn,ͥM0u/0l0, Vͥ(Fariŵ,ͥ 1958)Ćͥ Irans.ͥ 'Thcͥ DcaIhͥ olͥ IhcͥAuIhor',ͥ inͥ
koIandͥ6arIhcs,ͥɇ̀ʊʾͥ- Mu5íC - JcX/, cd.ͥandͥIrans.ͥSIcphcnͥ HcaIhͥ(NcwͥYorkąͥHiIIͥ&ʎWan¿jƐondonąͥ
FonIana

1977)ͥ14?-8.ͥ
ßOt!ĚS/ĸ /TheĸDeO!hĸo!ĸ!heĸAu!hot/ĸ /4õĸ
Pe¡er BurQer
The NeQO¡¡On Of Ihe AUIOnOmy Ol AïI
Dy Ihe AVOn¡-QOïOeJ J2002
In]ormcdŔ c¸Ŕ tncŔ Irunk]urtŔ 5cnoo|Ŕ o]Ŕ crítícu|Ŕ tncoi¸,Ŕ IctcrŔ Ąőr¿cr'sŔ Theoryӵ ofӵtheӵ
Avant-¿ardeӵ(í974)ŔdccrícsŔuŔcour¿coísŔmodc|Ŕo]ŔurtŔtnutŔísŔproduccdŔundŔconsumcdŔ
c¸Ŕ índívíduu|s.Ŕ HísŔ ín]Ĺucntíu|Ŕ rcudín¿Ŕ o]Ŕ tncŔ nístorícŔ uvunt-¿urdcŔ (Dudu,Ŕ
ConstructívísmŔundŔ5urrcu|ísm)ŔusŔunŔuttcmptŔtoŔ]uscŔurtŔwítnŔsociu|Ŕpruxis,Ŕ to¿ctncrŔ
wítnŔ tncŔ cnurtŔ rcproduccdŔ cc|ow,Ŕ provídcŔ uŔ poí¿nuntŔ contcxtuu|ízutíonŔ ]orŔ
contcmporui¸Ŕco||ucorutívcŔurt.Ŕ
lnӵscholarlyӵdiscussionӵupӵtoӵnow,ӵtheӵcate¿oryӵ'autonomy'ӵhasӵsufferedӵfromӵtheӵ
imprecisionӵofӵtheӵvariousӵsubcate¿oriesӵ thou¿htӵofӵasӵconstitutin¿ӵaӵunityӵ inӵtheӵ
conceptӵofӵtheӵautonomousӵworkӵofӵart.ӵSinceӵtheӵdevelopmentӵofӵtheӵindividualӵ
subcate¿oriesӵ isӵ notӵ synchronous,ӵ itӵ mayӵ happenӵ thatӵ sometimesӵ courtlyӵ artӵ
seemsӵalreadyӵautonomous,ӵwhileӵatӵotherӵtimesӵonlyӵbour¿eoisӵartӵappearsӵtoӵ
haveӵ thatӵ characteristic.ӵ Toӵ makeӵ clearӵ thatӵ theӵ contradictionsӵ betweenӵ theӵ
variousӵ interpretationsӵ resultӵ fromӵ theӵ natureӵ ofӵ theӵ case,ӵ weӵ willӵ sketchӵ aӵ
historicalӵ typolo¿yӵ thatӵ isӵ deliberatelyӵ reducedӵtoӵthreeӵ elementsӵ ¦pu҂poseӵ orӵ
function,ӵ production,ӵ reception),ӵ becauseӵ theӵ pointӵ hereӵ isӵ toӵ haveӵ theӵ
nonsynchronismӵinӵtheӵdevelopmentӵofӵindividualӵcate¿oriesӵemer¿eӵwithӵclarity.ӵ
A.ŔSacralӵArtӵ¦example.ӵtheӵartӵofӵtheӵHi¿hӵMiddleӵA¿es)ӵservesӵasӵcultӵob¡ect.ӵ
ltӵ isӵ whollyӵ inte¿ratedӵ intoӵ theӵ socialӵ institutionӵ 'reli¿ion'.ӵ ĵtӵ isӵ producedӵ
collectively,ӵ asӵ aӵ craft.ӵ Theӵ modeӵ ofӵ receptionӵ alsoӵ isӵ institutionalizedӵ asӵ
collective.ӵǵӵ
ßCourtlyӵArtӵ¦example:ӵ theӵartӵatӵtheӵcourtӵofӵLouisӵ͵lV)ӵalsoӵhasӵaӵpreciselyӵ
definedӵfunction.ӵltӵisӵrepresentationalӵandӵservesӵtheӵ¿loryӵofӵtheӵprinceӵandӵtheӵ
self-portrayalӵ ofӵcourtlyӵsociety.ӵ Courtlyӵartӵisӵpartӵofӵtheӵlifeӵpraxisӵofӵcourtlyӵ
society,ӵ ¡ustӵ asӵ sacralӵ artӵ isӵ partӵ ofӵ theӵ lifeӵ praxisӵ ofӵ theӵ faithful.ӵ Yetӵ theӵ
detachmentӵ fromӵ theӵ sacralӵ tieӵ isӵ aӵ firstӵ stepӵ inӵ theӵ emancipationӵ ofӵ art.ӵ
¦ǽFmancipation'ӵ isӵ bein¿ӵ usedӵ hereӵ asӵ aӵ descriptiveӵ term,ӵ asӵ referrin¿ӵ toӵ theӵ
processӵ byӵ whichӵ artӵ constitutesӵ itselfӵ asӵ aӵ distinctӵ socialӵ subsystem.)ӵ Theӵ
differenceӵ fromӵ sacralӵ artӵ becomesӵ particularlyӵ apparentӵ inӵ theӵ realmӵ ofӵ
production.ӵtheӵartistӵproducesӵasӵanӵindividualӵandӵ developsӵaӵconsciousnessӵofӵ
theӵ uniquenessӵofӵhisӵ activity.ӵ Reception,ӵonӵthȵӵotherӵhand,ӵremainsӵcollective.ӵ
Butӵtheӵcontentӵofӵtheӵcollectiveӵperformanceӵisӵnoӵlon¿erӵsacral,ӵitӵisӵsociability.ӵ
C Dnlyӵtoӵtheӵ extentӵthatӵtheӵ bour¿eoisieӵ adoptsӵconceptsӵofӵvalueӵheldӵbyӵ
theӵaristocracyӵdoesӵ bour¿eoisӵ artӵhaveӵ aӵrepresentationalӵfunction.ӵ Whenӵ itӵisӵ
¿enuinelyӵbour¿eois,ӵ thisӵartӵisӵtheӵ ob¡ectificationӵofӵtheӵself-understandin¿ӵofӵ
4ó/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
theӵ bour¿eoisӵ classĖӵ Productionӵ andӵ receptionӵ ofӵ theӵ selfŘunderstandin¿ӵ asӵ
articulatedӵinӵartӵareӵnoӵlon¿erӵtiedӵtoӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlifeĖӵHabermasӵcallsӵthisӵtheӵ
satisfactionӵofӵresidualӵneeds,ӵthatӵis,ӵofӵneedsӵthatӵhaveӵbecomeӵsubmer¿edӵ inӵ
theӵlifeӵ praxisӵ ofӵbour¿eoisӵ society˒ӵ Notӵonlyӵproductionӵbutӵ receptionӵalsoӵareӵ
nowӵindividualӵacts˓ӵTheӵsolitaryӵabsorptionӵinӵtheӵworkӵisӵtheӵadequateӵmodeӵofӵ
appropriationӵofӵcreationsӵ removedӵfromӵtheӵ lifeӵ praxisӵ ofӵtheӵ bour¿eois
,ӵ evenӵ
thou¿hӵtheyӵstillӵ claimӵ toӵ interpretӵthatӵ praxisĖӵ lnӵAestheticism,ӵ finally,ӵ whereӵ
bour¿eoisӵartӵreachesӵtheӵsta¿eӵofӵself-reflection,ӵthisӵ claimӵ isӵ noӵlon¿erӵ made˔ӵ
Apartnessӵ fromӵ theӵ praxisӵ ofӵ life,ӵ whichӵ hadӵ alwaysӵ beenӵ theӵ conditionӵ thatӵ
characterizedӵ theӵ wayӵ artӵ functionedӵ inӵ bour¿eoisӵ society,ӵ nowӵ becomesӵ itsӵ
contenǣӵ Theӵ typolo¿yӵ weӵ haveӵ sketchedӵ hereӵ canӵ beӵ representedӵ inӵ theӵ
accompanyin¿ӵtabulationӵ¦theӵverticalӵlinesӵinӵboldfaceӵ [substitutedӵbyӵboldfaceӵ
textӵ belowĉӵ referӵ toӵ aӵ decisiveӵ chan¿eӵ inӵ theӵ development,ӵ theӵ brokenӵ onesӵ
[substitutedӵbyӵitalicizedӵtextĉӵtoӵaӵlessӵdecisiveӵone)Ǿӵ
SacralArt CourtlyArt 8ourçeolsArt
lurposeor cultob¡ect rc¡rcscntu!íunul
Iunctlon ub¡cct ȸ0tltðʃðlʎ 0ÍʎƋ0utg00Î5ʎ
50lÍ-uud0t5lðudÎugʎ
lroductlon collectlvecraIt ÎudÎɷÌduðlʎ inJIviJ¤ul
8eception collectlve(sacral) cullcctivc (:ucíublc) ÌudÎɸÌduðlʎ
Theӵtabulationӵallowsӵoneӵtoӵ noticeӵthatӵtheӵdevelopmentӵofӵtheӵcate¿oěiesӵwasӵ
notӵ synchronousĔӵ Productionӵ byӵ theӵ individualӵ thatӵ characterizesӵ artӵ i nӵ
bour¿eoisӵsocietyӵhasӵitsӵori¿insӵasӵfarӵbackӵasӵcΏurtlyӵpatrona¿eĖӵButӵcourtlyӵartӵ
stillӵ remainsӵ inte¿ralӵ toӵ theӵ praxisӵ ofӵlife,ӵ althou¿hӵasӵ comparedӵ withӵ theӵ cultӵ
function,ӵtheӵrepresentationalӵfunctionӵconstitutesӵaӵstepӵtowardӵ aӵmiti¿ationӵofӵ
claimsӵthatӵartӵplay aӵdirectӵsocialӵroleĖӵTheӵreceptionӵofӵcourtlyӵartӵalsoӵremainsӵ
collective,ӵalthou¿hӵtheӵcontentӵofӵtheӵ collectiveӵ performanceӵ hasӵchan¿edĖӵ Asӵ
re¿ardsӵreception,ӵitӵisӵonlyӵwithӵbour¿eoisӵ artӵthatӵaӵdecisiveӵchan¿eӵsetsӵin:ӵitsӵ
receptionӵisӵoneӵbyӵisolatedӵindividualsĖӵTheӵnovelӵisӵthatӵliteraryӵ¿enreӵinӵwhichӵ
theӵ newӵ modeӵ ofӵ receptionӵ findsӵ theӵ formӵ appropriateӵ toӵ itɫӵ Theӵ adventӵ ofӵ
bour¿eoisӵ artӵ isӵ alsoӵ theӵ decisiveӵ turnin¿ӵ pointӵ asӵ re¿ardsӵ useӵ orӵ functionĖӵ
Althou¿hӵ inӵdifferentӵ ways,ӵ bothӵsacralӵ andӵ courtlyӵartӵareӵ inte¿ralӵ toӵ theӵ lifeӵ
praxisӵofӵtheӵrecipient.ӵAsӵcultӵandӵ representationalӵobŐects,ӵworksӵofӵartӵareӵputӵ
toӵ aӵ specificӵ useĖӵ Thisӵ requirementӵ noӵ lon¿erӵ appliesӵ toӵ theӵ sameӵ extentӵ toӵ
bour¿eoisӵ arǣӵ lnӵ bour¿eoisӵ art,ӵ theӵ portrayalӵ ofӵ bouҎeoisӵ selfŘunderstandin¿ӵ
occursӵinӵaӵsphereӵthatӵliesӵoutsideӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlifeĖӵTheӵcitizenӵwho,ӵinӵeverydayӵ
life,ӵ hasӵ beenӵ reducedӵ toӵ aӵ partialӵ functionӵ ¦meansŘendsӵ activity)ӵ canӵ beӵ
discoveredӵinӵartӵasӵ'humanӵbein¿'ǾӵHere,ӵoneӵcanӵunfoldӵtheӵabundanceӵofӵone'sӵ
ßutget/ĸ /TheĸNegO!ionĸo!ĸ!heĸAu!onomyĸo!ĸAt!ĸbyĸ!heĸAVOn!·gOtde/ĸ /47ĸ
talents,ӵthou¿hӵwithӵtheӵ provisoӵthatӵthisӵsphereӵremainӵstrictlyӵ separateӵfromӵ
theӵpraxisӵofӵlife.ӵSeenӵinӵthisӵfashion,ӵtheӵseparatiѹnӵofӵartӵfromӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlifeӵ
becomesӵtheӵdecisiveӵcharacteristicӵofӵtheӵautonomyӵofӵbour¿eoisӵartӵ¦aӵfactӵthatӵ
theӵ tabulationӵ doesӵ notӵ brin¿ӵ outӵ adequately).ӵToӵavoidӵ misunderstanǍin¿s,ӵ itӵ
mustӵbeӵemphasizedӵonceӵa¿ainӵthatӵautonomyӵinӵ thisӵ senseӵ definesӵtheӵstatusӵ
ofӵartӵ inӵ bour¿eoisӵ societyӵ butӵ thatӵ noӵ assertionsӵ concernin¿ӵ theӵ contentsӵ ofӵ
worksӵ areӵ involved.ӵ Althou¿hӵ artӵ asӵ anӵ institutionӵ mayӵ beӵ consideredӵ fullyӵ
formedӵ towardsӵ theӵ endӵ ofӵtheӵ ei¿hteenthӵ century,ӵ theӵ developmentӵ ofӵ theӵ
contentsӵ ofӵworksӵ isӵ sub¡ectӵ toӵ aӵ historicalӵ dynamics,ӵ whoseӵ terminalӵ pointӵ isӵ
reachedӵinӵAestheticism,ӵwhereӵartӵbecomesӵtheӵcontentӵofӵart.ӵ
Theӵ Furopeanӵ avant-¿ardeӵ movementsӵ canӵ beӵ definedӵ asӵ anӵ attackӵ onӵ theӵ
statusӵofӵartӵinӵ bour¿eoisӵsociety.ӵWhatӵisӵne¿atedӵisӵnotӵanӵ earlierӵformӵofӵartӵ¦aӵ
style)ӵbutӵartӵasӵanӵinstitutionӵ thatӵisӵunassociatedӵwithӵtheӵlifeӵ praxisӵofӵmen.ӵ
Whenӵtheӵavantӵ -¿ardistesӵdemandӵthatӵartӵbecomeӵpracticalӵonceӵa¿ain,ӵtheyӵdoӵ
notӵmeanӵthatӵtheӵcontentsӵ ofӵworksӵ ofӵartӵshouldӵbeӵsociallyӵsi¿nificant.ӵTheӵ
demandӵisӵnotӵraisedӵatӵtheӵlevelӵ ofӵtheӵcontentsӵofӵindividualӵworks.ӵRather,ӵitӵ
directsӵitselfӵtoӵtheӵwayӵartӵfunctionsӵinӵsociety,ӵaӵprocessӵthatӵdoesӵasӵ muchӵtoӵ
determineӵtheӵeffectӵthatӵworksӵhaveӵasӵ doesӵtheӵparticularӵcontent.ӵ
Theӵ avantӵ -¿ardistesӵ viewӵ itsӵ dissociationӵ fromӵ theӵ praxisӵ ofӵ lifeӵ asӵ theӵ
dominantӵ characteristicӵ ofӵ artӵ inӵ bour¿eoisӵ society.ӵ Dneӵ ofӵ theӵ reasonsӵ thisӵ
dissociationӵ wasӵ possibleӵ isӵ thatӵ Aestheticismӵ hadӵ madeӵ theӵ elementӵ thatӵ
definesӵartӵasӵanӵinstitutionӵtheӵessentialӵcontentӵofӵworks.ӵlnstitutionӵandӵworkӵ
contentsӵhadӵtoӵcoincideӵtoӵmakeӵitӵlo¿icallyӵpossibleӵforӵtheӵavant-¿ardeӵtoӵcallӵ
artӵintoӵquestion.ӵTheӵavant-¿ardistesӵproposedӵtheӵsublationӵofӵartӵ- sublationӵ
inӵ theӵ He¿elianӵ senseӵ ofӵtheӵ term.ӵ artӵ wasӵ notӵ toӵ beӵ simplyӵ destroyed,ӵ butӵ
transferredӵtoӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlifeӵwhereӵitӵwouldӵbeӵpreserved,ӵalbeitӵinӵaӵchan¿edӵ
form.ӵTheӵ avant-¿ardistesӵ thusӵ adoptedӵ anӵ essentialӵ elementӵ ofӵAestheticism.ӵ
Aestheticismӵhadӵmadeӵtheӵdistanceӵfromӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlifeӵtheӵcontentӵofӵworks.ӵ
TheӵpraxisӵofӵlifeӵtoӵwhichӵAestheticismӵrefersӵandӵwhichӵitӵne¿atesӵisӵtheӵmeansǨ
endsӵrationalityӵofӵtheӵbour¿eoisӵeveryday.ӵ Now,ӵ itӵisӵnotӵtheӵaimӵofӵtheӵavant-
¿ardistesӵ toӵ inte¿rateӵ artӵ intoӵ tnísŔ praxis.ӵ Dnӵ theӵ contrary,ӵ theyӵ assentӵ toӵ theӵ
aestheticists'ӵ re¡ectionӵ ofӵ theӵ worldӵ andӵ itsӵ means-endsӵ rationality.ӵ Whatӵ
distin¿uishesӵthemӵfromӵtheӵ latterӵisӵtheӵattemptӵtoӵ or¿anizeӵaӵnewӵlifeӵpraxisӵ
fromӵaӵbasisӵinӵart.ӵlnӵthisӵrespectӵalso,ӵAestheticismӵturnsӵoutӵtoӵhaveӵbeenӵtheӵ
necessaryӵpreconditionӵofӵtheӵavant-¿ardisteӵintent.ӵDnlyӵanӵartӵtheӵcontentsӵofӵ
whoseӵindividualӵworksӵisӵwhollyӵdistinctӵfromӵ theӵ¦bad)ӵpraxisӵofӵtheӵexistin¿ӵ
societyӵcanӵbeӵtheӵcentreӵthatӵcanӵbeӵtheӵstartin¿ӵpointӵforӵtheӵor¿anizationӵofӵaӵ
newӵlifeӵpraxis.ӵ
Withӵtheӵ helpӵ ofӵHerbertӵMarcuse'sӵ theoreticalӵformulationӵconcernin¿ӵtheӵ
twofoldӵ characterӵofӵartӵ inӵ bour¿eoisӵsociety,ӵ theӵ avant-¿ardisteӵ intentӵcanӵ beӵ
4ß//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
understoodӵ withӵ particularӵ clarity.ӵ Allӵ thoseӵ needsӵ thatӵ cannotӵ beӵ satisfiedӵinӵ
everydayӵlife,ӵbecauseӵtheӵprincipleӵofӵcompetitionӵpervadesӵallӵspheres,ӵcanӵfindӵ
aӵhomeӵ inӵ art,ӵ becauseӵ artӵ isӵ removedӵ fromӵ theӵ praxisӵ ofӵlife.ӵ Valuesӵ suchӵ asӵ
humanity,ӵ¡oy,ӵ truth,ӵsolidarityӵareӵ extrudedӵ fromӵlife,ӵasӵitӵwere,ӵ andӵ preservedӵ
inӵart.ӵ lnӵbour¿eoisӵsƓciety,ӵartӵhasӵaӵcontradictoryӵrole.ӵ itӵpro¡ectsӵ theӵ ima¿eӵofӵ
aӵbetterӵorderӵandӵtoӵthatӵextentӵprotestsӵa¿ainstӵtheӵbadӵorderӵthatӵprevails.ӵButӵ
byӵrealizin¿ӵtheӵima¿eӵofӵaӵbetterӵorderӵinӵfiction,ӵwhichӵisӵsemblanceӵ¸5cncín)Ŕ
only,ӵitӵrelievesӵtheӵeͶistin¿ӵsocietyӵofӵtheӵpressureӵofӵthoseӵforcesӵthatӵmakeӵforӵ
chan¿e.ӵ Theyӵ areӵ assi¿nedӵ toӵ confinementӵ inӵ anӵ idealӵ sphere.ӵ Whereӵ artӵ
accomplishesӵthis,ӵitӵisӵ'affirmative'ӵinӵMarcuse'sӵsenseӵofӵtheӵterm.ӵlfӵtheӵtwofoldӵ
characterӵofӵartӵinӵbour¿eoisӵsocietyӵconsistsӵ inӵtheӵfactӵthatӵtheӵdistanceӵfromӵ
theӵsocialӵproductionӵandӵreproductionӵprocessӵcontainsӵanӵelementӵofӵfreedomӵ
andӵanӵelementӵofӵtheӵnoncommittalӵandӵanӵabsenceӵofӵanyӵconsequences,ӵitӵcanӵ
beӵseenӵthatӵtheӵavant-¿ardistes'ӵattemptӵtoӵreinte¿rateӵartӵintoӵtheӵlifeӵproΛessӵ
isӵitselfӵaӵprofoundlyӵcontradictoryӵendeavour.ӵ Forӵtheӵ ¦relative)ӵfreedomӵofӵartӵ
vis-a-visӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlifeӵisӵatӵtheӵsameӵtimeӵtheӵconditionӵthatӵmustӵbeӵfulfilledӵ
ifӵthereӵisӵtoӵbeӵaӵcriticalӵco¿nitionӵofӵreality.ӵAnӵartӵnoӵlon¿erӵdistinctӵfromӵtheӵ
praxisӵofӵlifeӵbutӵwhollyӵabsorbedӵinӵitӵwillӵloseӵtheӵcapacityӵtoӵcriticizeӵit,ӵalon¿ӵ
withӵitsӵdistance.ӵDurin¿ӵtheӵtimeӵofӵtheӵhistoricalӵavant-¿ardeӵmovements,ӵtheӵ
attemptӵtoӵdoӵawayӵwithӵtheӵdistanceӵbetweenӵartӵandӵlifeӵstillӵhadӵallӵtheӵpathosӵ
ofӵ historicalӵ pro¿ressivenessӵ onӵ itsӵ sǖde.ӵ Butӵ inӵ theӵ meantime,ӵ theӵ cultureӵ
industryӵhasӵbrou¿htӵaboutӵtĠeӵfalseӵeliminationӵofӵtheӵdistanceӵbetweenӵartӵandӵ
life,ӵ andӵ thisӵ alsoӵ allowsӵ oneӵ toӵ reconizeӵ theӵ contradictorinessӵ ofӵtheӵ avant-
¿ardisteӵundertakin¿.ƅӵ
lnӵ whatӵ follows,ӵ weӵ willӵ outlineӵ howӵ the
Ƕӵ
intentӵ toӵ eliminateӵ artӵ asӵ anӵ
institutionӵ foundӵ expressionӵ inӵ theӵ threeӵ areasӵ thatӵ weӵ usedӵ aboveӵ toӵ
characterizeӵ autonomousӵ art.ӵ purposeӵ orӵ function,ӵ production,ӵ reception.ӵ
lnsteadӵofӵspeakin¿ӵofӵtheӵavant-¿ardisteӵwork,ӵweӵwillӵspeakӵofӵavant-¿ardisteӵ
manifestation.ӵ Aӵ dadaistӵ manifestationӵ doesӵ notӵ haveӵ workӵ characterӵ butӵ isӵ
nonethelessӵanӵauthenticӵmanifestationӵofӵtheӵartisticӵavant-¿arde.ӵThisӵisӵnotӵtoӵ
implyӵthatӵ theӵavant-¿ardistesӵproducedӵnoӵworksӵ whateverӵandӵ replacedӵthemӵ
byӵephemeraĺevents.ӵWeӵwillӵseeӵthatӵwhereasӵtheyӵdidӵnotӵdestroyӵit,ӵtheӵavant-
¿ardistesӵ profoundlyӵmodifiedӵtheӵcate¿oryӵofӵtheӵworkӵofӵart.ӵ
Dfӵ theӵ threeӵ areas,ӵ theӵ inrcndcdŔ purposcŔ orŔ]uncrionŔ ofӵ theӵ avant-¿ardisteӵ
manifesӌtionӵ isӵ mostӵ difficultӵ Dʎ define.ӵ lnӵ theӵ aestheticistӵ workӵ ofӵart,ӵ theӵ
dis¡ointureӵofӵtheӵworkӵandӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlifeӵcharacteristicӵofӵtheӵstatusӵofӵartӵinӵ
bour¿eoisӵ societyӵ hasӵ becomeӵ theӵ work'sӵ essentialӵ content.ӵ ltӵ isӵ onlyӵ asӵ aӵ
consequenceӵ ofӵthisӵ factӵ thatӵtheӵworkӵofӵartӵ becomesӵitsӵ ownӵ endӵ inӵ theӵ fullӵ
meanin¿ӵofӵtheӵterm.ӵ lnӵAestheticism,ӵtheӵsocialӵfunctionlessnessӵofӵartӵbecomesӵ
manifest.ӵTheӵavant-¿ardisteӵartistsӵcounterӵsuchӵfunctionlessnessӵnotӵbyӵanӵartӵ
ßutget//TheĸNegO!iOnĸO!ķ!heĸAu!OnOmyĸO!ĸAt!ĸbyĸ!heĸAVOn!·ęOtde/ĸ
/4ºĸ
thatӵ wouldӵ haveӵ consequencesӵ withinӵ theӵ existin¿ӵ society,ӵ butӵ ratherӵ byӵ theӵ
principleӵofӵtheӵsublationӵofӵartӵinӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlife.ӵButӵsuchӵaӵconceptionӵmakesӵ
itӵimpossibleӵ toӵ defineӵ theӵ intendedӵ purposeӵ ofӵart.ӵ Forӵanӵartӵ thatӵ hasӵ beenӵ
reinte¿ratedӵintoӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlife,ӵnotӵevenӵtheӵabsenceӵ ofӵaӵsocialӵpurposeӵcanӵ
beӵindicated,ӵasӵwasӵstillӵpossibleӵinӵAestheticism.ӵWhenӵartӵandӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlifeӵ
areӵ one,ӵ whenӵ theӵpraxisӵ isӵ aestheticӵandӵ artӵisӵ practical,ӵart'sӵ purposeӵ canӵ noӵ
lon¿erӵbeӵdiscovered,ӵbecauseӵtheӵexistenceӵofӵtwoӵdistinctӵspheresӵ¦artӵandӵtheӵ
praxisӵofӵlife)ӵthatӵisӵconstitutiveӵofӵtheӵconceptӵofӵpurposeӵorӵintendedӵuseӵhasӵ
comeӵtoӵanӵend.ӵ
WeӵhaveӵseenӵthatӵtheӵproJuctíonŔofӵtheӵautonomousӵworkӵofӵartӵisӵtheӵactӵofӵ
anӵ individual.ӵ Theӵ artistӵ producesӵ asӵ individual,ӵ individualityӵ notӵ bein¿ӵ
understoodӵ asӵ theӵ expressionӵ ofӵ somethin¿ӵ butӵ asӵ radicallyӵ different.ӵ Theӵ
conceptӵ ofӵ ¿eniusӵ testifiesӵ toӵ this.ӵ Theӵ quasiĦtechnicalӵ consciousnessӵ ofӵ theӵ
makeabilityӵofӵworksӵofӵartӵthatӵAestheticismӵ attainsӵ seemsӵ onlyӵtoӵ contradictӵ
this.ӵ ValǏry,ӵ forӵ example,ӵ demystifiesӵ artisticӵ ¿eniusӵ byӵ reducin¿ӵ itӵ to ʙӵ
psycholo¿icalӵ motivationsӵonӵtheӵoneӵ hand,ӵ andӵ theӵavailabilityӵtoӵitӵofӵartisticӵ
meansӵonӵtheӵother.ӵWhileӵpseudo-romanticӵdoctrinesӵofӵinspirationӵthusӵcomeӵ
toӵ beӵ seenӵ asӵ theӵ self-deceptionӵ ofӵproducers,ӵ theӵ viewӵ ofӵartӵ forӵwhichӵ theӵ
individualӵ isӵ theӵ creativeӵ sub¡ectӵ isӵ letӵ stand.ӵ lndeed,ӵ ValǏry'sӵ theoremӵ
concernin¿ӵ theӵ forceӵ ofӵ prideӵ ¸or¿ucil)Ŕ thatӵ setsӵ offӵandӵ propelsӵ theӵ creativeӵ
processӵ renewsӵ onceӵ a¿ainӵ theӵ notionӵ ofӵ theӵ individualӵ characterӵ ofӵ artisticӵ
productionӵ centralӵ toӵ artӵ inӵ bour¿eoisӵ society.Ƿӵ lnӵ itsӵ mostӵ extremeӵ
manifestations,ӵtheӵavant-¿arde'sӵreplyӵtoӵthisӵisӵnotӵtheӵcollectiveӵasӵtheӵsub¡ectӵ
ofӵproductionӵ butӵ theӵ radicalӵ ne¿ationӵ ofӵtheӵ cate¿oryӵ ofӵindividualӵ creation.ӵ
WhenӵDuchampӵsi¿nsӵmass-producedӵob¡ectsӵ¦aӵurinal,ӵaӵbottleӵdrier)ӵandӵsendsӵ
themӵ toӵ artӵ exhibits,ӵ heӵ ne¿atesӵ theӵ cate¿oryӵ ofӵ individualӵ production.ӵ Theӵ
si¿nature,ӵwhoseӵveryӵpurposeӵitӵisӵtoӵmarkӵwhatӵisӵindividualӵ inӵtheӵwork,ӵthatӵ
itӵowesӵitsӵexistenceӵtoӵthisӵparticularӵartist,ӵisӵinscribedӵonӵanӵarbitrarilyӵchosenӵ
massӵ product,ӵ becauseӵ allӵ claimsӵ toӵ individualӵ creativityӵ areӵ toӵ beӵ mocked.ӵ
Duchamp'sӵ provocationӵ notӵonlyӵ unmasksӵ theӵartӵmarketӵwhereӵtheӵ si¿natureӵ
meansӵ moreӵ thanӵ theӵ qualityӵ ofӵ theӵ work,ӵ itӵ radicallyӵ questionsӵ theӵ veryӵ
principleӵ ofӵ artӵ inӵ bour¿eoisӵ societyӵ accordin¿ӵ toӵ whichӵ theӵ individualӵ isӵ
consideredӵtheӵcreatorӵofӵtheӵworkӵofӵart.ӵDuchamp'sӵReadymadesӵareӵnotӵworksӵ
ofӵartӵbutӵ manifestations.ӵ Notӵfromӵtheӵ form-contentӵtotalityӵofӵtheӵ individualӵ
ob¡ectӵDuchampӵ si¿nsӵ canӵ oneӵinferӵtheӵ meanin¿,ӵ butӵonlyӵ fromӵ theӵ contrastӵ
betweenӵ mass-producedӵob¡ectӵonӵtheӵoneӵ hand,ӵ andӵsi¿natureӵandӵartӵexhibitӵ
onӵ theӵ other.ӵ ltӵ isӵ obviousӵ thatӵ thisӵ kindӵ ofӵ provocationӵ cannotӵ beӵ repeatedӵ
indefinitely.ӵTheӵ provocationӵ dependsӵ onӵ whatӵ itӵ turnsӵ a¿ainst.ӵ here,ӵ itӵisӵ theӵ
ideaӵthatӵtheӵindividualӵisӵtheӵsub¡ectӵofӵartisticӵcreation.ӵ Dnceӵtheӵsi¿nedӵbottleӵ
drierӵ hasӵ beenӵ acceptedӵ asӵ anӵ ob¡ectӵ thatӵ deservesӵ aӵ placeӵ inӵ aӵ museum,ӵ t
ϡ

õ0//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
provocationӵnoӵlon¿erӵprovokes,ӵitӵturnsӵintoӵitsӵopposite.ӵlfӵanӵartistӵtodayӵsi¿nsӵ
aӵ stoveӵ pipeӵ andӵ exhibitsӵ it,ӵ thatӵ artistӵ certainlyӵ doesӵ notӵ denounceӵ theӵ artӵ
marketӵbutӵadaptsӵtoӵit.ӵSuchӵadaptationӵdoesӵnotӵeradicateӵtheӵideaӵofӵindividualӵ
creativity,ӵitӵaffirmsӵ it,ӵandӵtheӵreasonӵisӵtheӵfailureӵofӵtheӵavant-¿ardisteӵintentӵ
toӵsublateӵart.ӵSinceӵnowӵtheӵprotestӵofӵtheӵhistoricalӵavant-¿ardeӵ a¿ainstӵartӵasӵ
institutionӵ isӵ acceptedӵ asӵ urr,Ŕ theӵ ¿estureӵ ofӵ protestӵ ofӵ theӵ neo-avant-¿ardeӵ
becomesӵ inauthentic.ӵ Havin¿ӵ beenӵ shownӵ toӵ beӵ irredeemable,ӵ theӵ claimӵ toӵ beӵ
protestӵcanӵ noӵ lon¿erӵbeӵmaintained.ӵThisӵfactӵaccountsӵforӵtheӵ arts-and-craftsӵ
impressionӵthatӵworksӵofӵtheӵ avant-¿ardeӵ notӵinfrequentlyӵconvey.Ǹӵ
Theӵ avant-¿ardeӵ notӵonlyӵne¿atesӵ theӵ cate¿oryӵofӵindividualӵproductionӵbutӵ
alsoӵ thatӵ ofӵ individualӵ rcccpríon.Ŕ Theӵ reactionsӵ ofӵ theӵ publicӵ durin¿ӵ aӵ dadaӵ
manifestationӵwhereӵitӵhasӵbeenӵmobilizedӵbyӵprovocation,ӵandӵwhichӵcanӵran¿eӵ
fromӵshoutin¿ӵtoӵ fɇsticuffs,ӵareӵcertainlyӵcollectiveӵinӵ nature.ӵTrue,ӵ theseӵ remainӵ
reactions,ӵresponsesӵtoӵaӵprecedin¿ӵprovocation.ӵProducerӵandӵrecipientӵremainӵ
clearlyӵdistinct,ӵhoweverӵactiveӵtheӵpublicӵmayӵbecome.ӵCivenӵtheӵavantӵ -¿ardisteӵ
intentionӵtoӵdoӵ΅wayӵwithӵartӵasӵaӵsphereӵthatӵisӵseparateӵfromӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlife,ӵ
itӵisӵlo¿icalӵtoӵeliminateӵ theӵantithesisӵbetweenӵproducerӵandӵrecipient.ӵltӵisӵ noӵ
accidentӵ thatӵbothӵTzara'sӵ instructionsӵ forӵ theӵ makin¿ӵ ofӵaӵ Dadaistӵ poemӵ andӵ
Breton'sӵ forӵ theӵ writin¿ӵofӵautomaticӵtextsӵ haveӵ theӵ characterӵofӵrecipes.ƄӵThisӵ
representsӵnotӵonlyӵaӵpolemicalӵattackӵonӵtheӵindividualӵcreativityӵofӵtheӵartist,ӵ
theӵrecipeӵisӵtoӵbeӵtakenӵquiteӵliterallyӵasӵ su¿¿estin¿ӵaӵpossibleӵactivityӵonӵ theӵ
partӵ ofӵ theӵ recipient.ӵ Theӵ automaticӵ textsӵ alsoӵ shouldӵ beӵ readӵ asӵ ¿uidesӵ toӵ
individualӵ production.ӵ Butӵsuchӵ productionӵ isӵ notӵtoӵbeӵunderstoodӵ asӵ artisticӵ
production,ӵ butӵ asӵ partӵ ofӵ aӵ liberatin¿ӵ lifeӵ praxis.ӵ Thisӵ isӵ whatӵ isӵ meantӵ byӵ
Breton'sӵ demandӵ thatӵ poetryӵ beӵ practicedӵ ¸pruríŅucrŔ Í0ʎ pocsícŔ). Beyondӵ theӵ
coincidenceӵofӵproducerӵandӵrecipientӵthatӵthisӵdemandӵimplies,ӵthereӵisӵtheӵfactӵ
thatӵtheseӵconceptsӵloseӵtheirӵmeanin¿:ӵproducersӵandӵrecipientsӵnoӵlon¿erӵexist.ӵ
Allӵ thatӵremainsӵ isӵtheӵ individualӵ whoӵ usesӵpoetryӵasӵanӵ instrumentӵforӵlivin¿ӵ
one'sӵlifeӵasӵbestӵoneӵcan.ӵThereӵisӵalsoӵaӵdan¿erӵhereӵtoӵwhichӵSurrealismӵatӵleastӵ
partlyӵ succumbed,ӵ andӵ thatӵ isӵ solipsism,ӵ theӵ retreatӵ toӵ theӵ problemsӵ ofӵ theӵ
isolatedӵsub¡ect.ӵBretonӵhimselfӵsawӵthisӵdan¿erӵandӵenvisa¿edӵdifferentӵwaysӵofӵ
dealin¿ӵwithӵit.ӵDneӵofӵthemӵwasӵtheӵ¿lorificationӵofӵtheӵspontaneityӵofӵtheӵeroticӵ
relationship.ӵPerhapsӵtheӵstrictӵ¿roupӵdisciplineӵwasӵalsoӵanӵattemptӵtoӵexorciseӵ
theӵdan¿erӵofӵsolipsismӵthatӵsurrealismӵharbours.ʚӵ
lnӵ summary,ӵ weӵ noteӵ thatӵ theӵ historicalӵ avant-¿ardeӵ movementsӵ ne¿ateӵ
thoseӵdeterminationsӵthatӵareӵessentialӵinӵautonomousӵart.ӵ theӵdis¡unctionӵofӵartӵ
andӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlife,ӵindividualӵproduction,ӵandӵindividualӵreceptionӵasӵdistinctӵ
fromӵ theӵ former.ӵTheӵavant-¿ardeӵ intendsӵ theӵabolitionӵofӵautonomousӵart,ӵbyӵ
whichӵ itӵmeansӵthatӵartӵisӵtoӵ beӵ inte¿ratedӵ intoӵtheӵpraxisӵofӵlife.ӵThisӵ hasӵ notӵ
occurred,ӵ andӵ presumablyӵcannotӵoccur,ӵ inӵbour¿eoisӵ societyӵ unlessӵ itӵbeӵ asӵ aӵ
ßutget//TheĸNegO!íonĸo!ĸ!heĸAu!onomyĸo!ĸAt!ĸbyĸ!heĸAVOn!·gOtde//õ¡ĸ
falseӵsublationӵofӵautonomousӵart.ǹӵPulpӵfictionӵandӵcommodityӵaestheticsӵproveӵ
thatӵsuchӵaӵfalseӵsublationӵexists.ӵAŔliteratureӵwhoseӵprimaryӵaimӵ itӵisӵtoӵ imposeӵ
aӵparticularӵkindӵofӵconsumerӵbehaviourӵonӵtheӵreaderӵisӵinӵfactӵpractical,ӵthou¿hӵ
notӵ inӵ theӵ senseӵ theӵ avantĦ¿ardistesӵ intended.ӵ Here,ӵ literatureӵ ceasesӵ toӵ beӵanӵ
instrumentӵofӵemancipationӵandӵbecomesӵoneӵofӵsub¡ection.ʄӵSimilarӵcommentsӵ
couldӵbeӵmadeӵaboutӵcommodityӵaestheticsӵthatӵtreatӵformӵasӵmereӵenticement,ӵ
desi¿nedӵ toӵ promptӵpurchasersӵ toӵ buyӵ whatӵtheyӵdoӵ notӵ need.ӵ Hereӵ also,ӵ artӵ
becomesӵpracticalӵ butӵitӵisӵanӵartӵthatӵenthralls.ɼӵThisӵ briefӵallusionӵ willӵ showӵ
thatӵtheӵtheoryӵofӵtheӵavant-¿ardeӵcanӵalsoӵserveӵtoӵmakeӵusӵunderstandӵpopularӵ
literatureӵ andӵ commodityӵ aestheticsӵ asӵ formsӵ ofӵ aӵ falseӵ sublationӵ ofӵ artӵ asӵ
institution.ӵlnӵlateӵcapitalistӵsociety,ӵintentionsӵofӵtheӵhistoricalӵavant-¿ardeӵareӵ
bein¿ӵ realizedӵ butӵtheӵ resultӵ hasӵ beenӵ aӵ disvalue.ӵ Civenӵ theӵ experienceӵ ofӵtheӵ
falseӵ sublationӵ ofӵautonomy,ӵ oneӵ willӵ needӵ toӵ askӵ whetherӵaӵ sublationӵ ofӵ theӵ
autonomyӵ statusӵcanӵbeӵdesirableӵatӵall,ӵ whetherӵtheӵdistanceӵbetweenӵartӵandӵ
theӵpraxisӵofӵlifeӵisӵnotӵrequisiteӵforӵthatӵfreeӵspaceӵwithinӵwhichӵalternativesӵ toӵ
whatӵexistsӵbecomeӵconceivable.ӵ
[IooInoIcͥ14ͥ|nͥsourcc]ͥOnͥIh|s,ͥsccͥIhcͥcssayͥbyͥkǨͥWarn|n¿,ͥ'k|Ius,ͥMyIhosͥundͥ¿c|sII|chcsͥSp|cI',ͥ
|nͥ!8ïr0r !Iud òp!8l. Ïr0bl8m8 d8r M)/h8ur828p/!0u. cd.ͥFuhrmannͥ(Mun|ch.ͥW|IhcImͥF|nkͥVcrIa¿,ͥ
1971) ?11-39.ͥ

[15şͥ Hc¿cIͥ aIrcadyͥ rcIcrrcdͥ Ioͥ Ihcͥ novcIͥ asͥ 'Ihcͥ modcrnͥ m|ddIc-cIassͥ cp|c`ͥ |A5/h8/!k. cd.ͥ ijʎ
6asscn¿c,ͥvoI.ͥ|Iͥ ɽ6crI|njWc|marnjͥ19b5] 45?.)ͥ
3ͥ Ě1bİͥ Onͥ Ihcͥ probIcmͥ oIͥ Ihcͥ IaIscͥ subIaI|onͥ oIͥ aʮIͥ |nͥ Ihcͥ prax|sͥ oIͥ I|Ic,ͥ sccͥ |ǩͥ Habcrmas,ͥ
ò/mk/µuud8I d8r U]]8u/l!chk8l( Uu/8r5uchuu¿8u 2u 8!u8r Ku/8¿0rl8 d8r b!ir¿8rl!ch8u C858ll5chu]/
(Ncuw|cdƍ6cr̵|n,ͥ19b8)ͥ§18, ͥ17bͥI̙.ͥ
4ͥ Ě17]ͥ Sccͥ F.ͥ 6ɚr¿cr,ͥ 'FunkI|onͥ undͥ 6cdcuIun¿ͥ dcsͥ 0_8ll bc|ͥ FauIͥ VaIcƘƟ',ͥ |nͥ K0muul5/!5cÍ!85
]uhrbuch, 1bͥ(19b5)ͥ149-b8.ͥ
5ͥ [18ıͥExampIcsͥoInco͜avanI-¿ard|sIcͥpa|nI|n¿sͥandͥscuIpIurcsͥIoͥbcͥIoundͥ|nͥIhcͥcaIaIo¿ucͥoIͥIhcͥ
cxh|b|Iͥòummluu¿ Cr8m8| Lur0p0!5ch8 Avuu/¿ur08 ì9ô0-ì9/0.ʎcd.ͥC. Adr|an|ͥ(Tub|n¿cn,ͥ1973).ͥ
bͥ [19]ͥTr|sIanͥ Tzara,ͥ 'Fouͥ̚ Ia|rcͥ unͥ poèmcͥ dada|sIc',ͥ |nͥTïara,ͥ (umpl5/8r!85 prccrdc85 d85 58p/
muu!]85/05 dudu (pIaccͥ oIͥ pubI|caI|onͥ noIͥ ¿|vcn,ͥ 19b3)ͥ b4.ͥ Andrcͥ 6rcIon,ͥ 'Man|IcsIcͥ duͥ
surƔ͝aI|smc'ͥ(19?4),ͥ|nͥ6rcIon,ͥMuug85/05 du 5Itrrcull5m8 (Far|sȘͥĪƄȗ.ʎIdccsͥ?3,ͥ19b3)ͥ4?ͥI.ͥ
7ͥ [?0İͥ Onͥ Ihcͥ SurrcaI|sIs`ͥ conccpI|onͥ oIͥ¿roupsͥandͥ Ihcͥ coIIccI|vcͥ cxpcr|cnccsͥIhcyͥsou¿hIͥandͥ
parI|aIIyͥ rcaI|zcd,ͥ sccͥ EI|sabcIhͥ Lcnk,ͥ Ü8r 5pr!u¿8ud8 HuI2l55 Audrc br8/0u´5 p08/!5ch8r
Mu/8r!ul!5mu5 (Mun|ch,ͥ 1971)ͥ57ͥII.,ͥ73ͥI.ͥ
8ͥ [?1ͥıͥ OncͥwouIdͥhavcͥIoͥ|nvcsI|¿aIcͥ Ioͥ whaIͥcxIcnI,ͥ aIIcrͥ IhcͥOcIobcrͥrcvoIuI|on,ͥIhcͥ kuss|anͥ
avanI-¿ard|sIcsͥsuccccdcdͥIoͥaͥdc¿rcc,ͥbccauscͥsoc|aIͥcond|I|onsͥhadͥchan¿cd,ͥ|nͥrcaI|ï|n¿ͥIhc|rͥ
|nIcnIͥIoͥrc|nIc¿raIcͥarIͥ|nͥIhcͥprax|sͥoIͥI|Ic.ͥ6oIhͥ6ōͥArvaIovͥandͥS.ͥTrcI¡akovͥIurnͥIhcͥconc
ʧ
pIͥoIͥ
arIͥasͥ dcvcIopcdͥ |nͥ bour¿co|sͥsoc|cIyͥaroundͥandͥdcIIncͥarIͥqu|IcͥsIra|¿hIIorwardIyͥasͥsoc|aIIyͥ
uscIuIͥacI|v|Iy.ͥ`ThcͥpIcasurcͥoIͥIransIorm|n¿ͥIhcͥrawͥmaIcr|aIͥ|nIoͥaͥparI|cuIar,ͥsoc|aIIyͥuscIuIͥ
õ2/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
lorm,ͥconncctcdͥtoͥthcͥsk|IIͥandͥthcͥ|ntcns|vcͥscarchͥlorͥthcͥsu|tabIcͥlormͥĠ thoscͥarcͥthcͥth|n¿sͥ
thcͥ sIo¿anͥ ƭartͥ lorͥ a|IŇͥ shouldͥ mcanșͥ (S.ͥ Trct¡akov,ͥ 'D|cͥ Kunstͥ |nͥ dcrͥ kcvoIut|onͥ andͥ d|cͥ
kcvoIut|onͥ|nͥdcrͥKunst',ͥ|nͥTrct¡akov,ͥUíc Ar0cí/ dcS oC0r(]/S/cllcrS, cd.ͥH.ͥ6ochnckcͥ(kc|nbckͥbcŀͥ
Hamb˾ņƮ¿:ͥ kowoh|t,ͥ 1971)ͥ13.ͥ'6as|n¿ͥh|mscIlͥonͥthcͥtcchn|qucͥwh|chͥ|sͥcommonͥtoͥaIIͥsphcrcsͥ
olͥ I|lc,ͥthcͥart|stͥ |sͥ|mbucdͥ w|thͥ thcͥ |dcaͥolͥ su|tab|I|ty.ͥ ltͥ |sͥnotͥbyͥ sub¡cct|vcͥtastcͥ thatͥ hcͥ w|Ilͥ
aIlowͥh|mscIlͥtoͥbcͥ¿u|dcdͥasͥhcͥworksͥonͥh|sͥmatcr|aIͥbutͥbyͥ thcͥob¡cct|vcͥtasksͥolͥ product|on`ͥ
(6.ͥ Arvatov,ͥ 'D|cͥ Kunstͥ |mͥSystcmͥdcrͥprolctar|schcnͥ ɾƽuItur',ͥ |nͥArvatov,ͥ KuuS/ uud |Iuduk/íuu,
15).ͥW|thͥthcͥthcoryͥolͥthcͥavant-¿ardcͥasͥaͥpo|ntͥolͥdcparturc,ͥandͥw|thͥconcrctcͥ|nvcst|¿at|onsͥ
asͥ¿u|dc,ͥoncͥshouIdͥaIsoͥd|scussͥthcͥprobIcmͥolͥ thcͥcxtcntͥ(andͥolͥ thcͥk|ndsͥolͥconscqucnccsͥ
lorͥthcͥ art|st|cͥ sub¡ccts)ͥ toͥ wh|chͥ artͥ asͥ anͥ |nst|tut|onͥ occup|csͥ aͥ pIaccͥ |nͥ thcͥ soc|ctyͥ olͥ thcͥ
soc|aI|stͥ countr|csͥ thatͥd|llcrsͥ lromͥ|tsͥ pIaccͥ|nͥbour¿co|sͥsoc|cty.ͥ
9ͥ [22| Sccͥ Chr|staͥ 6ƞr¿cr,ͥ JcX|uuul)Sc ulS Idculu¿íckrí/ík. Zur Kc2c¡/íuu wí/¿cu 0SSíSC0cr
Uu/cI0ul/uu¿Slí/cIu/uI (Franklurt:ͥAthcnat|m,ͥ1973).ͥ
10ͥ j2J| SccͥW.F.ͥHat|¿,ͥKIl/Ik dcI WuIcudS/Í!c/ík (FranklurtȚͥSuhrkamp,ͥ1971).ͥ
Fctcrͥ 6ijr¿cr,ͥ J0cuIlc dcr AVuu/¿uIdc (Franklurtͥ amͥ Ma|n:ͥSuhrkampͥVcrIa¿,ͥ 1974);ͥ trans.ͥ M|chaclͥ
Shaw,ͥJ0cur) 0]/0c AVuu/-¿uIdc (M|nncapoI|s:ͥ Un|vcrs|tyͥolͥM|nncsotaͥFrcss,ͥ 1984)ͥ47-54ͥ
ßutget/ĸ /TheĸNegO!íonĸo!ĸ!heĸAu!onomyĸo!ĸAt!ĸbyĸ!heĸAVOn!·gOtde/ĸ /õöĸ
JeOn-LUC NOnCy
The InOperOI!Ve COmmUn¡Iy¡¡l96ò
A numbcr øf pøsr-Marxisr rhcørics øf cømmunirj cmcr¿cd in rhc Iº80s. Frcnch
ph!løsøphcr ]can-Iuc Nancj, wr! rin¿ ! n a Hc!dc¿¿cr!an and Dcr¡!dcan rrad! t!øn,
ar¿ucs før an undcrsrand!n¿ øf cømmun!rj føundcd nør øn rhc !mmancncc øf
!nd!v!duals bc!n¿-!n-cømmøn, bur øn an 'unwo1!n¿' ¦désoeuvrement)ӵ øf
rø¿crhcmcss bi+u¿hr abøur bj rhar wh!ch prcscnrs a l!m!r rø cømmun!t} - rhar
!s, dcarh. Nancj's cømplcx rcxr has bccn rcfcrcnccd bj a numbcr øf wì1rcrs øn
parr!c!parørj arr {Ccør¿c 8akcr, M! wøn Kwøn, Iamcla M. Icc, ]css!ca Møi¿an).
Theӵ ¿ravestӵ andӵ mostӵ painfulӵ testimonyӵ ofӵ theӵ modernӵ world,ӵ theӵ oneӵ thatӵ
possiblyӵ involvesӵ allӵ otherӵ testimoniesӵ toӵ whichӵ thisӵ epochӵ mustӵ answerӵ ¦by ȁӵ
virtueӵ ofӵsomeӵ unknownӵ decreeӵ orӵnecessity,ӵforӵweӵ bearӵ witnessӵ alsoӵ toӵtheӵ
exhaustionӵofӵthinkin¿ӵthrou¿hӵHistory),ӵisӵtheӵtestimonyӵofӵtheӵdissolution,ӵtheӵ
dislocation,ӵ orӵtheӵ conIla¿rationӵ ofӵcommunity.ӵ Communism,ӵ asӵ Sartreӵ said,ӵ isӵ
Ŗtheӵunsurpassableӵhorizonӵofӵourӵtime',ӵandӵitӵisӵsoӵinӵmanyӵsensesӵ- political,ӵ
ideolo¿icalӵ andӵ strate¿ic.ӵ Butӵ notӵ leastӵ importantӵ amon¿ӵ theseӵ sensesӵ isӵ theӵ
followin¿ӵ consideration,ӵ quiteӵ forei¿nӵ toӵ Sartre'sӵ intentions.ӵ theӵ wordӵ
'communism'ӵstandsӵasӵanӵemblemӵofӵtheӵdesireӵtoӵdiscoverӵorӵrediscoverӵaӵplaceӵ
ofӵ communityӵ atӵ onceӵ beyondӵ socialӵ divisionsӵ andӵ beyondӵ subordinationӵ toӵ
technopoliticalӵdominion,ӵandӵ therebyӵbeyondӵsuchӵwastin¿ӵawayӵ ofӵ liberty,ӵofӵ
speechӵ orӵ ofӵ simpleӵ happinessӵ asӵ comesӵ aboutӵ wheneverӵ theseӵ becomeӵ
sub¡u¿atedӵtoӵtheӵexclusiveӵorderӵofӵprivatization,ӵandӵfinally,ӵmoreӵsimplyӵandӵ
evenӵ moreӵ decisively,ӵ aӵ placeӵ fromӵ whichӵ toӵ surmountӵ theӵ unravellin¿ӵ thatӵ
occursӵ withӵ theӵ deathӵ ofӵ eachӵ oneӵ ofӵ usӵ - thatӵ deathӵ that,ӵ whenӵ noӵ lon¿erӵ
anythin¿ӵ moreӵ thanӵ theӵ deathӵ ofӵtheӵ individual,ӵcarriesӵ anӵ unbearableӵburdenӵ
andӵcollapsesӵintoӵinsi¿nificance.ӵ
Moreӵ orӵ lessӵ consciously,ӵ moreӵ orӵ lessӵ deliberately,ӵ andӵ moreӵ orӵ lessӵ
politically,ӵtheӵwordӵ'communism'ӵhasӵconstitutedӵsuchӵanӵemblemӵĝ whichӵnoӵ
doubtӵamountedӵtoӵsomethin¿ӵotherӵthanӵaӵconcept,ӵandӵevenӵsomethin¿ӵotherӵ
thanӵtheӵmcńníngŔofӵaӵword.ӵThisӵemblemӵisӵnoӵlon¿erӵinӵcirculation,ӵexceptӵinӵaӵ
belatedӵ wayӵ forӵ aӵ few,ӵ forӵ stillӵ others,ӵ thou¿hӵ veryӵ rareӵ nowadays,ӵ itӵ isӵ anӵ
emblemӵ capableӵ ofӵ inferrin¿ӵ aӵ fierceӵ butӵ impotentӵ resistanceӵ toӵ theӵ visibleӵ
collapseӵ ofӵwhatӵ itӵ promised.ӵ lfӵitӵ isӵ noӵlon¿erӵinӵcirculation,ӵ thisӵ isӵ notӵ onlyӵ
becauseӵtheӵ Statesӵ thatӵacclaimedӵitӵhaveӵappeared,ӵforӵsomeӵtimeӵ now,ӵasӵtheӵ
a¿entsӵofӵitsӵbetrayal.ӵ¦Batailleӵinӵl988:ӵ'TheӵRevolution'sӵminimalӵhopeӵhasӵbeenӵ
describedӵasӵtheӵdeclineӵofӵtheӵState.ӵbutӵitӵisӵinӵfactӵtheӵrevolutionaryӵforcesӵthatӵ
õ4//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORKĸ
theӵ
presentӵworldӵisӵseein¿ӵperishӵand,ӵatӵtheӵsameӵtime,ӵeveryӵvitalӵforceӵtodayӵ
ha
sӵassumedӵ theӵ formӵ ofӵtheӵ totalitarianӵState')
Ƈ
Theӵ schemaӵofӵbetrayal,ӵ aimedӵ
atӵpreservin¿ӵanӵori¿inaryӵcommunistӵpurityӵofӵdoctrineӵorӵintention,ӵh
asӵcomeӵ
toӵbeӵseenӵasӵlessӵandӵlessӵtenable.ӵNotӵthatӵtotalitarianismӵwasӵalreadyӵpresent,ӵ
asӵ such,ӵ inӵ Marx.ӵ thisӵwouldӵbeӵ aӵcrudeӵproposition˕ӵoneӵthatӵremainsӵi¿norantӵ
ofӵ
theӵ stridentӵ protestӵ a¿ainstӵ theӵ destructionӵ ofӵ communityӵ thatӵ inӵ Marxӵ
continuouslyӵparallelsӵ theӵHe¿elianӵattemptӵtoӵ brin¿ӵ aboutӵaӵtotality,ӵ andӵ thatӵ
th
wartsӵorӵdisplacesӵthisӵattempt.ӵ
Butӵtheӵ schemaӵ ofӵbetrayalӵ isӵ seenӵtoӵ beӵ untenableӵ inӵ thatӵ itӵwasӵ theӵ veryӵ
basisӵ ofӵ theӵ communistӵ idealӵ thatӵ endedӵ upӵ appearin¿ӵ mostӵ problematic.ӵ
namely,ӵhumanӵbein¿sӵdefinedӵasӵproducersӵ¦oneӵmi¿htӵevenӵadd.ӵhumanӵbein¿sӵ
dc]incdŔatӵall),ӵ andӵfundamentallyӵasӵtheӵproducersӵofӵtheirӵownӵessenceӵinӵ theӵ
formӵofӵtheirӵlabourӵorӵtheirӵwork.ӵ
Thatӵtheӵ¡usticeӵandӵfreedomӵ- andӵtheӵequalityӵ- includedӵinӵtheӵcommunistӵ
ideaӵ orӵ idealӵ haveӵ inӵ effectӵ beenӵ betrayedӵ inӵ so-calledӵ realӵ communismӵ isӵ
somethin¿ӵatӵonceӵladenӵwithӵtheӵburdenӵofӵanӵintolerableӵsufferin¿ӵ(alon¿ӵwithӵ
other,ӵnoӵlessӵintolerableӵformsӵofӵsufferin¿ӵinIlictedӵbyӵourӵliberalӵsocieties)ӵandӵ
atӵtheӵsameӵtimeӵ politicallyӵ decisiveӵ ¦notӵ onlyӵ inӵ thatӵaӵ politicalӵ strate¿yӵ mustӵ
favourӵ resistanceӵ toӵ thisӵ betrayal,ӵ butӵ becauseӵ thisӵ strate¿y,ӵ asӵ wellӵ asӵ ourӵ
thou¿htӵinӵ¿eneral,ӵmustӵreckonӵ withӵtheӵpossibilityӵthatӵanӵentireӵ societyӵhasӵ
beenӵfor¿ed,ӵdocilelyӵandӵdespiteӵmoreӵthanӵoneӵforumӵofӵrevolt,ӵinӵtheӵmouldӵofӵ
thisӵbetrayalӵ- orӵmoreӵplainly,ӵatӵtheӵmercyӵofӵthisӵabandonment.ӵthisӵwouldӵbeӵ
Ōinoviev'sӵ question,ӵ ratherӵ than,ӵ Solzhenitsyn's).ӵ Butӵ theseӵ buɖdensӵ areӵ stillӵ
perhapsӵonlyӵrelativeӵcomparedӵwithӵtheӵabsoluteӵwei¿htӵthatӵcrushesӵorӵblocksӵ
allӵourӵ'horizons'.ӵthereӵis,ӵnamely,ӵnoӵformӵof
Ƕ
communistӵoppositionӵ- orӵletӵusӵ
sayӵ ratherӵ 'communitarian'ӵ opposition,ӵ inӵorderӵtoӵemphasizeӵthatӵtheӵ wordӵ
shouldӵnotӵbeӵrestrictedӵ inӵ thisӵ contextӵtoӵstrictlyӵpoliticalӵreferencesӵ- thatӵhasӵ
notӵbeenӵorӵisӵnotӵstillӵprofoundlyӵsub¡u¿atedӵtoӵtheӵ¿oalӵofӵaӵnumunŔcommunity,ӵ
thatӵ is,ӵ toӵ theӵ¿oalӵ ofӵachievin¿ӵaӵ communityӵ ofӵ bein¿sӵ producin¿ӵ inӵ essenceӵ
theirӵ ownӵ essenceӵ asӵ theirӵ work,ӵ andӵ furthermoreӵ producin¿ӵ preciselyӵ thisӵ
essenceӵusŔcommuníg.Ŕ Anӵabsoluteӵimmanenceӵofӵmanӵtoӵmanӵ- aӵhumanismӵ-
andӵ ofӵ communityӵ toӵ
communityӵ - aӵ communismӵ - obstinatelyӵ subtends,ӵ
whateverӵbeӵtheirӵmeritsӵorӵstren¿ths,ӵallӵformsӵofӵoppositionalӵcommunism,ӵallӵ
leftistӵandӵultraleftistӵmodels,ӵandӵallӵmodelsӵbasedӵonӵtheӵworkers'ӵcouncil.ʛӵĵnӵ
aӵsense,ӵallӵventuresӵadoptin¿ӵaӵcommunitarianӵoppositionӵtoӵ'realӵcommunism'ӵ
haveӵ byӵ nowӵ runӵ theirӵcourseӵ orӵ beenӵ abandoned,ӵbutӵ everythin¿ӵ continuesӵ
alon¿ӵ itsӵ wayӵ asӵ thou¿h,ӵ beyondӵ theseӵ ventures,ӵ itӵ wereӵ noӵ lon¿erӵ evenӵ aӵ
questionӵofӵthinkin¿ӵaboutӵcommunity.ӵ
Yetӵ itӵ isӵ pĬeciselyӵ theӵ immanenceӵ ofӵ manӵ toӵ man,ӵ orӵ itӵ isӵ mun,Ŕ takenӵ
absolutely,ӵ consideredӵ asӵ theӵ immanentӵ bein¿ӵ parӵexcellence,ӵthatӵ constitutesӵ
NOnç/ĸ /Theĸ¡nopetO!íVeĸ Communí!y/ĸ /õõĸ
theӵ stumblin¿ӵ blockӵ toӵ thinkin¿ӵ ofӵcommunity.ӵ Aӵ communityӵ presupposedӵ asӵ
havin¿ӵtoӵbeӵoneӵo]ŔnumunŔccín¿sŔpresupposesӵthatӵitӵeffect,ӵor thatӵitӵmustӵeffect,ӵ
asӵsuchӵandӵinte¿rally,ӵitsӵownӵessence,ӵwhichӵisӵitselfӵtheӵaccomplishmentӵofӵtheӵ
essenceӵ ofӵ humanness.ӵ ¦ǽWhatӵ canӵ beӵ fashionedӵ byӵ manđӵ Fverythin¿.ӵ Nature,ӵ
humanӵ society,ӵ humanity',ӵ wroteӵ Herder.ӵ Weӵ areӵ stubbornlyӵ boundӵ toӵ thisӵ
re¿ulativeӵ idea,ӵ evenӵ whenӵ weӵ considerӵ thatӵ thisӵ 'fashionin¿'ӵ isӵ itselfӵonlyӵ aӵ
're¿ulativeӵ idea'.)ӵ Consequently,ӵ economicӵ ties,ӵ technolo¿icalӵ operationsӵ andӵ
politicalӵ fusionӵ ¦intoӵ aӵ cod¸Ŕ orӵ underӵ aӵ lcudcr)Ŕ representӵ orӵ ratherӵ present,ӵ
exposeӵandӵrealizeӵthisӵessenceӵnecessarilyӵinӵthemselves.ӵFssenceӵisӵsetӵtoӵworkӵ
inӵ them,ӵ throu¿hӵ them,ӵ itӵbecomesӵ itsӵownӵwork.ӵ Thisӵ isӵwhatӵweӵ haveӵcalledӵ
'totalitarianism',ӵbutӵitӵmi¿htӵbeӵbetterӵnamedӵ 'immanentism',ӵasӵ lon¿ӵasӵweӵ doӵ
notӵ restrictӵtheӵ termӵtoӵ 'desi¿natin¿ӵ certainӵ typesӵ ofӵsocietiesӵ orӵ re¿imesӵ butӵ
raƧherӵseeӵinӵitӵtheӵ¿eneralӵhorizonӵofӵourӵtime,ӵencompassin¿ӵbothӵdemocraciesӵ
andӵtheirӵfra¿ileӵ¡uridicalӵparapets.ӵ
lsӵitӵreallyӵnecessaryӵtoӵsayӵsomethin¿ӵaboutӵtheӵindividualӵheređӵSomeӵseeӵinӵitsӵ
inventionӵ andӵ inӵ theӵ culture,ӵ ifӵ notӵ inӵ theӵ cultӵ builtӵ aroundӵ theӵ individual,ӵ
Furope'sӵ incontrovertibleӵ meritӵ ofӵhavin¿ӵ shownӵ theӵ worldӵ theӵ soleӵ pathӵ toӵ
emancipationӵfromӵtyranny,ӵandӵtheӵnormӵbyӵwhichӵtoӵmeasureӵallӵourӵcollectiveӵ
orӵcommunitarianӵundertakin¿s.ӵButӵtheӵindividualӵisӵmerelyӵtheӵresidueӵofӵtheӵ
experienceӵ ofӵ theӵ dissolutionӵ ofӵ community.ӵ Byӵ itsӵ natureӵ - asӵ itsӵ nameӵ
indicates,ӵ itӵ isӵ theӵ atom,ӵ theӵ indivisibleӵ - theӵ individualӵ revealsӵ thatӵ itӵ isӵ theӵ
abstractӵ resultӵ ofӵ aӵ decomposition.ӵ ltӵ isӵ another,ӵ andӵ symmetrical,ӵ fi¿ureӵ ofӵ
immanence:ӵtheӵabsolutelyӵdetachedӵfor-itself,ӵtakenӵasӵori¿inӵandӵasӵcertainty.ӵ
Butӵtheӵexperienceӵthrou¿hӵ whichӵ thisӵ individualӵ hasӵpassed,ӵsinceӵHe¿elӵatӵ
least,ӵ ¦andӵ throu¿hӵ whichӵ heӵ passes,ӵ itӵ mustӵ beӵ confessed,ӵ withӵ sta¿¿erin¿ӵ
opinionatedness)ӵisӵsimplyӵtheӵexperienceӵofӵthis:ӵthatӵtheӵindividualӵcanӵbeӵtheӵ
ori¿inӵ andӵtheӵcertaintyӵofӵnothin¿ӵbutӵitsӵownӵdeath.ӵAndӵonceӵimmortalityӵhasӵ
passedӵ intoӵitsӵworks,ӵanӵopcrutívcŔ immortalityӵremainsӵitsӵownӵalienationӵandӵ
rendersӵ itsӵ deathӵ stillӵ moreӵ stran¿eӵ thanӵ theӵ irremediableӵstran¿enessӵthatӵitӵ
alreadyӵ'is'.ӵ
Still,ӵoneӵcannotӵmakeӵaӵworldӵwithӵsimpleӵatoms.ӵThereӵhasӵtoӵbeӵaӵclínumcn.Ŕ
Thereӵhasӵtoӵbeӵanӵinclinationӵorӵanӵinclinin¿ӵfromӵoneӵtowardsӵtheӵother,ӵofӵoneӵ
byӵtheӵother,ӵorӵfromӵoneӵtoӵtheӵother.ӵCommunityӵisӵatӵleastӵtheӵclínumcnŔofӵtheӵ
'individual'.ӵ Yetӵ thereӵ isӵ noӵ theory,ӵ ethics,ӵ politicsӵ orӵ metaphysicsӵ ofӵ theӵ
individualӵthatӵisӵcapableӵ'ofӵenvisa¿in¿ӵthisӵclínumcn,Ŕthisӵdeclinationӵorӵdeclineӵ
ofӵ theӵ individualӵ withinӵ community.ӵ Neitherӵ 'Personalism'ӵ norӵ Sartreӵ everӵ
mana¿edӵ toӵ doӵ anythin¿ӵ moreӵ thanӵ coatӵtheӵ mostӵ classicalӵ individual-sub¡ectӵ
withӵaӵmoralӵorӵsociolo¿icalӵpaste.ӵtheyӵneverӵínclíncdŔit,ӵoutsideӵitself,ӵoverӵthatӵ
ed¿eӵthatӵopensӵupӵitsӵbein¿-͊n-common.ӵ
õó/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORKĸ
Anӵinconsequentialӵatomism,ӵindividualismӵtendsӵtoӵfor¿etӵthatӵtheӵatomӵisӵaӵ
world.ӵThisӵ isӵwhyӵ theӵ questionӵ ofӵcommunityӵ isӵ soӵ markedlyӵabsentӵfromӵ theӵ
metaphysicsӵofӵtheӵsub¡ect,ӵthatӵisӵtoӵsayėӵ fromӵ theӵ metaphysiΜsӵofӵtheӵabsoluteӵ
forŘitselfӵ- beӵitӵinӵtheӵ formӵ ofӵtheӵ individualӵ orӵtheӵtotalӵStateӵ - whichӵ meansӵ
alsoӵtheӵmetaphysicsӵofӵtheӵucso|urcŔinӵ¿eneral,ӵofӵbein¿ӵasӵabsolute,ӵasӵperfectlyӵ
detached,ӵ distinctӵandӵ closed.ӵ bein¿ӵwithoutӵrelation.ӵThisӵ absoluteӵcanӵ appearӵ
inӵ theӵ formӵ ofӵtheӵ ldea,ӵHistoryėӵtheӵ lndividual,ӵ theӵState,ӵ Science,ӵ theӵWorkӵ ofӵ
Art,ӵ andӵ soӵ on.ӵ ltsӵ lo¿icӵ willӵ alwaysӵ beӵ theӵ sameӵ inӵ asӵ muchӵ asӵ itӵ isӵ withoutӵ
relation.ӵAӵsimpleӵ andӵ redoubtableӵlo¿icӵwillӵ alwaysӵ implyӵthatӵwithinӵ itsӵ veryӵ
separationӵtheӵabsolutelyӵseparateӵ encloses,ӵ ifӵweӵ canӵsayӵthis,ӵmoreӵ thanӵwhatӵ
isӵsimplyӵseparated.ӵWhichӵisӵtoӵsayӵthatӵtheӵseparationӵitselfӵmustӵbeӵenclosed,ӵ
thatӵtheӵ closureӵ mustӵ notӵ onlyӵcloseӵaroundӵ aӵ territoryӵ ¦whileӵ stillӵ remainin¿ӵ
exposed,ӵ atӵ itsӵ outerӵ ed¿e,ӵ toӵ anotherӵ terrìtory,ӵ withӵ whichӵ ìtӵ therebyӵ
communicates),ӵbutӵalso,ӵinӵorderӵtoӵcompleteӵtheӵabsolutenessӵofӵitsӵseparation,ӵ
aroundӵ theӵ enclosureӵ itselfİӵ Theӵ absoluteӵ mustӵ beӵ theӵ absoluteӵ ofӵ itsӵ ownӵ
absoluteness,ӵorӵ notӵbeӵatӵall.ӵ lnӵotherӵwords.ӵ toӵbeӵabsolutelyӵalone,ӵ itӵ isӵ notӵ
enou¿hӵ thatӵ lӵ beӵ so,ӵ lӵ mustӵ alsoӵ beӵ aloneӵ bein¿ӵaloneӵ - andӵ thisӵ ofӵcourseӵ i sӵ
contradictory.ӵTheӵlo¿icӵofӵtheӵabsoluteӵviolatesӵtheӵabsolute.ӵl tӵimplicatesӵi tӵi nӵaӵ
relationӵthatӵitӵrefusesӵandӵprecludesӵbyӵitsӵessence.ӵThisӵrelationӵtearsӵandӵforcesӵ
open,ӵfromӵwithinӵandӵfromӵwithoutӵatӵtheӵsameӵtime,ӵandӵfromӵanӵoutsideӵthatӵ
isӵ nothin¿ӵ otherӵ thanӵ theӵ re¡ectionӵ ofӵanӵ impossibleӵ interiority,ӵ theӵ 'withoutӵ
relation'ӵfromӵwhichӵtheӵabsoluteӵwouldӵconstituteӵitself.ӵ
Fxcludedӵbyӵtheӵlo¿icӵofӵtheӵabsoluteӵ sub¡ectӵofӵmetaphysicsӵ¦Self,ӵWill,ӵLife,ӵ
Spirit,ӵetc.),ӵcommunityӵcomesӵ perforceӵroŔ curŔínroŔ thisӵ sub¡ectӵbyӵvirtueӵofӵthisӵ
sameӵlo¿ic.ӵTheӵlo¿icӵofӵtheӵabsoluteӵscrsŔírŔínŔrcĺuríon:Ŕbutӵthis,ӵobviously,ӵcannotӵ
makeӵforӵaӵrelationӵbetweenӵtwoӵorӵseveralӵabsolutes,ӵnoӵmѣreӵthanӵitӵcanӵmakeӵ
anӵ absoluteӵ ofӵ theӵ relation.ӵ ltӵ undoesӵ theӵ absolutenessӵ ofӵ theӵ absolute.ӵ Theӵ
relationӵ¦theӵ community)ӵ is,ӵifӵitӵís,Ŕnothin¿ӵotherӵthanӵwhatӵundoes,ӵ inӵitsӵveryӵ
principleӵ - andӵ atӵ itsӵ closureӵ orӵ onӵ itsӵ limitӵ - theӵ autarchyӵ ofӵ absoluteӵ
immanence.ӵ[ӵ. . İ ӵ ljӵ
Theӵ solidarityӵofӵtheӵ individualӵ withӵ communismӵatӵ theӵheartӵofӵaӵ thinkin¿ӵofӵ
immanence,ӵ whileӵ ne¿lectin¿ӵ ecstasy,ӵ doesӵ notӵ howeverӵ entailӵ aӵ simpleӵ
symmetry.ӵ Communismӵ- as,ӵforӵexample,ӵinӵtheӵ¿enerousӵexuberanceӵthatӵwillӵ
notӵletӵMarxӵconcludeӵwithoutӵpointin¿ӵtoӵaӵrei¿nӵofӵfreedom,ӵoneӵbeyondӵtheӵ
collectiveӵre¿ulationӵofӵnecessity,ӵ inӵwhichӵsurplusӵworkӵwouldӵnoӵlon¿erӵbeӵanӵ
exploitativeӵ work,Ŕ butӵ ratherӵ artӵ andӵ inventionӵ - communicatesӵ withӵ anӵ
extremityӵ ofӵplay,ӵ ofӵsoverei¿nty,ӵ evenӵofӵecstasyӵfromӵ whichӵtheӵindividualӵasӵ
suchӵremainsӵdefinitivelyӵ removed.ӵ Butӵthisӵ linkӵhasӵ remainedӵ distant,ӵ secret,ӵ
andӵmostӵoftenӵunknownӵtoӵcommunismӵitselfӵ¦letӵusӵsay,ӵtoӵlendӵconcreteness,ӵ
NOnç//Theĸ¡nopetO!íVeĸCommuní!y/ĸ /õ7ĸ
unknownӵtoӵLenin,ӵStalinӵandӵTrotsky),ӵexceptӵinӵtheӵful¿uratin¿ӵburstsӵofӵpoetry,ӵ
paintin¿ӵandӵcinemaӵatӵtheӵveryӵbe¿innin¿ӵofӵtheӵSovietӵrevolution,ӵorӵtheӵmotifsӵ
thatӵBen¡aminӵallowedӵasӵreasonsӵforӵcallin¿ӵoneselfӵaӵMarxist,ӵorӵwhatӵBlanchotӵ
triedӵ toӵ brin¿ӵ acrossӵ orӵ proposeӵ ¦ratherӵ thanӵ si¿nify)ӵ withӵ theӵ wordӵ
'communism'ӵ ¦'Communism.ӵ thatӵ whichӵ excludesӵ Юandӵ excludesӵ itselfӵ fromĉӵ
everyӵcommunityӵalreadyӵconstituted').ʜӵButӵa¿ainӵevenӵthisӵproposalӵinӵtheӵfinalӵ
analysisӵ wentӵunreco¿nized,ӵ notӵ onlyӵ byӵ 'real'ӵ communism,ӵ butӵ also,ӵ onӵcloseӵ
inspection,ӵbyӵthoseӵsin¿ularӵ'communists'ӵthemselves,ӵwhoӵwereӵperhapsӵneverӵ
ableӵ toӵ reco¿nizeӵ ¦untilӵ nowӵ atӵ least)ӵ eitherӵ whereӵ theӵ metaphorӵ ¦orӵ theӵ
hyperbole)ӵbe¿anӵandӵendedӵinӵtheӵusa¿eӵtheyӵmadeӵofӵtheӵword,ӵor,ӵespecially,ӵ
whatӵ otherӵ tropeӵ - supposin¿ӵ itӵwereӵ necessaryӵ toӵ chan¿eӵ wordsӵ - orӵ whatӵ
effacementӵofӵtropesӵmi¿htӵhaveӵbeenӵappropriateӵtoӵrevealӵwhatӵhauntedӵtheirӵ
useӵofӵtheӵwordӵ'communism'.ӵ
Byӵ theӵ usa¿eӵtoӵwhichӵ thisӵwordӵwasӵ put,ӵtheyӵwereӵ ableӵ toӵ communicateӵ
withӵaӵthinkin¿ӵofӵart,ӵ ofӵliterature,ӵandӵ ofӵthou¿htӵitselfӵ- otherӵfi¿uresӵ orӵotherӵ
exi¿enciesӵofӵecstasyӵ- butӵtheyӵwereӵnotӵtrulyӵableӵtoӵcommunicate,ӵexplicitlyӵ
andӵthematicallyӵ¦evenӵifӵ'explicit'ӵandӵ'thematic'ӵareӵonlyӵveryӵfra¿ileӵcate¿oriesӵ
here),ӵwithӵaӵthinkin¿ӵofӵcommunity.ӵDrӵrather,ӵ theirӵcommunicationӵwithӵ suchӵ
aӵthinkin¿ӵhasӵremainedӵsecret,ӵorӵsuspended.ӵ
Theӵethics,ӵtheӵpolitics,ӵtheӵphilosophiesӵofӵcommunity,ӵwhenӵthereӵwereӵanyӵ
¦andӵthereӵ alwaysӵ are,ӵ evenӵifӵtheyӵareӵreducedӵtoӵ chatterӵ aboutӵfraternityӵorӵtoӵ
laboriousӵconstructionsӵ aroundӵ 'intersub¡ectivity'),ӵhaveӵpursueȮlӵtheirӵpathsӵorӵ
theirӵhumanistӵdeadӵendsӵwithoutӵsuspectin¿ӵforӵanӵ instantӵthatӵtheseӵsin¿ularӵ
voicesӵ wereӵ speakin¿ӵ aboutӵ communityӵ andӵ wereӵ perhapsӵ speakin¿ӵ aboutӵ
nothin¿ӵelse,ӵwithoutӵsuspectin¿ӵthatӵwhatӵwasӵtakenӵforӵaӵ'literary'ӵorӵ'aesthetic'ӵ
experienceӵwasӵentrenchedӵínŔtheӵordealӵofӵcommunity,ӵwasӵatӵ¿ripsӵwithӵit.ӵ¦Doӵ
weӵneedӵtoӵ beӵreminded,ӵtoӵ takeӵaӵfurtherӵexample,ӵwhatӵBarthes'ӵfirstӵwritin¿sӵ
wereӵabout,ӵandӵsomeӵofӵtheӵlaterӵonesӵasӵwellų ) ӵ
Subsequently,ӵ theseӵ sameӵ voicesӵ thatӵ wereӵ unableӵ toӵ communicateӵ whatƻӵ
perhapsӵwithoutӵknowin¿ӵit,ӵtheyӵwereӵsayin¿,ӵwereӵexploitedӵ- andӵcoveredӵupӵ
a¿ainӵ - byӵ clamorousӵ declarationsӵ brandishin¿ӵ theӵ fla¿ӵ ofӵ theӵ 'culturalӵ
revolutions'ӵandӵbyӵallӵkindsӵofӵ'communistӵwritin¿'ӵorӵ'proletarianӵinscriptions'.ӵ
Theӵ professionalsӵofӵsocietyӵsawӵinӵ themӵ¦andӵnotӵwithoutӵreason,ӵevenӵifӵtheirӵ
viewӵwasӵshortsi¿hted)ӵnothin¿ӵmoreӵthanӵaӵbour¿eoisӵParisianӵorӵBerlinerӵformӵ
ofӵIŌ|ctkult,Ŕorӵelseӵ merelyӵ theӵ unconsciousӵreturnӵofӵaӵ'republicӵofӵartists',ӵ theӵ
conceptӵofӵwhichӵ hadӵ beenӵ inau¿uratedӵ twoӵ hundredӵ yearsӵ earlierӵbyӵ theӵ|enaӵ
romantics.ӵ lnӵ oneӵ wayӵ orӵ another,ӵ itӵ wasӵ aӵ matterӵofӵaӵ simple,ӵ classicalӵ andӵ
do¿maticӵsystemӵofӵtruth.ӵanӵart.ӵ¦orӵaӵthou¿ht)ӵadequateӵtoӵpoliticsӵ¦toӵtheӵformӵ
orӵ theӵ descriptionӵ ofӵ community),ӵ aӵ politicsӵ adequateӵ toӵ art.ӵ Theӵ basicӵ
presuppositionӵremainedӵthatӵofӵaӵcommunityӵeffectuatin¿ӵitselfӵinӵtheӵabsoluteӵ
õß//THEORET¡C

FRAEWORK5ĸ
cfӵtheӵwcrk,ӵcrӵeffectuatin¿ӵitselfӵasӵ wcrk.ӵFcrӵthisӵreascn,ӵandӵwhateverӵitӵmayӵ
haveӵclaimedӵfcrӵitself,ӵthisӵǺmcdernityŗӵremainedӵ inӵitsӵprincipleӵaӵhumanism.ӵ
Weӵ willӵhaveӵtcӵreturnӵtcӵtheӵquesticnӵcfӵwhatӵbrcu¿htӵabcutӵ- albeitӵatӵtheӵ
ccstӵcfӵaӵcertainӵnaʝϿvetéӵcrӵmisccncepticnӵ- theӵexi¿encyӵcfӵaӵliterar˂ψӵexpμrienceӵ
cfӵccmmunityӵcrӵccmmunism.ӵThisӵisӵeven,ӵinӵaӵsense,ӵtheӵcnlyӵquesticn.ӵButӵtheӵ
termsӵcfӵthisӵquesticnӵallӵneedӵtcӵbeӵtransfcrmed,ӵtcӵ beӵ putӵbackӵ intcӵplayӵinӵ aӵ
spaceӵthatӵwculdӵbeӵdistributedӵquiteӵdifferentlyӵfrcmӵcneӵccmpcsedӵcfӵall-tcc-
facileӵ relaticnsӵ ¦fcrӵ example,ӵ sclitudeӵ cfӵ theӵ writerjccllectivity,ӵ crӵ
culturejscciety,ӵ crӵ elitejmassesӵ - whetherӵ theseӵ relaticnsӵ beӵ prcpcsedӵ asӵ
cppcsiticns,ӵcr,ӵinӵtheӵspiritӵcfӵtheӵ'culturalӵ revcluticns',ӵasӵequaticns).ӵAndӵ fcrӵ
thisӵtcӵhappen,ӵtheӵquesticnӵcfӵccmmunityӵmustӵfirstӵcfӵallӵbeӵ putӵbackӵ intcӵplay,ӵ
fcrӵtheӵnecessaryӵredistributicnӵcfӵspaceӵdependsӵupcnӵ it̂ӵBefcreӵ¿ettin¿ӵtcӵthis,ӵ
andӵwithcutӵrescindin¿ӵanyӵcfӵtheӵresistantӵ¿enercsityӵcrӵtheӵactiveӵrestlessnessӵ
cfӵ theӵ wcrdӵ 'ccmmunism'ӵ andӵ withcutӵ denyin¿ӵ anythin¿ӵ cfӵ theӵ excessesӵ tcӵ
whichӵitӵcanӵlead,ӵbutӵalscӵwithcutӵfcr¿ettin¿ӵeitherӵtheӵburdenscmeӵ mcrt¿a¿eӵ
thatӵccmesӵ alcn¿ӵwithӵ itӵcrӵtheӵusuryӵitӵhasӵ¦nctӵaccidentally)ӵsuffered,ӵweӵmustӵ
allcwӵthatӵcommunísmŔcanӵncӵlcn¿erӵbeӵtheӵunsurpassableӵhcrizcnӵcfӵcurӵtime.ӵ
Andӵifӵinӵfactӵitӵncӵlcn¿erӵisӵsuchӵaӵhcrizcn,ӵthisӵisӵnctӵbecauseӵweӵhaveӵ passedӵ
beycndӵanyӵhcrizcn.ӵRather,ӵeverythin¿ӵisӵinflectedӵbyӵresi¿naticn,ӵasӵifӵtheӵnewӵ
unsurpassableӵ hcrizcnӵ tcckӵfcrmӵ arcundӵ theӵ disappearance,ӵtheӵ impcssibility,ӵ
crӵtheӵccndemnaticnӵ cfӵccmmunism.ӵ Suchӵ reversalsӵareӵ custcmary,ӵ theyӵhaveӵ
neverӵ alteredӵ anythin¿.ӵ ltӵ isӵ theӵ norízonsŔ themselvesӵ thatӵ mustӵbeӵ challen¿ed.ӵ
ͬheӵultimateӵ limitӵcfӵccmmunity,ӵ crӵtheӵ limitӵthatӵisӵfcrmedӵbyӵccmmunity,ӵasӵ
such,ӵ tracesӵ anӵ entirelyӵ differentӵ line.ӵThisӵ isӵ why,ӵ evenӵ asӵ weӵ establishӵ thatӵ
ccmmunismӵisӵncӵlcn¿erӵcurӵunsurpassableӵhcrϽzcn,ӵweӵmustӵalscӵestablish,ӵ¡ustӵ
asӵ fcrcefully,ӵ thatӵ aӵ ccmmunistӵ exi¿encyӵ crӵ demandӵ ccmmunicatesӵ withӵtheӵ
¿estureӵbyӵmeansӵcfӵwhϾchӵweӵmustӵ¿cӵfartherӵthanӵaӉӵpcssibleӵhcrizcns.ӵ
TheӵfirstӵtasňƳӵinӵunderstandin¿ӵwhatӵisӵatӵstakeӵhereӵccnsistsӵinӵfccusin¿ӵcnӵtheӵ
hcrizcnӵ ccnínJŔ us.ӵThisӵ meansӵquesticnin¿ӵtheӵ breakdcwnӵ inӵccmmunityӵthatӵ
suppcsedlyӵ en¿enderedӵ theӵ mcdernӵ era.ӵ Theӵ ccnscicusnessӵ cfӵ thisӵ crdealӵ
belcn¿sӵ tcӵ Rcusseau,ӵ whcӵ fi¿uredӵ aӵsocícr¸Ŕ thatӵexperiencedӵ crӵackncwled¿edӵ
theӵ lcssӵcrӵde¿radaticnӵcfӵaӵccmmunitarianӵ ¦andӵ ccmmunicative)ӵintimacyӵ- aӵ
sccietyӵ prcducin¿,ӵ cfӵnecessity,ӵ theӵ sclitaryӵfi¿ure,ӵ butӵ cneӵ whcseӵ desireӵ andӵ
intenticnӵ wasӵ tcӵ prcduceӵ theӵ citizenӵ cfӵaӵ freeӵ scverei¿nӵccmmunity.ӵ Whereasӵ
pcliticalӵ thecreticiansӵ precedin¿ӵ himӵ hadӵ thcu¿htӵ mainlyӵ inӵ termsӵ cfӵ theӵ
instituticnӵ cfӵ aӵ State,ӵ crӵ theӵ re¿ulaticnӵ cfӵ aӵ scciety,ӵ Rcusseau,ӵ althcu¿hӵ heӵ
bcrrcwedӵaӵ¿reatӵdealӵfrcmӵthem,ӵwasӵ perhapsӵtheӵfirstӵthinkerӵcfӵccmmunity,ӵ
crӵmcreӵexactly,ӵtheӵfirstӵtcӵexperienceӵtheӵquesticnӵcfӵsccietyӵasӵanӵuneasinessӵ
directedӵ tcwardsӵ theӵ ccmmunity,ӵ andӵ asӵ theӵ ccnscicusnessӵ cfӵ aӵ ¦perhapsӵ
NOnĔ/ĸ /Theĸ¡nopetO!iVeĸCommuni!y/ĸ /õºĸ
irreparable)ӵruptureӵinӵthisӵcommunity.ӵThisӵconsciousnessӵwouldӵsubsequentlyӵ
beӵinheritedӵbyӵtheӵRomantics,ӵandӵbyӵHe¿elӵinӵ!ncŔIncnomcno|o¿Ŕo]5pírír:Ŕtheӵ
lastӵfi¿ӓreӵofӵspirit,ӵbeforeӵ theӵ assumptionӵofӵallӵtheӵ fi¿uresӵ andӵofӵhistoryӵintoӵ
absoluteӵknowled¿e,ӵisӵthatӵwhichӵcleavesӵ communityӵ¦whichӵforӵHe¿elӵfi¿uresӵ
theӵsplitӵinӵreli¿ion).ӵUntilӵthisӵdayӵhistoryӵhasӵbeenӵthou¿htӵonӵtheӵbasisӵofӵaӵlostӵ
communityӵĝ oneӵtoӵbeӵre¿ainedӵorӵreconstituted.ӵ
Theӵlost,ӵorӵbroken,ӵcommunityӵcanӵbeӵexemplifiedӵinӵallӵkindsӵofӵways,ӵbyӵallӵ
kindsӵofӵparadi¿ms.ӵ theӵnaturalӵfamily,ӵtheӵAthenianӵcity,ӵtheӵRomanӵRepublic,ӵ
theӵ firstӵ Christianӵ community,ӵ corporations,ӵ communesӵ orӵ brotherhoodsӵ -
alwaysӵ itӵ isӵ aӵ matterӵofӵaӵ lostӵ a¿eӵ inӵ whichӵ communityӵ wasӵ wovenӵ ofӵti¿ht,ӵ
harmoniousӵandӵinfran¿ibleӵbondsӵandӵinӵwhichӵaboveӵallӵitӵplayedӵbackӵtoӵitself,ӵ
throu¿hӵ itsӵ institutions,ӵ itsӵ ritualsӵ andӵ itsӵ symbols,ӵ theӵ representation,ӵ indeedӵ
theӵlivin¿ӵofferin¿,ӵofӵitsӵownӵimmanentӵunity,ӵintimacyӵŢndӵautonomy.ӵ Distinctӵ
fromӵsocietyӵ¦whichӵisӵaӵsimpleӵassociationӵandӵdivisionӵofӵforcesӵandӵneeds)ӵandӵ
opposedӵtoӵempireӵ¦whichӵdissolvesӵcommunityӵbyӵsubmittin¿ӵitsӵ peoplesӵIʎ itsӵ
armsӵandӵtoӵitsӵ¿lory),ӵcommunityӵisӵnotӵonlyӵintimateӵcommunicationӵbetweenӵ
itsӵ members,ӵ butӵ alsoӵ itsӵ or¿anicӵ communionӵ withӵ itsӵ ownӵ essence.ӵ ĵtӵ isӵ
constitutedӵ notӵ onlyӵ byӵ aӵ fairӵdistributionӵ ofӵtasksӵ andӵ ¿oods,ӵ orӵ byӵ aӵ happyӵ
equilibriumӵofӵforcesӵandӵauthorities.ӵ itӵ isӵ madeӵ upӵ principallyӵofӵtheӵ sharin¿,ӵ
diffusionӵ orӵimpre¿nationӵofӵanӵidentityӵbyӵaӵ pluralityӵwhereinӵ eachӵ memberӵ
identifiesӵ himselfӵ onlyӵ throu¿hӵ theӵ supplementaryӵ mediationӵ ofӵ hisӵ
identificationӵ withӵ theӵ livin¿ӵ bodyӵ ofӵ theӵ community.ӵ ĵnӵ theӵ mottoӵ ofӵ theӵ
Republic,ӵĠurcmígŔdesi¿natesӵcommunity.ӵ theӵmodelӵofӵtheӵfamilyӵandӵofӵlove.ӵ
Butӵ itӵ isӵ hereӵ thatӵ weӵ shouldӵ becomeӵ suspiciousӵ ofӵ theӵ retrospectiveӵ
consciousnessӵ ofӵ theӵ lostӵ communityӵ andӵ itsӵ identityӵ ¦whetherӵ thisӵ
consciousnessӵ conceivesӵ ofӵ itselfӵ asӵ effectivelyӵ retrospectiveӵ orӵ whether,ӵ
disre¿ardin¿ӵtheӵrealitiesӵofӵtheӵpast,ӵitӵconstructsӵima¿esӵofӵthisӵpastӵforӵtheӵsakeӵ
ofӵ anӵ idealӵ orӵ aӵ prospectiveӵ vision).ӵ Weӵ shouldӵ beӵ suspiciousӵ ofӵ thisӵ
consciousnessӵ firstӵ ofӵallӵbecauseӵ itӵ seemsӵtoӵ haveӵ accompaniedӵ theӵWesternӵ
worldӵfromӵitsӵveryӵbe¿innin¿s.ӵatӵeveryӵmomentӵinӵitsӵhistory,ӵtheӵDccidentӵhasӵ
¿ivenӵ itselfӵ overӵ toӵ theӵ nostal¿iaӵ forӵ aӵ moreӵ archaicӵ communityӵ thatӵ hasӵ
disappeared,ӵ andӵ toӵ deplorin¿ӵaӵ lossӵ ofӵ familiarity,ӵ fraternityӵandӵ conviviality.ӵ
Durӵ historyӵ be¿insӵwithӵtheӵ departureӵofӵUlyssesӵandӵwithӵ theӵ onsetӵofӵrivalɟy,ӵ
dissensionӵ andӵ conspiracyӵ inӵ hisӵ palace.ӵ Aroundӵ Penelope,ӵ whoӵ reweavesӵ theӵ
fabricӵofӵintimacyӵwithoutӵeverӵmana¿in¿ӵtoӵcompleteӵit,ӵ pretendersӵsetӵupӵ theӵ
warrin¿ӵandӵpoliticalӵsceneӵofӵsocietyӵ- pureӵexteriority.ӵ
Butӵ theӵ trueӵ consciousnesssӵ ofӵ theӵ lossӵ ofӵ communityӵ isӵ Christian.ӵ theӵ
communityӵ desiredӵ orӵ pinedӵ forӵ byӵ Rousseau,ӵ Schle¿el,ӵ He¿el,ӵ thenӵ Bakunin,ӵ
Marx,ӵWa¿nerӵorӵMallarméӵisӵunderstoodӵasӵcommunion,ӵandӵcommunionӵtakesӵ
place,ӵ inӵitsӵprincipleӵasӵinӵitsӵends,ӵatӵtheӵheartӵofӵtheӵmysticalӵbodyӵofӵChrist.ӵAtӵ
ó0//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORKĸ
theӵ
sameӵtimeӵasӵitӵisӵtheӵmostӵancientӵmythӵofӵtheӵWesternӵworld,ӵcommunityӵ
mi¿htӵwellӵbeӵtheӵalto¿etherӵmodernӵthou¿htӵofӵhumanity'sӵpartakin¿ӵofӵdivineӵ
life.ӵ
theӵ thou¿htӵ ofӵ aӵ humanӵ bein¿ӵ penetratin¿ӵ intoӵ pureӵ immanence.ӵ
¦Christianityӵhasӵhadӵonlyӵtwoӵdimensions,ӵantinomicalӵtoӵoneӵanother;ӵ thatӵofӵ
theӵJcusŔucsconJítus,Ŕ inӵwhichӵtheӵWesternӵ disappearanceӵofӵtheӵdivineӵisӵstillӵ
en¿ulfed,ӵ andӵ thatӵ ofӵ theӵ ¿od-man,ӵ JcusŔ communís,Ŕ brotherӵ ofӵ humankind,ӵ
inventionӵ ofӵ aӵ familialӵ immanenceӵ ofӵ humanity,ӵ thenӵ ofӵ historyӵ asӵ theӵ
immanenceӵofӵsalvation.)ӵ
Thus,ӵtheӵthou¿htӵofӵcommunityӵ orӵ theӵ desireӵ forӵ itӵ mi¿htӵwellӵbeӵ nothin¿ӵ
otherӵ thanӵ aӵ belatedӵ inventionӵ thatӵ triedӵ toӵ respondӵ toӵ theӵ harshӵ realityӵ ofӵ
modernӵ experience.ӵ namely,ӵ thatӵ divinityӵ wasӵ withdrawin¿ӵ infinitelyӵ fromӵ
immanence,ӵ thatӵ theӵ ¿od-brotherӵ wasӵ atӵ bottomӵ nímsc(ėŔtheӵ JcķĸăŔ ucsconJírĿsŔ
¦thisӵwasӵ Hƌlderlin'sӵ insi¿ht),ӵ andӵ thatӵ theӵ divineӵ essenceӵ ofӵcommunityӵ- orӵ
communityӵasӵtheӵexistenceӵofӵaӵdivineӵessenceӵ- wasӵtheӵimpossibleӵitself.ӵDneӵ
nameӵforӵthisӵhasӵbeenӵtheӵdeathӵofӵCod.ӵthisӵexpressionӵremainsӵpre¿nantӵwithӵ
theӵpossibilityӵifӵnotӵtheӵnecessityӵofӵaӵresurrectionӵthatӵrestoresӵ bothӵmanӵandӵ
CodӵIʎ aӵcommonӵimmanence.ӵ ¦NotӵonlyӵHe¿el,ӵ butӵalsoӵ Nietzscheӵhimself,ӵatӵ
leastӵinӵpart,ӵbearӵwitnessӵtoӵthis.)ӵTheӵdiscourseӵofӵtheӵ'deathӵofӵCod'ӵalsoӵmissesӵ
theӵpointӵthatӵtheӵ'divine'ӵisӵwhatӵitӵisӵ¦ifӵitӵ'is')ӵonlyӵinӵasӵmuchӵasӵitӵisӵremovedӵ
fromӵ immanence,ӵ orӵ withdrawnӵ fromӵ itӵ - withinӵ it,ӵ oneӵ mi¿htӵ say,ӵ yetӵ
withdrawnӵfromӵit.ӵ Andӵthis,ӵmoreover,ӵoccursӵinӵtheӵveryӵpreciseӵsenseӵthatӵitӵisӵ
notӵ becauseӵthereӵ isӵaӵ'divine'ӵ thatӵitsӵshareӵwouldӵ beӵ subtractedӵ fromӵ imma-
nence,ӵbutӵonӵtheӵcontrary,ӵitӵisӵonlyӵtoӵtheӵextentӵthatӵimmanenceӵitself,ӵhereӵorӵ
thereӵ¦butӵisӵitӵlocalizableđӵ ĵsӵitӵ notӵratherӵthisӵthatӵlocalizes,ӵthatӵspacesđ),ӵ isӵ
subtractedӵfromӵ immanenceӵthatӵthereӵcanӵbeӵҗomethin¿ӵlikeӵtheӵ 'divine'.ӵ¦Andӵ
perhaps,ӵ inӵ theӵ end,ӵ itӵ willӵ noӵ lon¿erӵ beӵ necessaryӵ toӵ speakӵ ofӵtheӵ 'divine'.ӵ
Perhapsӵweӵwillӵcomeӵtoӵseeӵthatӵcommunity,ӵdeath,ӵlove,ӵfreedom,ӵsin¿ularityӵ
areӵ namesӵforӵtheӵ 'divine'ӵ notӵŐustӵbecauseӵ theyӵ substituteӵforӵ itӵĤ andӵ neitherӵ
sublateӵ norӵ resuscitateӵ itӵ underӵ anotherӵ formӵ - butӵ equallyӵ becauseӵ thisӵ
substitutionӵisӵinӵnoӵwayӵanthropomorphicӵorӵanthropocentricӵandӵ¿ivesӵwayӵtoӵ
noӵbecomin¿-humanӵofӵtheӵ'divine'.ӵCommunityӵhenceforthӵconstitutesӵtheӵlimitӵ
ofӵtheӵhumanӵasӵwellӵasӵofӵtheӵdivine.ӵThrou¿hӵCȪţlӵorӵtheӵ¿odsӵcommunionӵ- asӵ
substanceӵ andӵact,ӵtheӵactӵofӵ communicatedӵ immanentӵsubstanceӵ - hasӵ beenӵ
definitivelyӵwithdrawnӵfromӵcommunity.)ӵ
Theӵ modern,ӵ humanistӵ Christianӵ consciousnessӵ ofӵtheӵ lossӵ ofӵ communityӵ
thereforeӵ¿ivesӵeveryӵ apearanceӵ ofӵrecuperatin¿ӵtheӵtranscendentalӵ illusionӵ ofӵ
reasonӵ whenӵ reasonӵ exceedsӵ theӵ boundsӵ ofӵallӵ possibleӵ experience,ӵ whichӵ isӵ
basicallyӵ theӵ experienceӵ ofӵ concealedӵ immanence.ӵ CommuníqŔ nusŔ norŔ rukcnŔ
p|ucc,Ŕorӵrather,ӵ ifӵitӵisӵindeedӵcertainӵthatӵhumanityӵhasӵknownӵ¦orӵstillӵ knows,ӵ
outsideӵofӵtheӵ industrialӵworld)ӵsocialӵtiesӵquiteӵdifferentӵfromӵthoseӵfamiliarӵtoӵ
NOnç//Theĸ ¡nopetO!íVeĸCommuní!y//ólĸ
us,ӵ communityӵ hasӵ neverӵtakenӵ placeӵ alon¿ӵ theӵ linesӵ ofӵourӵ pro¡ectionsӵ ofӵ itӵ
accordin¿ӵtoӵtheseӵdifferentӵsocialӵforms.ӵltӵdidӵnotӵtakeӵ placeӵforӵtheӵCuayaquiӵ
lndians,ӵ itӵ didӵ notӵ takeӵ placeӵ inӵ anӵ a¿eӵ ofӵhuts,ӵ norӵ didӵ itӵ takeӵ placeӵ inӵ theӵ
He¿elianӵ'spiritӵofӵaӵpeople'ӵorӵinӵ theӵ Christianӵu¿upc.Ŕ NoӵCcsc||scnu]rŔ hasӵcomeӵ
alon¿ӵ toӵ helpӵ theӵ State,ӵ industryӵ andӵ capitalӵ dissolveӵ aӵ priorӵ Ccmcínscnu]r.Ŕ ltӵ
wouldӵundoubtedlyӵbeӵmoreӵaccurateӵtoӵsay,ӵ bypassin¿ӵallӵtheӵtwistsӵandӵturnsӵ
takenӵ byӵ ethnolo¿icalӵ interpretationӵ andӵ allӵ theӵ mira¿esӵ ofӵ anӵ ori¿inӵ orӵ ofӵ
'by¿oneӵdays',ӵthatӵCcsc||scnu]rŔ - 'socieĸ',ӵtheӵdissociatin¿ӵassociationӵofӵforces,ӵ
needsӵandӵsi¿nsӵ- hasӵtakenӵtheӵplaceӵofӵsomethin¿ӵforӵwhichӵweӵ haveӵnoӵnameӵ
orӵ concept,ӵ somethin¿ӵ thatӵissuedӵ atӵonceɽӵfromӵaӵ muchӵ moreӵ extensiveӵ com-
municationӵthanӵthatӵofӵaӵmereӵsocialӵbondӵ¦aӵcommunicationӵwithӵtheӵ¿ods,ӵtheӵ
cosmos,ӵ animals,ӵ theӵ dead,ӵ theӵ unknown)ӵ undŔ fromӵ muchӵmoreӵ piercin¿ӵ andӵ
dispersedӵse¿mentationӵofӵthisӵsameӵbond,ӵoftenӵinvolvin¿ӵmuchӵharsherӵeffectsӵ
¦solitude,ӵ re¡ection,ӵ admonition,ӵ helplessness)ӵ thanӵ whatӵ weӵ expectӵ fromӵ aӵ
communitarianӵminimumӵinӵtheӵsocialӵbond.ӵ5ocícqŔwasӵ notӵbuiltӵonӵtheӵ ruins Ɓӵ
ofӵ aӵ communíq.Ŕ ltӵ emer¿edӵ fromӵ theӵ disappearanceӵ orӵ theӵ conservationӵ ofӵ
somethin¿ӵ - tribesӵ orӵempiresӵ - perhapsӵ ¡ustӵ asӵ unrelatedӵ toӵ whatӵ weӵ callӵ
'community'ӵ asӵtoӵwhatӵweӵcallӵ'society'.ӵSoӵtĠatӵcommunity,ӵfarӵfromӵbein¿ӵwhatӵ
societyӵ hasӵ crushedӵ orӵ lost,ӵ isӵwnurŔ nuppcnsŔ roŔ usŔ - question,ӵ waitin¿,ӵ event,ӵ
imperativeӵ- ínŔrncŔwukcŔo]ŔsĀcícq.Ŕ
Nothin¿,ӵtherefore,ӵhasӵbeenӵlost,ӵandӵforӵthisӵreasonӵnothin¿ӵisӵlost.ӵWeӵaloneӵ
areӵlost,ӵweӵ uponӵwhomӵtheӵ'socialӵbond'ӵ¦relations,ӵcommunication),ӵourӵownӵ
invention,ӵnowӵdescendsӵheavilyӵlikeӵtheӵnetӵofӵanӵeconomic,ӵtechnical,ӵpoliticalӵ
andӵculturalӵ snare.ӵ Fntan¿ledӵ inӵ itsӵ meshes,ӵweӵhaveӵ wrun¿ӵ forӵ ourselvesӵtheӵ
phantasmӵofӵtheӵlostӵcommunity.ӵ
Whatӵ thisӵ communityӵ hasӵ 'lost'ӵ - theӵ immanenceӵ andӵ theӵ intimacyӵ ofӵ aӵ
communionӵ - isӵ lostӵ onlyӵ inӵ theӵ senseӵ thatӵ suchӵ aӵ 'loss'ӵ isӵ constitutiveӵ ofӵ
'community'ӵitself.ӵ
ltӵisӵnotӵaӵloss:ӵ onӵtheӵcontrary,ӵimmanence,ӵifӵitӵwereӵtoӵcomeӵabout,ӵwouldӵ
instantlyӵsuppressӵcommunity,ӵorӵcommunication,ӵasӵsuch.ӵDeathӵisӵnotӵonlyӵtheӵ
exampleӵofӵthis,ӵitӵisӵitsӵtruth.ӵlnӵdeath,ӵatӵleastӵifӵoneӵconsidersӵinӵitӵwhatӵbrin¿sӵ
aboutӵimmanenceӵ¦decompositionӵleadin¿ӵbackӵtoӵnatureӵ- 'everythin¿ӵreturnsӵ
toӵtheӵ¿roundӵandӵbecomesӵpartӵofӵtheӵcycle'ӵ- orӵelseӵtheӵ paradisalӵ versionsӵ ofӵ
theӵsameӵ 'cycle')ӵandӵ ifӵoneӵ for¿etsӵ whatӵ makesӵ itӵalwaysӵ irreduciblyӵsín¿u|ur,Ŕ
thereӵ isӵ noӵ lon¿erӵ anyӵ communityӵ orӵ communication:ӵ thereӵ isӵ onlyӵ theӵ
continuousӵidentityӵofӵatoms.ӵ
Thisӵisӵwhyӵpoliticalӵorӵcollectiveӵenterprisesӵdominatedӵbyӵaӵwillӵtoӵabsoluteӵ
immanenceӵ haveӵ asӵ theirӵ truthӵ theӵ truthӵ ofӵ death.ӵ lmmanence,ӵ communalӵ
fusion,ӵcontainsӵnoӵotherӵlo¿icӵthanӵthatӵofӵtheӵsuicideӵofӵtheӵcommunityӵthatӵisӵ
ó2//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORKĸ
¿overnedӵ byӵ itȄӵ Thusӵ theӵ lo¿icӵ ofӵ Naziӵ Cermanyӵ wasӵ notӵ onlyӵ thatӵ ofӵ theӵ
exterminationӵofӵtheӵother,ӵofӵtheӵsubhumanӵdeemedӵexteriorӵtoӵtheӵcommunionӵ
ofӵbloodӵandӵsoilŬӵbutӵalso,ӵeffectively,ӵtheӵlo¿icӵofӵsacrificeӵaimedӵatӵallӵthoseӵinӵ
theӵ'Aryan'ӵ communityӵwhoӵ didӵ notӵsatisŽӵtheӵ criteriaӵ ofӵpurcŔimmanence,ӵsoӵ
muchӵsoӵthatӵ- itӵbein¿ӵobviouslyӵimpossibleӵtoӵsetӵaӵlimitӵonӵsuchӵcriteriaӵ- theӵ
suicideӵ ofӵ theӵ Cermanӵ nationӵ itselfӵ mi¿htӵ haveӵ representedӵ aӵ plausibleӵ
extrapolationӵofӵtheӵprocess:ӵmoreover,ӵitӵwouldӵnotӵbeӵfalseӵtoӵsayӵthatӵthisӵreallyӵ
tookӵplace,ӵ withӵre¿ardӵtoӵcertainӵ aspectsӵofӵtheӵspiritualӵrealityӵofӵthisӵ nationĕӵ
Theӵ¡ointӵ suicideӵorӵdeathӵofӵloversӵ isӵoneӵofӵtheӵ mythico-literaryӵfi¿uresӵ ofӵ
thisӵ lo¿icӵofӵcommunionӵ inӵ immanence.ӵFacedӵ withӵ thisӵ fi¿ure,ӵ oneӵ cannotӵtellӵ
whichӵ - theӵcommunionӵorӵtheӵloveӵ - servesӵasӵ aӵmodelӵforӵtheӵ otherӵinӵ deathĔӵ
lnӵreality,ӵwithӵtheӵimmanenceӵofӵtheӵtwoӵlovers,ӵdeathӵaccomplishesӵtheӵinfiniteӵ
reciprocityӵ ofӵ twoӵ a¿enciesļӵ impassionedӵ loveӵ conceivedӵ onӵ theӵ basisӵ ofӵ
Christianӵ communion,ӵ andӵ communityӵ thou¿htӵ accordin¿ӵ toӵ theӵ principleӵ ofӵ
love.ӵTheӵHe¿elianӵStateӵinӵitsӵturnӵbearsӵwitnessӵtoӵthis,ӵforӵalthou¿hӵitӵcertainlyӵ
isӵnotӵestablishedӵonӵtheӵbasisӵofӵloveӵ- forӵitӵbelon¿sӵtoӵtheӵ sphereӵofӵso-calledӵ
ob¡ectiveӵ spiritӵ- itӵnonethelessӵhasӵasӵ itsӵprínďp|cŔtheӵ realityӵofӵlove,ӵthatӵisӵtoӵ
sayӵtheӵfactӵ'ofӵhavin¿ӵinӵanotherӵtheӵmomentӵofӵone'sӵownӵsubsistence'.ӵ lnӵthisӵ
State,ӵ eachӵ memberӵhasӵ hisӵtruthӵ inӵ theӵother,ӵ whichӵ isӵtheӵStateӵitself,ӵwhoseӵ
realityӵisӵneverӵmoreӵpresentӵthanӵwhenӵitsӵ membersӵ ¿iveӵ theirӵlivesӵ inӵ aӵwarӵ
thatӵ theӵ monarchӵ - theӵ effectiveӵ presence-to-selfӵ ofӵ theӵ Sub¡ect-Stateӵ - hasӵ
aloneӵandӵfreelyӵdecidedӵtoӵwa¿e.Ǹӵ
Doubtlessӵsuchӵ immolationӵforӵtheӵsakeӵofӵcommunityӵ- andӵbyӵ it,ӵthereforeӵ
- couldӵandӵ canӵbeӵfullӵofӵmeanin¿,ӵonӵ theӵconditionӵthatӵthisӵ 'meanin¿'ӵbeӵthatӵ
ofӵ aӵ community,ӵ andӵ onӵ theӵ furtherӵconditioѕӵ thatӵ thisӵ communityӵ notӵ beӵ aӵ
'communityӵofӵdeath'ӵ¦asӵ hasӵbeenӵ theӵ caseӵ sinceӵ atӵ leastӵtheӵ FirstӵWorldӵWar,ӵ
therebyӵŐustiϙin¿ӵallӵ refusalsӵ toӵ 'dieӵforӵone'sӵcountry')Ėӵ Nowӵ theӵ communityӵofӵ
humanӵimmanence,ӵmanӵmadeӵequalӵtoӵhimselfӵorӵtoӵCod,ӵtoӵnature,ӵandӵtoӵhisӵ
ownӵworks,ӵisӵoneӵsuchӵcommunityӵofӵdeathsӵĝ orӵofӵtheӵdeadĕӵTheӵfullyӵrealizedӵ
personӵofӵindividualisticӵorӵcommunisticӵhumanismӵisӵtheӵdeadӵperson.ӵ lnӵotherӵ
words,ӵdeath,ӵ inӵ suchӵaӵcommunity,ӵisӵnotӵtheӵunmasterableӵexcessӵofӵIɇnitude,ӵ
butӵ theӵ infiniteӵ fulfilmentӵofӵanӵimmanentӵ lifeļӵ itӵ isӵ deathӵ itselfӵ consi¿nedӵ toӵ
immanence,ӵ itӵ isӵ inӵ theӵ endӵ thatӵ resorptionӵ ofӵ deathӵ thatӵ theӵ Christianӵ
civilization,ӵasӵthou¿hӵdevourin¿ӵitsӵownӵtranscendence,ӵhasӵcomeӵtoӵministerӵtoӵ
itselfӵinӵtheӵ¿uiseӵofӵaӵsupremeӵworkĔӵSinceӵLeibnizӵthereӵhasӵbeenӵnoӵdeathӵinӵ
ourӵuniverse.ӵ inӵ oneӵ wayӵ orӵanotherӵ anӵ absoluteӵ circulationӵ ofӵmeanin¿ӵ ¦ofӵ
values,ӵofӵends,ӵofӵHistory)ӵfillsӵorӵreabsoŕbsӵallӵfiniteӵne¿ativity,ӵdrawsӵfŕomӵeachӵ
finiteӵsin¿ularӵdestinyӵaӵsurplusӵvalueӵofӵhumanityӵorӵanӵinfiniteӵsuperhumanity.ӵ
Butӵthisӵpresupposes,ӵprecisely,ӵtheӵdeathӵofӵeachӵandӵallӵinӵtheӵlifeӵofӵtheӵinfinite.ӵ
Cenerationsӵofӵcitizensӵandӵ militants,ӵ ofӵworkersӵandӵservantsӵofӵtheӵStates,ӵ
NOnç/ĸ /Theĸ¡nopetO!iVeĸ CommuniĦ//óöĸ
haveӵima¿inedӵtheirӵdeathӵreabsorbedӵorӵsublatedӵinӵaӵcommunity,ӵyetӵtoӵcome,ӵ
thatӵwouldӵattainӵimmanence.ӵButӵbyӵnowӵweӵhaveӵnothin¿ӵmoreӵthanӵtheӵbitterӵ
consciousnessӵ ofӵ theӵ increasin¿ӵ remotenessӵ ofӵ suchӵ aӵ community,ӵ beӵ itӵ theӵ
people,ӵtheӵnationӵorӵҲheӵsocietyӵofӵproducers.ӵHowever,ӵthisӵconsciousness,ӵlikeӵ
thatӵofӵtheӵ'loss'ӵofӵcommunity,ӵisӵsuperfĊcial.ӵlnӵtruth,ӵdeathӵisӵnotӵsubĚaӵ ted.ӵTheӵ
communionӵ toӵ comeӵ doesӵ notӵ¿rowӵdistant,ӵ itӵisӵnotӵ deferred.ӵ itӵwasӵ neverӵtoӵ
come,ӵitӵwouldӵbeӵincapableӵofӵcomin¿ӵaboutӵorӵformin¿ӵaӵfuture.ӵWhatӵformsӵaӵ
future,ӵandӵconsequentlyӵwhatӵtrulyӵcѤmesӵabout,ӵisӵalwaysӵtheӵsin¿ularӵdeathӵ-
whichӵdoesӵnotӵmeanӵthatӵdeathӵdoesӵnotӵcomeӵaboutӵinӵtheӵcommunity.ӵ onӵtheӵ
contrary,ӵ lӵ shallӵ comeӵtoӵ this.ӵ Butӵcommunionӵisӵnotӵwhatӵ comesӵoωӵdeath,ӵ noӵ
moreӵthanӵdeathӵisӵtheӵsimpleӵperpetualӵpastӵofӵcommunity.ӵ
Millionsӵofӵdeaths,ӵofӵcourse,ӵareӵ]usrí]cJŔbyӵtheӵrevoltӵofӵthoseӵwhoӵdie.ӵtheyӵ
areӵ ¡ustifiedӵ asӵ aӵ re¡oinderӵ toӵ tȻeӵ intolerable,ӵ asӵ insurrectionsӵ a¿ainstӵ social,ӵ
political,ӵ technical,ӵ military,ӵ reli¿iousӵ oppression.ӵ Butӵ theseӵ deathsӵ areӵ notӵ
suc|urcJ:Ŕ noӵdialectic,ӵnoӵsalvationӵleadsӵtheseӵdeathsӵtoӵanyӵotherӵimmanence
Ɓӵ
thanӵthatӵofӵ. . . ӵdeathӵ¦cessation,ӵorӵdecomposition,ӵwhichӵformsӵonlyӵtheӵparodyӵ
orӵreverseӵofӵimmanence).ӵYet theӵmodernӵa¿eӵhasӵconceivedӵtheӵ¡ustificationӵofӵ
deathӵonlyӵinӵtheӵ¿uiseӵofӵsalvationӵ orӵ theӵ dialecticalӵ sublationӵ ofӵhistory.ӵTheӵ
modernӵ a¿eӵ hasӵ stru¿¿ledӵ toӵ c|oscŔ rncŔ círc|cŔ ofӵ theӵ timeӵ ofӵ menӵ andӵ theirӵ
communitiesӵ inӵ anӵ immortalӵ communionӵ inӵ whichӵ death,ӵ finally,ӵ losesӵ theӵ
senselessӵmeanin¿ӵthatӵitӵou¿htӵtoӵhaveӵ- andӵthatӵitӵhas,ӵobstinately.ӵ
Weӵ areӵ condemned,ӵ orӵ ratherӵ reduced,ӵ toӵ searchӵ forӵ thisӵ meanin¿ӵbeyondӵ
meanin¿ӵofӵdeathӵelsewhereӵthanӵinӵcommunity.ӵ Butӵtheӵenterpriseӵisӵabsurdӵ¦itӵ
isӵtheӵabsurdityӵofӵaӵthou¿htӵderivedӵfromӵtheӵindividual)ĕӵDeathӵisӵindissociableӵ
fromӵcommunity,ӵforӵitӵisӵthrou¿hӵdeathӵthatӵtheӵcommunityӵrevealsӵitselfӵ- andӵ
reciprocally.ӵ ltӵ isӵ notӵ byӵ chanceӵ thatӵ thisӵ motifӵofӵaӵ reciprocalӵ revelationӵ hasӵ
preoccupiedӵthou¿htӵinformedӵbyӵethnolo¿yӵasӵwellӵasӵtheӵthinkin¿ӵofӵFreudӵandӵ
Heide¿¿er,ӵandӵatӵtheӵsameӵtimeӵBataille,ӵthatӵisӵtoӵsayӵinӵtheӵtimeӵleadin¿ӵfromӵ
theӵ Firstӵtoӵ theӵ SecondӵWorldӵWar.ӵ
Theӵmotifӵofӵtheӵrevelation,ӵthrou¿hӵdeath,ӵofӵbein¿-to¿etherӵorӵbein¿Ħwith,ӵ
andӵ ofӵtheӵ crystallizationӵofӵtheӵ communityӵaroundӵ theӵdeathӵofӵitsӵ members,ӵ
rnurŔ ísŔ roŔ su¸,Ŕ urounJŔ rncŔ '|oss'Ŕ (rncŔ ímpossící|í!j)Ŕ o]Ŕ rncírŔ ímmuncnccŔ andӵ notӵ
aroundӵtheirӵfusionalӵassumptionӵinӵsomeӵcollectiveӵhypostasis,ӵleadsӵtoӵaӵspaceӵ
ofӵ thinkin¿ӵ incommensurableӵ withӵ theӵ problemaӵticsӵ ofӵ socialityӵ orӵ
intersub¡ectivityӵ¦includin¿ӵtheӵHusserlianӵproblematicӵofӵtheӵalterӵe¿o)ӵwithinӵ
whichӵ philosophy,ӵ despiteӵ itsӵ resistance,ӵ hasӵ remainedӵ captive.ӵ Deathӵ
irremediablyӵ exceedsӵ theӵ resourcesӵ ofӵ aӵ metaphysicsӵ ofӵ theӵ sub¡ect.ӵ Theӵ
phantasmӵ ofӵthisӵ metaphysics,ӵ theӵ phantasmӵ thatӵ Descartesӵ ¦almost)ӵ didӵ notӵ
dareӵhaveӵbutӵthatӵwasӵalreadyӵproposedӵ inӵChristianӵtheolo¿y,ӵisӵtheӵ phantasmӵ
ofӵaӵdeadӵmanӵwhoӵsays,ӵlikeӵVilliers'ӵMonsieurӵWaldemar,ӵ'lӵamӵdead'ӵ- e¿oӵsumŔ
ó4/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFREWORK5ĸ
. . . Ŕmortuus.Ŕ lfӵtheӵŶӵcannotӵsayӵthatӵitӵisӵdead,ӵifӵtheӵIŔdisappears,ӵ inӵ effectӵ inӵ Ѐńsӵ
death,ӵ inӵ thatӵ deathӵ thatӵ isӵ preciselyӵ whatӵ isӵ mostӵ properӵ toӵ itӵ andӵ mostӵ
inalienablyӵitsӵown,ӵitӵisӵbecauseӵ theӵIŔisӵsomethin¿ӵotherӵthanӵaӵsub¡ect.ӵAllӵofӵ
Heidż¿¿er'sӵ researchӵintoӵ'bein¿-forӵ¦orӵtoward)-death'ӵwasӵnothin¿ӵotherӵthanӵ
anӵattemptӵtoӵstateӵthis.ӵŶӵisӵnotӵ- umŔnotӵ- aӵsub¡ect.ӵ¦Althou¿h,ӵwhenӵitӵcameӵtoӵ
theӵquestionӵ ofӵcommunityӵasӵ such,ӵtheӵ sameӵHeide¿¿erӵalsoӵwentӵastrayӵwithӵ
hisӵvisionӵofӵaӵpeopleӵandӵaӵdestinyӵconceivedӵatӵleastӵinӵpartӵasӵaӵsub¡ect,Ƅӵ whichӵ
provesӵ noӵ doubtӵ thatӵ Dasein'sӵ 'bein¿-toward-death'ӵ wasӵ neverӵ radicallyӵ
implicatedӵinӵ itsӵbein¿-withӵ- inӵ MítscínŔ andӵ thatӵitӵ isӵthisӵ implicationӵthatӵ
remainsӵtoӵbeӵthou¿ht.)ӵ
Thatӵwhichӵ isӵ notӵaӵsub¡ectӵopensӵ upӵ andӵ opensӵontoӵaӵcommunityӵwhoseӵ
conception,ӵ inӵ turn,ӵ exceedsӵ theӵ resourcesӵ ofӵ aӵ metaphysicsӵ ofӵ theӵ sub¡ect.ӵ
Communityӵ doesӵ notӵ weaveӵ aӵ superior,ӵimmortalӵ orӵtransmortalӵ lifeӵ betweenӵ
sub¡ectsӵ ¦noӵ moreӵ thanӵ itӵ isӵ itselfӵ wovenӵ ofӵ theӵ inferiorӵ bondsӵ ofӵ aӵ
consubstantialityӵofӵbloodӵorӵofӵanӵassociationӵofӵneeds),ӵbutӵitӵisӵconstitutively,ӵ
toӵtheӵextentӵthatӵitӵisӵaӵmatterӵofӵaӵ'constitution'ӵhere,ӵcalibratedӵonӵtheӵdeathӵofӵ
thoseӵwhomӵweӵ call,ӵ perhapsӵwron¿ly,ӵitsӵ 'members'ӵ¦inӵasӵ muchӵ asӵ itӵisӵnotӵaӵ
questionӵ ofӵ anӵ or¿anism).ӵ Butӵ itӵ doesӵ notӵ makeӵ aӵ workӵ ofӵ thisӵ calibration.ӵ
Communityӵnoӵmoreӵmakesӵaӵworkӵoutӵofӵdeathӵthanӵitӵisӵitselfӵaӵwork.ӵTheӵdeathӵ
uponӵwhichӵcommunityӵisӵcalibratedӵdoesӵnotӵopĄҍńĄӵtheӵdeadӵbein¿'sӵ passa¿eӵ
intoӵ someӵ communalӵ intimacy,ӵ norӵ doesӵ ȭommunity,ӵ forӵ itsӵ part,ӵ opĄɗĘńĄӵ theӵ
transfi¿urationӵofӵitsӵdeadӵintoӵsomeӵsubstanceӵorӵsub¡ectӵ beӵtheseӵhomeland,ӵ
nativeӵ soilӵ orӵ blood,ӵ nation,ӵ aӵ deliveredӵ orӵ fulfilledӵ humanity,ӵ absoluteӵ
phalanstery,ӵ family,ӵorӵmysticalӵ body.ӵ Communityӵisӵcalibratedӵ onӵdeathӵasӵonӵ
thatӵofӵwhichӵi tӵi sӵpreciselyӵimpossibleӵ toӵ хĘНĄӵĘӵ ɥoɗОӵ ¦otherӵthanӵ aӵ workӵ ofӵ
death,ӵasӵsoonӵasӵoneӵtriesӵtoӵmakeӵaӵworkӵofӵit).ӵCommunityӵoccursӵinӵorderӵtoӵ
acknowled¿eӵthisӵ impossibility,ӵ orӵ moreӵ exactlyӵ - forӵ thereӵ isӵ neitherӵfunctionӵ
norӵfinalityӵhereӵ- theӵimpossibilityӵofӵmakin¿ӵaӵworkӵoutӵofӵdeathӵisӵinscribedӵ
andӵacknowled¿edӵasӵ'community'.ӵ
CommunityӵisӵrevealedӵinӵtheӵdeathӵofӵothersƏӵhenceӵitӵisӵalwaysӵrevealedӵtoӵ
others.ӵCommunityӵisӵwhatӵtakesӵplaceӵalwaysӵthrou¿hӵothersӵandӵforӵothers.ӵltӵ
isӵ notӵ theӵ spaceӵ ofӵtheӵ Ą¿osӵ - sub¡ectsӵ andӵ substancesӵ thatӵ areӵ atӵ bottomӵ
immortalӵ - butӵ ofӵ theӵ Ŷ's,ӵ whoӵ areӵ alwaysӵ ońǓĄɘsӵ ¦orӵ elseӵ areӵ nothin¿).ӵ l fӵ
communityӵisӵrevealedӵinӵtheӵdeathӵofӵothersӵi tӵi sӵbecauseӵdeathӵitselfӵisӵtheӵtrueӵ
communityӵofӵŶ'sӵthatӵareӵnotӵĄ¿os.ӵltӵisӵnotӵaӵcommunionӵthatӵfusesӵtheӵc¿osŔ intoӵ
anӵ͂¿oӵ orӵaӵhi¿herӵͳĄ.ӵ ltӵisӵtheӵcommunityӵofӵońǓĄɘs.ӵTheӵ¿enuineӵcommunityӵofӵ
mortalӵbein¿s,ӵorӵdeathӵasӵcommunity,ӵestablishesӵtheirӵimpossibleӵcommunion.ӵ
Communityӵthereforeӵoccupiesӵaӵsin¿ularӵplace.ӵ itӵassumesӵtheӵimpossibilityӵofӵ
itsӵownӵimmanence,ӵtheӵimpossibilityӵofӵaӵcommunitarianӵbein¿ӵinӵtheӵformӵofӵ
aӵsub¡ect.ӵlnӵaӵcertainӵsenseӵcommunityӵacknowled¿esӵandӵinscribesӵ- thisӵisӵitsӵ
NOnç/ĸ /Theĸ¡nOpetO!iVeĸCOmmuni!y/ĸ/óõĸ
peculiarӵ¿estureӵ- theӵimpossibilityӵofӵcommunity.ӵAŔcommunityӵisӵnotӵaӵpro¡ectӵ
ofӵfusion,ӵorӵinӵ someӵ ¿eneralӵwayӵaӵproductiveӵ orӵoperativeӵpro¡eΝtӵ- norӵisӵ itӵaӵ
pro]cctŔatӵallӵ(onceӵa¿ain,ӵthisӵisӵitsӵradicalӵdifferenceӵfromӵ'theӵspiritӵofӵaӵpeople',ӵ
whichӵ fromӵ He¿elӵ toӵ Heide¿¿erӵ hasӵ fi¿uredӵ theӵ collectivityӵ asӵ pro¡ect,ӵ andӵ
fi¿uredӵtheӵpro¡ect,ӵreciprocally,ӵasӵcollectiveӵ- whichӵdoesӵnotӵmeanӵthatӵweӵcanӵ
i¿noreӵtheӵquestionӵofӵtheӵsin¿ularityӵofӵaӵ'people').ӵ
AŔcommunityӵisӵtheӵpresentationӵtoӵitsӵmembersӵofӵtheirӵmortalӵtruthӵ(whichӵ
amountsӵ toӵ sayin¿ӵ thatӵ thereӵ isӵ noӵ communityӵ ofӵimmortalӵ bein¿s.ӵ oneӵ canӵ
ima¿ineӵ eitherӵ aӵ societyӵ orӵ aӵ communionӵ ofӵ immortalӵ bein¿s,ӵ butӵ notӵ aӵ
community).ӵ ltӵisӵtheӵpresentationӵofӵtheӵfinitudeӵandӵtheӵ irredeemableӵexcessӵ
thatӵmakeӵupӵfiniteӵbein¿.ӵ itsӵdeath,ӵbutӵalsoӵitsӵbirth,ӵandӵonlyӵtheӵcommunityӵ
canӵpresentӵmeӵmyӵbirth,ӵandӵalon¿ӵwithӵitӵtheӵimpossibilityӵofӵmyӵrelivin¿ӵit,ӵasӵ
wellӵasӵtheӵimpossibiliĸӵofӵmyӵcrossin¿ӵoverӵintoӵmyӵdeath.ӵ ͻӵ. . . ӵǁӵ
Communityӵ means,ӵ consequently,ӵ thatӵ thereӵ isӵ noӵ sin¿ularӵ bein¿ӵ withouҳӵ
anotherӵsin¿ularӵbein¿,ӵ andӵ thatӵthereӵ is,ӵ therefore,ӵwhatӵmi¿htӵbeӵcalled,ӵ inӵaӵ
ratherӵ inappropriateӵ idiom,ӵ anӵ ori¿inaryӵ orӵ ontolo¿icalӵ 'sociality'ӵ thatӵ inӵ itsӵ
principleӵextendsӵfarӵbeyondӵtheӵsimpleӵthemeӵofӵmanӵasӵaӵsocialӵbein¿ӵ(theӵzoonŔ
polítíkonŔisӵsecondaryӵtoӵthisӵcommunity).ӵFor,ӵonӵtheӵoneӵhand,ӵitӵisӵnotӵobviousӵ
thatӵ theӵ communityӵ ofӵ sin¿ularitiesӵ isӵ limitedӵ toӵ 'man'ӵ andӵ excludes,ӵ forӵ
example,ӵtheӵ 'animal'ӵ(evenӵinӵtheӵcaseӵofӵ'man'ӵitӵ isӵ notӵu]ortíoríŔcertainӵthatӵthisӵ
communityӵconcernsӵonlyӵ'man'ӵandӵnotӵalsoӵtheӵ'inhuman'ӵorӵtheӵ'superhuman',ӵ
or,ӵforӵ example,ӵifӵlӵmayӵsayӵsoӵwithӵandӵwithoutӵaӵcertainӵWítz,Ŕ 'woman'.ӵafterӵ
all,ӵ theӵ differenceӵ befweenӵ theӵ sexesӵ isӵ itselfӵaӵsin¿ularityӵ inӵ theӵ differenceӵ ofӵ
sin¿ularities).ӵDnӵtheӵ otherӵhand,ӵifӵsocialӵbein¿ӵisӵalwaysӵpositedӵasӵaӵpredicateӵ
ofӵman,ӵ communityӵ wouldӵ si¿nifyӵonӵ theӵ contraryӵ theӵ basisӵ forӵthinkin¿ӵonlyӵ
somethin¿ӵ likeӵ 'man'.ӵ Butӵ thisӵ thinkin¿ӵ wouldӵ atӵ theӵ sameӵ timeӵ remainӵ
dependentӵuponӵaӵprincipalӵdeterminationӵofӵcommunity,ӵnamely,ӵthatӵthereӵ isӵ
noӵcommunionӵ ofӵsin¿ularitiesӵinӵaӵtotalityӵsuperiorӵtoӵ themӵandӵ immanentӵtoӵ
theirӵcommonӵbein¿.ӵ
lnӵ placeӵofӵsuchӵaӵ communion,ӵ thereӵisӵcommunication.ӵWhichӵisӵtoӵsay̲ӵinӵ
veryӵpreciseӵterms,ӵthatӵfinitudeӵitselfӵísŔnothin¿;ӵitӵisӵneitherӵaӵ¿round,ӵnorӵanӵ
essence,ӵnorӵaӵsubstance.ӵ Butӵitӵappears,ӵ itӵpresentsӵitself,ӵitӵexposesӵitself,ӵandӵ
thusӵ itӵ cxístsŔ asӵ communication.ӵ lnӵ orderӵ toӵ desi¿nateӵ thisӵ sin¿ularӵ modeӵ ofӵ
appearin¿,ӵthisӵspecificӵphenomenality,ӵwhichӵisӵnoӵdoubtӵmoreӵori¿inaryӵthanӵ
anyӵotherӵ(forӵitӵcouldӵbeӵthatӵtheӵworldӵappearsӵtoӵ theӵcommunity,ӵnotӵtoӵtheӵ
individual),ӵ weӵ wouldӵ needӵ toӵ beӵ ableӵ toӵ sayӵ thatӵ finitudeӵ co-uppcursŔ orӵ
compcurs,Ŕ(com-puruĦt)Ŕandӵcanӵonlyӵcompcur:Ŕinӵthisӵformulationӵweӵwouldӵneedӵ
toӵ hearӵ thatӵ finiteӵ bein¿ӵalwaysӵ presentsӵ itselfӵ'to¿ether',ӵ henceӵ severally,ӵ forӵ
finitudeӵalwaysӵpresentsӵitselfӵinӵbein¿-in-commonӵandӵasӵ thisӵbein¿ӵitself,ӵandӵ
óó/ĸ/THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
itӵ alwaysӵ presentsӵ itselfӵatӵ aӵ ncurín¿Ŕ andӵ beforeӵ theӵ¡ud¿mentӵ Άfӵtheӵ lawӵ ofӵ
community,ӵor,ӵmoreӵori¿inarily,ӵbeforeӵtheӵ¡ud¿mentӵofӵcommunityӵasӵ law.ӵ
Communicationӵ consistsӵ beforeӵ allӵ elseӵ inӵ thisӵ sharin¿ӵ andӵ i nӵ thisӵ
compearanceӵ ¸com-pururíon)Ŕofӵfinitude.ӵ thatӵ is,ӵinӵtheӵdislocationӵ andӵ inӵtheӵ
interpellationӵthatӵ revealӵ themselvesӵtoӵbeӵconstitutiveӵ ofӵbein¿-in-commonӵ-
preciselyӵinӵasӵ muchӵ asӵ bein¿˩in-commonӵ isӵ notӵ aӵ commonӵ bein¿.ӵTheӵ finiteӪ
bein¿ӵexistsӵfirstӵofӵallӵaccordin¿ӵtoӵaӵdivisionӵofӵsites,ӵaccordin¿ӵtoӵanӵextensionӵ
¯ purrcsŔ cxrruŔ purrcsŔ - suchӵthatӵeachӵsin¿ularityӵisӵextendedӵ¦inӵtheӵsenseӵ thatӵ
Freudӵsays.ӵ 'Theӵpsycheӵisӵextended').ӵltӵisӵnotӵenclosedӵinӵaӵformӵ- althou¿hӵitsӵ
wholeӵbein¿ӵtouchesӵa¿ainstӵitsӵsin¿ularӵlimitӵ- butӵitӵisӵwhatӵitӵis,ӵsin¿ularӵbein¿ӵ
¦sin¿ularityӵofӵbein¿),ӵonlyӵthrou¿hӵitsӵextension,ӵthrou¿hӵtheӵarealityӵthatӵaboveӵ
allӵ extrovertsӵ itӵ inӵ itsӵ veĬyӵ bein¿ӵ - whateverӵ theӵ de¿reeӵ orӵ theӵ desireӵ ofӵ itsӵ
'e¿oism'ӵ- andӵthatӵmakesӵitӵexistӵonlyӵbyӵcxposín¿ŔírŔɤʎ unŔoursíJc.Ŕ Thisӵoutsideӵ
isӵinӵitsӵ turnӵ nothin¿ӵotherӵthanӵ theӵ expositionӵofӵanotherӵareality,ӵ ofӵanotherӵ
sin¿ularityӵ˪ theӵsameӵother.ӵThisӵexposure,ӵorӵthisӵexposin¿-sharin¿,ӵ¿ivesӵrise,ӵ
fromӵtheӵoutseҴ,ӵtoӵaӵmutualӵinterpellationӵofӵsin¿ularitiesӵpriorӵtoӵanyӵaddressӵ
inӵ lan¿ua¿eӵ ¦thou¿hӵ itӵ ¿ivesӵ toӵ thisӵ latterӵ itsӵ firstӵ conditionӵ ofӵ possibility).ʞӵ
Finitudeӵcompears,ӵthatӵisӵtoӵsayӵitӵisӵexposed.ӵsuchӵisӵtheӵessenceӵofӵcommunity.ӵ
Underӵtheseӵconditions,ӵcommunicationӵ isӵ notӵaӵbond.ӵTheӵmetaphorӵofӵtheӵ
'socialӵbond'ӵunhappilyӵsuperimposesӵuponӵ'sub¡ects'ӵ¦thatӵisӵtoӵsay,ӵ ob¡ects)ӵaӵ
hypotheticalӵ realityӵ ¦thatӵ ofӵ theӵ 'bond')ӵ uɒonӵ whichӵ someӵ haveӵattemptedӵ toӵ
conferӵaӵdubiousӵ'intersub¡ective'ӵnatureӵthatӵwouldӵ haveӵtheӵvirtueӵofӵattachin¿ӵ
theseӵ ob¡ectsӵ toӵ oneӵ anotherĺӵThisӵ wouldӵ beӵ theӵ economicӵ linkӵ orӵ theӵbondӵ ofӵ
reco¿nition.ӵButӵcompearanceӵisӵofӵaӵmoreӵori¿inaryӵorderӵthanӵthatӵofӵtheӵbond.ӵ
ltӵdoesӵnotӵsetӵitselfӵup,ӵitӵdoesӵ notӵestablishӵitself,ӵ itӵdoesӵnotӵemer¿eӵamon¿ӵ
alreadyӵ¿ivenӵsub¡ectsӵ¦ob¡ects).ӵltӵconsistsӵinӵtheӵappearanceӵofӵtheӵccrŒccnŔasӵ
such.ӵ youӵ unJŔ lӵ ¦betweenӵ us)ӵ - aӵ formulaӵ inӵ whichӵ theӵ unJŔ doesӵ notӵ implyӵ
¡uxtapositionӵbutӵexposition.ӵWhatӵisӵexposedӵinӵcompearanceӵisӵtheӵfollowin¿,ӵ
andӵweӵ mustӵlearnӵtoӵreadӵitӵinӵallӵ itsӵ possibleӵ combinations.ӵ 'youӵ¦arejandjis)ӵ
¦entirelyӵotherӵthan)ӵl'ӵ¸'roíŔ[c(s)r]Ŕ[rourŔuurrcŔ quc]Ŕmoí').ŔDrӵa¿ain,ӵmoreӵsimply.ӵ
¸ouŔsnurcsŔmcŔ¸'roíŔporru¿cŔŋoí').Ŕ
Dnlyӵinӵthisӵcommunicationӵareӵsin¿ularӵbein¿sӵ¿ivenӵ- withoutӵaӵbondӵunJŔ
withoutӵcommunion,ӵ equallyӵdistantӵfromӵ anyӵ notionӵ ofӵconnectionӵorӵ¡oinin¿ӵ
fromӵ theӵ outsideӵ andӵ fromӵ anyӵ notionӵ ofӵaӵ commonӵ andӵ fusionalӵ interiority.ӵ
Communicationӵ isӵ theӵ constitutiveӵ factӵ ofӵ anӵ expositionӵ toӵ theӵ outsideӵ thatӵ
definesӵsin¿ularity.ӵlnӵitsӵ bein¿,ӵ asӵ itsӵveǤyӵbein¿,ӵ sin¿ularityӵisӵ exposedӵtoӵtheӵ
outside.ӵ Byӵ virtueӵ ofӵ thisӵ positionӵ orӵ thisӵ primordialӵ structure,ӵ itӵ isӵ atӵ onceӵ
detached,ӵdistin¿uishedӵandӵ communitarian.ӵCommunityӵisӵtheӵpresentatiѥnӵofӵ
theӵdetachmentӵ¦orӵretrenchment)ӵofӵthisӵdistinctionӵthatӵisӵ notӵindividuation,ӵ
butӵfinitudeӵcomӵ peaӵ rin¿.ӵ[ӵ. . } ĉӵ
NOnç/ĸ /Theĸ¡nopetO!iVeĸCommuni!y/ĸ /ó7ĸ
Thisӵ isӵwhyӵ communityӵ cannotӵ ariseӵ fromӵ theӵ domainӵ ofӵwork.Ŕ Dneӵ Τoesӵ notӵ
produceӵ it,ӵ oneӵ experiencesӵ orӵ oneӵ isӵ constituteȰӵ byӵ itӵ asӵ theӵ experienceӵ ofӵ
finitude.ӵ Communityӵ understoodӵ asӵ aӵ workӵ orӵ throu¿hӵ itsӵ worksӵ wouldӵ
presupposeӵthatӵtheӵcommonӵbein¿,ӵasӵsuch,ӵbeӵob¡ectiIĊableӵandӵproducibleӵ¦inӵ
sites,ӵpersonsčӵbuildin¿sčӵdiscoursesėӵinstitutions,ӵsymbols.ӵ inӵshortƻӵinӵsub¡ects).ӵ
Productsӵderivedӵ fromӵ operationsӵ ofӵthisӵ kind,ӵ howeverӵ¿randioseӵtheyӵmi¿htӵ
seekӵtoӵbeӵandӵsometimesӵmana¿eӵtoӵbe,ӵhaveӵnoӵmoreӵcommunitarianӵexistenceӵ
thanӵtheӵplasterӵbustsӵofӵMarianne.ӵ
CommunityӵnecessarilyӵtakesӵplaceӵinӵwhatӵBlanchotӵhasӵcalledӵӭunworkin¿Ӯčӵ
referrin¿ӵtoӵ thatӵ whichčӵ beforeӵ orӵbeyondӵtheӵwork,ӵwithdrawsӵfromӵtheӵwork,ӵ
andӵ which,ӵ noӵlon¿erӵhavin¿ӵtoӵ doӵ eitherӵwithӵproductionӵorӵwithӵcompletion,ӵ
encountersӵinterruption,ӵfra¿mentation,ӵsuspension.ӵCommunityӵisӵmadeӵofӵtheӵ
interruptionӵ ofӵ sin¿ularities,ӵ orӵ ofӵ theӵ suspensionӵ thatӵ sin¿ularӵ bein¿sӵ urc.Ŕ
Communityӵisӵnotӵtheӵworkӵofӵsin¿ularӵbein¿s,ӵnorӵcanӵitӵclaimӵthemӵasӵitsӵworks,ӵ
¡ustӵasӵcommunicationӵisӵnotӵaӵworkӵorӵevenӵanӵoperationӵofӵsin¿ularӵbein¿s,ӵforӵ
communityӵ isӵ simplyӵ theirӵ bein¿ӵ ĝ theirӵ bein¿ӵ suspendedӵ uponӵ itsӵ limit.ӵ
Communicationӵisӵtheӵunworkin¿ӵofӵworkӵthatӵisӵsocialčӵeconomic,ӵtechnicalӵandӵ
institutional.ǹӵ[ӵ. . . ӵ ljӵ
Theӵpolitical,ӵifӵthisӵwordӵmayӵserveӵtoӵdesi¿nateӵnotӵtheӵor¿anizationӵofӵsocietyӵ
butӵtheӵ dispositionӵ ofӵcommunityӵasӵ such,ӵ theӵ destinationӵ ofӵitsӵ sharin¿čӵ mustӵ
notӵbeӵtheӵassumptionӵorӵtheӵworkӵofӵloveӵorӵofӵdeath.ӵltӵneedӵneitherӵfind,ӵnorӵ
re¿ain,ӵnorӵeffectӵaӵcommunionӵtakenӵtoӵbeӵlostӵorӵstillӵtoӵcome.ӵlfӵtheӵpoliticalӵisӵ
notӵdissolvedӵ inӵ theӵ sociotechnicalӵ elementӵofӵforcesӵ andӵ needsӵ ¦inӵwhich,ӵ i nӵ
effectčӵi tӵseemsӵtoӵbeӵdissolvin¿ӵunderӵourӵeyes)čӵi tӵmustӵinscribeӵtheӵsharin¿ӵofӵ
communiĸ.ӵ Theӵ outlineӵ ofӵsin¿ularityӵ wouldӵ beӵ 'political'ӵ - asӵ wouldӵ beӵ theӵ
outlineӵ ofӵ itsӵ communicationӵ andӵ itsӵ ecstasy.ӵ 'Political'ӵ wouldӵ meanӵ aӵ
communityӵorderin¿ӵitselfӵtoӵ theӵunworkin¿ӵofӵitsӵ communication,ӵ orӵdesҵinedӵ
toӵ thisӵ unworkin¿:ӵ aӵcommunityӵ consciouslyӵunder¿oin¿ӵtheӵexperienceӵofӵitsӵ
sharin¿.ӵToӵattainӵsuchӵaӵsi¿nifĊcationӵofӵtheӵ'political'ӵdoesӵnotӵdepend,ӵorӵinӵanyӵ
caseӵ notӵ simply,ӵ onӵ whatӵ isӵ calledӵ aӵ 'politicalӵ will'.ӵ ĵtӵ impliesӵ bein¿ӵ alreadyӵ
en¿a¿edӵ inӵtheӵcommunity,ӵthatӵisӵtoӵsay,ӵ under¿oin¿čӵ inӵwhateverӵmannerčӵ theӵ
experienceӵofӵcommunityӵasӵ communication.ӵ itӵimpliesӵ writin¿.ӵ Weӵ mustӵ notӵ
stopӵ writin¿,ӵ orӵ lettin¿ӵ theӵ sin¿ularӵ outlineӵ ofӵ ourӵ bein¿˫in-commonӵ exposeӵ
itself̃ӵ
NotӵonlyӵwillӵthisӵhaveӵbeenӵwrittenӵafterӵBataille,ӵbutӵalsoӵtoӵhimčӵ¡ustӵasӵheӵ
wroteӵtoӵ usӵĝ becauseӵoneӵalwaysӵwritesӵroŔ- communicatin¿ӵtoӵusӵtheӵan¿uishӵ
ofӵ communityčӵ writin¿ӵ fromӵ aӵ solitudeӵ priorӵ toӵ anyӵ isolationčӵ invokin¿ӵ aӵ
communityӵthatӵnoӵsocietyӵcontainsӵ orӵ precedes,ӵevenӵ thou¿hӵeveryӵsocietyӵisӵ
impliedӵ inӵit.ӵ
óß/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
Theӵ reasonsӵ forӵwritin¿ӵaӵbookӵcanӵ beӵ brou¿htӵbackӵtoӵ theӵdesireӵ toӵ modifyӵ theӵ
existin¿ӵ relationsӵ betweenӵ aӵ manӵ andӵ hisӵ fellowӵ bein¿sČӵ Theseӵ relationsӵ areӵ
Зud¿edӵunacceptableӵandӵ areӵ perceivedӵasӵ anӵatrociousӵ miseryČӵ¦ͅeor¿esӵ̺atailɬe,ӵ
Ucuvïc¯ Cum¡íé!c:. volİӵŮ,ӵǂůǃũӵ
Drӵ else,ӵ itӵ isӵcommunityӵ itselfӵ- thou¿hӵ itӵísŔ nothin¿,ӵ írŔisӵ notӵ aӵ collectiveӵ
sub¡ectӵ- thatӵneverӵstops,ӵ inӵwritin¿,ӵ sharin¿ӵitself.ӵ
Theӵan¿uishӵwhichӵyouӵdoӵnotӵcommunicateӵtoӵyourӵfellowӵbein¿ӵisӵinӵsomeӵwayӵ
scornedӵandӵ mistreated.ӵĒtӵhasӵonlyӵtoӵ theӵweakestӵextentӵtheӵpowerӵtoӵ reflectӵtheӵ
¿loryӵthatӵcomesӵfromӵtheӵ depthӵofӵtheӵ heavensČӵ[U.C. bĎ ʎůůůũӵ
lnӵM¸Ŕ Morncr,ŔHélęne,ӵtheӵmother,ӵwritesӵtoӵherӵsonȍӵ
Ēӵadmireӵmyselfӵforӵwritin¿ӵtoӵyouӵlikeӵthis,ӵandӵĒӵmarvelӵtoӵthinkӵthatӵmyӵ letterӵisӵ
worthyӵofӵyouƴӵ(U.C ų̊ӵŮ̝̓ũӵ
Butӵ thisӵ handӵ thatӵ writesӵ isӵ d¸ínĢ,Ŕ andӵ throu¿hӵ thisӵ deathӵ promisedӵ toӵ it,ӵ itӵ
escapesӵacceptedӵlimitsӵbyӵwritin¿ƴӵ(U.C. ǃŰ ӵǂŮũӵ
lӵwouldӵsay,ӵrather.ӵitӵexposesӵtheseӵlimits,ӵitӵneverӵpassesӵbeyondӵthem,ӵnorӵ
passesӵ beyondӵ communityĕӵ Butӵ atӵ everyӵ instantӵ sin¿ularӵ bein¿sӵ shareӵ theirӵ
limits,ӵshareӵeachӵotherӵonӵtheirӵlimits.ӵTheyӵescapeӵtheӵrelationshipsӵofӵsocietyӵ
¦'mother'ӵ andӵ 'son',ӵ 'author'ӵ andӵ 'reader',ӵ 'publicӵ fi¿ure'ӵ andӵ 'privateӵ fi¿ure',ӵ
'producer'ӵandӵ 'consumer'),ӵbutӵtheyӵareӵinӵcommunity,ӵandӵareӵunworkedĕӵ
Ēӵhaveӵspokenӵofӵaӵcommunityӵasӵ existin¿̩ӵ Nietzscheӵbrou¿htӵhisӵaffirmationsӵtoӵ
this,ӵ butӵ remainedӵ aloneӵ . . . ӵTheӵ desireӵ toӵ communicateӵ isӵ bornӵ inӵ meӵ outӵ ofӵ aӵ
feelin¿ӵ ofӵ communityӵ bindin¿ӵ meӵ toӵ Nietzsche,ӵ andӵ notӵ outӵ ofӵ anӵ isolatedӵ
ori¿inality.ӵ[U.C. bď ʎǃŚũӵ
Weӵcanӵonlyӵ¿oӵfarther.ӵ
NOnç//The¡nopetO!iVeĸCommuni!y//óºĸ
Ccor¿csͥ6ataůIc,ͥUcɯɶɆcɒʎC0mpl8/cS. voI.ͥ 1ͥ (Far|s:ͥCaʂI|mard,ͥ19Ą0)ͥ33?;ͥ hcrcaIIcrͥ'U.ĩčʎ
?ͥ Cons|dcrcdͥ|nͥdcta|I,ͥtaIʝn¿ͥ|ntoͥaccountͥthcͥprcc|scͥh|stor|caIͥcon¡uncturcͥoIͥcachͥ|nstancc,ͥth|sͥ
|sͥnotͥr|¿orousIyͥcxactͥasͥrc¿ards,ͥIorͥcxampIc,ͥthcͥHun¿ar|anͥCounc|IͥoIͥ1955,ͥandͥcvcnͥ morcͥsoͥ
thcͥ IcItͥ oIͥSoI|dar|tyͥ |nͥ FoIand.ͥ Norͥ|sͥ |tͥ absoIutcIyͥ cxactͥ asͥ rc¿ardsͥ aIIͥ oIͥthcͥ d|scourscsͥ hcIdͥ
todayŧͥ oncͥ m|¿ht,ͥ |nͥ th|sͥ rcspcctͥ aIonc,ͥ ¡uxtaposcͥ thcͥ s|tuat|on|stsͥ oIͥ notͥ soͥ Ion¿ͥ a¿oͥ w|thͥ
ccrta|nͥaspcct̮ͥoIͥHannahͥArcndt`sͥthou¿htͥ andͥaIso,ͥasͥ stran¿cͥ orͥprovocat|vcͥasͥthcͥm|xturcͥ
m|¿htͥ appcarāͥ ccrta|ʯǃͥ propos|t|onsͥ advanccdͥ byͥ lyotardǪͥ 6ad|ou,ͥ EIIuI,ͥ Dclcuzc,ͥ FasoI|n|ͥ andͥ
kanʞèrc.ͥThcscͥ thou¿htsͥ occur,ͥ aIthou¿hͥ cachͥ oncͥ cn¿a¿csͥ |tͥ |nͥ |tsͥ ownͥ part|cuIarͥwayͥ(andͥ
somct|mcsͥ whcthcrͥ thcyͥknowͥ |tͥ orͥ not),ͥ |nͥ thcͥ waI:cͥ oIͥaͥ Marx|stͥ cvcntͥ that Iͥ w|IIͥ tryͥtoͥ
charactcr|ïcͥ bcIowͥ andͥ thatͥ s|¿n|I|csͥ Iorͥ usͥ thcͥ br|n¿|n¿ͥ |ntoͥ qucst|onͥ oIͥ commun|stͥ orͥ
commun|tar|anͥ human|smͥ(qu|tcͥd|IIcrcntͥIromͥthcͥqucst|on|n¿ͥonccͥundcrtakcnͥbyͥAIthusscrͥ
|nͥthcͥnamcͥoIͥaͥMarx|stͥsc|cncc).ͥTh|sͥ|sͥaIsoͥwhyͥsuchͥpropos|t|onsͥcommun|catcͥw|thͥwhatͥlͥ
shaŠIͥnamc,ͥtcntat|vcIyͥandͥ|nͥsp|tcͥoIͥcvcIytČ|n¿,ͥ`I|tcraI͋ͥcommun|sm`.ͥ
3ͥ ƤIootnotcͥ5ͥ|nͥsourccjͥ'lcͥcommun|smcͥsansͥhcr|ta¿c`,ͥ10vlI0C0mll0, 1958,ͥCïummu, 3j4ͥ(1975)ͥ3?.ͥ
4ͥ Ơ5jͥForͥthcͥmomcnt,ͥIctͥ\¡b rcta|nͥs|mpIyͥthatͥ'I|tcraturc`,ͥhcrc,ͥmustͥabovcͥaIIͥnotͥbcͥtakcnͥ|nͥthcͥ
scnscͥ6ata|IIcͥ¿avcͥtoͥthcͥwordͥ whcnͥhcͥwrotc,ͥ IorͥcxampIcͥ(|nͥ h|sͥcr|t|qucͥoIͥluucI LXpcï!cuCc
andͥ Cuílt)]: Ʋlͥ havcͥ comcͥ toͥ rcaI|zcͥ throu¿hͥ cxpcr|cnccͥthatͥ thcscͥbooksͥ Icadͥ thoscͥ whoͥ rcadͥ
thcmͥ|ntoͥcompIaccncy.ͥThcyͥ pIcascͥ mostͥ oItcnͥthoscͥva¿ucͥ andͥ |mpotcntͥm|ndsͥwhoͥ wantͥ toͥ
lIccͥ andͥ sIccpͥandͥSullS_ thcmscIvcsͥ w|thͥ thcͥ cscapcͥ prov|dcdͥ byͥ I|tcraturc`ͥ (ĭ.Ĩʎ 8:ͥ 583).ͥ Hcͥ
aIsoͥ spokcͥoIͥthcͥ 'sI|d|n¿ͥ|ntoͥ|mpotcnccͥoIͥthou¿Čtͥthatͥturnsͥtoͥ I|tcraturc`ͥ(|b|d.).ͥ
5ͥ ƥ8şͥ Sccͥ|can-lucͥ Nancy,ͥ 'laͥ¡ur|d|ct|onͥ duͥ monarqucͥ hc¿cI|cn',ͥ |nͥ Kc¸0ucï lc p0líllq!Ic (Far|s:ͥ
CaI|Icc,ͥ 1981).ͥTransIatcdͥ|nͥJ0c blïl0 l0 ÏIcScuCc (StanIord:ͥStanIordͥUn|vcrs|tyͥFrcss,ͥ 1993).ͥ
5ͥ Ě9ǂͥSccͥFh|I|ppcͥlacouc-labarthc,ͥ'TransccndcnccͥEndsͥ|nͥFoI|t|cs`,ͥtrans.ͥF.ͥCaws,ͥ|nͥJ)p0¿ïup0).
MímcSlS, Ï0íl0S0p0), I0lí/lCS, cd.ͥ C.ͥ Fynskͥ (Harvardͥ Un|vcrs|tyͥ Frcss,ͥ 1989)ͥ ?57-300,ͥ andͥ C.ͥ
CrancI,ͥ'Fourquo|ͥavo|rͥpubI|cͥccIaɩͥ|nͥÜc l'uuívcISll0 (TouIousc:ͥɪǫE.k.,ͥ 198?).ͥ
Ąͥ Ȅ?4jͥ lnͥ th|sͥ scnsc,ͥ thcͥ compcaranccͥ oIͥs|n¿uIarͥ bc|n¿sͥ |sͥ antcr|orͥ cvcnͥ toͥ thcͥ prcI|m|naryͥ
cond|t|onͥ oIͥIan¿ua¿cͥ thatͥ Hc|dc¿¿crͥ undcrstandsͥasͥprcͥ I|n¿u|st|cͥ'|ntcrprctat|on`ͥ|AuSlc¿uu¿),
toͥwh|cČͥIͥrcIcrrcdͥ thcͥ s|n¿uIar|tyͥoIͥvo|ccsͥ |nͥ 'Shar|n¿ͥVo|ccs`,ͥ |nͥ JïuuS]0ïmlu¿ l0c Hcïmcucu/íc
C0ulcXl, cdĀͥCayIcͥōʎOrm|stonͥandͥ AIanͥ D.ͥSchr|Itͥ (AIbany:ͥ SUNYͥ Frcss,ͥ 1989).ͥContraryͥtoͥwhatͥ
th|sͥcssayͥm|¿htͥ Icadͥ oncͥ toͥ th|nk,ͥ thcͥ shar|n¿ͥoIͥvo|ccsͥdocsͥ notͥ Icadͥ toͥ ʕommun|ty,ͥ onͥ thcͥ
contrary,ͥ |tͥ dcpcndsͥ onͥ th|sͥ or|¿|naryͥ shar|n¿ͥ thatͥ commun|tyͥ Ė|sĔ.ͥ Orͥ rathcr,ͥ th|sͥ 'or|¿|nary`ͥ
shar|n¿ͥ|tscIIͥ|sͥnoth|n¿ͥothcrͥthanͥaͥ'shar|n¿ͥoIͥvo|ccs`,ͥbutͥthcͥ'vo|cc`ͥshouIdͥbcͥundcrstoodͥnotͥ
asͥI|n¿u|st|cͥorͥcvcnͥprcI|n¿u|st|c,ͥbutͥasͥcommun|tar|an.ͥ
8ͥ ȅ?5jͥ lͥ doͥ notͥ |ncIudcͥthcͥpoI|t|caIͥ hcrc.ͥ lnͥ thcͥ Iormͥ oIͥthcͥStatc,ͥorͥthcͥFartyͥ(|IͥnotͥthcͥStatc͔
Farty),ͥ|tͥ|ndccdͥsccmsͥtoͥbcͥoIͥthcͥordcrͥoIͥaͥwork.ͥ 6utͥ |tͥ|sͥpcrhapsͥatͥthcͥhcartͥoIͥthcͥpoI|t|caIͥ
tČatͥcommun|tar|anͥunwork|n¿ͥrcs|sts.ͥ
|can-lucͥ Nancy,ͥ (u C0mmuuuul0 00S0cuvI0c (Far|s:ͥ Chr|st|anͥ 6our¿o|s,ͥ 1985);ͥ cd.ͥandͥ trans.ͥ Fctcrͥ
Connor,ͥ10c lu0pcïut!vc C0mmuult) (M|nncapoI|s:ͥ Un|vcrs|Iyͥ oIͥM|nncsotaͥFrcss,ͥ 1991)ͥ1-4;ͥ7-15;ͥ
?8Ŕ9, 31Ũ 40-1.ͥ
70//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
g
OOUOrO C!issOnI
POC¡!Cs OÍ RC!o¡¡OnJ JI990
ln]|ucnccJŔc¸ŔDc|cuzcŔunJŔCuutturí'sŔAӵThousandӵPlateauxӵ( |98O),ŔwnícnŔuJvocutcsŔ
unŔ ínccssuntŔ sucvcrsíonŔ o]Ŕ powcrŔ víuŔ 'Jctcrrítoríu|ízín¿'Ŕ ¿csturcs,Ŕ tncŔ Ircncnœ
CurícccunŔ uutnorŔEJouurJŔC|íssuntŔpoctícu||¸Ŕur¿ucsŔ]orŔtncŔuctívcŔuppropríutíonŔo]Ŕ
co|oníu|Ŕcu|turcŔc¸Ŕ tncŔco|onízcJ,Ŕpurtícu|ur|¸ŔonŔtncŔ|cvc|Ŕo]Ŕ|un¿uu¿c.ŔInŔcontrustŔtoŔ
tncŔ cu|turu||¸Ŕ uníġín¿ŔconccptŔ o]Ŕ nc¿rítuJc,Ŕ C|íssunt'sŔ Poeticsӵ ofӵRelationӵ (I99O)Ŕ
uJvocutcsŔuŔunít¸Ŕ unJcrstooJŔusŔJívcrscŔunJŔ]|uctuutín¿.Ŕ
Fnantq, FxiIc
Rootsӵ makeӵ theӵ commonalityӵofӵerrantryӵandӵ exile,ӵforӵinӵ bothӵ instancesӵ rootsӵ
areӵlackin¿.ӵWeӵ mustӵbe¿inӵ withӵ that.ӵ
Cillesӵ Deleuzeӵ andӵ Félixӵ Cuattariӵ criticizedӵ notionsӵ ofӵ theӵ rootӵ andӵ even,ӵ
perhaps,ӵnotionsӵofӵbein¿ӵrooted.ӵTheӵrootӵisӵunique,ӵaӵstockӵtakin¿ӵallӵuponӵitselfӵ
andӵ killin¿ӵ allӵ aroundӵ it.ӵ lnӵ oppositionӵ toӵ thisӵ theyӵ proposeӵ theӵ rhizome,ӵ anӵ
enmeshedӵ rootӵsystem,ӵaӵnetworkӵspreadin¿ӵeitherӵinӵ theӵ¿roundӵorӵinӵtheӵ air,ӵ
withӵnoӵpredatoryӵrootstockӵtakin¿ӵoverӵpermanently.ӵTheӵnotionӵofӵtheӵrhizomeӵ
maintains,ӵtherefore,ӵtheӵideaӵofӵrootednessӵbutӵchallen¿esӵthatӵofӵaӵtotalitarianӵ
root.ӵ Rhizomaticӵ thou¿htӵ isӵ theӵ principleӵ behindӵ whatӵ lӵ callӵ theӵ Poeticsӵ ofӵ
Relation,ӵ inӵwhichӵeachӵandӵ everyӵ identityӵ isӵextendedӵ throu¿hӵ aӵ relationshipӵ
withӵtheӵDther.ӵ
Theseӵ authorsӵ extolӵ nomadism,ӵ whichӵ Ҙupposedlyӵ liberatesӵ Bein¿,ӵ i nӵ
contrast,ӵperhaps,ӵtoӵaӵsettledӵwayӵofӵlife,ӵwithӵitsӵlawӵbasedӵuponӵtheӵintolerantӵ
root.ӵ Alreadyӵ Kant,ӵ atӵ theӵ be¿innin¿ӵ ofӵ CrítíqucŔ o]Ŕ IurcŔ kcuson,Ŕ hadӵ seenӵ
similaritiesӵbetweenӵ skepticsӵ andӵ nomads,ӵ remarkin¿ӵ alsoӵ that,ӵ fromӵ timeӵ toӵ
time,ӵ 'theyӵ breakӵ theӵ socialӵ bond'.ӵ Heӵ seemsӵ thusӵ toӵ establishӵ correlationsӵ
between,ӵ onӵtheӵ oneӵ hand,ӵ aӵ settledӵwayӵofӵlife,ӵ truthӵ andӵ societyӵ and,ӵ onӵ theӵ
other,ӵnomadism,ӵ skepticismӵandӵanarchy.ӵThisӵ parallelӵwithӵKantӵsu¿¿estsӵthatӵ
theӵrhizomeӵconceptӵappearsӵinterestin¿ӵforӵitsӵanti-conformism,ӵbutӵoneӵcannotӵ
inferӵfromӵthisӵthatӵitӵisӵsubversiveӵorӵthatӵrhizomaticӵthou¿htӵhasӵtheӵcapacityӵ
toӵ overturnӵ theӵ orderӵ ofӵ theӵ worldӵ - because,ӵ byӵ soӵ doin¿,ӵ oneӵ revertsӵ toӵ
ideolo¿icalӵclaimsӵpresumablyӵchallen¿edӵbyӵthisӵthou¿ht.ӵ
Butӵisӵ theӵ nomadӵ notӵ overdeterminedӵ byӵ theӵ conditionsӵ ofӵ hisӵ existenceđӵ
Ratherӵthanӵtheӵen¡oymentӵofӵfreedom,ӵisӵnomadismӵnotӵaӵformӵofӵobedienceӵtoӵ
contin¿enciesӵ thatӵ areӵ restrictiveųӵTake,ӵ forӵexample,ӵcircularӵnomadism.ӵ eachӵ
timeӵaӵportionӵofӵtheӵterritoryӵisӵexhausted,ӵtheӵ¿roupӵmovesӵaround.ӵltsӵfunctionӵ
isӵtoӵ ensureӵ theӵsurvivalӵ ofӵtheӵ ¿roupӵ byӵmeansӵ ofӵthisӵ circularity.ӵThisӵ isӵ theӵ
GliSSOnt/Poe!icSĸo!ĸRelO!ion/ĸ /7¡ĸ
nomadismӵ practisedӵbyӵ populationsӵ thatӵ moveӵ fromӵ oneӵ partӵofӵtheӵ forestӵ toӵ
another,ӵbyӵtheӵArawakӵcommunitiesӵwhoӵnavi¿atedӵfromӵislandӵtoӵislandӵinӵtheӵ
Caribbean,ӵbyӵ hiredӵlabourersӵ inӵ theirӵpil¿rima¿eӵfromӵ farmӵ toӵfarm,ӵ byӵ circusӵ
peopleӵinӵ theirӵpere¿rinationsӵfromӵvilla¿eӵtoӵvilla¿e,ӵallӵofӵwhomӵareӵdrivenӵbyӵ
someӵspecificӵneedӵtoӵmove,ӵ inӵwhichӵdarin¿ӵorӵa¿¿ressionӵplayӵnƓӵpart.ӵCircularӵ
nomadismӵisӵaӵnot-intolerantӵformӵofӵanӵimpossibleӵsettlement.ӵ
Contrastӵthisӵwithӵinvadin¿ӵnomadism,ӵthatӵofӵtheӵHuns,ӵҶorӵexample,ӵorӵtheӵ
Conquistadors,ӵ whoseӵ ¿oalӵ wasӵ toӵ conquerӵ landsӵ byӵ exterminatin¿ӵ theirӵ
occupants.ӵNeitherӵprudentӵnorӵcircularӵnomadism,ӵitӵsparesӵ noӵeffect.ӵ ltӵ isӵ anӵ
absoluteӵforwardӵpro¡ection.ӵanӵarrowlikeӵnomadism.ӵButӵtheӵdescendantsӵofӵtheӵ
Huns,ӵ Vandalsӵ orӵ Visi¿oths,ӵ asӵ indeedӵ thoseӵ ofӵ theӵ Conquistadors,ӵ whoӵ
establishedӵ theirӵ clans,ӵ settledӵ downӵ bitӵbyӵ bit,ӵ meltin¿ӵ intoӵ theirӵ conquests.ӵ
Arrowlikeӵnomadismӵisӵaӵdevastatin¿ӵdesireӵforӵsettlement.ӵ
Neitherӵ inӵ arrowlikeӵ nomadismӵ norӵ inӵ circularӵ nomadismӵ areӵ rootsӵ valid.ӵ
Beforeӵ itӵisӵwonӵthrou¿hӵconquest,ӵwhatӵ'holds'ӵtheӵinvaderӵisӵwhatӵliesӵahead,ӵ
Ȃӵ
moreover,ӵoneӵcouldӵalmostӵsayӵthatӵbein¿ӵcompelledӵtoӵleadӵaӵsettledӵwayӵofӵlifeӵ
wouldӵconstituteӵtheӵrealӵuprootin¿ӵofӵaӵcircularӵnomad.ӵThereӵis,ӵfurthermore,ӵnoӵ
painӵ ofӵexileӵ bearin¿ӵ down,ӵ norӵ isӵ thereӵ theӵ wanderlustӵ ofӵerrantryӵ ¿rowin¿ӵ
keener.ӵRelationӵtoӵtheӵearthӵisӵtooӵimmediateӵorӵtooӵplunderin¿ӵtoӵbeӵlinkedӵwithӵ
anyӵ preoccupationӵ withӵ identityӵ - thisӵ claimӵ toӵ orӵ consciōusnessӵ ofӵaӵ linea¿eӵ
inscribedӵ inӵaӵterritoɟy.ӵ ldentityӵwillӵbeӵachievedӵ whenӵcommunitiesӵattemptӵtoӵ
le¿itimateӵ theirӵri¿htӵtoӵ possessionӵ ofӵ aӵterritoryӵ throu¿hӵmythӵ orӵ theӵ revealedӵ
word.ӵ Suchӵ anӵ assertionӵ canӵ predateӵ itsӵ actualӵ accomplishmentӵbyӵ quiteӵ someӵ
time.ӵThus,ӵanӵoftenӵandӵlon¿ӵcontestedӵle¿itimacyӵwillӵhaveӵmultipleӵformsӵthatӵ
laterӵwillӵdelineateӵtheӵafflictedӵorӵsoothin¿ӵdimensionsӵofӵexileӵorӵerrantry.ӵ
lnӵ Westernӵ antiquityӵaӵ manӵ inӵ exileӵ doesӵ notӵfeelӵ heӵ isӵ helplessӵorӵinferior,ӵ
becauseӵ heӵdoesӵ notӵ feelӵburdenedӵ withӵ deprivationӵ- ofӵaӵnationӵthatӵforӵhimӵ
doesӵnotӵyetӵexist.ӵltӵevenӵseems,ӵifӵoneӵisӵtoӵbelieveӵtheӵbio¿raphiesӵofӵnumerousӵ
Creekӵthinkersӵincludin¿ӵPlatoӵandӵAristotle,ӵthatӵsomeӵexperienceӵofӵvoya¿in¿ӵ
andӵexileӵisӵconsideredӵnecessaģĿӵforӵaӵbein¿'sӵcompleteӵfulfilment.ӵPlatoӵwasӵtheӵ
firstӵtoӵattemptӵtoӵbaseӵ le¿itimacyӵnotӵonӵcommunityӵwithinӵterritoryӵ¦asӵ itӵwasӵ
beforeӵandӵwouldӵbeӵlater)ӵbutӵonӵtheӵCityӵinӵ theӵrationalityӵofӵitsӵlaws.ӵThisӵatӵaӵ
timeӵwhenӵ hisӵcity,ӵAthens,ӵwasӵalreadyӵthreatenedӵbyӵaӵ'final'ӵdere¿ulation.ӵ
lnӵ thisӵ periodӵ identificationӵ isӵwithӵaӵ cultureӵ ¦conceivedӵ ofӵasӵ civilization),ӵ
notӵ yetӵ withӵ aӵ nation.ӵ Theӵ pre-Christianӵ Westӵ alon¿ӵ withӵ pre-Columbianӵ
America,ӵAfricaӵofӵtheӵtimeӵofӵtheӵ¿reatӵconquerors,ӵandӵtheӵAsianӵkin¿domsӵallӵ
sharedӵthisӵmodeӵofӵseein¿ӵandӵfeelin¿.ӵTheӵrelayӵofӵactionsӵexertedӵbyӵarrowlikeӵ
nomadismӵandӵtheӵsettledӵwayӵofӵlifeӵwereӵ firstӵdirectedӵ a¿ainstӵ¿eneralizationӵ
¦theӵdriveӵforӵanӵidentiϚin¿ӵuniversalӵasӵpractisedӵbyӵtheӵRomanӵFmpire).ӵThus,ӵ
theӵparticularӵresistsӵaӵ¿eneralizin¿ӵuniversalӵandӵsoonӵbe¿etsӵspecificӵandӵlocalӵ
72/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFREWORKĸ
sensesӵ ofӵidentity,ӵ inӵ concentricӵ circlesӵ ¦provincesӵ thenӵ nations).ӵ Theӵ ideaӵ ofӵ
civilization,ӵbitӵbyӵbit,ӵhelpsӵholdӵto¿etherӵopposites,ӵwhoseӵonlyӵformerӵidentityӵ
existedӵinӵtheirӵoppositionӵtoӵtheӵDther.ӵ
Durin¿ӵ thisӵ periodӵ ofӵ invadin¿ӵ nomadsӵ theӵ passionӵ forӵselfĥdefinitionӵ firstӵ
appearsӵ inӵ theӵ ¿uiseӵ ofӵpersonalӵ adventure.ӵ Alon¿ӵ theӵ routeӵ ofӵtheirӵ voya¿esӵ
conquerorsӵ establishedӵ empiresӵ thatӵ collapsedӵ atӵ theirӵ death.ӵ Theirӵ capitalsӵ
wentӵwhereӵtheyӵwent.ӵǺRomeӵisӵnoӵlon¿erӵinӵRome,ӵitӵisӵwhereverӵlӵam.'ӵTheӵrootӵ
isӵ notӵimportant.ӵMovementӵis.ӵTheӵideaӵofӵerrantry,ӵ stillӵinhibitedӵ inӵ theӵfaceӵ ofӵ
thisӵ
madӵ realityćӵ thisӵ too-functionalӵnomadism,ӵwhoseӵendsӵitӵcouldӵ notӵ know,ӵ
doesӵ notӵ yetӵ makeӵ anӵ appearance.ӵ Centreӵ andӵ peripheryӵ areӵ equivalent.ӵ
Conquerorsӵareӵtheӵmovin¿,ӵtransientӵrootӵofӵtheirӵpeople.ӵ
Theӵ West,ӵ therefore,ӵ isӵ whereӵ thisӵ movementӵ becomesӵ fixedӵ andӵ nationsӵ
declaіʟӵ themselvesӵ inӵ preparationӵ forӵ theirӵ repercussionsӵ inӵ theӵ worlΥӵ Thisӵ
fixin¿,ӵ thisӵ declaration,ӵ thisӵ expansion,ӵ allӵ requireӵ thatӵ theӵ Ёdeaӵ ofӵ theӵ rootӵ
¿raduallyӵ takeӵ onӵ theӵ intolerantӵ senseӵ thatӵ Deleuzeӵ andӵ Cuattari,ӵ noӵ doubt,ӵ
meantӵtoӵchallen¿e.ӵTheӵreasonӵforӵourӵreturnӵtoӵthisӵepisodeӵinӵWesternӵhistoryӵ
isӵthatӵitӵspreadӵthrou¿houtӵtheӵ world.ӵTheӵ modelӵ cameӵ inӵ handy.ӵ Mostӵofӵtheӵ
nationsӵthatӵ¿ainedӵfreedomӵfromӵcolonizationӵhaveӵtendedӵtoӵformӵaroundӵ anӵ
ideaӵ ofӵpowerӵ ĝ theӵ totalitarianӵ driveӵ ofӵ aӵ sin¿le,ӵ uniqueӵ rootӵ - ratherӵthanӵ
aroundӵaӵfundamentalӵrelationҙhipӵwithӵtheӵDther.ӵCulture'sӵself-conceptionӵwasӵ
dualistic,ӵ pittin¿ӵ citizenӵ a¿ainstӵ barbarian.ӵ Nothin¿ӵ hasӵ everӵ moreӵ solidlyӵ
opposedӵ theӵ thou¿htӵ ofӵ errantryӵ thanӵ thisӵ periodӵ inӵ humanӵ historyӵ whenӵ
Westernӵnationsӵwereӵestablishedӵandӵthenӵmadeӵtheirӵimpactӵonӵtheӵworld.ӵ
Atӵfirstӵthisӵthou¿htӵofӵerrantry,ӵbuckin¿ӵtheӵcu҃rentӵofӵnationalistӵexpansion,ӵ
wasӵdis¿uisedӵ'within'ӵveryӵpersonalizedӵadventuresӵ- ¡ustӵasӵtheӵappearanceӵofӵ
Westernӵ nationsӵ hadӵ beenӵ precededӵ byӵ theӵ venturesӵ ofӵeɎpireӵbuilders.ӵTheӵ
errantryӵofӵaӵtroubadourӵorӵthatӵofӵRimbaudӵisӵnotӵyetӵaӵthorou¿h,ӵthickӵ¦opaque)ӵ
experienceӵ ofӵ theӵ world,ӵ butӵ itӵ isӵ alreadyӵ anӵ arrant,ӵ passionateӵ desireӵtoӵ ¿oӵ
a¿ainstӵaӵroot.ӵTheӵ realityӵofӵexileӵdurin¿ӵthisӵperiodӵisӵ feltӵ asӵ aӵ¦temporary)ӵlackӵ
thatӵprimarilyӵconcerns,ӵ interestin¿lyӵenou¿h,ӵ lan¿ua¿e.ӵWesternӵ nationsӵwereӵ
establishedӵonӵ theӵbasisӵofӵlin¿uisticӵintransi¿ence,ӵandӵ theӵexileӵ readilyӵ admitsӵ
thatӵheӵ suffersӵ mostӵfromӵtheӵ impossibilityӵofӵcommunicatin¿ӵ inӵ hisӵ lan¿ua¿e.ӵ
Theӵ rootӵ isӵ monolin¿ual.ӵ Forӵ theӵ troubadourӵ andӵ forӵ Rimbaudӵ errantryӵ isӵ aӵ
vocationӵonlyӵtoldӵviaӵdetour.ӵTheӵcallӵofӵRelationӵisӵheard,ӵbutӵitӵisӵnotӵyetӵaӵfullyӵ
presentӵexperience.ӵ
However,ӵ andӵ thisӵ isӵ anӵ immenseӵ paradox,ӵ theӵ ¿reatӵ foundin¿ӵ booksӵ ofӵ
communities,ӵtheӵDldӵTestament,ӵ theӵIlíuJ,Ŕ theӵCJ¸ssc¸,Ŕ theӵCnunsonsŔ JcŔCcsrc,Ŕ
theӵlslandicӵ5u¿us,ŔtheӵAcncíJŔorӵtheӵAfricanӵepics,ӵwereӵallӵbooksӵaboutӵexileӵandӵ
oftenӵaboutӵerrantry.ӵThisӵ epicӵliteratureӵ isӵamazin¿lyӵ prophetic.ӵ ltӵtellsӵ ofӵtheӵ
communityӵ but,ӵ throu¿hӵ relatin¿ӵ theӵ community'sӵ apparentӵ failureӵ orӵ inӵ anyӵ
GliSSOnµĸ /Poe!icSĸ O!ĸRelO!iOn/ĸ /7öĸ
caseӵ itsӵ bein¿ӵ surpassed,ӵ itӵ tellsӵ ofӵerrantryӵ asӵ aӵtemptationӵ ¦theӵ desireӵ toӵ ¿oӵ
a¿ainstӵ theӵ root)ӵ and,ӵ frequently,ӵ actuallyӵ experienced.ӵ Withinӵ theӵ collectiveӵ
booksӵconcernin¿ӵtheӵsacredӵandӵtheӵnotionӵofӵhistoryӵliesӵtheӵ¿ermӵofӵtheӵexactӵ
oppositeӵ ofӵ whatӵ theyӵ soӵ loudlyӵ proclaim.ӵ Whenӵ theӵ veryӵ ideaӵ ofӵ territoryӵ
becomesӵ relative,ӵ nuancesӵ appearӵ inӵ theӵ le¿itimacyӵ ofӵ territorialӵ possession.ӵ
TĠeseӵ areӵ booksӵ aboutӵ theӵ birthӵ ofӵ collectiveӵ consciousness,ӵ butӵ theyӵ alsoӵ
introduceӵtheӵunrestӵandӵsuspenseӵthatӵallowӵtheӵ individualӵtoӵdiscoverӵhimselfӵ
there,ӵwheneverӵ heӵ himselfӵbecomesӵ theӵ issue.ӵTheӵCreekӵvictoryӵ inӵ theӵI|íuJŔ
dependsӵonӵtrickeryƏӵ UlyssesӵreturnsӵfromӵhisӵDdysseyӵandӵisӵreco¿nizedӵonlyӵbyӵ
hisӵ do¿Əӵ theӵ Dldӵ Testamentӵ Davidӵ bearsӵ theӵ stainӵ ofӵadulteryӵ andӵ murder,ӵ theӵ
CnunsonŔ JcŔ Ăo|unJŔ isӵ theӵ chronicleӵ ofӵaӵ defeat,ӵ theӵ charactersӵ inӵ theӵ5u¿usŔareӵ
brandedӵbyӵanӵunstemmableӵfate,ӵandӵsoӵforth.ӵTheseӵbooksӵareӵtheӵbe¿innin¿ӵofӵ
somethin¿ӵentirelyӵdifferentӵ fromӵ massive,ӵdo¿mŢticӵ andӵ totalitarianӵ certaintyӵ
¦despiteӵ theӵ reli¿iousӵ usesӵ toӵ whichӵ theyӵ willӵ beӵ put).ӵ Theseӵ areӵ booksӵ ofӵ
errantry,ӵ¿oin¿ӵbeyondӵtheӵpursuitsӵandӵtriumphsӵofӵrootednessӵrequiredӵbyӵthe ʠӵ
evolutionӵofӵhistory.ӵ
Someӵ ofӵtheseӵ booksӵ areӵdevotedӵentirelyӵ toӵtheӵsupremeӵerrantry,ӵasӵ inӵ theӵ
F¿yptianӵ Bookӵofӵtheӵ Dead.ӵ Theӵveryӵ bookӵ whoseӵ functionӵ isӵ toӵ consecrateӵ anӵ
intransi¿entӵcommunityӵisӵalreadyӵaӵ compromise,ӵ qualiŽin¿ӵ itsӵ triumphӵ withӵ
revelatoryӵwanderin¿s.ӵ
lnӵ bothӵ L'ħntcntíonŔ poctíqucŔ ¸āoctícŔ Intcntíon)Ŕ andӵ
LcŔ DíscoursŔ untí||uísŔ
¸CuríttcunŔDíscoursc)Ŕ- ofӵwhichӵtheӵ presentӵworkӵisӵaӵreconstitutedӵ echoӵorӵaӵ
spiralӵ retellin¿ӵ - lӵ approachedӵ thisӵ dimensionӵ ofӵ epicӵ literature.ӵ lӵ be¿anӵ
wonderin¿ӵifӵweӵ didӵ notӵstillӵ needӵ suchӵ foundin¿ӵworksӵtoday,ӵonesӵthatӵwouldӵ
useӵ aӵ similarӵdialecticsӵ ofӵreroutin¿,ӵ assertin¿,ӵ forӵ example,ӵ politicalӵ stren¿thӵ
but,ӵsimultaneously,ӵtheӵ rhizomeӵ ofӵaӵmultipleӵrelationshipӵwithӵ theӵDtherӵandӵ
basin¿ӵeveryӵcommunity'sӵreasonsӵforӵexistenceӵonӵaӵmodernӵformӵofӵtheӵsacred,ӵ
whichӵwouldӵbe,ӵallӵinӵall,ӵaӵPoeticsӵofӵRelation.ӵ
Thisӵ movement,ӵ thereforeӵ ¦oneӵ amon¿ӵ others,ӵ equallyӵ important,ӵ inӵ otherӵ
partsӵofӵtheӵ world),ӵ hasӵ ledӵfromӵaӵ primordialӵ nomadismӵtoӵ theӵ settledӵwayӵofӵ
lifeӵofӵWesternӵnations,ӵthenӵtoӵDiscoveryӵandӵConquest,ӵwhichӵachievedӵaӵfinal,ӵ
almostӵmysticalӵperfectionӵinӵtheӵVoya¿e.ӵ
lnӵ theӵ courseӵofӵthisӵ¡ourney,ӵidentity,ӵ atӵleastӵ asӵ farӵasӵ theӵ Westernӵ peoplesӵ
whoӵmadeӵupӵtheӵ¿reatӵma¡orityӵofӵvoya¿ers,ӵ discoverersӵandӵconquerorsӵwereӵ
concerned,ӵconsolidatesӵitselfӵimplicitlyӵatӵ firstӵ ¦'myӵ rootӵ isӵ theӵ stron¿est')ӵandӵ
thenӵ isӵ explicitlyӵ exportedӵ asӵ aӵ valueӵ ¦'aӵ person'sӵ worthӵ isӵ determinedӵ byӵ hisӵ
root').ӵTheӵconqueredӵorӵvisitedӵpeoplesӵareӵthusӵforcedӵintoӵaӵlon¿ӵandӵpainfulӵ
questӵ afterӵ anӵ identityӵ whoseӵ firstӵ taskӵ willӵ beӵ oppositionӵ toӵ theӵ denaturin¿ӵ
processӵintroducedӵbyӵtheӵconqueror.ӵAӵtra¿icӵvariationӵofӵaӵsearchӵforӵ identity.ӵ
Forӵmoreӵthanӵtwoӵ centuriesӵwholeӵpopulationsӵhaveӵhadӵtoӵassertӵtheirӵidentityӵ
74//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
inӵoppositionӵtoӵtheӵprocessesӵofӵidentificationӵorӵannihilationӵtri¿¿eredӵbyӵtheseӵ
invaders.ӵWhereasӵtheӵ Westernӵ nationӵ isӵfirstӵofӵallӵanӵ 'opposite̪ӵ forӵcolonizedӵ
peoplesӵ identityӵwillӵ beӵprimarilyӵ 'opposedӵ to'ӵ - thatӵis,ӵ aӵ limitationӵ fromӵ theӵ
be¿innin¿.ӵDecolonizationӵwillӵhaveӵdoneӵitsӵrealӵworkӵwhenӵitӵ¿oesӵbeyondӵthisӵ
limit.ӵ
Theӵdualityӵofӵself-perceptionӵ(oneӵisӵcitizenӵorӵforei¿ner)ӵhasӵrepercussionsӵ
onӵ one'sӵ ideaӵ ofӵ theӵ Dtherӵ (oneӵ isӵ visitorӵ orӵ visited,ӵ oneӵ ¿oesӵ orӵ stays,ӵ oneӵ
conquersӵorӵisӵconquered).ӵThou¿htӵofӵtheӵDtherӵcannotӵescapeӵitsӵownӵdualismӵ
untilӵ theӵ timeӵ whenӵ differencesӵ becomeӵ acknowled¿ed.ӵ Fromӵ thatӵ pointӵ onӵ
thou¿htӵ ofӵ theӵ Dtherӵ 'comprehends'ӵ multiplicity,ӵ butӵ mechanicallyӵ andӵ stillӵ
takin¿ӵ theӵ subtleӵ hierarchiesӵ ofӵ aӵ ¿eneralizin¿ӵ universalӵ asӵ itsӵ basis.ӵ
Acknowled¿in¿ӵdifferencesӵdoesӵnotӵcompelӵoneӵtoӵ beӵinvolvedӵ inӵtheӵ dialecticsӵ
ofӵtheirӵtotality.ӵ Dneӵ couldӵ¿etӵ awayӵ with:ӵ 'lӵ canӵ acknowled¿eӵyourӵdifferenceӵ
andӵcontinueӵtoӵthinkӵitӵisӵharmfulӵtoӵyou.ӵlӵcanӵthinkӵthatӵmyӵstren¿thӵliesӵinӵtheӵ
Voya¿eӵ¦lӵamӵmakin¿ӵHistory)ӵandӵthatӵyourӵdifferenceӵisӵmotionlessӵandӵsilentħӵ
Anotherӵstepӵreцainsӵtoӵbeӵtakenӵbeforeӵoneӵreallyӵentersӵtheӵdialecticӵofӵtotality.ӵ
And,ӵ contraryӵ toӵ theӵ mechanicsӵ ofӵ theӵ Voya¿e,ӵ thisӵ dialecticӵ turnsӵ outӵ toӵ beӵ
drivenӵbyӵtheӵthou¿htӵofӵerrantry.ӵ
Letӵ usӵ supposeӵ thatӵ theӵ questӵ forӵ totality,ӵ startin¿ӵ fromӵ aӵ non-universalӵ
contextӵofӵhistoriesӵofӵtheӵWest,ӵhasӵ passedӵ throu¿hӵtheӵfollowin¿ӵsta¿esļӵ
- theӵthinkin¿ӵofӵterritoryӵandӵselfӵ(ontolo¿icalėӵdual)ӵ
- theӵthinkin¿ӵofӵvoya¿eӵandӵotherӵ(mechanical,ӵmultiple)ӵ
- theӵthinkin¿ӵofӵerrantryӵandӵtotalityӵ(relational,ӵdialectical).ӵ
Weӵ willӵ a¿reeӵ thatӵ thisӵ thinkin¿ӵ ofӵerrantry,ӵ thisӵ errantӵ thou¿ht,ӵ silentlyӵ
emer¿esӵ fromӵ theӵ destructurin¿ӵ ofӵ compactӵ їationalӵ entitiesӵ thatӵ yesterdayӵ
wereӵ stillӵ triumphantӵand,ӵatӵ theӵ sameӵ time,ӵ fromӵ difficult,ӵ uncertainӵ birthsӵ ofӵ
newӵformsӵofӵidentiĸӵthatӵcallӵtoӵ us.ӵ
lnӵthisӵcontextӵuprootin¿ӵcanӵworkӵtowardsӵidentity,ӵandӵexileӵcanӵbeӵseenӵasӵ
beneficial,ӵ whenӵ theseӵ areӵ experiencedӵ asӵ aӵ searchӵ forӵ theӵ Dtherӵ (throu¿hӵ
circularӵ nomadism)ӵ ratherӵ thanӵ asӵ anӵ expansionӵ ofӵ territoryӵ (anӵ arrowlikeӵ
nomadism).ӵ Totality'sӵ ima¿inaryӵ allowsӵ theӵ detoursӵ thatӵ leadӵ awayӵ fromӵ
anythin¿ӵtotalitarian.ӵ
Frrantry,ӵtherefore,ӵdoesӵnotӵproceedӵfromӵrenunciationӵnorӵfromӵfrustrationӵ
re¿ardin¿ӵaӵ supposedlyӵdeterioratedӵ(deterritorialized)ӵ situationӵ ofӵori¿in,ӵ itӵisӵ
notӵ aӵ resoluteӵ actӵ ofӵ re¡ectionӵ orӵ anӵ uncontrolledӵ impulseӵ ofӵ abandonment.ӵ
Sometimes,ӵbyӵtakin¿ӵupӵtheӵproblemsӵofӵtheӵDther,ӵitӵisӵpossibleӵtoӵfindӵoneself.ӵ
Contemporaryӵhistoryӵprovidesӵseveralӵ strikin¿ӵexamplesӵ ofӵthis,ӵ amon¿ӵthemӵ
FrantzӵFanon,ӵwhoseӵpathӵledӵfromӵMartiniqueӵtoӵAl¿eria.ӵThatӵisӵveryӵmuchӵtheӵ
ima¿eӵ ofӵ theӵ rhizome,ӵ promptin¿ӵ theӵ knowled¿eӵ thatӵ identityӵ isӵ noӵ lon¿erӵ
completelyӵwithinӵ theӵrootӵbutӵalsoӵinӵRelation.ӵBecauseӵtheӵthou¿htӵofӵerrantryӵ
GliSSOn!/ĸ /PoeĎcSĸo!ĸRelO!ion/ĸ /7õĸ
isӵ alscӵ theӵ thcu¿htӵ cfӵwhatӵ isӵ relative,ӵ theӵ thin¿ӵ relayedӵ asӵ wellӵ asӵ theӵ thin¿ӵ
related.ӵTheӵ thcu¿htӵcfӵerrantryӵisӵaӵ pcetics,ӵ whiҷhӵalwaysӵ infersӵthatӵatӵ scmeӵ
mcmentӵitӵisӵtcld.ӵTheӵtaleӵcfӵerrantryӵisӵtheӵtaleӵcfӵRelaticn.ӵ
lnӵccntrastӵtcӵarrcwlikeӵncmadismӵ¦disccveryӵcrӵccnquest),ӵinӵccntrastӵtcӵtheӵ
situaticnӵ cfӵexile,ӵ errantryӵ ¿ives-cn-and-withӵ theӵ ne¿aticnӵ cfӵeveryӵ pcleӵ andӵ
everyӵ metrcpclis,ӵ whetherӵccnnectedӵ crӵnctӵtcӵaӵccnquercr'sӵvcya¿in¿ӵact.ӵWeӵ
haveӵ repeatedlyӵmenticnedӵthatӵtheӵ firstӵthin¿ӵexpcrtedӵbyӵ theӵ ccnquercrӵwasӵ
hisӵlan¿ua¿e.ӵMcrecver,ӵtheӵ¿reatӵWesternӵlan¿ua¿esӵwereӵsuppcsedlyӵvehicularӵ
lan¿ua¿es,ӵ whichӵ cftenӵ tcckӵ theӵ placeӵ cfӵ anӵ actualӵ metrcpclis.ӵ Relaticn,ӵ inӵ
ccntrast,ӵ isӵ spckenӵmultilin¿ually.ӵ Ccin¿ӵbeycndӵtheӵimpcsiticnsӵ cfӵeccncmicӵ
fcrcesӵ andӵ culturalӵ pressures,ӵRelaticnӵri¿htfullyӵcppcsesӵtheӵtctalitarianismӵcfӵ
anyӵmcnclin¿ualӵintent.ӵ
Atӵ thisӵ pcintӵ weӵ seemӵ tcӵ beӵ farӵ remcvedӵ frcmӵ theӵ sufferin¿sӵ andӵ
precccupaticnsӵcfӵthcseӵwhcӵmustӵbearӵtheӵwcrld'sӵin¡ustice.ӵTheirӵerrantryӵis,ӵ
inӵ effect,ӵ immcbile.ӵ Theyӵ haveӵ neverӵ experiencedӵ theӵ melanchclyӵ and Ɓӵ
extrcvertedӵluxuryӵcfӵuprcctin¿.ӵTheyӵdcӵnctӵtravel.ӵButӵcneӵcfӵtheӵccnstantsӵcfӵ
curӵwcrldӵ isӵthatӵaӵkncwled¿eӵcfӵrcctsӵwillӵ beӵccnveyedӵ tcӵ themӵfrcmӵwithinӵ
intuiticnsӵcfӵRelaticnӵfrcmӵncwӵcn.ӵTravellin¿ӵisӵncӵlcn¿erӵtheӵlccusӵcfӵpcwerӵbutӵ
ratherӵ aӵ pleasurable,ӵ ifӵ privile¿edӵ time.ӵ Theӵ cntclc¿icalӵ cbsessicnӵ withӵ
kncwled¿eӵ¿ivesӵwayӵhereӵtcӵtheӵen¡cymentӵcfӵaӵrelaticn,ӵinӵitsӵelementaryӵandӵ
cftenӵ caricaturalӵ fcrmӵ thisӵ isӵ tcurism.ӵ Thcseӵ whcӵ stayӵ behindӵ thrillӵ tcӵ thisӵ
passicnӵfcrӵtheӵwcrldӵsharedӵbyӵall.ӵDrӵindeedӵ theyӵmayӵsufferӵtheӵtcrmentsӵcfӵ
internalӵexile.ӵ
ĵӵ wculdӵ nctӵ describeӵ theӵ physicalӵ situaticnӵ cfӵ thcseӵ whcӵ sufferӵ theӵ
cppressicnӵ cfӵanӵ Dtherӵwithinӵ theirӵcwnӵccuntry,ӵ suchӵ asӵ theӵ blacksӵ inӵ Scuthӵ
Africa,ӵ asӵ internalӵ exile.ӵ Becauseӵtheӵ scluticnӵ hereӵisӵvisibleӵ andӵ theӵ cutc
Ѧ
meӵ
determined,ӵfcrceӵalcneӵcanӵcppcseӵthis.ӵlnternalӵexileӵstrikesӵindividualsӵlivin¿ӵ
whereӵscluticnsӵccncernin¿ӵtheӵrelaticnshipӵcfӵaӵccmmunityӵtcӵitsӵsurrcundin¿sӵ
areӵnct,ӵcrӵatӵ leastӵnctӵyet,ӵ ccnsentedӵtcӵ byӵthisӵccmmunityӵasӵaӵwhcle.ӵTheseӵ
scluticns,ӵprecaricuslyӵcutlinedӵasӵdecisicns,ӵareӵstillӵ theӵprerc¿ativeӵ cfӵcnlyӵaӵ
fewӵ whcӵ asӵ aӵ resultӵ areӵ mar¿inalized.ӵ lnternalӵ exileӵ isӵ theӵ vcya¿eӵ cutӵ cfӵthisӵ
enclcsure.ӵ ltӵ isӵ aӵ mcticnlessӵ andӵ exacerbatedӵ intrcducticnӵ tcӵ theӵ thcu¿htӵ cfӵ
errantry.ӵ Mcstӵ cftenӵ itӵ isӵ divertedӵ intcӵ partial,ӵ pleasurableӵ ccmpensaticnsӵ inӵ
whichӵtheӵindividualӵisӵccnsumed.ӵlnternalӵexileӵtendsӵtcwardӵmaterialӵccmfcrt,ӵ
whichӵcannctӵreallyӵdistractӵfrcmӵan¿uish.ӵ
Whereasӵexileӵmayӵercdeӵcne'sӵsenseӵcfӵidentity,ӵtheӵthcu¿htӵcfӵerrantryӵ-
theӵthcu¿htӵcfӵthatӵwhichӵrelatesӵ- usuallyӵreinfcrcesӵ thisӵ senseӵ cfӵidentity.ӵltӵ
seemsӵ pcssible,ӵ atӵ leastӵ tcӵ cneӵ cbserver,ӵ thatӵ theӵ persecutedӵ errantry,ӵ theӵ
wanderin¿ӵcfӵtheӵ|ews,ӵmayӵhaveӵreinfcrcedӵtheirӵsenseӵcfӵidentityӵfarӵmcreӵthanӵ
theirӵpresentӵsettlin¿ӵ inӵ theӵ landӵ cfӵPalestineƺӵ Bein¿ӵexiledӵ|ewsӵ turnedӵ intcӵaӵ
7ó/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
vocationӵofӵerrantry,ӵtheirӵpointӵofӵreferenceӵanӵidealӵlandӵwhoseӵpowerӵmay,ӵinӵ
factćӵhaveӵbeenӵunderminedӵbyӵconcreteӵlandӵ¦aӵterritory),ӵchosenӵandӵconqueredğӵ
This,ӵhowever,ӵisӵmereӵcon¡ecture.ӵBecause,ӵwhileӵoneӵcanӵcommunicateӵthrou¿hӵ
errantry'sӵima¿inaryӵvision,ӵtheӵexperiencesӵofӵexilesӵareӵincommunicable.ӵ
Theӵthou¿htӵofӵerrantryӵisӵnotӵapoliticalӵnorӵisӵitӵinconsistentӵwithӵtheӵwillӵtoӵ
identity,ӵwhichӵis,ӵafterӵall,ӵ nothin¿ӵotherӵthanӵ theӵ searchӵ forӵ aӵfreedomӵwithinӵ
particularӵsurroundin¿s.ӵ lfӵitӵ isӵ atӵ varianceӵ withӵ territorialӵ intolerance,ӵ orӵtheӵ
predatoryӵeffectsӵofӵtheӵuniqueӵrootӵ¦whichӵmakesӵprocessesӵofӵidentificationӵsoӵ
difficultӵtoday),ӵthisӵisӵbecause,ӵinӵtheӵPoeticsӵofӵRelation,ӵ oneӵwhoӵisӵerrantӵ¦whoӵ
isӵnoӵlon¿erӵtraveller,ӵdiscovererӵorӵconqueror)ӵstrivesӵtoӵknowӵtheӵtotalityӵofӵtheӵ
worldӵ yetӵ alreadyӵ knowsӵ heӵ willӵ neverӵaccomplishӵ thisӵ - andӵ knowsӵ thatӵ isӵ
preciselyӵwhereӵtheӵthreatenedӵbeautyӵofӵtheӵworldӵresidesğӵ
Frrant,ӵheӵchallen¿esӵandӵdiscardsӵtheӵuniversalӵĝ thisӵ¿eneralizin¿ӵedictӵthatӵ
summarizedӵtheӵworldӵasӵsomethin¿ӵobviousӵandӵtransparent,ӵclaimin¿ӵforӵitӵoneӵ
presupposedӵsenseӵandӵoneӵdestiny.ӵHeӵplun¿esӵintoӵtheӵopacitiesӵofӵthatӵpartӵofӵ
theӵworldӵtoӵwhichӵheӵhasӵaccess.ӵCeneralizationӵisӵtotalitarian.ӵ fromӵtheӵworldӵ
itӵchoosesӵoneӵsideӵofӵtheӵreports,ӵoneӵsetӵofӵideas,ӵwhichӵitӵsetsӵapartӵfromӵothersӵ
andӵtriesӵtoӵimposeӵbyӵexportin¿ӵasӵaӵmodel.ӵTheӵ thinkin¿ӵofӵerrantryӵconceivesӵ
ofӵtotalityӵbutӵwillin¿lyӵ renouncesӵanyӵclaimsӵtoӵsumӵitӵupӵorӵtoӵpossessӵit.ӵ
Theӵ foundin¿ӵ booksӵ haveӵ tau¿htӵ usӵ thatӵ theӵ sacredӵ dimensionӵ consistsӵ
alwaysӵ ofӵ¿oin¿ӵdeeperӵintoӵtheӵmysteryӵofӵtheӵroot,ӵshadedӵwithӵvariationsӵofӵ
errantry.ӵ lnӵ realityӵ errantӵ thinkin¿ӵ isӵ theӵ postulationӵ ofӵ anӵ unyieldin¿ӵ andӵ
unfadin¿ӵsacredĕӵWeӵ rememberӵthatӵPlato,ӵwhoӵunderstoodӵtheӵpowerӵofӵMyth,ӵ
hadӵhopedӵtoӵbanishӵtheӵpoets,ӵthoseӵwhoӵforceӵobscurity,ӵfarӵfromӵtheӵRepublic.ӵ
Heӵ distrustedӵ theӵ fathomlessӵ word.ӵ Areӵ weӵ notӵ returnin¿ӵ here,ӵ inӵ theӵ
unforeseeableӵmeandersӵofӵRelation,ӵtoӵthisӵabyssalӵword?ӵNowhereӵisӵitӵstatedӵ
thatӵnow,ӵinӵthisӵ thou¿htӵofӵerrantry,ӵhumanityӵwillӵ notӵsucceedӵi nӵtransmutin¿ӵ
Myth'sӵopacitiesӵ ¦whichӵ wereӵformerlyӵ theӵ occasionӵforӵsettin¿ӵroots)ӵandӵ theӵ
diffractedӵ insi¿htsӵofӵpoliticalӵphilosophy,ӵtherebyӵreconcilin¿ӵHomerӵandӵPlato,ӵ
He¿elӵandӵtheӵAfricanӵ¿riot.ӵ
Butӵ weӵ needӵ toӵ fi¿ureӵ outӵ whetherӵ orӵ notӵ thereӵ areӵ otherӵsucculenciesӵ ofӵ
Relationӵ inӵ otherӵ partsӵ ofӵtheӵ worldӵ ¦andӵ alreadyӵ atӵ workӵ inӵ anӵ under¿roundӵ
manner)ӵ thatӵ willӵ suddenlyӵ openӵ upӵ otherӵ avenuesӵ andӵ soonӵ helpӵ toӵ correctӵ
whateverӵ simplifyin¿,ӵ ethnocentricӵ exclusionsӵ mayӵ haveӵ arisenӵ fromӵ suchӵ aӵ
perspective.ӵ[ӵ. . . |
Dictatc, Dccrcc
[ . . . | Summarizin¿ӵwhatӵweӵknowӵconcernin¿ӵtheӵvarietiesӵofӵidentity,ӵweӵ arriveӵ
atӵtheӵfollowin¿.ӵ
GlíSSOn\/ĸ /Poe!ícSĸoĘĸRelO\íon/ĸ /77ĸ
koorŔíJcnrí!jŔ
- isӵfoundedӵinӵtheӵdistantӵpastӵinӵaӵvision,ӵaӵmythӵofӵtheӵcreationӵofӵtheӵworld,ӵ
- isӵsanctifiedӵbyӵtheӵhiddenӵviolenceӵofӵaӵfiliationӵthatӵstrictlyӵfollowsӵfromӵthisӵ
foundin¿ӵepisode

- isӵ ratifiedӵ byӵ aӵ claimӵ toӵ le¿itimacyӵthatӵallowsӵaӵ communityӵ toӵ proclaimӵ itsӵ
entitlementӵtoӵtheӵ possessionӵofӵaӵland,ӵwhichӵthusӵbecomesӵaӵterrġtory;ӵ
- isӵ preservedӵ byӵbein¿ӵpro¡ectedӵontoӵotherӵterritories,ӵ makin¿ӵtheirӵ
conquestӵle¿itimateӵ- andӵthrou¿hӵtheӵpro¡ectӵ ofӵaӵdiscursiveӵknowled¿e.ӵ Rootӵ
identityӵthereforeӵ rootedӵ theӵ thou¿htӵofӵselfӵandӵ ofӵterritoryӵandӵ setӵ inӵ motionӵ
theӵthou¿htӵofӵtheӵotherӵandӵofӵvoya¿e.ӵ
kc|uríonŔ íJcnrí!jŔ
- isӵ linőedӵnotӵtoӵaӵcreationӵofӵtheӵworldӵ butӵtoӵtheӵconsciousӵ
a
ndӵcontradictoryӵ
experienceӵofӵcontactsӵ amon¿ӵcultures;ӵ
- isӵproducedӵinӵtheӵchaoticӵnetworkӵofӵRelationӵandӵnotӵinӵtheӵhiddenӵviolenceӵ
ofӵfiliation;ӵ
- doesӵnotӵdeviseӵanyӵle¿itimacyӵasӵ itsӵ¿uaranteeӵofӵentitlement,ӵbutӵcirculates,ӵ
newlyӵextended;ӵ
- doesӵ notӵ thinkӵ ofӵaӵ landӵ asӵ aӵ territoryӵ fromӵ whichӵ toӵ pro¡ectӵ towardӵ otherӵ
territoriesӵbutӵasӵaӵplaceӵwhereӵoneӵ¿ives-on-and-withӵratherӵthanӵ¿rasps.ӵ
Relationӵ identityӵ exultsӵ theӵ thou¿htӵ ofӵerrantryӵ andӵ ofӵ totality.ӵ Theӵ shockӵ ofӵ
relatin¿,ӵhence,ӵhasӵrepercussionsӵonӵseveralӵlevels.ӵWhenӵsecularӵculturesӵcomeӵ
intoӵ contactӵthrou¿hӵ theirӵ intolerances,ӵ theӵ ensuin¿ӵ violenceӵ tri¿¿ersӵ mutualӵ
exclusionsӵthatӵaŕeӵofӵaӵsacredӵnatureӵandӵforӵwhichӵanyӵfutureӵreconciliationӵisӵ
hardӵtoӵforesee.ӵWhenӵaӵcultureӵthatӵisӵexpresslyӵcomposite,ӵsuchӵasӵtheӵcultureӵ
ofӵMartinique,ӵisӵtouchedӵbyӵanotherӵ(French)ӵthatӵ'enteredӵinto'ӵitsӵcompositioјӵ
andӵ continuesӵ toӵ determineӵ it,ӵ notӵ radicallyӵ butӵ throu¿hӵ theӵ erosionӵ ofӵ
assimilation,ӵtheӵviolenceӵofӵreactionӵisӵintermittentӵandӵunsureӵofӵitself.ӵForӵtheӵ
Martinicanӵ itӵ hasӵ noӵ solidӵ rootstockӵ inӵ anyӵ sacredӵ territoryӵ orӵ filiation.ӵ This,ӵ
indeed,ӵisӵaӵcaseӵinӵwhichӵspecificityӵisӵaӵstrictӵrequirementӵandӵmustӵbeӵdefinedӵ
asӵ closelyӵ asӵ possible.ӵ Forӵ thisӵ compositeӵ cultureӵ isӵ fra¿ileӵ inӵ theӵ extreme,ӵ
wearin¿ӵdownӵthŕou¿hӵcontactӵwithӵaӵmaskedӵcolonization.ӵ
[
^ ^

|
[
douardͥCIissanI,ͥPoériqueǪdcǪloǪkclo|ionǪ(Faris.ͥ
[
diI|onsͥCaIIimard,ͥ 1990)ȦͥIranɤ.ͥ6cIsyͥWin¿,ͥPoericsǪ
o)Ǫkclo|ionǪ [looInoIcsͥnoIͥincIudcdńͥ(AnnͥArDor:ͥUnivcrsiIyͥolͥ M|chi¿anͥFrcss,ͥ1997)ͥ11-?1;ͥ 143-4.ͥ
7ß/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
Fé!ix CUO¡¡Ori
LOCOSUOSIS¦ LlOÍCO·/OSlOOlÍC PoïoO¡QmJ JI992
Chaosmosis̫ӵ Anӵ FthicoĥAestheticӵ Paradi¿mӵ (|99/)Ŕ ísŔ rncŔ lusrŔ tookŔ wrírrcnŔ t¸Ŕ
IrcncnŔps¸cnounul¸srŔunJŔpnílosopncrŔIclíxŔ Cuurrurí.ŔlnŔírŔncŔrurnsŔ roŔ ucsrncrícsŔusŔ
rncŔmoJclŔ]orŔuŔncwŔcrnículŔtcnuvíourŔopposcJŔroŔcupírulísrŔi:ríonulír¸.Ŕ IorŔCuurrurí,Ŕ
urrŔísŔuŔproccssŔo]'tccomín¿':ŔuŔğuíJŔ unJŔpurríull¸ŔuuronomousŔzoncŔo]Ŕucrívír¸ŔrnurŔ
worksŔu¿uínsrŔJíscíplínui¸ŔtounJurícs,Ŕ¸crŔwnícnŔísŔínscpurutlcŔ]romŔ írsŔínrc¿ruríonŔ
ínŔrncŔsocíulŔĝclJ.ŔChaosmosisӵísŔunŔímporrunrŔrc]crcnccŔ]orŔrncŔ]nulŔcssu¸ŔínŔNícolusŔ
8ourríuuJ'sŔRelationalӵAestheticsĞӵ
[ӵ. ¿ ¿ |Ŧ Artisticӵ carto¿raphiesӵ haveӵ alwaysӵ beenӵ anӵ essentialӵ elementӵ ofӵ theӵ
frameworkӵ ofӵ everyӵ society.ӵ Butӵ sinceӵ becomin¿ӵ theӵ workӵ ofӵ specializedӵ
corporateӵbodies,ӵtheyӵmayӵhaveӵappearedӵtoӵbeӵsideӵissues,ӵaӵsupplementӵofӵtheӵ
soul,ӵaӵfra¿ileӵsuperstructureӵwhoseӵdeathӵisӵre¿ularlyӵannounced.ӵAndӵyetӵfromӵ
theӵ¿rottoesӵ ofӵLascauxӵtoӵ Soho,ӵtakin¿ӵinӵtheӵ dawnӵofӵtheӵ cathedrals,ӵtheyӵ haveӵ
neverӵ stoppedӵ bein¿ӵ aӵ vitalӵ elementӵ inӵ theӵ crystallizationӵ ofӵ individualӵ andӵ
collectiveӵsub¡ectivities.ӵ
Fabricatedӵ inӵ theӵ socius,ӵ art,ӵ however,ӵ isӵ onlyӵ sustainedӵ byӵ itself.ӵ Thisӵ isӵ
ΐecauseӵeachӵworkӵ producedӵ possessesӵ aӵdoubleӵIĊnality.ӵ toӵ insertӵ itselfӵintoӵaӵ
socialӵnetworkӵwhichӵwillӵeitherӵappropriateӵorӵre¡ectӵit,ӵandӵtoӵcelebrate,ӵonceӵ
a¿ain,ӵ theӵ Universeӵ ofӵartӵasӵ such,ӵ preciselyӵ becauseӵ itӵ isӵ alwaysӵ inӵ dan¿erӵofӵ
collapsin¿.ӵ
Whatӵ confersӵ itӵ withӵ thisӵ perennialӵ possibilityӵ ofӵeclipseӵ isӵitsӵ functionӵ ofӵ
rupturin¿ӵwithӵformsӵ andӵ si¿nificationsӵ circulatin¿ӵtriviallyӵ inӵtheӵsocialӵfield.ӵ
Theӵartistӵand,ӵmoreӵ¿enerally,ӵaestheticӵperception,ӵdetachӵandӵdeterritorializeӵ
aӵ se¿mentӵ ofӵtheӵ realӵ inӵ suchӵ aӵ wayӵ asӵ toӵ makeӵ itӵ playӵ theӵ roleӵ ofӵaӵ partialӵ
enunciator.ӵ Artӵ confersӵ aӵ functionӵ ofӵ senseӵ andӵ alterityӵ toӵ aӵ subsetӵ ofӵ theӵ
perceivedӵ world.ӵ Theӵ consequenceӵ ofӵ thisӵ quasi-animisticӵ speecȽӵ effectӵ ofӵ aӵ
workӵofӵartӵisӵthatӵtheӵ sub¡ectivityӵofӵtheӵartistӵandӵtheӵ 'consumer'ӵisӵ reshaped.ӵ
lnӵshort,ӵitӵisӵaӵmatterӵofӵrarefyin¿ӵanӵenunciationӵwhichӵhasӵtooӵ¿reatӵaӵtendencyӵ
toӵ becomeӵ entan¿ledӵ inӵ anӵ identificatoryӵ serialityӵ whichӵ infantilizesӵ andӵ
annihilatesӵit.ӵTheӵworkӵofӵart,ӵ forӵ thoseӵwhoӵuseӵit,ӵisӵanӵactivityӵofӵunframin¿,ӵ
ofӵrupturin¿ӵsense,ӵofӵbaroqueӵproliferationӵorӵextremeӵimpoverishment,ӵwhichӵ
leadsӵtoӵaӵ recreationӵ andӵ aӵ reinventionӵ ofӵtheӵ sub¡ectӵitself.ӵ Aӵnewӵ existentialӵ
supportӵ willӵ oscillateӵ onӵ theӵ workӵ ofӵ art,ӵ basedӵ onӵ aӵ doubleӵ re¿isterӵ ofӵ
reterritorializationӵ ¦refrainӵ function)ӵ andӵ resin¿ularization.ӵ Theӵ eventӵ ofӵ itsӵ
encounterӵcanӵirreversiblyӵdateӵtheӵcourseӵofӵanӵexistenceӵandӵ¿enerateӵfieldsӵofӵ
GuOďOtí/ĸ /ChOoSmoSíS:ĸAʎE!híco-AeS!he!ícĸPOtOdígm/ĸ /7ºĸ
theӵpossibleӵ'farӵfromӵtheӵequilibria'ӵofӵeverydayӵlife.ӵ
Viewedӵfromӵtheӵan¿leӵofӵthisӵexistentialӵfunctionӵ- namely,ӵinӵ ruptureӵwithӵ
si¿nificationӵ andӵ denotationӵ - ordinaryӵ aestheticӵ cate¿orizationsӵ loseӵ aӵ lar¿eӵ
partӵ ofӵ theirӵ relevance.ӵ Referenceӵ toӵ 'freeӵ fi¿uration',ӵ 'abstraction'ӵ orӵ
'conceptualism'ӵ hardlyӵ mattersĹӵ Whatӵ isӵimportantӵisӵtoӵknowӵ ifӵaӵworkӵleadsӵ
effectivelyӵtoӵ aӵmutantӵ productionӵ ofӵ enunciation.ӵTheӵfocusӵ ofӵartisticӵactivityӵ
alwaysӵremainsӵaӵsurplus-valueӵofӵsub¡ectivityӵor,ӵinӵotherӵterms,ӵtheӵbrin¿in¿ӵtoӵ
li¿htӵ ofӵ aӵ ne¿entropyӵ atӵ theӵ heartӵ ofӵ theӵ banalityӵ ofӵ theӵ environmentӵ - theӵ
consistencyӵ ofӵ sub¡ectivityӵ onlyӵ bein¿ӵ maintainedӵ byӵ self-renewalӵ throu¿hӵ aӵ
minimal,ӵindividualӵorӵcollective,ӵresin¿ularization.ӵ
Theӵ ¿rowthӵ inӵ artisticӵ consumptionӵ weӵ haveӵ witnessedӵ inӵ recentӵ yearsӵ
shouldӵbeӵplaced,ӵnevertheless,ӵinӵrelationӵtoӵtheӵincreasin¿ӵuniformityӵofӵtheӵlifeӵ
ofӵ individualsӵ inӵ theӵ urbanӵ context.ӵ ltӵ shouldӵ beӵ emphasizedӵ thatӵ theӵ quasi-
vitaminicӵfunctionӵofӵthisӵartisticӵconsumptionӵisӵnotӵunivocaƒӵltӵcanӵmoveӵinӵaӵ
directionӵ parallelӵ toӵ uniformization,ӵ orӵ playӵ theӵ roleӵ ofӵ anӵ operatorӵ inӵ theӵ
bifurcationӵ ofӵ sub¡ectivityӵ (thisӵ ambivalenceӵ isӵ particularlyӵ eӔidentӵ inӵ theӵ
influenceӵofӵrockӵculture).ӵThisӵisӵtheӵdilemmaӵeveryӵartistӵhasӵtoӵconfrontĻӵ'toӵ¿oӵ
withӵ theӵ flow',ӵ asӵ advocated,ӵ forӵ example,ӵ byӵ theӵ Transavant¿ardeӵ andӵ theӵ
apostlesӵ ofӵpostmodernism,ӵ orӵ toӵ worǩśӵ forӵtheӵ renewalӵ ofӵ aestheticӵ practicesӵ
relayedӵ byӵotherӵinnovativeӵse¿mentsӵofӵtheӵSocius,ӵatӵtheӵriskӵofӵencounterin¿ӵ
incomprehensionӵandӵofӵbein¿ӵisolatedӵbyӵtheӵma¡orityӵofӵpeople.ӵ
Dfӵcourse,ӵit'sӵnotӵatӵallӵ clearӵhowӵoneӵcanӵclaimӵtoӵholdӵcreativeӵsin¿ularityӵ
andӵ potentialӵ socialӵ mutationsӵ to¿ether.ӵ Andӵ itӵ hasӵ toӵ beӵ admittedӵ thatӵ theӵ
contemporaryӵ Sociusӵ hardlyӵ lendsӵ itselfӵtoӵ experimentationӵwithӵ thisӵ kindӵ ofӵ
aestheticӵandӵethico-politicalӵtransversality. ltӵnonethelessӵremainsӵtheӵcaseӵthatӵ
theӵ immenseӵ crisisӵ sweepin¿ӵ theӵ planetӵ - chronicӵ unemployment,ӵ ecolo¿icalӵ
devastation,ӵ dere¿ulationӵofӵmodesӵ ofӵvalorization,ӵuniquelyӵbasedӵ onӵ profitӵorӵ
Stateӵ assistanceӵ - openӵ theӵ fieldӵ upӵ toӵ aӵ differentӵ deploymentӵ ofӵ aestheticӵ
components.ӵ ltӵ doesn'tӵ simplyӵ involveӵ occupyin¿ӵ theӵ freeӵ timeӵ ofӵ theӵ
unemployedӵ andӵ 'mar¿inalized'ӵ inӵ communityӵ centresĹӵ lnӵ factӵ itӵ isӵ theӵ veryӵ
productionsӵofӵscience,ӵtechnolo¿yӵandӵsocialӵěelationsӵwhichӵwillӵdriftӵtowardsӵ
aestheticӵparadi¿msƋӵlt'sӵenou¿hӵtoӵreferӵtoӵtheӵlatestӵbookӵbyӵЂňyaӵ Pri¿o¿ineӵ andӵ
lsabelleӵSten¿ers,ӵ whereӵ theyӵevokeӵ theӵ necessityӵofӵintroducin¿ӵintoӵphysicsӵaӵ
'narrativeӵelement'ӵasӵindispensableӵtoӵaӵ¿enuineӵconceptionӵofӵevolution.ӣӵ
Todayӵourӵsocietiesӵhaveӵtheirӵbacksӵupӵa¿ainstӵtheӵwall;ӵtoӵsurviveӵtheyӵwillӵ
haveӵ toӵ developӵ research,ӵ innovationӵ andӵ creationӵ stillӵ furtherӵ - theӵ veryӵ
dimensionsӵ whichӵ implyӵ anӵ awarenessӵ ofӵtheӵ strictlyӵaestheticӵ techniquesӵ ofӵ
ruptureӵandӵsuture.ӵSomethin¿ӵisӵdetachedӵandӵstartsӵtoӵworkӵforӵitself, ¡ustӵasӵitӵ
canӵ workӵ forӵ youӵ ifӵyouӵ canӵ 'a¿¿lomerate'ӵ yourselfӵtoӵ suchӵ aӵ process.ӵ Suchӵ
requestionin¿ӵ concernsӵ everyӵ institutionalӵ domain;ӵ forӵexample,ӵ theӵ school.ӵ
ß0//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
HowӵdoӵyouӵmakeӵaӵclassӵoperateӵlikeӵaӵworkӵofӵartđӵWhatӵareӵtheӵpossibleӵpathsӵ
toӵitsӵsin¿ularization,ӵtheӵsƓurceӵofӵaӵ'purchaseӵonӵexistence'ӵforӵtheӵchildrenӵwhoӵ
composeӵ itđʡӵAndӵonӵtheӵ re¿isterӵofӵwhatӵÍʎ onceӵcalledӵ'molecularӵrevolutions',ӵ
theӵThirdӵWorldӵ concealsӵtreasuresӵwhichӵdeserveӵtoӵbeӵexplored.ʢӵ
Aӵ systematicӵ re¡ectionӵ ofӵsub¡ectivityӵ inӵ theӵ nameӵ ofӵaӵ mythicalӵ scientificӵ
ob¡ectivityӵcontinuesӵtoӵrei¿nӵ inӵ theӵUniversity.ӵ lnӵtheӵheydayӵ ofӵstructuralismӵ
theӵ sub¡ectӵ wasӵ methodicallyӵ excludedӵ fromӵ itsӵ ownӵ multipleӵ andӵ
hetero¿eneousӵ materialӵ ofӵ expression.ӵ ltӵ isӵ timeӵ toӵ ȶe-examineӵ machinicӵ
productionsӵ ofӵ ima¿es,ӵ si¿nsӵ ofӵartificialӵ intelli¿ence,ӵetc.,ӵasӵ newӵ materialsӵ ofӵ
sub¡ectivity.ӵ lnӵ theӵ Middleӵ A¿es,ӵ artӵ andӵ techniqueӵ foundӵ refu¿eӵ inӵ theӵ
monasteriesӵandӵconventsӵwhichӵhadӵmana¿edӵtoӵsurvive.ӵPerhapsӵartistsӵtodayӵ
constituteӵtheӵfinalӵlinesӵalon¿ӵwhichӵprimordialӵexistentialӵquestionsӵareӵfolded.ӵ
Howӵareӵtheӵnewӵfieldsӵofӵtheӵpossibleӵ¿oin¿ӵtoӵ beӵfittedӵ outđӵ Howӵareӵsoundsӵ
andӵformsӵ¿oin¿ӵtoӵbeӵarran¿edӵsoӵthatӵtheӵsub¡ectivityӵad¡acentӵtoӵthemӵremainsӵ
inӵmovement,ӵandӵreallyӵaliveđӵ
Theӵfutureӵofӵcontemporaryӵsub¡ectivityӵisӵnotӵtoӵliveӵindefinitelyӵ underӵtheӵ
re¿imeӵ ofӵ self-withdrawal,ӵ ofӵ mass-mediaticӵ infantilization,ӵ ofӵ i¿noranceӵ ofӵ
differenceӵandӵalterityӵ- bothӵonӵtheӵhumanӵandӵtheӵcosmicӵre¿ister.ӵltsӵmodesӵ
ofӵsub¡ectivationӵwillӵ¿etӵoutӵofӵtheirӵhomo¿eneticӵ'entrapment'ӵonlyӵifӵcreativeӵ
ob¡ectivesӵ appearӵwithinӵ theirӵ reach.ӵWhatӵisӵatӵstakeӵ hereӵisӵ theӵfinalityӵofӵtheӵ
ensembleӵ ofӵ humanӵ activities.ӵ Beyondӵ materialӵ andӵ politicalӵ demands,ӵ whatӵ
emer¿esӵ isӵ anӵ aspirationӵ forӵ individualӵ andӵ collectiveӵ reappropriationӵ ofӵtheӵ
productionӵ ofӵsub¡ectiviĸ.ӵ lnӵ thisӵ wayӵ theӵ ontolo¿icalӵ hetero¿enesisӵ ofӵvalueӵ
becomesӵ theӵ focusӵ ofӵ politicalӵ concernsӵ whichӵ atӵ presentӵ lackӵ theӵ site,ӵ theӵ
immediateӵrelation,ӵtheӵenvironment,ӵtheӵreconҚtitutionӵofӵtheӵsocialӵfabricӵandӵ
existentialӵ impactӵ ofӵ artӵ . . . ӵ Andӵ atӵ theӵ endӵ ofӵ aӵ slowӵ recompositionӵ ofӵ
assembla¿esӵ ofӵ sub¡ectivation,ӵ theӵ chaosmicӵ explorationsӵ ofӵ anӵ ecosophyӵ -
articulatin¿ӵ betweenӵ themӵ scientific,ӵ political,ӵ environmentalӵ andӵ mentalӵ
ecolo¿iesӵ - ou¿htӵ toӵ beӵ ableӵ toӵ claimӵ toӵ replaceӵ theӵ oldӵ ideolo¿iesӵ whichӵ
abusivelyӵ sectorizedӵ theӵ social,ӵ theӵ privateӵ andӵ theӵ civil,ӵ andӵ whichӵ wereӵ
fundamentallyӵ incapableӵ ofӵ establishin¿ӵ transversalӵ ¡ unctionsӵ betweenӵ theӵ
political,ӵtheӵethicalӵandӵtheӵaesthetic.ӵ
ltӵ should,ӵ however,ӵ beӵ clearӵ thatӵ weӵ areӵ inӵ noӵ wayӵ advocatin¿ӵ anӵ
aestheticizationӵofӵtheӵSocius,ӵfor,ӵafterӵall,ӵpromotin¿ӵaӵnewӵaestheticӵparadi¿mӵ
involvesӵoverthrowin¿ӵcurrentӵformsӵofӵartӵasӵmuchӵasӵthoseӵofӵsocialӵlifeӵƬӵ lӵholdӵ
outӵ myӵ handӵ toӵ theӵ future.ӵ Myӵ approachӵ willӵ beӵ markedӵ byӵ mechanicalӵ
confidenceӵorӵcreativeӵ uncertainty,ӵaccordin¿ӵtoӵwhetherӵlӵconsiderӵeverythin¿ӵ
toӵbeӵworkedӵ outӵinӵadvanceӵorӵeveģǥthin¿ӵtoӵbeӵthereӵ forӵ theӵtakin¿ӵ- thatӵtheӵ
worldӵ canӵ beӵ rebuiltӵ fromӵ otherӵUniversesӵ ofӵvalueӵ andӵ thatӵ otherӵexistentialӵ
Territoriesӵshouldӵbeӵconstructedӵtowardsӵthisӵ end.ӵTheӵimmenseӵordealsӵwhichӵ
GuO!!Oti/ĸ /ChOoSmoSiS:ĸAʎE!hico·AeS!he!icĸPOtOdigm/ĸ /ßlĸ
theӵplanetӵisӵ¿oin¿ӵthrou¿hӵĝ suchӵasӵtheӵsuffocationӵofӵitsӵatmosphereӵ- involveӵ
chan¿esӵ inӵ production,ӵ waysӵ ofӵ livin¿ӵ andӵ axesӵ ofӵ value.ӵ Theӵ demo¿raphicӵ
explosionӵ whichӵ will,ӵ inӵ aӵ fewӵ decades,ӵ seeӵ theӵ populationӵ ofӵLatinӵ Americaӵ
multiplyӵbyӵthreeӵandӵthatӵofӵAfricaӵbyӵfiveʣӵdoesӵnotӵproceedӵfromӵanӵinexorableӵ
biolo¿icalӵmalediction.ӵTheӵkeyӵfactorsӵ inӵitӵareӵeconomicӵ¦thatӵis,ӵtheyӵrelateӵtoӵ
power)ӵ andӵ inӵ theӵ finalӵ analysisӵ areӵ sub¡ectiveӵ - cultural,ӵ socialӵ andӵ mass˖ӵ
mediaӵ tic.ӵ Theӵ futureӵ ofӵ theӵ Thirdӵ Worldӵ restsӵ primarilyӵ onӵ itsӵ capacityӵ toӵ
recaptureӵitsӵownӵprocessesӵofӵsub¡ectivationӵinӵtheӵcontextӵofӵaӵsocialӵfabricӵinӵ
theӵ processӵ ofӵ desertificationĕӵ ¦lnӵ Brazil,ӵ forӵ example,ӵ Wildӵ Westӵ capitalism,ӵ
sava¿eӵ ¿an¿ӵ andӵ policeӵ violenceӵ coexistӵ withӵ interestin¿ӵ attemptsӵ byӵ theӵ
Workers'ӵPartyӵmovementӵatӵrecomposin¿ӵsocialӵandӵurbanisticӵpractices.)ӵ
Amon¿ӵ theӵ fo¿sӵ andӵ miasmasӵ whichӵ obscureӵ ourӵ ]ínŔ JcŔ mí|lcnuírc,Ŕ theӵ
questionӵofӵsub¡ectivityӵisӵnowӵreturnin¿ӵasӵaӵleitmotivĕӵltӵisӵnotӵaӵnaturalӵ¿ivenӵ
anyӵ moreӵ thanӵ airӵ orӵ water.ӵ Howӵ doӵ weӵ produceӵ it,ӵ captureӵ it,ӵ enrichӵ it,ӵ andӵ
permanentlyӵreinventӵitӵinӵaӵwayӵthatӵrendersӵitӵcompatibleӵwithӵ Universesӵof
Ɓӵ
mutantӵ value?ӵ Howӵ doӵ weӵ workӵ forӵ itsӵ liberation,ӵ thatӵ is,ӵ forӵ itsӵ
resin¿ularization?ӵ Psychoanalysis,ӵinstitutionalӵanalysis,ӵfilm,ӵliterature,ӵpoetry,ӵ
innovativeӵ peda¿o¿ies,ӵtownӵplannin¿ӵandӵ architectureӵ- allӵtheӵdisciplinesӵwillӵ
haveӵtoӵcombineӵtheirӵcreativityӵtoӵwardӵoffӵtheӵordealsӵofӵbarbarism,ӵtheӵmentalӵ
implosionӵandӵ chaosmicӵ spasmsӵ loomin¿ӵ onӵtheӵ horizon,ӵ andӵtransformӵthemӵ
intoӵrichesӵandӵunforeseenӵpleasures,ӵtheӵpromisesӵofӵwhich,ӵforӵallӵthat,ӵareӵallӵ
tooӵtan¿ible.ӵ
ƠIootnotcͥ2 inͥsourcc]ͥ'Forͥmankindͥtoday,ͥ thcͥƯ6i¿ͥ6an¿ňͥ andͥthcͥcvoIutionͥoIͥthcͥUnivcrscͥarcͥ
partͥ oIͥthcͥ worIdͥ inͥ thcͥ samcͥ wayͥas,ͥ inͥ priorͥ timcs,ͥ thcͥ mythsͥ oIͥori¿inťͥ£nrrcǪlcǪrcmpsǪcrǪ
I'ércmiréǪ(Faris:ͥ ¡ard,ͥ I988) 6J.
2
|8| Amon¿ͥthcͥmanyͥworksͥonͥ institutionaIͥ pcda¿o¿y.ͥ sccͥ kcncͥLaIittc,ͥUncǪ)oumécǪdonsǪuncǪ
cIosscǪcoopéDžorivc:Ǫ IcǪdésģrǪrcrrouvéǪ(FarisũͥSyr͞s,ͥI98J).
8 j1| OnͥthcͥnctworksͥoIͥsoIidarityͥsubsistin¿ͥamon¿stͥthoscͥ'dcIcatcd'ͥbyͥmodc̨ityͥinͥthcͥThirdͥ
VorId:ͥ Scr¿cͥ laƙouchc,ͥ LoǪ PlonércǪ dcsǪ nouƃo¿ésĚǪ £ssoiǪ surǪ I'oprés-dévcloppcmcnrǪ (Faris:ͥ Laͥ
Dccouvcrtc,ͥI99I).
1 jJ| |acqucsͥVaƒIinͥ(dcͥ|'lNED),ͥTronsvcrsoIcsǪScicnccJCuIrurc,Ǫno.ͥ9, |uncͥI99I |29. rucͥMarsouIin,ͥ
7J0I2 Faris).ͥLoǪpopulorionǪmondiolc,ǪIoǪpopuIorion)ronLJoiscǪ(Faris:ͥLaͥDccouvcrtc,ͥ I99I).
Fcƒixͥ Cuattari,ͥ ChoosmoscǪ (Farisȧͥ
[
ditionsͥ CaIiIcc,ͥ I992); trans.ͥ FauIͥ 6ainsͥ andͥ |uIianͥ FcIanis,ͥ
Choosmosis.ǪAnǪ£rhicoǩAcsrhcricǪPorodi¿mǪ(lndianapoIis:ͥ lndianaͥUnivcrsityͥFrcss,ͥ I99J) I80-J.
ß2/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
JOCqUes ROnCière
PïOD!ems OnO TïOnsfOïmO¡!Ons !n Cï!¡!COI Aï¡J J2004
!ncŔIrcncnŔpní|osopncrŔ]ucqucsŔkuncícrcŔnusŔwrírrcnŔcxrcnsívc|¸ŔonŔrncŔrc|uríonsnípŔ
ccrwccnŔ ucsrncrícsŔ undŔpo|írícsŔ usŔ uŔ parta¿eӵduӵsensibleӵ rncŔsnurín¿JdívísíonŔ o]Ŕ
wnurŔísŔvísíc|c,Ŕsu¸uc|cŔundŔrnínkuc|c.ŔlnŔrnísŔcxrrucrŔĘņomŔ Malaiseӵdansӵl'esthétiqueӵ
(2OO4),Ŕ kuncícrcŔ uddrcsscsŔ rncŔ |ímíruríonsŔ o]ŔdíducrícŔ crírícu|Ŕ urr,Ŕ usŔ wc||Ŕ usŔ rncŔ
spccrucu|urízuríonŔo]Ŕrc|uríonu|ŔurrŔrnurŔsccksŔroŔ rcpuírŔrncŔsocíu|Ŕcond.Ŕ
lnӵ itsӵ mostӵ ¿eneralӵ formula,ӵ criticalӵ artӵ intendsӵ toӵ raiseӵ consciousnessӵ ofӵtheӵ
mechanismsӵofӵdominationӵinӵorderӵtoӵturnӵtheӵspectatorӵintoӵaӵconsciousӵa¿entӵ
inӵtheӵtransformationӵofӵtheӵworld.ӵWeӵknowӵtheӵdilemmaӵthatӵwei¿hsӵuponӵthisӵ
pro¡ect.ӵ Dnӵ theӵ oneӵ hand,ӵ understandin¿ӵ aloneӵ canӵ doӵ littleӵ toӵ transformӵ
consciousnessӵandӵsituations.ӵTheӵexploitedӵhaveӵrarelyӵhadӵtheӵneedӵtoӵhaveӵtheӵ
lawsӵ ofӵexploitationӵexplainedӵtoӵ them.ӵ Becauseӵit'sӵnotӵaӵmisunderstandin¿ӵofӵ
theӵexistin¿ӵstateӵofӵaffairsӵthatӵnurturesӵtheӵsubmissionӵofӵtheӵoppressed,ӵbutӵaӵ
lackӵofӵconhdenceӵinӵtheirӵownӵcapacityӵtoӵtransformӵit.ӵNow,ӵtheӵfeelin¿ӵofӵsuchӵ
aӵ capacityӵ assumesӵthatӵ theyӵareӵalreadyӵ en¿a¿edӵ inӵ aӵ politicalӵ processӵ thatӵ
chan¿esӵ theӵ confi¿urationӵ ofӵaӵ ¿ivenӵ situationӵ ¦donnccsŔ scnsíc|cs),Ŕ andӵ whichӵ
constructsӵtheӵformsӵofӵaӵworldӵtoӵcomeӵwithinӵtheӵexistin¿ӵworld.ӵDnӵtheӵotherӵ
hand,ӵ theӵ workӵ ofӵ artӵ thatӵ 'makesӵ youӵ understand',ӵ andӵ thatӵ breaksӵ upӵ
appearances,ӵ therebyӵ killsӵtheӵstran¿enessӵofӵanӵappearanceӵofӵresistanceӵ thatӵ
bearsӵwitnessӵtoӵtheӵnon-necessaryӵorӵintoler·bleӵcharacterӵofӵaӵworld.ӵCriticalӵ
artӵ thatӵ invitesӵ youӵ toӵ seeӵ ɞheӵ si¿nsӵ ofӵ Capitalӵ behindӵ everydayӵ ob¡ectsӵ andӵ
behavioursӵrisksӵ inscribin¿ӵ itselfӵintoӵ theӵperpetuationӵofӵaӵworldӵwhereӵ theӵ
transformationӵ ofӵthin¿sӵintoӵsi¿nsӵredoublesӵ theӵveryӵexcessӵofӵinterpretativeӵ
si¿nsӵthatӵmakeӵallӵresistanceӵdisappear.ӵ
lnӵthisӵviciousӵcircleӵofӵcriticalӵartӵweӵ¿enerallyӵseeӵproofӵthatӵaestheticsӵandӵ
politicsӵ can'tӵ ¿oӵ to¿ether.ӵ ltӵ wouldӵ beӵ moreӵ fair,ӵ however,ӵ toӵ reco¿nizeӵ theӵ
pluralityӵ ofӵwaysӵ inӵ whichӵ theyӵareӵ linked.ӵ Dnӵ theӵ oneӵ hand,ӵ politicsӵ isӵnotӵ aӵ
simpleӵsphereӵofӵactionӵthatӵcomesӵafterӵtheӵ'aesthetic'ӵrevelationӵofӵtheӵstateӵofӵ
thin¿s.ӵ ltӵ hasӵ itsӵownӵaesthetic.ӵ itsӵ waysӵ ofӵdissensuallyӵ inventin¿ӵscenesӵandӵ
characters,ӵofӵmanifestationsӵandӵstatementsӵdifferentӵfromӵtheӵinventionsӵofӵartӵ
andӵsometimesӵevenӵopposedӵtoӵthem.ӵDnӵtheӵotherӵhand,ӵaestheticsӵhasӵitsӵownӵ
politics,ӵorӵratherӵitsӵownӵ tensionӵbetweenӵ twoӵ opposedӵpolitics.ӵ betweenӵ theӵ
lo¿icӵofӵartӵthatӵbecomesӵlifeӵatӵtheӵpriceӵofӵabolishin¿ӵitselfӵasӵart,ӵandӵtheӵlo¿icӵ
ofӵ artӵ thatӵ doesӵ politicsӵ onӵ theӵ explicitӵ conditionӵ ofӵ notӵ doin¿ӵ itӵ atӵ all.ӵ Theӵ
difficultyӵofӵcriticalӵartӵisӵnotӵthatӵofӵhavin¿ӵtoӵne¿otiateӵbetweenӵpoliticsӵandӵart.ӵ
ROnciète/ĸ /PtoUlemSĸOndĸTtOnS!otmO!ionSĸinĸCti!icOlĸP!/ĸ /ßöĸ
ltӵisӵhavin¿ӵtoӵne¿otiateӵtheӵrelationӵbetweenӵtheӵtwoӵaestheticӵlo¿icsӵthatӵexistӵ
independentlyӵ ofӵ it,ӵ becauseӵ theyӵbelon¿ӵ toӵ theӵ lo¿icӵ ofӵtheӵ aestheticӵ re¿imeӵ
itself.ӵ Criticalӵ artӵ mustӵne¿otiateӵ theӵtensionӵthatӵ pushesӵ artӵ towardsӵ 'life'ӵ andӵ
which,ӵconversely,ӵseparatesӵaestheticӵsensorialityӵfromӵotherӵformsӵofӵsensibleӵ
experience.ӵĵtӵmustӵborrowӵtheӵconnectionsӵthatӵprovokeӵpoliticalӵintelli¿ibilityӵ
fromӵ theӵ blurryӵ zoneӵ betweenӵ artӵ andӵ otherӵ spheres.ӵ Andӵ itӵmustӵ borrowӵ theӵ
senseӵofӵsensibleӵhetero¿eneityӵthatӵfeedsӵtheӵpoliticalӵener¿iesӵ ofӵrefusalӵ fromӵ
theӵisolationӵofӵtheӵworkӵofӵart.ӵlt'sӵthisӵne¿otiationӵbetweenӵtheӵformsӵofӵartӵandӵ
thoseӵ ofӵ non-artӵ thatӵ permitsӵ theӵ formationӵ ofӵ combinationsӵ ofӵ elementsӵ
capableӵofӵspeakin¿ӵtwice.ӵfromӵtheirӵrea
dabilityӵandӵfromӵtheirӵunreadability.ӵ
Therefore,ӵtheӵcombinationӵofӵtheseӵtwoӵ forcesӵnecessarilyӵtakesӵtheӵformӵofӵ
aӵ reali¿nmentӵ ofӵhetero¿eneousӵ lo¿ics.ӵ lfӵcolla¿eӵ hasӵ beenӵ oneӵ ofӵtheӵ ¿reatӵ
ɡchnƞquesӵ ofӵ modernӵ arӊӵ itӵ isӵ becauseӵ itsӵ technicalӵ formsӵ obeyӵ aӵ moreӵ
fundamentalӵaesthetico-political lo¿ic.ӵColla¿e,ӵinӵtheӵmostӵ¿eneralӵsenseӵofӵtheӵ
term,ӵ isӵ theӵ principleӵ ofӵaӵ 'third'ӵ aestheticӵ politics.ӵ Priorӵ toӵ mixin¿ӵ paintin¿s
ƃӵ
newspapers,ӵ oilclothӵ orӵ clockӵ parts,ӵ itӵ mixesӵ theӵ stran¿enessӵ ofӵtheӵ aestheticӵ
experienceӵwithӵtheӵbecomin¿-lifeӵofӵartӵandӵtheӵbecomin¿Ħartӵofӵordinaryӵlife.ӵ
Colla¿eӵ canӵ beӵ carriedӵ outӵ asӵ aӵ pureӵ encounterӵ ofӵhetero¿eneities,ӵ testifyin¿ӵ
wholesaleӵtoӵtheӵincompatibilityӵofӵtwoӵworlds.ӵlt'sӵtheӵsurrealistӵencounterӵofӵ
theӵumbrellaӵandӵtheӵsewin¿ӵmachine,ӵshowin¿ӵtheӵabsoluteӵpowerӵofӵdesireӵandӵ
dreamsӵ a¿ainstӵ theӵ realityӵ ofӵ theӵ everydayӵ world,ӵ butӵ usin¿ӵ itsӵ ob¡ects.ӵ
Conversely,ӵ colla¿eӵ canӵ beӵ seenӵ asӵ evidenceӵ ofӵtheӵ hiddenӵ linkӵ betweenӵ twoӵ
apparentlyӵ opposedӵ worlds:ӵ thusӵ doӵ theӵ photomonta¿esӵ ofӵ |ohnӵ Heartfield,ӵ
revealin¿ӵtheӵ realityӵofӵcapitalistӵ¿oldӵ inӵ theӵ throatӵofӵAdolfӵHitler,ӵor thoseӵofӵ
MarthaӵRosĚer,ӵ mixin¿ӵphoto¿raphsӵ ofӵtheӵhorrorӵofӵVietnamӵ withӵadvertisin¿ӵ
ima¿esӵofӵAmericanӵcomfortƽӵlnӵthisӵcase,ӵit'sӵnotӵanyӵlon¿erӵtheӵhetero¿eneityӵofӵ
theӵ twoӵ worldsӵ thatӵ shouldӵ nourishӵ aӵ senseӵ ofӵ theӵ intolerableӵ but,ӵ onӵ theӵ
contrary,ӵtheӵmakin¿ӵevidentӵofӵtheӵcausalӵconnectionӵthatӵlinksӵoneӵtoӵtheӵother.ӵ
Butӵtheӵpoliticsӵofӵcolla¿eӵ findsӵitsӵbalancin¿ӵpointӵwhereӵitӵcanӵcombineӵtheӵ
twoӵ relationsӵ andӵ playӵ onӵ theӵ lineӵ ofӵ indiscernabilityӵ betweenӵ theӵ forceӵ ofӵ
readabilityӵ ofӵ senseӵ andӵ theӵ forceӵ ofӵ stran¿enessӵ ofӵ non-sense.ӵ Soӵ do,ӵ forӵ
example,ӵtheӵstoriesӵofӵcauliflowersӵinӵBrecht'sӵArruroŔUí.ŔTheyӵplayӵanӵexemplaryӵ
doubleӵ ¿ameӵ betweenӵ denouncin¿ӵ theӵ lawӵ ofӵ theӵ marketӵ andӵ usin¿ӵ waysӵ ofӵ
deridin¿ӵ hi¿hӵ artӵ borrowedӵ fromӵ theӵ marketӵ debasementӵ ofӵ culture.ӵ Theyӵ
simultaneouslyӵplayӵonӵtheӵreadabilityӵ
ofӵanӵalle¿oryӵofӵNaziӵpowerӵasӵtheӵpowerӵ
ofӵ capital,ӵ andӵ onӵ aӵ buffooneryӵ thatӵ reducesӵ allӵ ¿randӵ ideals,ӵ politicalӵ orӵ
otherwise,ӵ toӵ theӵ insi¿nificantӵ businessӵ ofӵ ve¿etables.ӵ Behindӵ thisӵ ¿randӵ
discourse,ӵ theӵsecretӵofӵtheӵmarketӵisӵ thusӵ equatedӵ withӵ itsӵ absenceӵ ofӵsecret,ӵ
withӵ itsӵ trivialityӵ orӵ radicalӵ non-meanin¿ӵorӵ non-sense.ӵ Butӵ thisӵ possibilityӵ ofӵ
playin¿ӵ simultaneouslyӵonӵ senseӵ andӵ onӵ non-senseӵ assumesӵ another,ӵ whichӵ isӵ
ß4/ĸ/THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORK5ĸ
thatӵoneӵmayӵplayӵatӵonceӵonӵtheӵradicalӵseparationӵbetweenӵtheӵworldӵofӵartӵandӵ
thaǢӵofӵcauliflowersӵundŔ onӵtheӵ permeabilityӵofӵtheӵborderӵthatӵseparatesӵthem.ӵ
lt'sӵnecessaryӵthatӵtheӵcauliflowersӵbeӵwithoutӵanyӵrelationӵtoӵartӵorӵpoliticsӵandӵ
thatӵtheyӵbeӵalreadyӵlinked,ӵ thatӵtheӵborderӵbeӵalwaysӵthereӵyetӵalreadyӵcrossed.ӵ
lnӵ fact,ӵ whenӵ Brechtӵ triesӵ toӵ putӵ ve¿etablesӵ inӵ theӵ serviceӵ ofӵ criticalӵ
distanciation,ӵ theyӵ alreadyӵ haveӵ aӵ lon¿ӵ artisticӵ historyČӵ Thinkӵ ofӵ theirӵ roleӵ inӵ
impressionistӵstill lifes.ӵThinkӵalsoӵofӵtheӵwayӵ inӵwhichӵaӵnovelist,ӵ
Ŵ
mileӵ̙̔la,ӵinӵ
LcŔĈcnrrcŔdcŔIurísŔ¸ĆĥcŔßc||¸Ŕo]ŔIurís,Ŕalsoӵtrans.ӵ!ncŔIutŔundŔrncŔ!nín,Ŕl8J4),Ŕelevatedӵ
ve¿etablesӵ inӵ¿eneralӵ- andӵcabba¿esӵi nӵparticularӵ- toӵtheӵdi¿nityӵofӵartisticӵandӵ
politicalӵsymbols.ӵThisӵnovel,ӵwrittenӵ¡ustӵafterӵtheӵfallӵofӵtheӵParisӵCommune,ӵisӵ
inӵ effectӵ constructedӵ onӵtheӵ polarityӵ o
fӵtwoӵ characters.ӵ onӵ theӵ oneӵ hand,ӵ theӵ
revolutionaryӵ whoӵ returnsӵ fromӵ deportationӵ toӵ theӵ newӵ Parisӵ desӵ Hallesӵ andӵ
findsӵhimselfӵcrushedӵbyӵtheӵaccumulationӵofӵcommoditiesӵthatӵmaterializesӵaӵ
newӵworldӵofӵmassӵ consumption,ӵ onӵtheӵotherӵhand,ӵtheӵimpressionistӵpainterӵ
whoӵsin¿sӵanӵepicӵofӵcabba¿es,ӵofӵtheӵneƗӵbeauty,ӵopposin¿ӵtheӵironӵarchitectureӵ
ofӵ Lesӵ Hallesӵ andӵ theӵ pilesӵ ofӵ ve¿etablesӵ thatӵ itӵ sheltersӵ toӵ theӵ oldӵ beautyӵ
henceforthӵdeprivedӵofӵlife,ӵ symbolizedӵ byӵtheӵnei¿hbourin¿ӵ¿othicӵchurch.ӵ
ThisӵBrechtianӵdoubleӵ¿ameӵwithӵtheӵpoliticalӵandӵtheӵapoliticalӵcharacterӵofӵ
cauliflowersӵ isӵ possibleӵ becauseӵ thereӵ alreadyӵ existsӵ aӵ relationshipӵ betweenӵ
politics,ӵtheӵnewӵbeautyӵandӵmarketӵdisplays.ӵWeӵcanӵ¿eneralizeӵ theӵmeanin¿ӵofӵ
thisӵve¿etableӵalle¿ory.ӵCriticalӵartӵ- artӵwhichӵ playsӵonӵtheӵunionӵandӵtensionӵofӵ
differentӵaestheticӵpoliticsӵ- isӵpossibleӵthanksӵtoӵaӵmovementӵofӵtranslationӵthatӵ
has,ӵ forӵaӵ lon¿ӵ timeӵ now,ӵ crossedӵ theӵ borderӵ inӵ bothӵ directionsӵ betweenӵ theӵ
worldӵofӵartӵandӵtheӵprosaicӵworldӵofӵtheӵcommodity.ӵThere'sӵnoӵneedӵtoӵima¿ineӵ
aӵ 'postmodern'ӵ ruptureӵ blurrin¿ӵ theӵ borderӵ thaҸӵseparatedӵ hi¿hӵ artӵ fromӵ theӵ
formsӵ ofӵpopularӵ culture.ӵ Theӵ blurrin¿ӵ ofӵboundariesӵ isӵ asӵ oldӵ asӵ Ćmodernity'ӵ
itself.ӵ Brechtianӵ distanciationӵ isӵ clearlyӵ indebtedӵ toӵ surrealistӵ colla¿esӵ thatӵ
brou¿htӵintoӵtheӵdomainӵofӵartӵtheӵ obsoleteӵ consumerӵ¿oodsӵfromӵ theӵarcades,ӵ
theӵ ma¿azineӵ illustrations,ӵ orӵ theӵ outmodedӵ catalo¿ues.ӵ Butӵ theӵ processӵ ¿oesӵ
backӵmuchӵfurther.ӵTheӵ momentӵwhenӵhi¿hӵartӵisӵconstitutedӵ- byӵdeclarin¿ӵitsӵ
ownӵ end,ӵ accordin¿ӵ toӵ He¿elӵ - isӵ alsoӵ theӵ momentӵ whenӵ itӵ startedӵ toӵ beӵ
banalizedӵ inӵ ma¿azineӵreproductionsӵandӵ beӵcorruptedӵ inӵ theӵbooksӵhopӵtradeӵ
andӵ inӵ theӵ'industrial'ӵ literatureӵofӵnewspapers.ӵ Butӵ thisӵ isӵ alsoӵ theӵ timeӵ whenӵ
commoditiesӵstartedӵtoӵtravelӵ inӵtheӵoppositeӵdirection,ӵtoӵcrossӵtheӵborderӵthatӵ
separatesӵitӵfromӵtheӵworldӵofӵart,ӵtoӵ repopulateӵandӵre-materializeӵ thisӵartӵthatӵ
He¿elӵbelievedӵtoӵhaveӵexhaustedӵitsӵforms.ӵ
Thisӵ isӵwhatӵBalzacӵshowsӵ usӵ inӵ l||usíonsŔpcrducsŔ¸LosrŔl||usíons,Ŕ !83J),ŔTheӵ
dilapidatedӵ andӵ muddyӵ stallsӵ ofӵ theӵ Caleriesӵ dҹɭӵ bois,ӵ whereӵ theӵ fallenӵ poetӵ
LucienӵdeӵRubempréӵ¿oesӵtoӵsellӵ hisӵ proseӵandӵ hisӵ soulӵamon¿ӵtheӵtradeӵofӵtheӵ
StockӵFxchan¿eӵandӵofӵprostitution,ӵinstantlyӵbecomeӵtheӵplaceӵofӵaӵnewӵpoetry.ӵ
ROncíète/ĸ /PtoUlemSĸOndĸTtOnS!otmO!íonSĸ ínĸCtí!ícOlĸAt!/ĸ /ßõĸ
aӵfantasticalӵpoetryӵmadeӵfromӵtheӵabolitionӵofӵfrontiersӵbetweenӵtheӵordinaryӵofӵ
theӵmarketӵandӵtheӵextraordinaryӵofӵart.ӵTheӵheterɐ¿eneousӵsensibleӵfromӵwhichӵ
artӵofӵtheӵaestheticӵa¿eӵfeedsӵcanӵbeӵfoundӵanywhere,ӵandӵespeciallyӵonӵtheӵveryӵ
terrainӵfromӵwhichӵtheӵpuristsӵwantedӵ toӵ eliminateӵit.ӵAnyӵcommodityӵorӵusefulӵ
ob¡ectӵcan,ӵbyӵbecomin¿ӵobsoleteӵandӵ unfitӵforӵconsumption,ӵbecomeӵ availableӵtoӵ
artӵinӵdifferentӵways,ӵseparateӵorӵlinked.ӵ asӵanӵob¡ectӵofӵdisinterestedӵ pleasure,ӵaӵ
bodyӵencodedӵwithӵaӵstory,ӵorӵasӵwitnessӵtoӵaӵstran¿enessӵimpossibleӵtoӵassimilate.ӵ
Whileӵsomeӵdedicatedӵart-lifeӵtoӵtheӵcreationӵofӵfurnitureӵforӵaӵnewӵworld,ӵ
andӵ othersӵ denouncedӵ theӵ transformationӵ ofӵ artӵ productsӵ intoӵ theӵ décorӵ ofӵ
aestheticizedӵ commodities,ӵ othersӵ seizedӵ thisӵ doubleӵ movementӵ thatӵ blurredӵ
theӵsimpleӵoppositionӵofӵtwoӵ¿reatӵaestheticӵpolitics.ӵ ifӵartӵproductsӵdoӵnotӵceaseӵ
toӵ crossӵ intoӵ theӵ domainӵ ofӵ commodities,ӵ thenӵ commoditiesӵ andӵ functionalӵ
¿oodsӵdoӵnotӵstopӵcǞѧssin¿ӵtheӵboŃderӵinӵtheӵotherӵdirection,ӵleavin¿ӵtheӵsphereӵ
ofӵutilityӵandӵvalueӵtoӵbecomeӵhiero¿lyphsӵcarryin¿ӵtheirӵhistoryӵonӵtheirӵbody,ӵ
orӵmuteӵdisaffectedӵob¡ectsӵcarryin¿ӵtheӵsplendourӵofӵwhatӵnoӵlon¿erӵbearsӵany Ɓӵ
pro¡ectӵorӵwill.ӵThisӵisӵwhatӵtheӵidlenessӵofӵtheӵ]unoŔLuJovísíŔcouldӵcommunicateӵ
toӵallӵobsoleteӵfunctionalӵob¡ectsӵandӵadvertisin¿ӵima¿ery.DZӵThisӵ'dialecticalӵworkӵ
inӵthin¿s'ӵthatӵrendersӵthemӵavailableӵtoӵartӵandӵforӵsubversionӵ- byӵbreakin¿ӵtheӵ
uniformӵ runӵ ofӵtime,ӵ byӵintroducin¿ӵaӵ temporalityӵ withinӵ another,ӵ byӵchan¿in¿ӵ
theӵstatusӵofӵob¡ectsӵandӵtheӵrelationshipӵbetweenӵexchan¿eӵsi¿nsӵandӵartӵformsӵ
- isӵwhatӵWalterӵBen¡aminӵdiscoveredӵ inӵ hisӵ readin¿ӵofӵAra¿on'sӵ lcŔIu¸sunŔ JcŔ
IurísŔ¸IurísŔIcusunr,Ŕl926)ӵwhichӵtransformedӵaӵshopӵofӵoldӵwalkin¿ӵsticksӵinӵtheӵ
Passa¿eӵ deӵ ҄Dperaӵ intoӵ aӵ mytholo¿icalӵ landscapeӵ andӵ le¿endaryӵ poem.ӵ Andӵ
'alle¿orical'ӵart,ӵ whichӵ soӵ manyӵcontemporaryӵartistsӵ claim,ӵ inscribesӵ itselfӵinӵ
thisӵlon¿-termӵfiliation.ӵ
ltӵisӵbecauseӵofӵthisӵcrossin¿ӵofӵtheӵbordersӵandӵstatusӵchan¿esӵbetweenӵartӵ
andӵ non-artӵthatӵtheӵ radicalӵ stran¿enessӵ ofӵtheӵaestheticӵob¡ectӵandӵ theӵactiveӵ
appropriationӵ ofӵ theӵ commonӵ worldӵ haveӵ beenӵ ableӵ toӵ comeӵ to¿etherӵ andӵ
constituteӵ theӵ 'thirdӵ way'ӵ ofӵ aӵ micro-politicsӵ ofӵ art,ӵ betweenӵ theӵ opposedӵ
paradi¿msӵofӵartӵbecomin¿ӵlifeӵandӵartӵasӵresistantӵform.ӵThisӵprocessӵunderpinsӵ
theӵperformancesӵofӵcriticalӵart,ӵandӵcanӵhelpӵusӵtoӵunderstandӵitsӵcontemporaryӵ
transformationsӵ andӵ ambi¿uities.ӵ lfӵ thereӵ isӵ aӵ politicalӵ questionӵ aboutӵ
contemporaryӵ art,ӵ itӵ isӵ notӵ toӵ beӵ ¿raspedӵ inӵ theӵ ¿ridӵ ofӵ theӵ oppositionӵ
modernIJpostmodern.ӵ ltӵ isӵ inӵ theӵ analysisӵ ofӵtheӵ chan¿esӵaffectin¿ӵ thisӵ 'third'ӵ
politics,ӵ theӵ politicsӵ foundedӵ onӵ aӵ ¿ameӵ ofӵ exchan¿esӵ andӵ displacementsӵ
betweenӵtheӵworldӵofӵartӵandӵthatӵofӵnon-art.ӵ
Theӵ politicsӵ ofӵtheӵ mixӵofӵhetero¿eneousӵ elementsӵ tookӵaӵ dominantӵ form,ӵ
fromӵdadaismӵupӵtoӵtheӵdiverseӵformsӵofӵanti-establishmentӵartӵinӵtheӵl960s.ӵtheӵ
polemicalӵ form.ӵ Theӵ ¿ameӵ ofӵ exchan¿esӵ betweenӵ artӵ andӵ non-artӵ servedӵ toӵ
constructӵ collisionsӵ betweenӵ hetero¿eneousӵ elements,ӵ dialecticalӵ oppositionsӵ
ßó/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFREWORK5ĸ
betweenӵ formӵandӵcontent,ӵthatӵthemselvesӵdenouncedӵ socialӵrelationsӵandӵtheӵ
placeӵwasӵallocatedӵforӵartӵthereĞӵTheӵstichomythicӵformӵ thatӵBrechtӵ¿aveӵ toӵ aӵ
discussionӵinӵverseӵonӵtheӵmatterӵofӵcauliflowersӵdenouncedӵtheӵhiddenӵinterestsӵ
behindӵ fineӵ words.Ǵӵ Dadaistӵ canvasesӵ ¿luedӵ withӵ busӵ tickets,ӵ clockӵ partsӵ andӵ
otherӵaccessoriesӵ ridiculedӵ theӵ pretensionsӵofӵanӵ artӵcutӵoffӵfromӵ life.ӵӘarhol'sӵ
introductionӵ ofӵ soupӵ cansӵ andӵ Brilloӵ boxesӵ intoӵ theӵ museumӵ denouncedӵ hi¿hӵ
art'sӵpretensionsӵtoӵisolationİӵWolfVostell'sӵblendin¿ӵofӵcelebrityӵima¿esӵandӵwarӵ
ima¿esӵ showedӵ theӵdarkӵ sideӵ ofӵ theӵ Americanӵ dream,ӵ KrzysztofӵWodiczko'sӵ
pro¡ectionsӵ ofӵ homelessӵ fi¿uresӵ ontoӵ Americanӵ monumentsӵ denouncedӵ theӵ
expulsionӵ ofӵ theӵ poorӵ fromӵ publicӵ space,ӵ Hansӵ Haacke'sӵ littleӵ labelsӵ placedӵ
alon¿sideӵmuseumӵworksӵrevealedӵthemӵ toӵ beӵob¡ectsӵofӵfinancialӵ investment,ӵ
andӵ soӵ on.ӵ Hetero¿eneousӵcolla¿eӵ¿enerallyӵtakesӵ theӵ formӵ ofӵaӵ shock,ӵ whichӵ
revealsӵ oneӵ worldӵ hiddenӵ beneathӵ anotherļӵ capitalistӵ violenceӵ behindӵ theӵ
happinessӵ ofӵconsumption,ӵ marketӵinterestsӵ andӵ violentӵclassӵ stru¿¿leӵ behindӵ
theӵapparentӵserenityӵofӵart.ӵArt'sӵself-criticismӵthusӵ blendedӵ withӵ criticismӵ ofӵ
theӵmechanismsӵofӵstateӵandӵmarketӵdomination.ӵ
Thisӵ polemicalӵ functionӵ ofӵ theӵ shockӵ ofӵ theӵ hetero¿eneousӵ isӵ alwaysӵ
mentionedӵ inӵtheӵle¿itimationӵofӵworks,ӵ installationsӵanţlӵexhibitions.ӵHowever,ӵ
theӵ continuityӵ ofӵ thisӵ discourseӵ concealsӵ si¿nificantӵ transformationsӵ thatӵ aӵ
simpleӵexampleӵcanӵallowӵusӵtoӵ¿rasp.ӵlnӵ2000,ӵinӵParis,ӵanӵexhibitionӵcalledӵ8ruírŔ
JcŔ ]onJŔ ¦ßĉcĵ¿ŇoułĐŔ NoĨŎĒ)Ŕ putӵ l970sӵ andӵ contemporaryӵ worksӵ onӵ view.ӵ
Amon¿stӵ theӵ formerӵ wereӵ Marthaӵ RosĚer'sӵ photomonta¿esӵ fromӵ theӵ seriesӵ
8rín¿ín¿ŔrncŔ WurŔHomcŔ¦l967-72),ӵ ¡uxtaposin¿ӵadvertisin¿ӵima¿esӵofӵdomesticӵ
Americanӵ happinessӵ withӵ ima¿esӵ ofӵtheӵ warӵinӵVietnam.ӵ Nearbyӵwasӵanotherӵ
workӵdevotedӵtoӵ theӵ hiddenӵsideӵofӵAmericanӵhappiness.ӵ MadeӵbyӵWan¿ӵ Du,ӵ itӵ
comprisedӵ twoӵ elements.ӵ onӵ theӵ left,ӵ theӵ Clintonӵ couple,ӵ representedӵ asӵ twoӵ
mannequinsӵfromӵaӵwaxӵ museum,ӵ onӵ theӵ other,ӵ anotherӵ kindӵ ofӵwaxӵfi¿ure.ӵ aӵ
sculptureӵofӵCourbet'sӵl'Crí¿íncŔJuŔmonJcŔ¸IncŔCrí¿ínŔo]ŔrncŔWor|J,Ŕ l866),ӵwhich,ӵ
asӵweӵknow,ӵexplicitlyӵpresentsӵtheӵfemaleӵsexualӵor¿ans.ӵTheӵtwoӵworksӵplayedӵ
onӵtheӵrelationshipӵbetweenӵanӵima¿eӵofӵhappinessӵorӵ¿reatnessӵandӵ itsӵhiddenӵ
sideӵ ofӵviolenceӵ orӵ profanity.ӵ Butӵtheӵcurrencyӵ ofӵtheӵ Lewinskyӵ affairӵwasӵ notӵ
enou¿hӵtoӵconferӵpoliticalӵstakesӵtoӵtheӵrepresentationӵofӵtheӵClintonӵcouple.ӵToӵ
beӵ precise,ӵcurrencyӵwasӵofӵlittleӵimportance.ӵWeӵwereӵwitnessin¿ӵtheӵautomaticӵ
functionin¿ӵofӵcanonicalӵproceduresӵofӵdele¿itimation.ӵtheӵwaxӵfi¿ureӵthatӵturnsӵ
theӵ politicianӵ intoӵ aӵ puppet,ӵ sexualӵ profanationӵ thatӵ isӵ theӵ littleӵ dirtyӵ
hiddenjexposedӵsecretӵofӵallӵformsӵofӵsublimity.ӵTheseӵproceduresӵalwaysӵwork.ӵ
Butӵtheyӵworkӵbyӵturnin¿ӵonӵthemselves,ӵlikeӵtheӵdeni¿rationӵofӵpowerӵinӵ¿eneralӵ
takin¿ӵtheӵplaceӵofӵpoliticalӵdenunciation.ӵDrӵrather,ӵtheirӵfunctionӵisӵtoӵ makeӵusӵ
sensitiveӵtowardsӵthisӵautomatic-nessӵitself,ӵofӵdele¿itimizin¿ӵtheӵproceduresӵofӵ
dele¿itimationӵ atӵ theӵ sameӵ timeӵ asӵ dele¿itimizin¿ӵ theirӵ ob¡ect.ӵ Humorousӵ
ROnciète/ĸ /PtoblemSĸOndĸTtOnS!otmO!ionSĸinĸ Cti!icOlĸAr!/ĸ/ß7ĸ
distanceӵthenӵreplacesӵprovocativeӵshock.ӵ
l'veӵ chosenӵ thisӵ si¿nificantӵ exampleŬӵ butӵ youӵ couldӵ citeӵ manyӵ othersӵ thatӵ
witness,ӵ beneathӵ theӵ apparentӵcontinuityӵ ofӵmechanismsӵ andӵ ofӵtheirӵtextualӵ
le¿itimations,ӵ
theӵsameӵslideӵofӵyesterday'sӵdialecticalӵprovocationsӵtowardsӵnewӵ
fi¿uresӵ ofӵtheӵ compositionӵ ofӵ theӵ hetero¿eneous.ӵ Andӵ youӵ couldӵ ran¿eӵ theseӵ
multipleӵslidin¿sӵunderӵfourӵmaŐorӵtypesӵofӵcontemporaryӵexhibiӎonsƍӵtheӵ¿ame,ӵ
theӵinventory,ӵtheӵencounterӵandӵtheӵmystery.ӵ
Firstӵ ofӵ allӵ theӵ ¿omc,Ŧ whichӵ isӵ toӵ sayӵ aӵ double-¿ame.ӵ Flsewhereӵ lӵ haveӵ
mentionedӵ anӵ exhibitionӵ presentedӵ atӵ Minneapolisӵ underӵ theӵ titleӵ Lc!'sŦ
£n!cr!Įłn,Ŧ andӵ renamed,ӵ inӵ Paris,ӵ Au-JcldŦ JuŦ spcc!oclc.'Ŧ Theӵ Americanӵ titleӵ
alreadyӵplayedӵaӵdoubleӵ¿ame,ӵ winkin¿ӵtowardsӵaӵcriticismӵofӵtheӵcn!cr!oínmcn!Ŧ
industryŬӵ andӵ alsoӵ towardsӵpop'>Ŧdenunciationӵ ofӵtheӵseparationӵ betweenӵhi¿hӵ
artӵandӵaӵpopularӵcultureӵofӵconsumption.ӵTheӵParisianӵtitleӵintroducedӵaӵfurtherӵ
turn.ӵ Dnӵ theӵ oneӵ hand,ӵ theӵ referenceӵ toӵ Cuyӵ Debord'sӵ bookӵ jLoŦ 5ocíc!cŦ JuŦ
spcc!oclc|Ŧ reinforcedӵtheӵri¿ourӵofӵtheӵcritiqueӵofӵcn!cr!oínmcn!.ŦButӵonӵtheӵotherӵ
hand,ӵ itӵ recalledӵ thatӵ hisӵ antidoteӵtoӵ spectacle'sӵ passivityӵisӵtheӵfreeӵ activityӵofӵ
theӵ¿ame.ӵThisӵplayӵonӵtheӵtitlesӵbrin¿sӵusӵback,ӵofӵcourse,ӵtoӵtheӵundecidabilityӵ
ofӵtheӵworksӵthemselves.ӵTheӵ mena¿erieӵ ofӵCharlesӵ Rayӵorӵ theӵ hu¿eӵ football-
tableӵofӵMaurizioӵCattelanӵcouldӵindifferentlyӵsymbolizeӵpopŦderision,ӵaӵcritiqueӵ
ofӵmarketӵcn!cr!oínmcn!,Ŧorӵtheӵpositiveӵpowerӵofӵ¿ames.ӵAndӵallӵtheӵconvictionӵ
ofӵtheӵexhibitionӵcuratorsӵwasӵneededӵinӵorderӵtoӵproveӵtoӵusӵthatӵman¿a,ӵadvertsӵ
andӵdiscoӵsoundsӵasӵ reprocessedӵ byӵtheӵotherӵartistsӵofferedӵusӵaӵradicalӵcritiqueӵ
ofӵtheӵalienatedӵconsumptionӵofӵleisureӵbyӵtheirӵveryӵreduplication.ӵRatherӵthanӵ
aӵSchillerianӵsuspensionӵofӵtheӵrelationsӵofӵdomination,ӵtheӵ¿amesӵinvokedӵhereӵ
markӵ theӵ suspensionӵ ofӵ meanin¿ӵ inӵ theӵ colla¿esӵ presented.ӵ Theirӵ valueӵ asӵ
polemicӵ revelationsӵ hasӵ becomeӵundecidable.ӵAndӵ it'sӵ theӵ productionӵ ofӵthisӵ
undecidabilityӵthatӵisӵatӵtheӵheartӵofӵtheӵworkӵofӵmanyӵartistsӵandӵexhibitions.ӵ
Whereӵtheӵcriticalӵartistӵonceӵpaintedӵclashin¿ӵima¿esӵofӵmarketӵdominationӵorӵ
imperialistӵwar,ӵtheӵcontemporaryӵvideoӵartistӵli¿htlyӵJc!oumcsŦvideo-clipsӵandӵ
man¿a,ӵ whereӵ ¿iantӵ puppetsӵ onceӵ madeӵ contemporaryӵ historyӵ intoӵ anӵ epicӵ
spectacleėӵballsӵandӵtoysӵ nowӵ'interro¿ate'ӵourӵwaysӵofӵlife.ӵAӵredoublin¿ӵofӵtheӵ
spectacles,ӵpropsӵandӵ iconsӵ ofӵordinaryӵ life,ӵ flimsilyӵ displaced,ӵnoӵ lon¿erӵinvitesӵ
usӵtoӵreadӵsi¿nsӵinӵob¡ectsӵ inӵorderӵtoӵunderstandӵtheӵ¡urisdictionsӵofӵourӵworld.ӵ
Theyӵ claimӵ bothӵ toӵ sharpenӵ ourӵ perceptionӵ ofӵ theӵ playӵ ofӵ si¿ns,ӵ ourӵ
consciousnessӵ ofӵtheӵfra¿ilityӵofӵtheӵproceduresӵ forӵtheӵreadin¿ӵofӵthoseӵsi¿ns,ӵ
andӵ ourӵpleasureӵatӵplayin¿ӵwithӵtheӵundecidable.ӵTheӵvirtueӵthatӵtheseӵartistsӵ
mostӵwillin¿lyӵreclaimӵforӵthemselvesӵtodayӵisӵhumour.ӵwell,ӵhumourӵasӵaӵflimsyӵ
displacementӵthatӵit'sӵ possibleӵ notӵevenӵtoӵ noticeӵ inӵ theirӵwayӵofӵpresentin¿ӵaӵ
sequenceӵofӵsi¿nsӵorӵanӵassembla¿eӵofӵob¡ects.ӵ
Theseӵproceduresӵofӵdele¿itimation,ӵpassedӵfromӵaӵcriticalӵtoӵaӵludicӵre¿ister,ӵ
ßß//THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORKĸ
become,ӵ ifӵ pushed,ӵ indistin¿uishableӵ fromӵ thoseӵ producedӵ byӵ powerӵ andӵ theӵ
media,ӵorӵbyӵtheӵmarket'sӵownӵformsӵofӵpresentation.ӵHumourӵitselfӵbecomesӵtheӵ
dominantӵ modeӵ ofӵexhibitin¿ӵ commodities,ӵ andӵ advertisin¿ӵincreasin¿lyӵplaysӵ
onӵ theӵ undecidabilityӵ ofӵaӵ product'sӵ useӵ valueӵ andӵ itsӵ valueӵ asӵ aӵ supportӵ forӵ
ima¿esӵ orӵ si¿ns.ӵ Theӵ onlyӵ remainin¿ӵ subversionӵ is,ӵ then,ӵ toӵ playӵ onӵ thisӵ
undecidabilityŲӵ toӵ suspend,ӵ inӵ aӵ societyӵ workin¿ӵ towardsӵ tĠeӵ acceleratedӵ
consumptionӵofӵsi¿ns,ӵ theӵ meanin¿ӵofӵtheӵprotocolsӵofӵreadin¿ӵthoseӵsi¿nsƾӵ
Consciousnessӵ ofӵ thisӵ undecidabilityӵ favoursӵ aӵ displacementӵ ofӵ artisticӵ
propositionsӵ towardsӵ theӵ secondӵ form,ӵ thatӵ ofӵtheӵ ínvcn!oQ.Ŧ Theӵ meetin¿ӵ ofӵ
hetero¿eneousӵob¡ectsӵnoӵlon¿erӵaimsӵtoӵprovokeӵaӵcriticalӵ shock,ӵ norӵtoӵplayӵonӵ
theӵundecidabilityӵofӵthisӵshoȳlǎӵTheӵsameӵmaterials,ӵima¿esӵandӵmessa¿esӵthatӵ
wereӵ interro¿atedӵ accordin¿ӵ toӵ theӵ rulesӵ ofӵ anӵ artӵ ofӵ suspicionӵ areӵ nowӵ
summonedӵ toӵtheӵreverseӵ operationļӵ toӵ repopulateӵtheӵ worldӵ ofӵthin¿s,ӵtoӵ re-
seizeӵ theirӵ collectiveӵ historicalӵ potentialӵ thatӵ criticalӵ artӵ dissolvedӵ intoӵ
manipulableӵ si¿ns.ӵ Assemblin¿ӵ hetero¿eneousӵ materialsӵ becomesӵ aӵ positiveӵ
memory,ӵ inӵ aӵ doubleӵ form.ӵ Primarilyӵ it'sӵ anӵ inventoryӵ ofӵ historicalӵ traces.ӵ
ob¡ects,ӵphoto¿raphsӵorӵsimplyӵlistsӵofӵnamesӵthatӵwitnessӵaӵsharedӵhistoryӵorӵaӵ
sharedӵworld.ӵFourӵyearsӵa¿oӵinӵParis,ӵanӵexhibitionӵcalledӵvoíldŦ- LcŦmonJcŦJonsŦ
loŦ!c!cŦthusӵsetӵoutӵtoӵrecapitulateӵtheӵtwentiethӵcentury.ӵThrou¿hӵphoto¿raphicӵ
displaysӵ andӵ diverseӵ installations,ӵ itӵwasӵaboutӵ¿atherin¿ӵ experiences,ӵ aboutӵ
makin¿ӵ displaysӵ ofӵanyӵ oldӵ ob¡ects,ӵ namesӵ orӵ anonymousӵ facesӵ speak,ӵ aboutӵ
bein¿ӵ introducedӵ intoӵ theseӵ welcomin¿ӵ mechanisms.ӵ Theӵ visitorӵ wasӵ fĊrstӵ
welcomedӵbyӵtheӵsi¿nӵofӵaӵ¿ameӵ¦RobertӵFilliou'sӵpatternӵofӵmulticolouredӵdice),ӵ
thenӵwalkedӵthrou¿hӵaӵChristianӵBoltanskiӵinstallation,ӵLcsŦADonncsŦJuŦ!clcpnonc,Ŧ
comprisin¿ӵdirectoriesӵfromӵdifferentӵyearsӵandӵcountriesӵthatӵyouӵcould,ӵifӵyouӵ
liked,ӵtakeӵoffӵtheӵshelvesӵandӵbrowseӵonӵtheӵtablesӵplacedӵatӵyourӵdisposaƒӵThenӵ
aӵsoundӵ installationӵbyӵDnӵKawaraӵthatӵevoked,ӵforӵ him,ӵsomeӵofӵ'theӵlastӵfortyӵ
thousandӵyearsӵ ¿oneӵ by'.ӵ Hans-PeterӵFeldmannӵthenӵpresentedӵ photo¿raphsӵ ofӵ
oneӵhundredӵpeopleӵa¿edӵfromӵoneӵtoӵoneӵhundredӵyearsӵ old.ӵ Peterӵ Fischliӵ andӵ
DavidӵWeiss'sӵ displayӵ ofӵphoto¿raphsӵ underӵvitrinesӵ exposedӵ aӵ vísíDlcŦ WorlJŦ
resemblin¿ӵholidayӵphotosӵfromӵ familyӵalbums,ӵwhileӵFabriceӵ Hybertӵ showedӵaӵ
collectionӵofӵbottlesӵofӵmineralӵwater,ӵetc.ӵ
lnӵ thisӵ lo¿ic,ӵ theӵ artistӵ isӵ atӵ onceӵ anӵ archivistӵ ofӵcollectiveӵ lifeӵ andӵ theӵ
collector,ӵwitnessӵtoӵaӵsharedӵability.ӵBecauseӵtheӵinventory,ӵwhichӵevidencesӵtheӵ
potentialӵofӵob¡ects'ӵandӵima¿es'ӵcollectiveӵhistory,ӵbyӵbrin¿in¿ӵcloserӵtheӵartӵofӵ
theӵ sculptorӵ andӵ thatӵ ofӵ theӵ ra¿-and-boneӵ man,ӵ showsӵ inӵ thisӵ wayӵ theӵ
relationshipӵ betweenӵ theӵ inventiveӵ ¿esturesӵ ofӵ artӵ andӵ theӵ multiplicityӵ ofӵ
inventionsӵofӵtheӵartsӵofӵdoin¿ӵandӵartsӵofӵlivin¿ӵthatӵconstituteӵaӵsharedӵworld.ӵ
DlY,ӵcollectin¿,ӵlan¿ua¿eӵ¿ames,ӵpropsӵforӵmanifestations,ӵetc.ӵTheӵartistӵtakesӵitӵ
uponӵhimselfӵtoӵmakeӵvisible,ӵinӵart'sӵreservedӵspace,ӵtheseӵartsӵofӵdoin¿ӵthatӵexistӵ
ROnciète/ĸ/PtOblemSĸOndĸTtOnS!OtmO!iOnSĸinĸCti!icOlĸĭt/ĸ /ߺĸ
throu¿houtӵsociety.ǷӵThrou¿hӵthisӵdoubleӵvocationӵofӵtheӵinventory,ӵcriticalӵart'sӵ
politicalIJpolemicalӵvocationӵ tenςsӵ toӵbecomeӵaӵsocialIJcommunitarianӵvocation.ӵ
Thisӵ slippa¿eӵ isӵ shownӵ byӵ theӵ thirdӵ form.ӵ l'veӵ calledӵ itӵ theӵ cncoun!cr.Ŧ Youӵ
coulƚӵalsoӵcalƟӵitӵtheӵ ínví!o!íon.ŦTheӵartist-colƟectorӵinstitutesӵaӵspaceӵofӵreceptionӵ
toӵ en¿a¿eӵ theӵ passer-byӵ inӵ anӵ unexpectedӵ relationship.ӵ Thusӵ Boltanski'sӵ
instalĚationӵinvitesӵtheӵvisitorӵtoӵtakeӵaӵdirectoryӵ fromӵ theӵ shelvesӵandӵ sitӵatӵ aӵ
tableӵ toӵ consultӵ it.ӵ Aӵ littleӵ furtherӵ alon¿ӵ inӵ theӵ sameӵ exhibition,ӵ Dominiqueӵ
Conzalez-Foersterӵinvitedӵusӵtoӵtakeӵaӵvolumeӵfromӵaӵpileӵofӵpocketӵbooksӵandӵtoӵ
sitӵdownӵandӵreadӵthemӵonӵaӵcarpetӵdepictin¿ӵaӵdesertӵislandӵtypicalӵofӵchildren'sӵ
dreams.ӵ lnӵ anotherӵ exhibition,ӵ Rirkritӵ TiravanǗaӵ putӵ atӵ theӵ visitor'sӵ disposalӵ
packetsӵ ofӵ food,ӵ campin¿ӵ ¿asӵ andӵ cookin¿ӵ pansӵ soӵ thatӵ heӵ couldӵ prepareӵ aӵ
Chineseӵ soupӵ forӵ himself,ӵ sitӵdownӵandӵ en¿a¿eӵ inӵ discussionӵwithӵ theӵ artistӵorӵ
withӵotherӵvisitors.ӵParalƟelӵtoӵtheseӵtransformationsӵinӵtheӵexhibitionӵspaceӵareӵ
manyӵ formsӵ ofӵinterventionӵ i nӵurbanӵ space.ӵ aӵ modifiedӵ si¿nӵ inӵ aӵ busӵ shelterӵ
transformsӵtheӵnecessityӵofӵeverydayӵlifeӵintoӵanӵadventureӵ¦PierreӵHuy¿he),ӵ anӵ
illuminatedӵ textӵ inӵ Arabicӵ orӵ aӵ loudspeakerӵ inӵ Turkishӵ reversesӵ theӵ relationsӵ
betweenӵtheӵ localӵandӵtheӵforei¿nӵnjensӵHaanin¿),ӵ anӵemptyӵ pavilionӵ isӵofferedӵ
toӵtheӵ socialӵdesiresӵofӵtheӵ residentsӵofӵaӵnei¿bourΑoodӵ¦CroupӵAl2).ӵRelationalӵ
artӵthusӵintendsӵtoӵcreateӵnotӵonlyӵob¡ectsӵbutӵsituationsӵandӵencounters.ӵButӵthisӵ
tooӵsimpleӵoppositionӵbetweenӵ ob¡ectsӵ andӵsituationsӵoperatesӵ aӵshort-circuit.ӵ
Whatӵ isӵ atӵ stakeӵ isӵ theӵ transformationӵ ofӵ theseӵ problematicӵ spacesӵ thatӵ
conceptualӵartӵhadӵ opposedӵtoӵart'sӵ ob¡ectsjcommodities.ӵ Yesterday'sӵ distanceӵ
towardsӵ commoditiesӵ isӵ nowӵ invertedӵ toӵ proposeӵ aӵ newӵ proximityӵ betweenӵ
entities,ӵtheӵ institutionӵofӵnewӵformsӵofӵsocialӵrelations.ӵArtӵnoӵlon¿erӵwantsӵtoӵ
respondӵtoӵ theӵexcessӵofӵcommoditiesӵandӵsi¿ns,ӵbutӵtoӵaӵlackӵofӵconnections.ӵAsӵ
theӵprincipleӵtheoristӵofӵthisӵschoolӵwrites.ӵ'byӵofferin¿ӵsmalƟӵservices,ӵtheӵartistӵ
repairsӵtheӵweaknessesӵinӵtheӵsocialӵbond'.Dzӵ
Theӵ lossӵ ofӵtheӵ 'socialӵ bond',ӵ andӵ theӵ dutyӵincumbentӵonӵartistsӵtoӵworkӵtoӵ
repairӵit,ӵareӵ theӵwordsӵonӵtheӵa¿enda.ӵButӵanӵacknowled¿ementӵofӵthisӵlossӵcanӵ
beӵmoreӵambitious.ӵlt'sӵnotӵonlyӵtheӵformsӵofӵcivilityӵthatӵweӵwillӵhaveӵlost,ӵbutӵ
theӵveryӵsenseӵofӵtheӵco-presenceӵofӵbein¿sӵandӵthin¿sӵthatӵconstitutesӵaӵworld.ӵ
Thisӵ isӵ whatӵ theӵ fourthӵ typeӵ proposesӵ toӵ mend,ӵ theӵ m¡s!ci¸.Ŧ Applyin¿ӵ itӵ toӵ
cinema,ӵ |ean-Lucӵ Codardӵ honouredӵ thisӵ cate¿oryӵ that,ӵ sinceӵ Mallarmé,ӵ
desi¿natesӵ aӵ certainӵ wayӵ ofӵlinkin¿ӵhetero¿eneousӵ elements.ӵ inӵtheӵlatter,ӵ forӵ
example,ӵ theӵpoet'sӵthou¿ht,ӵ theӵ stepsӵofӵaӵdancer,ӵtheӵ unfoldin¿ӵofӵaӵ fan,ӵtheӵ
foamӵofӵaӵwaveӵorӵtheӵmovementӵofӵaӵcurtainӵlifteţlӵbyӵtheӵ wind,ӵ inӵCodard,ӵtheӵ
roseӵofӵCormcn,ŦaӵBeethovenӵquartet,ӵtheӵfoamӵofӵwavesӵonӵtheӵbeachӵevokin¿ӵ!ncŦ
WovcsŦ byӵ Vir¿iniaӵ Woolf,ӵ andӵ theӵ sur¿eӵ ofӵ bodiesӵ inӵ love.ӵ Thisӵ sequenceӵ ofӵ
PrcnomŦCormcnŦthatӵl'mӵsummarizin¿ӵreallyӵshowsӵtheӵpassa¿eӵfromӵoneӵlo¿icӵtoӵ
another.ӵTheӵchoiceӵofӵelementsӵputӵ intoӵ relationӵinӵeffectӵrestoresӵaӵtraditionӵofӵ
º0/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORKĸ
dc!oumcmcn!ĒŦ theӵ Andalusianӵ mcuntainsӵ beccmeӵ aӵweekendӵ beach,ӵ rcmanticӵ
smu¿¿lersӵbeccmeӵcrazyӵterrcrists,ӵtheӵdiscardedӵflcwerӵcfӵwhichӵDcnӵŞcséӵsin¿sӵ
isӵcnlyӵaӵplasticӵrcse,ӵandӵMicaelaӵmassacresӵBeethcvenӵinsteadӵcfӵsin¿in¿ӵBizetӵ
arias.ӵ Butӵtheӵdc!ourncmcn!Ŧncӵlcn¿erӵhasӵtheӵfuncticnӵcfӵaӵpcliticalӵcritiqueӵ cfӵ
hi¿hӵart.ӵDnӵtheӵccntrary,ӵitӵeffacesӵtheӵpicturesqueӵima¿eryӵtcӵwhichӵtheӵcritiqueӵ
appealsӵinӵcrderӵtcӵletӵtheӵBizetӵcharactersӵbeӵrebcrnӵasӵtheӵ pureӵabstracticnӵcfӵ
aӵ Beethcvenӵquartet.ӵltӵ makesӵ¿ypsiesӵ andӵ tcreadcrsӵ disappearӵ inӵ theӵ meltin¿ӵ
musicӵcfӵima¿esӵthatӵunites,ӵ inӵtheӵsameӵbreath,ӵtheӵ soǙơndӵcfӵstrin¿s,ӵcfӵwavesӵ
andӵ cfӵ bcdies.ӵ lnӵ cppcsiticnӵ tcӵ theӵ dialecticalӵ practiceӵ thatӵ accentuatesӵ theӵ
heterc¿eneityӵ cfӵ elementsӵ tcӵ prcvckeӵ aӵ shcck,ӵ bearin¿ӵ witnessӵ tcӵ aӵ realityӵ
markedӵbyӵanta¿cnisms,ӵmysteryӵemphasisesӵtheӵkinshipӵcfӵtheӵheterc¿enecus.ӵ
ltӵccnstructsӵaӵ¿ameӵcfӵanalc¿iesӵinӵwhichӵtheyӵwitnessӵaӵccmmcnӵwcrld,ӵwhereӵ
theӵmcstӵdistantӵrealitiesӵappearӵasӵ ifӵcutӵfrcmӵtheӵsameӵsensibleӵfabricӵandӵcanӵ
alwaysӵbeӵlinkedӵbyӵwhatӵCcdardӵcallsӵtheӵ'fraternityӵcfӵmetaphcrs'.ӵ
'Mystery'ӵwasӵtheӵcentralӵccnceptӵcfӵsymbclism.ӵAndӵcertainly,ӵsymbclismӵi sӵ
cnceӵa¿ainӵcnӵҺheӵ a¿enda.ӵByӵthatӵl ' mӵnctӵreferrin¿ӵtcӵcertainӵ spectacularӵandӵ
sli¿htlyӵ nausecusӵ fcrms,ӵ likeӵ theӵ resurrecticnӵ cfӵ symbclistӵ mythclc¿yӵ andӵ
Wa¿nerianӵfantasiesӵcfӵtheӵtctalӵwcrkӵcfӵartӵinӵMatthewӵBarney'sӵCrcmos!crŦcycleӵ
( lŚŚ7-ŚŚ).ӵ l'mӵ thinkin¿ӵcfӵtheӵmcreӵ mcdest,ӵ scmetimesӵ imperceptibleӵ wayӵ inӵ
whichӵ assembla¿esӵ cfӵcbŐects,ӵ ima¿esӵ andӵ si¿nқӵ presentedӵ byӵ ccntempcraryӵ
installaticnsӵhave,ӵcverӵtheӵlastӵfewӵyears,ӵslidӵtheӵlc¿icӵcfӵprcvccativeӵdissensusӵ
intcӵ thatӵcfӵaӵ mysteryӵ thatӵbearsӵwitnessӵtcӵ aӵ ccĦpresence.ӵ Flsewhereӵ lӵ haveӵ
menticnedӵtheӵphctc¿raphs,ӵvidecsӵandӵinstallaticnsӵcfӵtheӵ exhibiticnӵ'Mcvin¿ӵ
Pictures',ӵ presentedӵ atӵ theӵ Cu¿¿enheimӵ Museumӵ inӵ Newӵ Ycrkӵ inӵ Ů00Ů.ʤӵ ltӵ
affĊrmedӵ ccntempcraǤyӵ art'sӵ ccntinuityӵ withӵ anӵ artisticӵ radicalityӵ bcrnӵ inӵtheӵ
lŚ70sӵasӵaӵcritiqueӵcfӵbcthӵartisticӵautcncmyӵandӵdcminantӵrepresentaticns˗ӵButӵ
- inӵtheӵ ima¿eӵ cfӵVanessaӵ Beecrcft'sӵ videcsӵpresentin¿ӵ nudeӵ andӵ inexpressiveӵ
femaleӵ bcdiesӵ inӵ theӵmuseumӵ space,ӵ inӵ theӵ phctc¿raphsӵ cfӵSamӵTaylcr-Wccd,ӵ
RinekeӵDiŐkstraӵcrӵCre¿cryӵCrewdscnӵshcwin¿ӵbcdiesӵcfӵambi¿ucusӵ identityӵinӵ
undefinedӵ spaces,ӵ crӵ i nӵ Christianӵ Bcltanski'sӵ darkӵ rccmӵ withӵ li¿htbulbsӵ
illuminatin¿ӵwallsӵ ccveredӵ inӵancnymcusӵ phctc¿raphsӵ - theӵ interrc¿aticnӵ cfӵ
perceptualӵ sterectypes,ӵ whichӵ wasӵ alwaysӵ invcked,ӵ slidӵ tcwardsӵ aӵ ccmpletelyӵ
differentӵinterestӵinӵtheӵva¿ueӵbcrdersӵbetweenӵtheӵfamiliarӵandӵtheӵstran¿e,ӵtheӵ
realӵ andӵ theӵ symbclic,ӵ thatӵ fascinatedӵ paintersӵ atӵ theӵ timeӵ cfӵ symbclism,ӵ
metaphysicalӵ paintin¿ӵ andӵ ma¿icӵrealism.ӵ Hcwever,ӵ cnӵtheӵ upperӵ levelӵ cfӵtheӵ
museum,ӵaӵvidecӵinstallaticnӵbyӵBillӵViclaӵwasӵprcŐectedӵcntcӵfcurӵwallsӵcfӵaӵdarkӵ
rccm.ӵ flamesӵ andӵ delu¿es,ӵ slcwӵ prccessicns,ӵ urbanӵ wanderin¿s,ӵ aӵ wake,ӵ crӵ
castin¿ӵcffӵaӵship,ӵsimultanecuslyӵsymbclizin¿ӵtheӵfcurӵelementsӵandӵtheӵwhcleӵ
cycleӵcfӵbirth,ӵ life,ӵ deathӵ andӵ resurrecticn.ӵTheӵexperimentalӵ artӵcfӵvidecӵthusӵ
cameӵtcӵmanifestӵtheӵlatentӵtendencyӵcfӵmanyӵmechanismsӵcfӵtcdayӵthatӵmimic,ӵ
ROnciète//PtoblemSĸOndĸ TtOnS!otmO!ionSĸinĸCti!icOlĸAt!//º¡ĸ
inӵtheirӵownӵways,ӵtheӵ¿reatӵ frescoesӵofӵhumanӵ destinyӵthatӵtheӵ symbolistӵandӵ
expressionistӵperiodӵhadӵ aӵlikin¿ӵfor.ӵ
Dfӵ courseӵ theseӵ cate¿orizationsӵ areӵ schematic.ӵ Contemporaryӵ exhibitionsӵ
andӵinstallationsӵconferӵonӵtheӵcoupleӵ'toӵexhibitjtoӵinstall'ӵseveralӵrolesӵatӵonce,ӵ
theyӵ playӵ onӵ theӵ fluctuatin¿ӵ borderӵ betweenӵ criticalӵ provocationӵ andӵ theӵ
undecidabilityӵofӵitsӵmeanin¿,ӵbetweenӵtheӵformӵofӵanӵexhibitedӵworkӵandӵthatӵ
ofӵ theӵ appointedӵ spaceӵ ofӵ interaction.ӵ Theӵ mechanismsӵ ofӵ contemporaryӵ
exhibitionsӵoftenӵcultivateӵthisӵpolyvalenceӵorӵsubmitӵtoӵitsӵeffect.ӵTheӵexhibitionӵ
voila thusӵpresentedӵanӵinstallationӵbyӵBertrandӵLavier,ӵ5ollcŦJcsŦMor!ín,Ŧwhichӵ
¿atheredӵ to¿etherӵ aboutӵ fiftyӵ paintin¿s,ӵ fromӵ theӵ collectionsӵ ofӵ provincialӵ
museums,ӵ thatӵ hadӵ asӵ theirӵ onlyӵ sharedӵ elementӵ theӵ nameӵ ofӵ theirӵ author,ӵ
Martinӵ - theӵ mostӵ commonӵ surnameӵ inӵ France.ӵ Theӵ initialӵ ideaӵ setӵ thisӵ
installationӵ inӵ relationӵ toӵaӵ questionin¿ӵ ofӵtheӵ meanin¿sӵ ofӵaӵworkӵandӵ ofӵtheӵ
si¿natureӵ thatӵ isӵ characteristicӵ ofӵ conceptualӵ art.ӵ Butӵ inӵ thisӵ newӵ memorialӵ
contextӵitӵtookӵonӵaӵnewӵmeanin¿,ӵattestin¿ӵtoӵ theӵ multiplicityӵofӵmoreӵorӵlessӵ
i¿noredӵpictorialӵabilities,ӵandӵinscribin¿ӵaӵlostӵworldӵofӵpaintin¿ӵinӵtheӵmemoryӵ
ofӵtheӵcentury.ӵThisӵmultiplicityӵofӵmeanin¿sӵattributedӵtoӵtheӵsameӵmechanismsӵ
isӵ sometimesӵ presentedӵ asӵ bearin¿ӵ witnessӵ toӵ art'sӵ democracy,ӵ refusin¿ӵ toӵ
disentan¿leӵ aӵ complexityӵ ofӵ standpointsӵ andӵ aӵ fluidityӵ ofӵ bordersӵ thatӵ
themselvesӵreflectӵtheӵcomplexityӵofӵaӵworld.ӵ
Theӵ contradictoryӵattitudesӵ shownӵ byӵ theӵ mainӵaestheticӵ paradi¿msӵ todayӵ
expressӵ aӵ moreӵ fundamentalӵ undecidabilityӵ aboutӵ theӵ politicsӵ ofӵ art.ӵ Thisӵ
undecidabilityӵisӵnotӵtheӵeffectӵofӵaӵpostmodernӵturn.ӵltӵisӵconstitutive.ӵaestheticӵ
suspensionӵletsӵitselfӵbeӵinterpretedӵinӵtwoӵways.ӵTheӵsin¿ularityӵofӵartӵisӵlinkedӵ
toӵtheӵ identificationӵ ofӵitsӵ autonomousӵ formsӵ withӵ theӵ formsӵ ofӵlifeӵ andӵ withӵ
possibleӵpolitics.ӵTheseӵpossibleӵpoliticsӵareӵonlyӵeverӵrealizedӵinӵfullӵatӵtheӵpriceӵ
ofӵ abolishin¿ӵ theӵ sin¿ularityӵ ofӵ art,ӵ theӵ sin¿ularityӵ ofӵ politics,ӵ orӵ һheӵ twoӵ
to¿ether.ӵBein¿ӵconsciousӵofӵthisӵundecidabilityӵtodayӵ leadsӵtoӵopposedӵfeelin¿s.ӵ
inӵsome,ӵaӵmelancholyӵwithӵre¿ardӵtoӵtheӵsharedӵworldӵthatӵartӵcarriedӵwithinӵ
itself,ӵ ifӵ thisӵ hadӵ notӵ beenӵ betrayedӵ byӵ politicalӵ enrolmentӵ orӵ commercialӵ
compromises,ӵ inӵothers,ӵanӵawarenessӵofӵitsӵ limits,ӵ theӵtendencyӵtoӵplayӵonӵtheӵ
limitationӵofӵitsӵpowersӵandӵtheӵveryӵuncertaintyӵofӵitsӵeffects.ӵButӵtheӵparadoxӵ
ofӵ ourӵ presentӵ isӵ perhapsӵ thatӵ thisӵ art,ӵ soӵ uncertainӵ ofӵitsӵ politics,ӵ mi¿htӵ beӵ
invitedӵtoӵaӵhi¿herӵde¿reeӵofӵinterventionӵbyӵtheӵveryӵdeficitӵofӵpoliticsӵ proper.ӵ
lt'sӵ asӵ ifӵ theӵ shrinkin¿ӵ ofӵ publicӵ spaceӵ andӵ theӵ effacementӵ ofӵ politicalӵ
inventivenessӵinӵaӵtimeӵofӵconsensusӵ¿aveӵaӵsubstitutiveӵpoliticalӵfunctionӵtoӵtheӵ
mini-demonstrationsӵofӵartists,ӵtoӵtheirӵcollectionsӵofӵob¡ectsӵandӵtraces,ӵtoӵtheirӵ
mechanismsӵofӵinteraction,ӵtoӵtheirӵprovocationsӵínŦsí!uŦorӵelsewhere.ӵKnowin¿ӵ
ifӵtheseӵ'substitutions'ӵcanӵrecomposeӵpoliticalӵspaces,ӵorӵifӵtheyӵmustӵbeӵcontentӵ
toӵparodyӵthem,ӵisӵcertainlyӵoneӵofӵtheӵquestionsӵofӵtoday.ӵ
º2/ĸ /THEORET¡CAĸFRAEWORKĸ
ţƊŹ]ƬĭnonǪLttdovisiǪisͥaͥsIaIucͥdcscribcdͥbyͥSchiIIcrͥinͥIhcͥIilIccnIhͥolͥhisͥLcrrcrsǪonǪrhcǪAcsrhcricǪ
£ducorionǪo]ǪMonǪ (1794)Ŏͥandͥ whichēͥ isͥ kcyͥ Ioͥ kancièrc'sͥcIucidaIionͥolͥ Ihcͥ acsIhcIicͥ ďc¿imcͥ olͥ
arI.ͥ Forͥ aͥ lu˳Icrͥdiscussionͥ sccͥ|acqucsͥ kancièrc,ͥ 'ThcͥAcsIhcIicͥ kcvoIuIionͥ andͥ iIsͥ OuIcomcs',ͥ
NcwǪLc)rǪkcvicw,ǪMarchjApriIͥ?00?.ͥ[TransIaIor]ͥ
?ͥ SIichomyIhic,ͥlďomͥsqchomorhioǪ¯ diaIo¿ucͥ inͥaIIcrnaIcͥ Iincsͥ olͥ vcrsc,ͥ usuaIIyͥinͥ dispuIaIionͥ
FromͥCrcckͥdrama.ͥ[TransIaIor]ͥ
3ͥ Cl.|acqucsͥkancièrc,ͥLcǪDcsrinǪdcsǪimo¿csǪ(Farisħͥ laͥFabriquc,ͥ?003)ͥ33.ͥ
4ͥ kclcrcnccͥisͥ madcͥhcrcͥIoͥMichcIͥdcͥCcrIcau'sͥbookͥLcsǪArrsǪdcǪ]oircǪ(Faris:ͥUCE,ͥ1980).ͥ
ţʎ NicoIasͥ6ourriaud,ͥ£srhériqucǪrélorionnclIcǪ(ɛi¡onħͥlcsͥprcsscsͥduͥrccI,ͥ 1998)ͥ37.ͥ
5ͥ |acqucsͥkancièrc,ͥŏcǪDcsrinǪdcsǪimo¿cs,Ǫ oƻǪƜɝ.ʎ74Ġ5.ͥ
|acqucsͥ kancièrc,ͥ 'FrobIcmsͥ andͥ TranslormaIionsͥ inͥ CriIicaIͥ ArIė,ͥMoIoiscǪ donsǪ l'csrhériqucǪ (Farisțͥ
EdiIionsͥCaIiIcc,ͥ?004)ͥ55-84.ͥTransIaIcdͥ byͥCIaircͥ6ishop,ͥassisIcdͥbyͥFabIoͥL?lucnIc,ͥ?005.ͥ
ROncíète/ĸ/PtoblemSĸOndĸTtOnS!otmO!ionSĸínĸCti!ícOlĸP!/ĸ /ºöĸ
ARTÎ5T5' WRÎTÎNC5
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!ncor¸Ŧo]Ŧ 'cons!ruc!cJŦsí!uo!íons'Ŧ- por!ícípo!or¸Ŧcvcn!sŦusín¿Ŧcxpcrímcn!olŦDcnovíourŦ
!oŦ DrcokŦ !ncŦ spcc!oculorŦ DínJŦ o]Ŧ copí!olísm.Ŧ Cons!ruc!cJŦ sí!uo!íons,Ŧ ínŦ wnícnŦ !ncŦ
ouJícnccŦ ísŦ onŦ oc!ívcŦ por!ícípon!,Ŧ novcŦ DccnŦ onŦ on¿oín¿Ŧ poín!Ŧ o]Ŧ rc]crcnccŦ ]orŦ
con!cmporor¸Ŧor!ís!sŦworkín¿Ŧwí!nŦlívcŦcvcn!s.Ŧ
Durӵ centralӵ purpcseӵ isӵ theӵ ccnstructicnӵ cfӵ situaticns,ӵ thatӵ is,ӵ theӵ ccncreteӵ
ccnstructicnӵcfӵtempcraryӵsettin¿sӵ cfӵlifeӵandӵ theirӵ transfcrmaticnӵ intcӵ aӵhi¿her,ӵ
passicnateӵnature.ӵWeӵmustӵdevelcpӵanӵinterventicnӵdirectedӵbyӵtheӵccmplicatedӵ
factcrsӵ cfӵtwcӵ¿reatӵccmpcnentsӵ inӵ perpetualӵinteracticn:ӵ theӵmaterialӵsettin¿ӵcfӵ
lifeӵandӵtheӵbehavicursӵthatӵitӵincitesӵandӵthatӵcverturnӵit.ӵ
Durӵprcspectsӵfcrӵacticnӵcnӵtheӵenvircnmentӵlead,ӵinӵtheirӵlatestӵdevelcpment,ӵ
tcӵtheӵideaӵcfӵaӵunitaryӵurbanismƼӵUnitaryӵurbanismӵfirstӵbeccmesӵclearӵinӵtheӵuseӵ
cfӵ theӵ whcleӵ cfӵ artsӵ andӵ techniquesӵ asӵ meansӵ cccperatin¿ӵ inӵ anӵ inte¿ralӵ
ccmpcsiticnӵ cfӵtheӵ envircnmenҼӵ Thisӵ whcleӵmustӵbeӵccnsideredӵ infinitelyӵ mcreӵ
extensiveӵ thanӵ theӵ cldӵ influenceӵ cfӵarchitectureӵ cnӵ theӵ traditicnalӵ arts,ӵ crӵ theӵ
currentӵcccasicnalӵapplicaticnӵtcӵ anarchicӵurbanismӵcfӵspecializedӵtechniquesӵcrӵ
cfӵscientificӵ investi¿aticnsӵ suchӵ asӵecclc¿y.ӵ Unitaryӵ urbanismӵ mustӵ ccntrcl,ӵ fcrӵ
example,ӵtheӵaccusticӵenvircnmentӵasӵwellӵasӵtheӵdistributicnӵcfӵdifferentӵvarietiesӵ
cfӵdrinkӵcrӵfccd.ӵltӵmustӵtakeӵupӵtheӵcreaticnӵcfӵnewӵfcrmsӵandӵtheӵJc!oumcmcn!Ŧ
cfӵkncwnӵfcrmsӵcfӵarchitectureӵandӵurbanismӵ- asӵwellӵasӵtheӵJc!oumcmcn!Ŧcfӵtheӵ
cldӵpcetryӵandӵcinema.ӵlnte¿ralӵart,ӵ abcutӵwhichӵscӵmuchӵhasӵbeenӵ said,ӵ canӵcnlyӵ
materializeӵ atӵ theӵ levelӵ cfӵurbanism.ӵ Butӵ itӵ canӵ ncӵ lcn¿erӵccrrespcndӵ withӵ anyӵ
traditicnalӵ definiticnsӵcfӵtheӵ aesthetic.ӵ lnӵeachӵcfӵitsӵ experimentalӵcities,ӵunitaryӵ
urbanismӵ willӵ wcrkӵ thrcu¿hӵ aӵ certainӵ numberӵ cfӵ fcrceӵ fields,ӵ whichӵ weӵ canӵ
tempcrarilyӵdesi¿nateӵbyӵtheӵstandardӵexpressicnӵJis!ric!.ŦFachӵdistrictӵwillӵbeӵableӵ
tcӵ leadӵ tcӵ aӵpreciseӵharmcny,ӵbrckenӵcffӵfrcmӵnei¿hbcurin¿ӵharmcnies,ӵ crӵratherӵ
willӵbeӵableӵtcӵplayӵcnӵaӵmaximumӵbreakin¿ӵupӵcfӵinternalӵharmcny.ӵ
Seccndly,ӵ unitaryӵ urbanismӵ isӵ dynamic,ӵ i.eǮӵ inӵ clcseӵ tcuchӵ withӵ stylesӵ cfӵ
behavicur.ӵTheӵmcstӵreducedӵelementӵcfӵunitaryӵurbanismӵisӵnctӵtheӵhcuseӵbutӵtheӵ
architecturalӵ ccmplex,ӵ whichӵ isӵ theӵ unicnӵ cfӵ allӵ theӵ factcrsӵ ccnditicnin¿ӵ anӵ
envircnment,ӵ crӵ aӵ sequenceӵ cfӵ envircnmentsӵ ccllidin¿ӵ atӵ theӵ scaleӵ cfӵ theӵ
ccnstructedӵ situaticn.ӵSpatialӵdevelcpmentӵ mustӵtaőeӵtheӵ affectiveӵ realitiesӵ thatӵ
theӵ experimentalӵ cityӵ willӵ determineӵ intcӵ acccunt.ӵ Dneӵ cfӵ curӵ ccmradesӵ hasӵ
prcmctedӵaӵthecryӵcfӵstatesĥcfˬmindӵdistricts,ӵacccrdin¿ӵtcӵwhichӵeachӵquarterӵcfӵ
ºó//ĸAT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
aӵcityӵwouldӵtendӵtoӵinduceӵaӵsin¿leӵemotion,ӵtoӵwhichӵtheӵsub¡ectӵwillӵconsciouslyӵ
exposeӵherselfӵorӵ himself.ӵ ltӵseemsӵ thatӵsuchӵaӵpro¡ectӵ drawsӵ timelyӵconclusionsӵ
fromӵ anӵ increasinϝӵ depreciationӵ ofӵ accidentalӵ primaryӵ emotions,ӵ andӵ thatӵ itsӵ
realizationӵcouldӵcontributeӵtoӵacceleratin¿ӵthisӵchan¿e.ӵComradesӵwhoӵ callӵforӵaӵ
newӵarchitecǢurż,ӵaӵfreeӵ architecture,ӵmustӵunderstandӵ thatӵthisӵnewӵarchitectu҅eӵ
willӵ notӵ playӵ atӵ firstӵ onӵfree,ӵ poeticӵ lġnesӵ andӵ formsӵ - inӵ theӵ senseӵ thatӵ today'sӵ
ʥlyricalӵ abstractưӵpaintin¿ӵusesӵtheseӵwordsӵ- butӵratherӵonӵtheӵatmosphericӵeffectsӵ
ofӵrooms,ӵ corridors,ӵ streets,ӵ atmospheresӵ linkedӵ toӵ theӵ behavioursӵ theyӵ contain.ӵ
Architectureӵmustӵadvanceӵbyӵtakin¿ӵasӵitsӵsub¡ectӵemotionallyӵmovin¿ӵsituations,ӵ
moreӵ thanӵ emotionallyӵ movin¿ӵ forms,ӵ asӵ theӵ materialӵ itӵ worksӵ with.ӵ Andӵ theӵ
experimentsӵ draɤnӵ fromӵ thisӵ sub¡ectӵ willӵ leadӵ toӵ unknownӵ forms.ӵ
Psycho¿eo¿raphicalӵ research,ӵ 'studyӵ ofӵtheӵexactӵ lawsӵ andӵ preciseӵ effectsӵ ofӵtheӵ
¿eo¿raphġcalӵ envġronment,ӵ conscġouslyӵ or¿anġzedӵ orӵ not,ӵacϊч¿ӵdʦģrecӏyӵ onӵ theӵ
affectiveӵ deportmentӵofӵindividuals',ӵ thusӵ takesӵ onӵitsӵdoubleӵmeanin¿ӵofӵactiveӵ
obseģƪationӵ ofӵtoday'sӵ urbanӵ areasӵ andӵ theӵ establishmentӵ ofӵhypothesesӵ onӵ theӵ
structureӵ ofӵ aӵ situationistӵ city.ӵ Psycho¿eo¿raphy'sӵ pro¿ressӵ dependsӵ toӵ aӵ ¿reatӵ
extentӵonӵtheӵstatisticalӵextensionӵofӵitsӵmethodsӵofӵobservation,ӵbutӵprincipallyӵonӵ
experimentationӵthrou¿hӵconcreteӵinteģƪentionsӵinӵurbanism.ӵUntilӵ thisӵsta¿e,ӵtheӵ
ob¡ectiveӵ truthӵ ofӵevenӵ theӵfirstӵpsycho¿eo¿raphicalӵdataӵ cannotӵbeӵ ensured.ӵButӵ
evenӵ ifӵtheseӵ dataӵ shouldӵ turnӵ outӵ toӵ beӵ false,ӵ theyӵ wouldӵ certainlyӵ beӵ falseӵ
solutionsӵtoӵaӵ¿enuineӵproblem.ӵ
Durӵ actionӵ onӵ deportment,ӵ inӵ connectionӵ withӵ otherӵ desirableӵ aspectsӵ ofӵ aӵ
revolutionӵinӵcustoms,ӵca
Ӵӵ
beӵdefinedӵs
ummarilyӵasӵtheӵinventionӵofӵaӵnewӵspeciesӵ
ofӵ¿ames.ӵTheӵmostӵ¿eneralӵaimӵmustӵbeӵtoӵbroadenӵtheӵnon-mediocreӵportionӵofӵ
life,ӵtoӵreduceӵitsӵemptyӵmomentsӵasӵmuchӵasӵpos͡ible.ӵltӵmayӵthusӵbeӵspokenӵofӵasӵ
anӵ enterpriseӵ ofӵ humanӵ life'sӵ quantitativeӵ increase,ӵ moreӵ seriousӵ thanӵ theӵ
biolo¿icalӵ processesӵ currentlyӵbein¿ӵstudied.ӵFvenӵthere,ӵ itӵimpliesӵaӵ qualitativeӵ
increaseӵwhoseӵdevelopmentsӵareӵunforeseeable.ӵTheӵsituationistӵ¿ameӵstandsӵoutӵ
fromӵ theӵ standardӵ conceptionӵ ofӵtheӵ ¿ameӵ byӵ theӵ radicalӵ ne¿ationӵ ofӵtheӵ ludicӵ
featuresӵofӵcompetitionӵandӵofӵitsӵseparationӵfromӵ theӵstreamӵofӵlife.ӵ lnӵcontrast,ӵ
theӵsituationistӵ¿ameӵdoesӵnotӵap
ѳ
earӵdistinctӵfroɎӵaӵmoralӵchoice,ӵdecidin¿ӵwhatӵ
ensuresӵ theӵ futureӵ rei¿nӵ ofӵ freedomӵ andӵ play.ӵ Thisӵ isӵ obviouslyӵ linkedӵ toӵ theӵ
certaintyӵofӵtheӵcontinualӵandӵrapidӵincreaseӵofӵleisure,ӵatӵaӵlevelӵcorrespondin¿ӵtoӵ
thatӵofӵourӵeraưsӵproductiveӵforces.ӵltӵisӵequallyӵlinkedӵtoӵtheӵreco¿nitionӵofӵtheӵfactӵ
thatӵaӵbattleӵoverӵleisureӵisӵtakin¿ӵplaceӵbeforeӵourӵeyesӵwhoseӵimportanceӵinӵtheӵ
classӵ stru¿¿leӵ hasӵ notӵ beenӵ sufficientl
yӵanalyzed.ӵToӵ thisӵ day,ӵ theӵ rulin¿ӵclassӵ isӵ
succeedin¿ӵ inӵ makin¿ӵ useӵ ofӵ theӵ leisureӵ thatӵ theӵ revolutionaryӵ proletariatӵ
extractedӵ fromӵ itӵ byӵ developin¿ӵ aӵ vastӵ industrialӵ sectorӵ ofӵ leisureӵ thatӵ isӵ anӵ
unrivaledӵ instrumentӵ forӵ bestializin¿ӵ theӵ proletariatӵ throu¿hӵ by-productsӵ ofӵ
mystifyin¿ӵ ideolo¿yӵ andӵ bour¿eoisӵ tastes.ӵ Dneӵofӵtheӵ reasonsӵ forӵ theӵ Americanӵ
Debotd/ĸ /TowOtdSĸOĸ5í!uO!íoníS!ĸ¡n!etnO!íonOl/ĸ /º7ĸ
workin¿ӵclass'sӵincapacityӵtoӵbecomeӵpoliticizedӵ shouldӵ likelyӵbeӵ sou¿htӵamidstӵ
thisӵabundanceӵofӵtelevisedӵbaseness.ӵByӵobtainin¿ӵthrou¿hӵ collectiveӵ pressureӵ aӵ
sli¿htӵ riseӵ inӵ theӵ priceӵ ofӵ itsӵ labourӵ aboveӵ theӵ minimumӵ necessaryӵ forӵ theӵ
productionӵofӵthatӵlabour,ӵtheӵ proletariatӵnotӵonlyӵenlar¿esӵ itsӵ ɒowerӵofӵstru¿¿leӵ
butӵalsoӵwidensӵtheӵterrainӵofӵtheӵstru¿¿leĕӵ Newӵformsӵofӵthisӵ stru¿¿leӵthenӵoccurӵ
parallelӵ withӵdirectlyӵ economicӵandӵpoliticalӵconflicts.ӵRevolutionaryӵpropa¿andaӵ
canӵ beӵ saidӵ untilӵ nowӵ toӵ haveӵ beenӵ constantlyӵ dominatedӵ inӵ theseӵ formsӵ ofӵ
stru¿¿leӵinӵallӵ countriesӵ whereӵ advancedӵ industrialӵ developmentӵ hasӵ introducedӵ
them.ӵThatӵtheӵ necessaryӵtransformationӵofӵtheӵ baseӵ couldӵbeӵdelayedӵbyӵ errorsӵ
andӵ weaknessesӵatӵtheӵlevelӵofӵsuperstructuresӵhasӵunfortunatelyӵ beenӵ provenӵbyӵ
someӵofӵtheӵtwentiethӵcentury'sӵexperiences.ӵNewӵforcesӵ mustӵbeӵhurledӵ intoӵtheӵ
battleӵoverӵleisure,ӵandӵweӵwillӵtakeӵupӵourӵpositionӵthere.ӵ
Aӵhrstӵattemptӵatӵaӵnewӵmannerӵofӵdeportmentӵhasӵalreadyӵbeenӵachievedӵwithӵ
whatӵ weӵ haveӵ desi¿natedӵ theӵ JcŃvc,Ŕ whichӵ isӵ theӵ practiceӵ ofӵ aӵ passionateӵ
uprootin¿ӵ throu¿hӵ theӵ hurriedӵ chan¿eӵ ofӵ environments,ӵ asӵ wellӵ asӵ aӵ meansӵ ofӵ
studyin¿ӵpsychoӵ¿eo¿raphyӵandӵsituationistӵpsycholo¿y.ӵButӵtheӵapplicationӵofӵthisӵ
willӵtoӵludicӵcreationӵmustӵbeӵextendedӵtoӵallӵknownӵformsӵofӵhumanӵrelationships,ӵ
andӵ must,ӵ forӵ example,ӵ influenceӵ theӵ historicalӵ evolutionӵ ofӵ emotionsӵ likeӵ
friendshipӵ andӵ love.ӵ Fverythin¿ӵleadsӵtoӵtheӵ beliefӵthatӵtheӵ mainӵ insi¿htӵofӵourӵ
researchӵliesӵinӵtheӵhypothesisӵofӵconstructionsӵofӵsituations.ӵ
Aӵman'sӵlifeӵisӵaӵsequenceӵofӵchanceӵsituations,ӵandӵ ifӵnoneӵofӵthemӵisӵexactlyӵ
similarӵtoӵ another,ӵ atӵtheӵleastӵtheseӵsituationsӵare,ӵ inӵ theirӵimmenseӵma¡ority,ӵsoӵ
undifferentiatedӵ andӵ soӵ dullӵ thatӵ theyӵ perfectlyӵ presentӵ theӵ impressionӵ ofӵ
similitude.ӵ Theӵ corollaryӵ ofӵ thisӵ stateӵ ofӵ affairsӵ isӵ thatӵ theӵ sin¿ular,ӵ enchantin¿ӵ
situationsӵexperiencedӵ inӵ lifeӵstrictlyӵrestrainӵandӵ limitӵ thisӵlife.ӵWeӵmustӵtryӵtoӵ
constructӵ situations,ӵ i.e.˃ӵ collectiveӵ environments,ӵ ensemblesӵ ofӵ impressionsӵ
determinin¿ӵtheӵqualityӵofӵaӵmoment.ӵlfӵweӵtakeӵtheӵsimpleӵexampleӵofӵaӵ¿atherin¿ӵ
ofӵaӵ¿roupӵofӵindividualsӵforӵaӵ¿ivenӵtime,ӵ andӵtakin¿ӵintoӵaccountӵacquaintancesӵ
andӵmaterialӵmeansӵatӵourӵdisposal,ӵweӵmustӵstudyӵwhichӵarran¿ementӵofӵtheӵsite,ӵ
whichӵselectionӵofӵpa҆ticipants,ӵandӵwhichӵincitementӵofӵeventsӵsuitӵtheӵ desiredӵ
environment.ӵSurelyӵtheӵ powersӵofӵaӵsituationӵwillӵbroadenӵconsiderablyӵinӵtimeӵ
andӵ inӵ spaceʧӵɳiҽhӵ theӵ realizationsӵ ofӵ unitaryӵ urbanismӵ orӵ theӵ educationӵ ofӵ aӵ
situationistӵ¿eneration.ӵTheӵconstructionӵofӵsituationsӵbe¿insӵonӵtheӵotherӵsideӵofӵ
theӵmodernӵcollapseӵofӵtheӵideaӵofӵtheӵtheatre.ӵ ltӵisӵeasyӵtoӵseeӵtoӵwhatӵextentӵtheӵ
veŒĿӵprincipleӵofӵtheӵtheatreӵ- non-interventionӵ - isӵattachedӵtoӵtheӵalienationӵofӵ
theӵ oldӵ world.ӵ lnversely,ӵ weӵ seeӵ howӵ theӵ mostӵ validӵ ofӵ revolutionaryӵ culturalӵ
explorationsӵhaveӵsou¿htӵtoӵbreakӵtheӵspectator'sӵpsycholo¿icalӵidentificationӵwithӵ
theӵhero,ӵsoӵasӵtoӵinciteӵthisӵspectatorӵintoӵactivityӵbyӵprovokin¿ӵhisӵcapacitiesӵtoӵ
revolutionizeӵ hisӵ ownӵ life.ӵ Theӵ situationӵ isӵ thusӵ madeӵ toӵ beӵ livedӵ byӵ itsӵ
constructors.ӵTheӵ roleӵ ofӵtheӵ 'public',ӵ ifӵnotӵ passiveӵatӵleastӵaӵwalk-on,ӵmustӵeverӵ
ĵĴJJǪ AT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
diminish,ӵ whileӵ theӵ shareӵ ofӵthoseӵ whoӵ cannotӵ beӵ calledӵ actorsӵ but,ӵ inӵ aӵ newӵ
meanin¿ӵofӵtheӵterm,ӵ'liversɾӵ willӵincrease.ӵ
Ȝetӵusӵsayӵthatӵweӵhaveӵtoӵmultiplyӵpoeticӵob¡ectsӵandӵsub¡ectsӵ¦unfortunatelyӵ
soӵrareӵatӵpresentӵthatӵtheӵmostӵtriflin¿ӵofӵthemӵassumesӵanӵexa¿¿eratedӵemotionalӵ
importance)ӵandӵthatӵweӵ haveӵ toӵor¿anizeӵ¿amesӵofӵtheseӵ poeticӵsub¡ectsӵ amon¿ӵ
theseӵ poeticӵ ob¡ects.ӵ Thereӵ isӵ ourӵ entireӵ pro¿ramme,ӵ whichӵ isӵ essentiallyӵ
ephemeral.ӵ Durӵ situationsӵ willӵ beӵ withoutӵ aӵ future,ӵ theyӵ willӵ beӵ placesӵ whereӵ
peopleӵ areӵ constantlyӵ comin¿ӵ andӵ ¿oin¿.ӵ Theӵ unchan¿in¿ӵ natureӵ ofӵ art,ӵ orӵ ofӵ
anythin¿ӵ else,ӵ doesӵ notӵenterӵ intoӵ ourӵconsiderations,ӵ whichӵ areӵ inӵ earnest.ӵTheӵ
ideaӵofӵeternityӵisӵtheӵbasestӵoneӵaӵmanӵcouldӵconceiveӵofӵre¿ardin¿ӵhisӵ acts.ӵ
Situationistӵ techniquesӵ haveӵ yetӵ toӵ beӵ invented,ӵ butӵ weӵ knowӵ thatӵ aӵ taskӵ
presentsӵ itselfӵonlyӵ whereӵ theӵ materialӵ conditionsӵ necessaryӵ forӵ itsӵ realizationӵ
alreadyӵ exist,ӵ orӵareӵ atӵ leastӵ inӵ theӵ processӵ ofӵformation.ӵ Weӵ mustӵ be¿inӵwithӵ aӵ
small-scale,ӵ experimentalӵ phase.ӵ Undoubtedlyӵ weӵ mustӵ drawӵ upӵ blueprintsӵ forӵ
situations,ӵ likeӵ scripts,ӵ despiteӵ theirӵ unavoidableӵ inadequacyӵ atӵ theӵ be¿innin¿.ӵ
Therefore,ӵ weӵ willӵ haveӵ toӵ introduceӵ aӵ systemӵofӵnotationӵ whoseӵaccuracyӵwillӵ
increaseӵ asӵ experimentsӵ inӵ constructionӵ teachӵ usӵ more.ӵWeӵwillӵ haveӵtoӵ hndӵ orӵ
conhrmӵ laws,ӵ likeӵ thoseӵ thatӵ makeӵ situationistӵ emotionӵ dependentӵ uponӵ anӵ
extremeӵconcentrationӵorӵanӵextremeӵdispersionӵofӵactsӵ¦classicalӵtra¿edyӵprovidin¿ӵ
anӵapproximateӵima¿eӵofӵtheӵhrstӵcase,ӵandӵ theӵ JcřvcŦofӵtheӵsecond).ӵ Besidesӵ theӵ
directӵmeansӵthatӵwillӵbeӵusedӵtowardӵ preciseӵends,ӵtheӵconstructionӵofӵsituationsӵ
willӵ require,ӵ inӵitsӵ affirmativeӵ phase,ӵ aӵnewӵimplementationӵofӵreproductiveӵtechǨ
nolo¿ies.ӵ Weӵ couldӵ ima¿ine,ӵ forӵ example,ӵ liveӵ televisualӵ pro¡ectionsӵ ofӵ someӵ
aspectsӵ ofӵoneӵsituationӵ intoӵanother,ӵ brin¿in¿ӵ aboutӵ modihcationsӵ andӵ interferɩ
ences.ӵBut,ӵmoreӵsimply,ӵcinematicӵ'news'ӵ reelsӵ mi¿htӵhnallyӵdeserveӵtheirӵnameӵifӵ
weӵestablishӵaӵnewӵdocumentaryӵschoolӵ dedicatedӵ toӵ hxin¿ӵtheӵmostӵmeanin¿fulӵ
momentsӵofӵaӵsituationӵforӵoȤrӵarchives,ӵbeforeӵtheӵdevelopmentӵofӵtheseӵelementsӵ
hasӵledӵtoӵaӵdifferentӵsituation.ӵTheӵsystematicӵconstructionӵofӵsituationsӵhavin¿ӵtoӵ
¿enerateӵ previouslyӵ non-existentӵ feelin¿s,ӵ theӵ cinemaӵ willӵ discoverӵ itsӵ ¿reatestӵ
peda¿o¿icalӵ roleӵinӵtheӵdiffusionӵofӵtheseӵnewӵpassions.ӵ
Situationistӵtheoryӵresolutelyӵassertsӵaӵnon-continuousӵconceptionӵofӵlife.ӵTheӵ
ideaӵofӵconsistencyӵmustӵbeӵtransferredӵfromӵtheӵperspectiveӵofӵtheӵwholeӵofӵaӵlifeӵ
- whereӵitӵisӵaӵreactionaryӵmystihcationӵfoundedӵonӵtheӵbeliefӵinӵanӵimmortalӵsoulӵ
and,ӵinӵtheӵlastӵanalysis,ӵonӵtheӵdivisionӵofӵlabourӵ- toӵtheӵviewpointӵofӵmomentsӵ
isolatedӵ fromӵ life,ӵ andӵ ofӵtheӵ constructionӵ ofӵeachӵ momentӵ byӵ aӵ unitaryӵ useӵ ofӵ
situationistӵmeans.ӵ lnӵaӵclasslessӵsociety,ӵ itӵ mi¿htӵbeӵsaid,ӵthereӵwillӵbeӵnoӵmoreӵ
painters,ӵonlyӵsituationistsӵwho,ӵamon¿ӵotherӵthin¿s,ӵmakeӵpaintin¿s.ӵ
Ȝife'sӵ chiefӵemotionalӵ drama,ӵ afterӵ theӵ never-endin¿ӵconflictӵbetweenӵdesireӵ
andӵ realityӵ hostileӵtoӵthatӵdesire,ӵcertainlyӵappearsӵtoӵbeӵtheӵ sensationӵofӵtime'sӵ
passa¿e.ӵ Theӵ situationistӵ attitudeӵ consistsӵ inӵ countin¿ӵ onӵ time'sӵ swiftӵ passin¿,ӵ
Debotd/ĸ /TowOtdSĸOĸ5í!uO!íoníS!ĸ¡n!etnO!íonOl{ĸ /ººĸ
unlikeӵ aestheticӵprccessesӵ whichӵ aimӵ atӵ theӵ fixin¿ӵ cfӵemcticn.ӵTheӵ situaticnistӵ
challen¿eӵ tcӵ theӵ passa¿eӵ cfӵemcticnsӵ andӵ cfӵtimeӵ willӵ beӵ itsӵ wa¿erӵ cnӵ alwaysӵ
¿ainin¿ӵ ¿rcundӵ cnӵ chan¿e,ӵ cnӵ alwaysӵ ¿cin¿ӵ furtherӵ inӵ playӵ andӵ inӵ theӵ
multiplicaticnӵcfӵmcvin¿ӵpericds.ӵ Dbvicusly,ӵ itӵ isӵ nctӵ easyӵ fcrӵ usӵ atӵ thisӵ timeӵ tcӵ
makeӵsuchӵaӵwa¿er,ӵhcwever,ӵevenӵ wereӵweӵ tcӵlcseӵitӵaӵthcusandӵtimes,ӵthereӵ isӵ ncӵ
ctherӵprc¿ressiveӵattitudeӵtcӵadcpt.ӵ
Theӵ situaticnistӵ mincrityӵ wasӵ firstӵ fcrmedӵ asӵ aӵtrendӵ withinӵ theӵlettristӵleftӵ
win¿,ӵ thenӵwithinӵ theӵ Lettristӵ lnternaticnal,ӵ whichӵ itӵ eventuallyӵ ccntrclled.ӵTheӵ
sameӵ cb¡ectiveӵ impulseӵ isӵ leadin¿ӵ severalӵ ccntempcraryӵ avant-¿ardeӵ ¿rcupsӵ tcӵ
similarӵccnclusicns.ӵTc¿etherӵweӵ mustӵdiscardӵallӵtheӵ relicsӵcfӵtheӵ recentӵpast.ӵWeӵ
deemӵ thatӵ tcdayӵ anӵ a¿reementӵ cnӵ aӵ unifiedӵ acticnӵ amcn¿ӵ theӵ revcluticnaryӵ
culturalӵavant-¿ardeӵmustӵimplementӵsuchӵaӵprc¿ramme.ӵWeӵdcӵnctӵhaveӵfcrmulasӵ
ncrӵfinalӵresultsӵ inӵmind.ӵWeӵ areӵmerelyӵprcpcsin¿ӵanӵexperimentalӵresearchӵthatӵ
willӵccllectivelyӵleadӵinӵaӵfewӵdirecticnsӵthatӵweӵareӵinӵtheӵprccessӵcfӵdefinin¿,ӵandӵ
inӵ cthersӵ thatӵhaveӵyetӵ tcӵ ȫeӵ defined.ӵ Theӵ veryӵ difficultyӵ cfӵarrivin¿ӵatӵ theӵ firstӵ
situaticnistӵachievementsӵ isӵ prccfӵcfӵtheӵ newnessӵ cfӵtheӵ realmӵ weӵ areӵ enterin¿.ӵ
Whatӵaltersӵtheӵwayӵweӵseeӵtheӵstreetsӵisӵmcreӵimpcrtantӵthanӵwhatӵaltersӵtheӵwayӵ
weӵ seeӵ paintin¿.ӵ Durӵ wcrkin¿ӵ hypcthesesӵ willӵ beӵ reccnsideredӵ atӵ eachӵ futureӵ
upheaval,ӵwhereverӵitӵmayӵccmeӵ frcm.ӵ
Weӵ willӵ beӵ tcld,ӵ chieflyӵ byӵ revcluticnaryӵ intellectualsӵ andӵ artistsӵ whcӵ fcrӵ
reascnsӵ cfӵ tasteӵ putӵ upӵ withӵ aӵ certainӵ pcwerlessness,ӵ thatӵ thisӵ 'situaticnism'ӵ isӵ
quiteӵdisa¿reeable,ӵthatӵweӵhaveӵmadeӵ ncthin¿ӵcfӵbeauty,ӵthatӵweӵwculdӵbeӵbetterӵ
cffӵspeakin¿ӵcfӵCide,ӵandӵthatӵncӵcneӵseesӵanyӵclearӵreascnӵtcӵ beӵinterestedӵ inӵus.ӵ
PecpleӵwillӵshyӵawayӵbyӵreprcacϢin¿ӵusӵfcrӵrepeatin¿ӵaӵnumberӵcfӵviewpcintsӵthatӵ
haveӵalreadyӵcausedӵ tccӵ muchӵscandal,ӵandӵthatӵ expressӵ theӵ simpleӵdesireӵtcӵ beӵ
ncticed.ӵ Theyӵ willӵ beccmeӵ indi¿nantӵ abcutӵ theӵ ccnductӵ weӵ haveӵ believedӵ
necessaryӵtcӵadcptӵcnӵaӵfewӵcccasicnsӵinӵcrderӵtcӵkeepӵcrӵtcӵreccverӵcurӵdistances.ӵ
Weӵ reply.ӵitӵisӵnctӵaӵquesticnӵcfӵkncʹin¿ӵwhetherӵthisӵinterestsӵycu,ӵbutӵratherӵcfӵ
whetherӵycuӵycurselfӵcculdӵbeccmeӵinterestin¿ӵunderӵnewӵccnditicnsӵcfӵculturalӵ
creaticnĕӵ Revcluticnaryӵ artists
ʨӵ
Ѝ͙dӵ intellectuals,ӵ ycurӵ rcleӵ isӵ nctӵ tcӵ shcutӵ thatӵ
freedcmӵisӵabusedӵwhenӵweӵrefuseӵtcӵmarchӵwithӵtheӵenemiesӵcfӵfreedcm.ӵYcuӵdcӵ
nctӵhaveӵtcӵimitateӵbcur¿ecisӵaesthetesӵwhcӵtryӵtcӵbrin¿ӵeverythin¿ӵbackӵtcӵwhatӵ
hasӵ alreadyӵ beenӵ dcne,ӵ becauseӵ theӵ already-dcneӵ dcesӵ nctӵ makeӵ themӵ
unccmfcrtable.ӵ Ycuӵ kncwӵthatӵ creaticnӵ isӵneverӵpure.ӵYcurӵ rcleӵ isӵ tcӵsearchӵ fcrӵ
whatӵ willӵ ¿iveӵ riseӵ tcӵ theӵ internaticnalӵ avant-¿arde,ӵ tcӵ ¡cinӵ inӵ theӵ ccnstructiveӵ
critiqueӵcfӵitsӵprc¿ramme,ӵandӵtcӵcallӵfcrӵitsӵsuppcrt.ӵ
0ur Immcdiatc Tasks
Weӵmustӵsuppcrt,ӵalcn¿sideӵ theӵwcrkers'ӵpartiesӵcrӵextremistӵtendenciesӵexistin¿ӵ
withinӵtheseӵparties,ӵ theӵ necessityӵcfӵccnsiderin¿ӵ aӵccnsistentӵideclc¿icalӵ acticnӵ
l00//ĸ AT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
forӵfi¿htin¿˘ӵonӵtheӵlevelӵofӵtheӵpassions,ӵtheӵinfluenceӵofӵtheӵpropa¿andaӵmethodsӵ
ofӵ lateӵ capitalismȎӵ toӵ concretelyӵ contrast,ӵ atӵ everyӵ opportunity,ӵ otherӵ desirableӵ
waysӵ ofӵ lifeӵ withӵ theӵ reflectionsӵ ofӵ theӵ capitalistӵwayӵofӵlifeȑӵ toӵ destroy,ӵ byӵ allӵ
hyperpoliticalӵ means,ӵ theӵ bour¿eoisӵ ideaӵ ofӵhappiness.ӵAtӵtheӵ sameӵ time,ӵ takin¿ӵ
intoӵ accountӵ theӵ existenceӵ amon¿ӵ theӵ rulin¿ӵ socialӵ classӵ ofӵelementsӵ whoӵ haveӵ
alwaysӵ cooperated,ӵ throu¿hӵ boŃedomӵ andӵ needӵ ofӵnovelty,ӵ inӵ thatӵ whichӵ fƞnallyӵ
entailsӵ theӵ disappearanceӵ ofӵ theseӵ sƓƐieties,ӵ weӵ mustӵ ur¿eӵ personsӵ whoӵ holdӵ
certainӵ ofӵtheӵ vastӵ resourcesӵ thatӵweӵ lackӵtoӵ¿iveӵ usӵ theӵ meansӵ toӵcarryӵ outӵ ourӵ
experiments,ӵ throu¿hӵ anӵ accountӵ analo¿ousӵ toӵ whatӵ mi¿htӵ beӵ employedӵ inӵ
scientificӵresearchӵandӵmi¿htӵbeӵquiteӵprofitableӵasӵwell.ӵ
Weӵ mustӵ introduceӵ everywhereӵ aӵ revolutionaryӵ alternativeӵ toӵ theӵ rulin¿ӵ
cultureȑӵcoordinateӵallӵtheӵenquiriesӵthatӵareӵhappenin¿ӵatӵthisӵmomentӵwithoutӵaӵ
¿eneralӵ perspective,ӵ orchestrate,ӵ throu¿hӵ criticismӵ andӵ propa¿anda,ӵ theӵ mostӵ
pro¿ressiveӵartistsӵandӵintellectualsӵofӵallӵ countriesӵtoӵmakeӵcontactӵwithӵusӵwithӵ
aӵviewӵtoӵaӵ¡ointӵaction.ӵ
Weӵ mustӵdecЯareӵ ourselvesӵ readyӵ toӵ resumeӵ discussionӵ onӵ theӵ basisӵ ofӵ thisӵ
platformӵwithӵallӵ thoseӵwho,ӵhavin¿ӵtakenӵpartӵ inӵaӵpriorӵphaseӵofӵourӵaction,ӵareӵ
a¿ainӵcapableӵofӵre¡oinin¿ӵus.ӵ
Weӵ mustӵ advanceӵ theӵ keywordsӵ ofӵ unitaryӵ urbanism,ӵ ofӵ experimentalӵ
behaviour,ӵofӵhyperpoliticalӵpropa¿anda,ӵandӵofӵtheӵconstructionӵofӵenvironments.ӵ
Theӵpassionsӵhaveӵbeenӵinterpretedӵenou¿hȎӵtheӵpointӵnowӵisӵtoӵdiscoverӵothers.ӵ
|nͥɂrcnch,ͥviveŋrs,Ǫ aͥIhcaIricaIͥpun.ͥTypicaIIy,ͥ Ihcͥwordͥmcansͥ 'rakcėͥ orͥ 'pIayboyƳ,ͥ andͥwasͥIhusͥ
commonIyͥIinkcdͥwiIhͥIhcͥdubiousͥmoraIiIyͥolͥIhcͥIhcaIricaIͥworId;ͥhcrc,ͥDcbordͥassi¿nsͥiIͥaͥncwͥ
mcanin¿ͥIhaIͥrccaIIsͥiIsͥrooIsͥinͥvƭvre,ǪIoͥ Iivcģͥ[TransIaIorj ƴͥ
CuyͥDcbord,ͥkopporrǪsurǪloǪconsrrucrionǪdesǪsiruorionsǪerǪsurǪlesǪcondirionsǪdeǪl'or¿onisorionǪerǪdeǪƁocrionǪ
deǪloǪrendenceǪsiruorionnisreǪinremo|ionoleǪ(Faris.ͥ |nIcrnaIionaIcͥIcIIrisIc, ]u˅yͥ1957)ǬͥlirsIͥprcscnIcdͥ byͥ
Cuyͥ Dcbordͥ Ioͥ Ihcͥ loundin¿ͥ conlcrcnccͥ olͥ Ihcͥ SiIuaIionisIͥ |nIcrnaIionaIͥ aIͥ Cosioͥ d'Arroscia,ͥ|͆Iyͥ
1957;ͥ IransIaIcdͥ inͥ Cu,Ǫ DebordǪ ondǪ rheǪ Siruo|ionisrǪ Inremorionol.Ǫ TexrsǪ ondǪ Documenrs,Ǫ cd.ͥ
Tomͥ
McDonou¿hͥ(Cambrid¿c,ͥMassachuscIIs:ͥThcͥM|TͥFrcss,ͥ?00?)ͥ44-50.ͥ
Debotd/ĸ /TowOtdSĸOĸ5i!uO!íoníS!ĸ¡n!eĬO!ionOl/ĸ/¡0¡ĸ
A!!On KOptOw
NO¡es On ¡he L!iminO¡iOn Of ¡he AUOienCeJ Jl9òò
!ncŦcmcr¿cnccŦo]ŦHoppcnín¿sŦínŦNcwŦYorkŦ ínŦ !ncŦlo!cŦl950sŦwosŦínŦpor!ŦoŦrcsponscŦ
!oŦ !ncŦ¿cs!urolŦ cxprcssíonísmŦ o]Ŧ]ocksonŦ Pollock'sŦ poín!ín¿s.Ŧ AllonŦ īoprowŦsou¿n!Ŧ
]omŦ !ncŦ Hoppcnín¿sŦ oŦ ncí¿n!cncJŦ cxpcrícnccŦ o]Ŧ !ncŦ cvcr¸Jo¡,Ŧ ínŦ wnícnŦ vícwcrsŦ
wcrcŦ]ormoll¡Ŧ]iscJŦwí!nŦ !ncŦspocc-!ímcŦo]Ŧ!ncŦpcr]ormonccŦonJŦ !ncrcD¡Ŧlos!Ŧ!ncírŦ
íJcn!ít¡ŦosŦ 'ouJícncc'.Ŧ
Althou¿hӵ theӵ Assembla¿es'ӵ andӵ Fnvironments'ӵ freeӵ styleӵ wasӵ directlyӵ carriedӵ
intoӵ theӵ Happenin¿s,ӵ theӵ useӵ ofӵ standardӵ performanceӵ conventionsӵ fromӵ theӵ
veryӵstartӵtendedӵ toӵtruncateӵtheӵimplicationsӵofӵtheӵart.ӵTheӵ Happenin¿sӵwereӵ
presentedӵ toӵ small,ӵ intimateӵ ¿atherin¿sӵ ofӵ peopleӵ inӵ lofts,ӵ classrooms,ӵ
¿ymnasiumsӵandӵ someӵofӵtheӵofIbeatӵ¿alleries,ӵwhereӵaӵclearin¿ӵwasӵmadeӵforӵ
theӵactivities.ӵTheӵwatchersӵsatӵveryӵcloseӵtoӵwhatӵtookӵplace,ӵwithӵtheӵartistsӵandӵ
theirӵ friendsӵ actin¿ӵ alon¿ӵ withӵ assembledӵ environmentalӵ constructions.ӵ Theӵ
audienceӵ occasionallyӵ chan¿edӵ seatsӵ asӵ inӵ aӵ ¿ameӵ ofӵ musicalӵ chairs,ӵ turnedӵ
aroundӵtoӵseeӵsomethin¿ӵbehindӵit,ӵorӵstoodӵwithoutӵseatsӵinӵti¿htӵbutӵinformalӵ
clusters.ӵ Sometimes,ӵ too,ӵ theӵ eventӵ movedӵ inӵ andӵ amon¿stӵ theӵ crowd,ӵ whichӵ
producedӵ someӵ movementӵ onӵ theӵ latter'sӵ part.ӵ But,ӵ howeverӵ Ilexibleӵ theseӵ
techniquesӵwereӵinӵpractice,ӵthereӵwasӵalwaysӵanӵaudienceӵinӵoneӵ¦usuallyӵstatic)ӵ
spaceӵandӵaӵshowӵ¿ivenӵinӵanother.ӵ
Thisӵ provedӵ toӵ beӵ aӵ seriousӵ drawback,ӵ inӵ myӵ opinion,ӵ toӵ theӵ plasticӵ
morpholo¿yӵ ofӵtheӵ works,ӵ forӵreasonsӵ parallelӵ toӵ thoseӵ whichӵ makeӵ ¿alleriesӵ
inappropriateӵforӵAssembla¿esӵandӵ Fnvironments.ӵ Butӵitӵwasӵmoreӵdramaticallyӵ
evident.ӵTheӵroomsӵenframedӵtheӵevents,ӵandӵtheӵimmemorialӵhistoryӵofӵculturalӵ
expectationsӵattachedӵtoӵtheatricalӵproductionsӵcrippledӵthem.ӵltӵwasӵrepeatedlyӵ
clearӵәithӵeachӵHappenin¿ӵthatӵinӵ spiteӵofӵtheӵuniqueӵima¿eryӵandӵ vitalityӵofӵitsӵ
impulse,ӵ theӵ traditionalӵ sta¿in¿,ӵ ifӵ itӵ didӵ notӵ su¿¿estӵ aӵ 'crude'ӵ versionӵ ofӵtheӵ
avant-¿ardeӵ Theatreӵ ofӵ theӵ Absurd,ӵ atӵ leastӵ smackedӵ ofӵ ni¿htӵ clubӵ acts,ӵ sideӵ
shows,ӵ cockӵ fi¿htsӵ andӵ bunkhouseӵ skits.ӵ Audiencesӵ seemedӵ toӵ catchӵ theseӵ
probablyӵ unintendedӵ allusionsӵ andӵ soӵ tookӵ theӵ Happenin¿sӵ forӵ charmin¿ӵ
diversions,ӵbutӵhardlyӵforӵ artӵorӵevenӵpurposiveӵactiviɔy.ӵ Ni¿htӵclubӵ actsӵ canӵofӵ
courseӵ beӵ moreӵ thanӵ merelyӵ divertin¿,ӵ butӵ theirӵ structureӵ ofӵ '¿rammar'ӵ isӵ
unusuallyӵhackneyedӵand,ӵasӵsuch,ӵisӵdetrimentalӵtoӵexperimentationӵandӵchan¿e.ӵ
Unfortunately,ӵtheӵfactӵthatӵthereӵwaҜӵaӵtou¿hӵnutӵtoӵcrackӵinӵtheӵHappenin¿sӵ
seemsӵ toӵ haveӵ struckӵ veryӵ fewӵ ofӵ itsӵ practitioners.ӵ Fvenӵ today,ӵ theӵ ma¡orityӵ
continuesӵ toӵ popularizeӵ anӵ artӵ ofӵ 'acts'ӵ whichӵ oftenӵ isӵ well-doneӵ enou¿hӵ butӵ
¡02//ĸ AT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
fulfilsӵneitherӵitsӵimplicationsӵnorӵstrikesӵoutӵinӵunchartedӵterritory.ӵ
Butӵforӵ thoseӵ whoӵ sensedӵwhatӵwasӵ atӵ stake,ӵ theӵ issuesӵ be¿anӵtoӵ appearğӵ Ētӵ
wouldӵ takeӵ aӵnumberӵofӵyearsӵ toӵ workӵ themӵ outӵbyӵtrialӵ andӵ error,ӵ forӵthereӵisӵ
sometimes,ӵthou¿hӵnotӵalways,ӵaӵ¿reatӵ¿apӵbetweenӵtheoryӵandӵproductionƽӵButӵ
¿raduallyӵaӵnumberӵofӵrules-of-thumbӵcouldӵbeӵlisted.ӵ [ . . . ӵ |Ŧ
¦F)ӵ I!Ŧ]ollowsŦ !no!Ŧ ouJícnccsŦ snoulJŦ DcŦ clímíno!cJŦ cn!írcl¡ĆŦ Allӵ theӵ elementsӵ
people,ӵspace,ӵtheӵparticularӵmaterialsӵandӵcharacterӵofӵtheӵenvironment,ӵtimeӵ-
canӵ inӵ thisӵ wayӵ beӵ inte¿rated.ӵ Andӵ theӵ lastӵ shredӵ ofӵ theatricalӵ conventionӵ
disappears.ӵForӵanyoneӵonceӵinvolvedӵinӵtheӵpainter'sӵproblemӵofӵunifyin¿ӵaӵfieldӵ
ofӵdiver¿entӵphenomena,ӵaӵ¿roupӵofӵinactiveӵpeopleӵinӵtheӵspaceӵofӵaӵHappenin¿ӵ
isӵ¡ustӵdeadӵ space.ӵ Ētӵ isӵnoӵdifferentӵ fromӵ aӵdeadӵareaӵ ofӵredӵpaintӵonӵaӵcanvasğӵ
Movementsӵ callӵ upӵ movementsӵ inӵ response,ӵ whetherӵ onӵ aӵ canvas ʩӵorӵ inӵ aӵ
Happenin¿.ӵAӵHappenin¿ӵwithӵonlyӵanӵempathicӵresponseӵonӵtheӵpartӵofӵaӵseatedӵ
audienceӵisӵnotӵaӵHappenin¿ӵbutӵsta¿eӵtheatre.ӵ
Then,ӵonӵaӵhumanӵplane,ӵtoӵassembleӵpeopleӵunpreparedӵforӵanӵeventӵandӵsayӵ
thatӵ theyӵ areӵ 'participatin¿'ӵ ifӵapplesӵ areӵ thrownӵ atӵ themӵ orӵ theyӵ areӵ herdedӵ
aboutӵisӵtoӵaskӵveryӵlittleӵofӵtheӵwholeӵnotionӵofӵparticipation.ӵMostӵofӵtheӵtimeӵ
theӵ responseӵ ofӵ suchӵ anӵ audienceӵ isӵ half-heartedӵ orӵ evenӵ reluctant,ӵ andӵ
sometimesӵtheӵ҇eactionӵisӵviciousӵandӵthereforeӵdestructiveӵtoӵtheӵworkӵ¦thou¿hӵ
Ēӵsuspectӵthatӵinӵnumerousӵinstaљcesӵofӵviolentӵreactionӵtoӵsuchӵtreatmentӵitӵwasӵ
causedӵ byӵ theӵ latentӵsadismӵ inӵ theӵ action,ӵ whichӵ theyӵ quiteӵ ri¿htlyӵ resented).ӵ
Afterӵ aӵfewӵ years,ӵ inӵanyӵcase,ӵ 'audienceӵ response'ӵprovesӵtoӵ beӵ soӵ predictablyӵ
pureӵ clichéӵ thatӵanyoneӵ seriousӵ aboutӵ theӵ problemӵ shouldӵ notӵtolerateӵ it,ӵ anyӵ
moreӵ thanӵ theӵ painterӵ shouldӵ continueӵ theӵuseӵ ofӵdrippedӵ paintӵ asӵ aӵstampӵ ofӵ
modernityӵ whenӵ itӵ hasӵ beenӵ adoptedӵ byӵ everyӵ lampsӵhadeӵ andӵ Formicaӵ
manufacturerӵinӵtheӵcountry.ӵ
lӵ thinkӵ thatӵ itӵ isӵ aӵ markӵ ofӵ mutualӵ respectӵ thatӵ allӵ personsӵ involvedӵ inӵ aӵ
Happenin¿ӵbeӵwillin¿ӵ andӵ committedӵparticipantsӵwhoӵhaveӵaӵclearӵideaӵwhatӵ
theyӵareӵtoӵdo.ӵThisӵisӵsimplyӵaccomplishedӵbyӵwritin¿ӵoutӵtheӵscenarioӵǛrӵscoreӵ
forӵallӵ andӵ discussin¿ӵitӵthorou¿hlyӵwithӵ themӵ beforehand.ӵ lnӵ thisӵ respectӵitӵ isӵ
notӵdifferentӵfromӵtheӵpreparationsӵforӵaӵparade,ӵaӵfootballӵmatch,ӵaӵweddin¿ӵorӵ
reli¿iousӵ service.ӵ Ētӵisӵ notӵ evenӵ ήifferentӵ fromӵaӵ play.ӵ Theӵ oneӵ bi¿ӵ differenceӵ isӵ
thatӵwhileӵknowled¿eӵofӵtheӵschemeӵisӵnecessary,ӵprofessionalӵtalentӵisӵnot,ӵtheӵ
situationsӵinӵaӵHappenin¿ӵareӵlifelikeӵor,ӵifӵtheyӵareӵunusual,ӵareӵsoӵrudimentaryӵ
thatӵprofessionalismӵisӵactuallyӵuncalledӵfor.ӵActorsӵareӵsta¿e-trainedӵandӵbrin¿ӵ
overӵhabitsӵfromӵtheirӵartӵthatӵareӵhardӵtoӵshakeӵoff,ӵtheӵsameӵisӵtrueӵofӵanyӵotherӵ
kindӵofӵshowmanӵorӵtrainedӵathlete.ӵTheӵbestӵparticipantsӵhaveӵbeenӵpersonsӵnotӵ
normallyӵen¿a¿edӵinӵartӵorӵperformance,ӵbutӵwhoӵareӵmovedӵtoӵtakeӵpartӵinӵanӵ
activityӵthatӵisӵatӵonceӵmeanin¿fulӵtoӵthemӵinӵitsӵideasӵyetӵnaturalӵinӵitsӵmethods.ӵ
KOptow/ĸ /No!eSĸonĸ!heĸEliminO!ionĸo!ĸ!heĸAudience/ĸ/¡0öĸ
Thereӵisӵanӵexception,ӵhowever,ӵtoӵrestrictin¿ӵtheӵHappenin¿sӵtoӵparticipantsӵ
only.ӵWhenӵ aӵworkӵisӵperformedӵ onӵaӵ busyӵ avenue,ӵ passersĦbyӵwillӵ ordinΈrilyӵ
stopӵandӵwatch,ӵ¡ustӵasӵtheyӵmi¿htӵwatchӵtheӵdemolitionӵofӵaӵbuildin¿ĔӵTheseӵareӵ
notӵtheatre-¿oersӵandӵtheirӵattentionӵisӵ oǚlyӵtemporarilyӵcau¿htӵ inӵtheӵ courseӵ ofӵ
theirӵ normalӵ affairs.ӵ Theyӵ mi¿htӵ stay,ӵ perhapsӵ becomeӵ involvedӵ inӵ someӵ
unexpectedӵ way,ӵ orӵtheyӵwillӵ moreӵ likelyӵ moveӵonӵafterӵ aӵ fewӵ minutes.ӵ Suchӵ
personsӵareӵauthenticӵpartsӵofӵtheӵenvironment.ӵ
Aӵvariantӵofӵthisӵisӵtheӵ personӵwhoӵisӵen¿a¿edӵunwittin¿lyӵwithӵaӵperformerӵ
inӵ someӵ plannedӵ action.ӵ aӵ butcherӵ willӵ sellӵ certainӵ meatsӵ toӵ aӵ customer-
performerӵ withoutӵ realizin¿ӵ thatӵ heӵ isӵ aӵ pŢrtӵ ofӵƁʎ pieceӵ havin¿ӵ toӵ doӵ withӵ
purchasin¿,ӵcookin¿,ӵandӵeatin¿ӵmeat.ӵ
Finally,ӵthereӵ isӵ thisӵ additionalӵ exceptionӵtoӵtheӵ rule.ӵAӵ Happenin¿ӵ mayӵ beӵ
scoredӵforӵ)us!Ŧwo!cnín¿.Ŧ Personsӵ willӵ doӵ њothin¿ӵelse.ӵTheyӵwillӵwatchӵthЃn¿s,ӵ
eachӵother,ӵpossiblyӵactionsӵnotӵperformedӵbyӵthemselves,ӵsuchӵasӵaӵbusӵstoppin¿ӵ
toӵ piȱƳӵ upӵ commuters.ӵ Thisӵ wouldӵ notӵ takeӵ placeӵ inӵ aӵ theatreӵ orӵ arena,ӵ butӵ
anywhereӵ else.ӵ ltӵ couldӵ beӵ anӵ extremelyӵ meditativeӵ occupationӵ whenӵ doneӵ
devotedlyŲӵ¡ustӵ'cute'ӵwhenӵdoneӵindiffereǚtly.ӵlnӵaӵmoreӵphysicalӵmood,ӵtheӵideaӵ
ofӵcalled-forӵwatchin¿ӵcouldӵbeӵcontrastedӵwithӵperiodsӵofӵaction.ӵBothӵnormalӵ
tendenciesӵ toӵobserveӵandӵ actӵwouldӵ nowӵ beӵen¿a¿edӵ inӵaӵ responsibleӵ way.ӵ Atӵ
thoseӵmomentsӵofӵrelativeӵquietӵtheӵobserverӵwouldӵhardlyӵbeӵaӵpassiveӵmemberӵ
ofӵanӵ audienceŲӵ heӵwouldӵ beӵcloserӵ toӵ theӵ roleӵ ofӵaӵ Creekӵ chorus,ӵ withoutӵ itsӵ
specificӵmeanin¿ӵnecessarily,ӵbutӵwithӵitsӵ requiredӵplaceӵinӵtheӵoverallӵscheme.ӵ
Atӵotherӵmomentsӵtheӵactiveӵandӵobservin¿ӵrolesӵwouldӵbeӵexchan¿ed,ӵsoӵthatӵbyӵ
reciprocationӵ theӵ wholeӵ meanin¿ӵ ofӵɣatchin¿ӵ wouldӵ beӵ altered,ӵ awayӵ fromӵ
somethin¿ӵ likeӵ spoon-feedin¿,ӵ towardsӵ sѨmethin¿ӵ puɕposive,ӵ possiblyӵ intenseӵ

^ . . ӵ|
AIIanͥɿaprow,ͥAssemblo¿es,Ǫ£nvimnmentsǪondǪBoppenin¿sǪ(NcwͥYork:ͥHarryͥN.ͥADrams,ͥ1955)ͥ187-8;ͥ
195-8.ͥ
1ǿȍ//ͥ AT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
Hé!iO Oi¡iCiCO
DOnCC in Ny LxpCriCnCC {DiOry Ln¡riCs¡JJ l9òb·òò
NoŦ occoun!Ŧ o]Ŧ collcc!ívcŦ proJuc!íonŦ onJŦ rcccp!íonŦ ínŦ or!Ŧ ísŦ complc!cŦ wí!nou!Ŧ
rc]crcnccŦ!oŦ!ncŦworkŦonJŦwrí!ín¿sŦ o]Ŧ!ncŦ8i0zílíonŦor!ís!ŦHclíoŦ0í!ícíco.Ŧ8¡Ŧ!ncŦmíJ-
l950Č,Ŧ0í!ícícoŦwosŦcolloDoro!ín¿Ŧwí!nŦpor!ícípon!sŦ]romŦ!ncŦsomDoŦscnoolsŦo]Ŧ!ncŦkíoŦ
]ovclosŦ!oŦproJuccŦJísrup!ívcŦcvcn!sŦDoscJŦorounJŦJoncín¿ŦínŦ paran¿oléӵcopcsŦ(sccŦ
]oo!no!cŦDclow).Ŧ !ncŦcmpnosísŦwosŦonŦoŦDíon¡síonŦ lossŦo]Ŧscl]ŦínŦsocíolŦ]usíon.Ŧ
Beforeӵanythin¿ӵelseӵlӵ needӵtoӵclarifyӵmyӵinterestӵinӵdance,ӵinӵrhythm,ӵwhichӵinӵ
myӵparticularӵcaseӵcameӵ fŦomӵ aӵvitalӵnecessityӵ forӵ disintellectualization.ӵ Suchӵ
intellectualӵ disinhibition,ӵ aӵnecessaryӵfreeӵexpression,ӵwasӵrequiredӵ sinceӵ lӵ feltӵ
threatenedӵbyӵ anӵ excessivelyӵintellectualӵexpression.ӵThisӵwasӵ theӵdefiniteӵstepӵ
towardsӵtheӵsearΞhӵforӵmyth,ӵforӵaӵreappraisalӵofӵthisӵmythӵandӵaӵnewӵfoundationӵ
inӵ myӵart.ӵ Personally,ӵ itӵwasӵ thereforeӵ anӵ experienceӵ ofӵtheӵ ¿reatestӵ vitalityӵ -
indispensable,ӵ particularlyӵ inӵ theӵ demolitionӵ ofӵ preconceivedӵ ideasӵ andӵ
stereotypification,ӵ etc.ӵ Asӵ weӵ willӵ seeӵ later,ӵ thereӵ wasӵ aӵ conver¿enceӵ ofӵ thisӵ
experienceӵwithӵtheӵformӵthatӵmyӵartӵtookӵinӵtheӵPoron¿olc'Ŧ andӵallӵthatӵrelatesӵ
toӵ thisӵ ¦sinceӵtheӵPoron¿olcŦinfluencedӵandӵ chan¿edӵ theӵtra¡ectoryӵofӵtheӵNuclcí,Ŧ
Pcnc!ŗDlcsŦ andӵ 8ŎħJcs).´ŦMoreover,ӵitӵwasӵ theӵ be¿innin¿ӵofӵaӵdefɈnitiveӵ socialӵ
experience,ӵ lӵamӵstillӵunawareӵofӵtheӵdirectionӵwhichӵthisӵwillӵtake.ӵ
Danceӵ isӵ porŦ cxccllcnccŦ theӵ searchӵ forӵ aӵ directӵ expressiveӵ act,ӵ itӵ isӵ theӵ
immanenceӵ ofӵ theӵ act.ӵ Balletӵ dance,ӵ on ʪӵtheӵ contrary,ӵ isӵ excesivelyӵ
intellectualizedӵ throu¿hӵ theӵ presenceӵ ofӵ choreo¿raphyӵ thatӵ searchesӵ toӵ
transcendӵ thisӵ act.ӵ However,ӵ theӵ 'Dionysian'ӵ dance,ӵ whichӵ isӵ bornӵ outӵ ofӵtheӵ
Ɉnteriorӵrhythmӵofӵtheӵcollective,ӵexteriorizesӵitselfӵasӵaӵcharacteristicӵofӵpopularӵ
¿roupin¿s,ӵnations,ӵetc.ӵlnӵthese,ӵimprovisationӵrei¿ns,ӵasӵopposedӵtoӵor¿anizedӵ
choreo¿raphyƎӵ inӵ factӵ theӵ freerӵ theӵ improvisationӵ theӵ better.ӵ ltӵ isӵ asӵ ifӵ anӵ
immersionӵintoӵrhythmӵtakesӵplace,ӵaӵfluxӵwhereӵtheӵintellectӵremainsӵobscuredӵ
byӵanӵinternalӵmythicalӵforceӵthatӵoperatesӵatӵanӵindividualӵandӵcollectiveӵlevelӵ
¦inӵfact,ӵinӵthisӵinstanceӵoneӵcannotӵestablishӵaӵdistinctionӵbetweenӵtheӵcollectiveӵ
andӵtheӵindividual).ӵTheӵima¿esӵareӵmobile,ӵrapid,ӵinapprehensibleӵ- theyӵareӵtheӵ
oppositeӵ ofӵ theӵ staticӵ iconӵ thatӵ isӵ characteristicӵ ofӵtheӵ so-calledӵ fineӵ arts.ӵ lnӵ
reality,ӵ dance,ӵ rhythm,ӵ isӵ theӵ actualӵ aestheticӵ actӵ inӵ itsӵ essentialӵ rawӵ stateӵ -
impliedӵhereӵisӵtheӵdirectionӵtowardsӵtheӵdiscoveryӵofӵimmanence.ӵSuchӵanӵact,ӵ
theӵimmersionӵintoӵrhythm,ӵisӵaӵpureӵcreativeӵact,ӵitӵisӵanӵart.ӵltӵisӵtheӵcreationӵofӵ
theӵactualӵact,ӵofӵcontinuity,ӵandӵalso,ӵlikeӵallӵactsӵofӵcreativeӵ expression,ӵitӵisӵaӵ
producerӵofӵima¿es.ӵActually,ӵforӵmeӵitӵprovidedӵaӵnewӵdiscoveryӵofӵtheӵima¿e,ӵaӵ
Oi!icícO/ĸ /DOnceĸinĸNyĸEXpetience/ĸ /l0õĸ
ěecreationӵofӵtheӵ ima¿e,ӵ encompassin¿ӵunavoidablyӵtheӵaestheticӵexpressionӵinӵ
myӵwork.ӵ
Theӵ collapseӵ ofӵ socialӵ preconceivedӵ ideas,ӵ ofӵseparationsӵ ofӵ¿roups,ӵ socialӵ
classesӵ etcǮӵ wouldӵ beӵ inevitableӵ andӵ essentialӵ inӵ theӵ realizationӵ ofӵthisӵ vitalӵ
experience.ӵ lӵ discoveredӵ hereӵ theӵ connectionӵ betweenӵ theӵ collectiveӵ andӵ
individualӵ expressionӵ - theӵ mostӵimportantӵ stepӵ towardsӵ thisӵ - whichӵ isӵ theӵ
abilityӵ notӵ toӵ aclƢowled¿eӵ abstractӵ levels,ӵ suchӵ asӵ socialӵ 'layers',ӵ inӵ orderӵ toӵ
establishӵaӵcomprehensionӵofӵaӵtotality.ӵTheӵbour¿eoisӵconditionin¿ӵwhichӵlӵhadӵ
beenӵsubmittedӵtoӵsinceӵlӵwasӵbornӵundidӵitselfӵasӵifbyӵma¿icӵ- l ӵshouldӵmention,ӵ
inӵfact,ӵthatӵtheӵprocessӵwasӵalreadyӵunderӵwayӵevenӵbeforeӵlӵwasӵaƗareӵofӵit.ӵTheӵ
unbalanceӵ thatӵ wasӵ entailedӵ byӵ thisӵ socialӵ dislocation,ӵ fromӵ Ҿȼeӵ continuousӵ
discreditin¿ӵofӵtheӵstructuresӵthatӵruleӵourӵlifeӵinӵthisӵsociety,ӵspecificallyӵhereӵinӵ
Brazil,ӵwasӵbothӵ inevitableӵ andӵ char¿edӵ withӵ problems.ӵThese,ӵfarӵfromӵbein¿ӵ
overcome,ӵrenewӵthemselvesӵeveryӵday.ӵlӵbelieveӵthatӵtheӵdynamicsӵofӵtheӵsocialӵ
structuresӵwereӵatӵthisӵmomentӵrevealedӵtoӵmeӵinӵallӵtheirӵcrudity,ӵinӵtheirӵmostӵ
immediateӵexpression,ӵpreciselyӵdueӵtoӵmyӵprocessӵofӵdiscreditin¿ӵtheӵso-calledӵ
socialӵ layers.ӵ Notӵ thatӵ lӵ considerӵ theirӵ existenceӵ butӵ that,ӵ forӵ me,ӵ theyӵ haveӵ
becomeӵschematic,ӵartificial,ӵ asӵ ifӵallӵ ofӵaӵsuddenӵlӵ ¿azedӵ fromӵ aӵvanta¿eӵ pointӵ
ontoӵ theirӵ map,ӵ theirӵ scheme,ӵ bein¿ӵ 'external'ӵ toӵ them.ӵ Mar¿inalization,ӵ
naturallyӵanӵalreadyӵpresentӵcharacteristicӵofӵtheӵartist,ӵhasӵbecomeӵfundamentalӵ
forӵme.ӵThisӵpositionӵrepresentsӵaӵtotalӵ'͋aclŊӵofӵsocialӵplace',ӵatӵtheӵsameӵtimeӵasӵ
bein¿ӵ theӵ discoveryӵofӵmyӵownӵ'individualӵplace'ӵasӵaӵtotalӵ manӵ inӵ theӵworld,ӵ asӵ
aӵ'socialӵ bein¿'ӵ inӵ theӵtotalӵ sense,ӵasӵopposedӵ toӵ bein¿ӵincludedӵ inӵ aӵparticularӵ
socialӵlayerӵorӵ'elite'ӵ- notӵevenӵ inӵ theӵ artisticӵmar¿inalӵelite,ӵbutӵthatӵexistsӵ¦lӵ
spealśӵofӵtheӵ trueӵartists,ӵandӵnotӵofӵtheӵnoDí!ucsŦofӵart).ӵNo,ӵtheӵ processӵhereӵ isӵ
moreӵ profound:ӵ itӵ isӵ aӵ processӵ inӵ societyӵ asӵ aӵ whole,ӵ inӵ practicalӵ life,ӵ inӵ theӵ
ob¡ectiveӵworldӵofӵbein¿,ӵinӵtheӵsub¡ectiveӵlivedӵexperienceӵ- itӵwouldӵbeӵtheӵwillӵ
forӵ anӵ inte¿ralӵ position,ӵ socialӵ inӵ itsӵ mostӵ nobleӵ meanin¿,ӵ free,ӵ total.ӵ Whatӵ
interestsӵmeӵ isӵtheӵ'totalӵactӵofӵbein¿',ӵwhichӵ isӵwhatӵlӵ experimentӵwithӵhereӵ -
notӵ partialӵ totalӵ acts,ӵ butӵaӵ 'tѩtalӵ actӵofӵlife',ӵirreversible,ӵ anӵunbalanceӵforӵtheӵ
equilibriumӵofӵbein¿.ӵ
Theӵoldӵpositionӵwithӵre¿ardsӵtoӵtheӵworkӵofӵartӵhasӵsta¿natedӵ- evenӵinӵthoseӵ
worksӵ thatӵtodayӵdoӵnotӵdemandӵ spectatorӵparticipation,ӵwhatӵtheyӵproposeӵ isӵ
notӵ aӵtranscendentalӵcontemplationӵbutӵaӵ'bein¿'ӵinӵtheӵworld.ӵDanceӵtooӵdoesӵ
notӵ proposeӵ anӵ 'escape'ӵ fromӵ thisӵ immanentӵ world,ӵ butӵ revealsӵ itӵ inӵ allӵ itsӵ
plenitudeӵ - whatӵ forӵ Nietzscheӵ wouldӵ beӵ theӵ 'Dionysianӵ drunkenness'ӵ isӵ inӵ
realityӵ theӵ 'expressiveӵ lucidityӵ ofӵ theӵ act'sӵ immanence',ӵ anӵ actӵ itselfӵ notӵ
characterizedӵbyӵanyӵpartialityӵbutӵbyӵitsӵ totalityӵasӵsuchӵ- aӵtotalӵexpressionӵofӵ
theӵ self.ӵ Wouldӵ thisӵ notӵ beӵ theӵ philosopher'sӵ stoneӵofӵartđӵ Theӵ Por0n¿olcŦ forӵ
instance,ӵwhenӵitӵdemandsӵparticipationӵthěou¿hӵdance,ӵisӵ aӵmereӵadaptationӵofӵ
¡0ó//ĸART¡5T5'ĸWR¡T¡NG5ĸ
thisӵ structureӵ andӵvice-veĬsaӵ withӵ re¿ardӵ toӵ thisӵ structureӵ inӵ danceӵ - thisӵ isӵ
simplyӵ aӵtransformationӵ ofӵthisӵ 'totalӵ actӵ ofӵtheӵ self'.ӵTheӵ ¿esture,ӵ theӵ rhythm,ӵ
takeӵ onӵ aӵ newӵ formӵ whichӵ isӵ determinedӵ byӵ theӵ demandsӵ ofӵtheӵ ƔĘťĘœ¿Ѫ̐Ǒ'sӵ
structure,ӵ bein¿ӵthatӵpureӵdanceӵ isӵaӵtraceӵ ofӵthisӵ structuralӵ participationӵ- itӵisӵ
notӵaӵquestionӵofӵdeterminin¿ӵvalueӵlevelsӵinӵtermsӵofӵoneӵorӵanotherӵexpression,ӵ
sinceӵtheyӵareӵbothӵ¦pureӵdanceӵandӵdanceӵǖnӵtheӵƔĘťĘœ¿ŔаӤ)ӵtotalӵexpŦessions.ӵ
Whatӵ hasӵ beenӵ conventionallyӵ describedӵ asӵ 'interpretation'ӵ alsoӵ suffersӵ aӵ
transformationӵtodayӵ- itӵisӵnotӵaӵquestionӵofӵrepeatin¿,ӵinӵsomeӵcases,ӵofӵcourse,ӵ
aӵcreationӵ¦aӵson¿ӵforӵexample),ӵ¿ivin¿ӵitӵ¿reaterӵorӵlesserӵexpressionӵaccordin¿ӵ
toӵtheӵinterpreter.ʫӵTodayӵanӵinterpreterӵcanӵreachӵsuchӵanӵimportantӵlevelӵ thatӵ
theӵ actualӵ son¿ӵ ¦orӵ anyӵ otherӵform)ӵisӵsurpassed.ӵ ltӵ isӵ notӵ aӵcaseӵ ofӵ individualӵ
'celebrЄty',ӵalthou¿hӵthƞsӵalsoӵoccurs,ӵbutӵofӵaӵrealӵexpressiveӵvalorƞzation.ӵlnӵtheӵ
oldӵ daysӵ 'celebrityӵ status'ӵ servedӵ theӵ purposeӵ ofӵ immortalizin¿ӵ interpretersӵ
accordin¿ӵ toӵ theirӵ creationӵ basedӵ uponӵ famousӵ worksӵ ¦inӵ operaӵ andӵ theatre).ӵ
Todayӵtheӵ issueӵ isӵdifferent.ӵevenӵifӵtheӵworksӵthatӵareӵinterpretedӵareӵnotӵ¿reatӵ
creations,ӵ fantasticӵ musicalsӵ ¦inӵ theӵ fieldӵ ofӵ popularӵ musicӵ forӵ example)ӵ theӵ
interpreterӵreachesӵaӵhi¿hӵexpressiveӵlevelӵ - aӵsin¿erӵsuchӵasӵ NatӵKin¿ӵColeӵforӵ
example,ӵ createsӵ aӵ 'vocalӵ expressiveӵ structure'ӵ thatӵ isӵ independentӵ fromӵ theӵ
son¿sӵ heӵ interprets.ӵ Thisӵ isӵ aӵ creationӵ thatӵ isӵ notӵ simplyӵ interpretativeӵ butӵ
pertainsӵ toӵ aӵ hi¿hlyӵexpressiveӵvocalist.ӵAnӵactoĬӵ suchӵ asӵ Marilynӵ Monroeӵ forӵ
example,ӵdueӵtoӵ herӵall-encompassin¿ӵinterpretativeӵpresence,ӵpossessesӵaboveӵ
allӵ elseӵ aӵ creativeӵ quality,ӵ whichӵ isӵ structurallyӵ expressive.ӵ Herӵ presenceӵ inӵ
certainӵmediocreӵfilmsӵmakesӵtheseӵfilmsӵuncommonlyӵinterestin¿,ӵaӵfactӵthatӵisӵ
dueӵtoӵherӵactionӵasӵinterpreter.ӵWhatӵisӵintere͢tin¿ӵhereӵisӵtheӵvocalizationӵofӵ
Natӵ andӵ theӵ interpretativeӵ actӵ ofӵ Marilyn,ӵ independentӵ ofӵtheӵ qualityӵ ofӵtheӵ
interpretedӵ scoreӵ orӵ script,ӵ evenӵ ifӵ theseӵ possess,ӵ ofӵ course,ӵ aӵ valueӵ thatӵ isӵ
relativeӵandӵnotӵabsoluteӵasӵbefore.ӵ
10 ApriI 1966 ¦continuation)ӵ
Theӵ experienceӵ ofӵdanceӵ¦ofӵsamba)ӵ thereforeӵ ¿aveӵ meӵtheӵ exactӵ ideaӵofӵwhatӵ
creationӵthrou¿hӵtheӵcorporalӵactӵmayӵbe,ӵaӵcontinuousӵtransformability.ӵDnӵtheӵ
otherӵhandӵhowever,ӵitӵrevealedӵwhatӵlӵcallӵtheӵ'bein¿'ӵofӵthin¿s,ӵthatӵis,ӵtheӵstaticӵ
expressionӵ ofӵ ob¡ects,ӵ theirӵ expressiveӵ immanence,ӵ whichӵ inӵ thisӵ caseӵ isӵ theӵ
immanenceӵofӵtheӵcorporalӵexpressiveӵact,ӵwhichӵtransformsӵitselfӵcontinuously.ӵ
Theӵ opposite,ӵ theӵ non-transformability,ӵ isӵ notӵ exactlyӵ theӵ factӵ ofӵ 'notӵ
transformin¿ӵoneselfӵinӵtimeӵandӵspace'ӵbutӵinӵtheӵimmanenceӵthatӵisӵrevealedӵ
inӵ itsӵ structure,ӵ foundin¿ӵ withinӵ theӵ world,ӵ inӵ theӵ ob¡ectiveӵ spaceӵ thatӵ itӵ
occupies,ӵЅtsӵuniqueӵplace,ӵandӵthisӵtooӵisӵaӵƔĘťĘœ¿ŔɉǑ-structure.ӵlӵcannotӵconsiderӵ
todayӵ theӵ ƔĘťĘœ¿ŔɉǑӵ asӵ aӵ structureӵ thatӵ isӵ kinetically-transformableӵ byӵ theӵ
Oi!icicO/ĸ /ĸ /DOnceĸinĸNyĸEXpetiencĕ/ĸ /¡07ĸ
spectatorӵbutӵneitherӵcanӵlӵconsiderӵitӵasӵitsӵopposite,ӵthatӵis,ӵtheӵthin¿sӵor,ӵbetterӵ
still,ӵ theӵ ob¡ectsӵ thatӵorcŦ createӵ aӵdifferentӵ relationӵ withӵ ob¡ectiveӵ space.ӵ theyӵ
'dislocate'ӵ theӵ environmentalӵ spaceӵ awayӵ fromӵ obvious,ӵ alreadyӵ ͌Ƣown, ӵ
relations.ӵ Hereӵ isӵtheӵ keyӵ toӵ whatӵlӵ willӵ callӵ 'environmentalӵ art'.ӵ theӵ eternallyӵ
mobile,ӵ thȵӵ transformable,ӵ whichӵ isӵ structuredӵ byӵ bothӵ theӵ actionӵ ofӵ theӵ
spectatorӵandӵthatӵwhichӵisӵsҿatic.ӵTheӵlatterӵisӵalsoӵtransformableӵinӵitsӵownӵway,ӵ
dependin¿ӵonӵtheӵenvironmentӵinӵwhichӵitӵ isӵ participatin¿ӵasӵaӵstructureĞӵ ltӵwillӵ
beӵ necessaryӵtoӵcreateӵ 'environments'ӵ forӵ theseӵworksӵ - theӵ actualӵ conceptӵ ofӵ
'exhibition'ӵinӵ
itsӵtraditionalӵsense,ӵisӵ chan¿ed,ӵ sinceӵtoӵ'exhibit'ӵsuchӵ workӵdoesӵ
notӵmakeӵsenseӵ¦thisӵwouldӵbeӵaӵlesserӵpartialӵinterest)ӵ- s
tructuralӵ spacesӵthatӵ
areӵfreeӵbothӵtoӵtheӵparticipationӵandӵtoӵtheӵcreativeӵ inventionsӵofӵspectators.ӵAӵ
pavilion,ӵ oneӵ ofӵ thoseӵ usedӵ theseӵ daysӵ forӵ industrialӵ exhibitionsӵ ¦howӵ moreӵ
interestin¿ӵtheyӵ areӵ thanӵ anaemicӵ littleӵ artӵ showsɮ ),ӵwouldӵ beӵ idealӵ forӵs
uchӵ aӵ
purposeӵ - itӵwouldӵ beӵanӵopportunityӵforӵ aӵtrulyӵefficientӵexperienceӵwithӵtheӵ
people,ӵ throwin¿ӵ themӵ intoӵ theӵ creativeӵ participatoryӵ notion,ӵ awayӵ fromӵ theӵ
'eliteӵ exhibitions'ӵ soӵ fashionableӵ today.ӵ Thisӵ experienceӵshouldӵ ran¿eӵ fromӵ theӵ
'¿ivens'ӵ thatӵ haveӵ alreadyӵ beenӵ produced,ӵ theӵ 'livin¿s'ӵ thatӵ structureӵ asӵ ifӵ
archìtecturallͷӵtheӵroutesӵtoӵbeӵtraced,ӵtoӵtheӵ'transformableӵ¿ivens'ӵthatӵdemandӵ
whateverӵinventiveӵparticipationӵfromӵtheӵspectatorӵ¦beӵitӵDʎdressӵandӵunfoldӵorӵ
dance)ӵ andӵ theӵ '¿ivensӵ toӵbeӵ made',ӵ thatӵ is,ӵ theӵ rawӵ materialӵ thatӵwouldӵ beӵ
suppliedӵsoӵthatӵeachӵ personӵ canӵconstructӵorӵ createӵwhateverӵtheyӵlike,ӵ sinceӵ
motivation,ӵtheӵstimulus,ӵisӵbornӵfromӵtheӵsimpleӵfactӵofӵ'bein¿ӵthereӵforӵthat'.ӵ
Theӵ executionӵ ofӵ suchӵ aӵ planӵ isӵ complex,ӵ demandin¿ӵ ri¿orousӵ priorӵ
or¿anization,ӵ andӵ obviouslyӵ aӵ team.ӵTheӵvariedӵ andӵ multipleӵ cate¿oriesӵ toӵbeӵ
exploredӵ¦elsewhereӵlӵwillӵexplainӵwhatӵlӵconsiderӵtoӵbeӵtheӵstructuralӵcate¿oriesӵ
inӵ thisӵ newӵ conceptӵ ofӵ mine,ӵ 'environmentalӵ art')ӵ inӵ factӵ bein¿ӵ andӵ indeedӵ
requirin¿ӵ theӵ collaborationӵ ofӵ variousӵ a
rtistsӵ withӵ differìn¿ӵ ìdeas,ӵ
s
olelyӵ
concentratedӵ
onӵthisӵ¿eneralӵideaӵofӵaӵ 'totalӵ participatoryӵcreationʬӵ - toӵ whichӵ
wouldӵ beӵ addedӵ worksӵ createdӵ throu¿hӵ theӵ anonymousӵ participationӵ ofӵtheӵ
spectators,ӵwhoӵactuallyӵwouldӵbeӵbetterӵdescribedӵasӵ'participants'.ӵ
Thcͥ Poi0n¿oléǑǪ (aͥ sĻan¿ͥ Icrmͥ mcan|n¿ͥ 'anͥ anImaIcdͥ sIIuaI|onͥ andͥ suddcnͥ conIus|onͥ andjorͥ
a¿|IaIIonͥ bcIwccnͥ pcopIc')ͥ wcrcͥ sIran¿cIyͥ wc|¿hIcdͥ capcsͥ madcͥ Iromͥ unusuaIͥ IabrIīŵͥ IhaIͥ
cncoura¿cdͥwcarcrsͥIoͥmovcͥandͥdancc,ͥandͥlor¿cdͥaͥc|rcuIarͥrcIaIIonsh|pͥbcIwccnͥwaIchcrͥandͥ
wcarcr.ͥ
2 HcIIoͥ O|IIcIcaͥ uscdͥ ¿cncrIcͥIcrmsͥ IhaIͥ dclIncdͥ ¿roupsͥ oIͥworksͥ suchͥ asͥ Ihcͥ Poi0n¿olésěǪ HIsͥ
NǙclcusǪ |nsIaIIaI|onsͥ compr|scdͥ ' lIoaI|n¿ͥ pancIs'ͥ (acryI|cͥ onͥ wood)ͥ IhaIͥ hun¿ͥ lromͥ IaIIIccdͥ
sIrucIurcs.ͥEachͥpancIͥwouIdͥconIa|nͥaͥparI|cuIarͥvar|aIIonͥ|nͥŮoIouſ,ͥycIIowͥorͥoran¿cͥbcIn¿ͥIhcͥ
prcdomInanIͥIoncs.ͥW|IhͥNǚźIcoǪNCŐǪ(1960)ǪIhcͥv|cwcrͥ¿aïcsͥIhrou¿hͥIhcͥsIrucIurc,ͥd|rccIIyͥorͥ
|nd|rccIIyͥ Ihrou¿hͥ Ihcͥ mIrrorͥ pIaccdͥ onͥ Ihcͥ lIoor.ͥ WIIhͥ Cr0ndcǪ NǔƮclcoǪ (1960)Ǫ Ihcͥ vIcwcrͥIsͥ
¡0ß//ĸ ATl5T5'ĸWlT¡NG5ĸ
|nvíIcʟͥ IoͥwaI˨ͥ Ihrou¿hͥIhcͥ IonʋIͥ d|llcrcnI|aI|o̯̊ͥ sIcpp|n¿ͥ onͥ Ihcͥ¿ravcIͥ IhaIͥsurroundsͥIhcͥ
sIrucIurc.ͥThcͥl|rsIͥ|nͥIhcͥscr|csͥolͥPeneri0blesǪIhaIͥɟ|I|c|caͥwouIdͥdcvcIopͥwasͥPNőǪ (19b0)ͥHcrcͥ
Ihcͥv|cwcrͥcnIcrsͥanͥoran¿cjycIIowͥ caD|nͥ w|Ihͥ sI|d|n¿ͥwaIIs,ͥ I|IcraIIyͥ cnIcr|n¿ͥ |nIoͥ coIʌ̏ɈƵ.ͥThcͥ
PenerroblesǪva̫ͥ |nͥ maIcr|aIͥ andͥ compIcx|IyĀͥThcyͥ rcma|nͥ |nͥ Ihcͥ arI|sI`sͥ rcpcrIo|rcͥ Ihrou¿houIͥ
h|sͥIrans|I|onͥlromͥconccrnsͥw|IhͥcoIourͥ|nIoͥhIsͥIaIcͥ19b0Ȑͥcxpcr|mcnIs,ͥwh|chͥhcͥwouIdͥdclIncͥ
cnv|ronmcnIaIͥ arI.ͥ8olidesǪ couIdͥ Dcͥ IooscIyͥ IransIaIcdͥasͥ 'lIrcDaIIs`Ćͥ Ihcyͥarcͥ ¿cncraIIyͥ vcsscIsͥ
IhaIͥ varyͥ ¿rcaIIyͥ |nͥ d|mcns|ons,ͥ maIcr|aIsͥ andͥ luncI|ons.ͥ O|I|c|ca`sͥ carIyͥ 8olidesǪ wcrcͥ Doxcsͥ
madcͥ olͥ wood,ͥ andjorͥ¿Iassͥ conIa|n|n¿ͥ p|¿mcnIͥ orͥ laDr|cͥ IhaIͥ wouIdͥ Dcͥ man|puIaIcdͥ Dyͥ Ihcͥ
v|cwcrͥsuchͥasͥ8ox-8olideǪ9Ǫ(19b4)ͥandͥClossǪ8olideǪ lʎ(19b3).ͥ8olidesǪsoonͥacqu|rcdͥaͥrcadymadcͥ
cIcmcnIͥsuchͥasͥ |nͥClossǪ8olideǪì0.ʎBomo¿eǪroǪMolevichǪ(19b5)ͥ|nͥwh|chͥ IwoͥDoIIIcsͥ(oncͥ opaqucͥ
ycIIow,ͥIhcͥoIhcrͥ IransIuccnI)ͥwouIdͥDcͥpIaccdͥ s|dcͥDyͥ s|dc.ͥ [TransIaIor]ͥ
3ͥ lnIcrprcIcrͥ |sͥ hcrcͥuscdͥ asͥ IhcͥIcrmͥ lorͥ aͥ mus|c|anͥ whoͥ pIaysͥ orͥ s|n¿sͥ aͥ son¿ͥcomposcdͥ Dyͥ
somconcͥcIscřͥ[TransIaIorͥ|
HcI|oͥO|I|c|ca,ͥ'Danccͥ|nͥmyͥExpcr|cncc`,ͥD|aryͥcnIry,ͥ 1?ͥNovcmDcrͥ 19b5;ͥ rcpr|nIcdͥ|nͥF|¿uc|rcdo,ͥL,ʎ
̛apc,ͥL.ʎ SaIomao,ͥV.,ͥcds,ͥņślŒoǪširicico:ǪAspii¬Ǫ IìÛ Ci0ndeǪ Lobidž1nroǪ (k|oͥ dcͥĊanc|ro.ͥ kocco,ͥ 198b)ͥ
7?-5Ćͥandͥ'conI|nuaI|onͥ 10ͥApr|ă 19bb`ͥ(íbíd.) 75-bǭͥTransIaIcdͥDyͥM|chacIͥAsDury,ͥ?00b.ͥ
Oi!icicO/ĸ /DOnceĸinĸNyĸ£petience/ĸ /l0ºĸ
LygiO C!Ork OnO Hé!iO OitiCiCO
Le¡¡ersJ Jl9ò6~ò9
ĝĞlíoŦ 0mcícoŦ ondŦL¡¿íoŦ ClorkŦsnorcdŦonŦ ín!cnscŦ or!ís!ícŦdíolo¿ucŦ !nrou¿nou!Ŧ!ncírŦ
corccrs.Ŧ£xccrp!sŦo]Ŧ!ncírŦcorrcspondcnccŦDclowŦ!roccŦ!ncŦcvolu!íonŦo]Ŧ!ncírŦ!nínkín¿,Ŧ
]romŦín!croc!ívcŦsculp!urolŦoD]cc!sŦ !oŦ¿roupŦcvcn!sŦ!no!ŦoddrcsscdŦcx!crnolŦrclo!íonsŦ
(0mcíco)ŦondŦ ínŦ!cnorŦps¡cnolo¿ícolŦs!o!csŦ(Clork).Ŧ ForŦDo!nŦ or!ís!s,Ŧ oŦkc¡Ŧ!crmŦwosŦ
vivνncias,ӵorŦlívcdŦcxpcncncc.Ŧ!ncŦDod¡'sŦncí¿n!cncdŦscnsoijŦprcscnccŦosŦou!ncn!íc,Ŧ
ímmcdío!c,Ŧ ondŦrcsís!on!Ŧ!oŦídcolo¿ícolŦcop!urcćŦ
26 0cobcr 1968
DearestӵHéǩiCaetaCéric,
Ƈӵ
[ӵ. . . ӵŀӵ
SinceӵComínnondoŦjWolkín¿,Ŧǂ968ŀ,ӵtheӵcb¡ectӵfcrӵmeӵhasӵlcstӵitsӵsi¿nihcance,ӵandӵ
ifӵlӵ stillӵ useӵ it,ӵ itӵ isӵscӵthatӵ itӵbeccmesӵ aӵ mediatcrӵfcrӵparticipaticn.ӵ Withӵ theӵ
senscrialӵ¿lcves,ӵfcrӵexample,ӵitӵ¿ivesӵtheӵmeasureӵcfӵtheӵactӵandӵtheӵmiraculcusӵ
characterӵ cfӵ theӵ ¿esture,ӵ withӵ itsӵ spcntaneity,ӵ whichӵ seemsӵ tcӵ haveӵ beenӵ
fcr¿ctten.ӵlnӵallӵthatӵlӵdc,ӵthereӵreallyӵisӵtheӵnecessityӵcfӵtheӵhumanӵbcdy,ӵscӵthatӵ
itӵ expressesӵ itselfӵ crӵ isӵ revealedӵ asӵ inӵ aӵ hrstӵ [primaryŀӵ experience.ӵ Fcrӵ meӵ itӵ
dcesn'tӵmatterӵwhetherӵ lӵ amӵavant-¿ardeӵcrӵplacedӵ withinӵ newӵ thecries.ӵ lӵ canӵ
cnlyӵbeӵwhatӵlӵamӵandӵlӵstillӵintendӵtcӵprcduceӵthcseӵhlmsӵinӵwhichӵmanӵisӵatӵtheӵ
centreӵcfӵtheӵevent.ӵFcrӵme,ӵtheӵstcnesӵthatӵlӵccmeӵacrcss,ӵcrӵtheӵplasticӵba¿s,ӵareӵ
cneӵ andӵ theӵ same.ӵ theyӵareӵthereӵcnlyӵtcӵ expressӵaӵprcpcsiticn.ӵlӵ dcn'tӵ seeӵwhyӵ
weӵ shculdӵ ne¿ateӵ theӵ cb¡ectӵ simplyӵ becauseӵ weӵ haveӵ ccnstructedӵ it.ӵ ltӵ isӵ
impcrtantӵthatӵitӵshculdӵbeӵexpressive.ӵlfӵlӵfeelӵinӵmyӵlifeӵtcdayӵtheӵstateӵthatӵycuӵ
feelӵandӵdehneӵasӵhallucinatcry,ӵitӵisӵbecauseӵthrcu¿hӵtheseӵprcpcsiticnsӵlӵhaveӵ
learntӵtcӵ feelӵ theseӵ sameӵ mcments,ӵ andӵ ifӵlӵ hadӵ nctӵdcneӵ sc,ӵ perhapsӵ lӵ wculdӵ
haveӵneverӵdisccveredӵtheseӵsameӵmcmentsӵthatӵareӵfantastic.ӵWhatӵlӵwantӵisӵtcӵ
avcidӵschematizin¿ӵanythin¿,ӵandӵeachӵdayӵeatӵaӵnewӵ'pear',ӵtcӵseeӵ ifӵit'sӵ¿ccdӵcrӵ
nct.ӵMaric'sӵ[ Pedrcsaӵŀӵterm,ӵasӵalwaysӵisӵexcellent,ӵbutӵfcrӵmeӵitӵisӵnctӵabcutӵtheӵ
mcmentӵcfӵchanceӵbutӵtheӵ'fruit'ӵcfӵtheӵmcment.ӵFruitӵinӵtheӵfruitӵsense,ӵ suchӵisӵ
theӵ Ɯavcurӵandӵ theӵ sensualityӵ cfӵeatin¿,ӵ cfӵlivin¿ӵthisӵ mcment.ӵ lӵ alscӵ fcundӵitӵ
veryӵ ¿ccdӵ whenӵ ycuӵ saidӵ thatӵalreadyӵ inӵ theӵ rudimentaryӵelementӵtheӵ cpenӵ
structuresӵareӵliberatedӵdespiteӵtheӵfactӵthatӵweӵuseӵitӵpreciselyӵbecauseӵweӵncӵ
lcn¿erӵbelieveӵinӵtheӵaestheticӵ ccncept.ӵAtӵtheӵ endӵ ycurӵtextӵ isӵ splendidӵ withӵ
re¿ardӵtcӵtheӵpceticӵlivedӵexperienceӵĪvívcnijoŦpoc!ícoŦŀӵandӵtheӵsub¡ectiveӵchar¿e,ӵ
cnlyӵlӵdcӵnctӵbelieve,ӵasӵlӵmenticnedӵabcve,ӵinӵtheӵmar¿inalityӵcfӵwhcӵprcpcses,ӵ
¡ ¡0//ĸAT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
what'sӵ¿reatӵisӵthisӵdiversityӵcfӵpcsiticns,ӵsinceӵasӵ lcn¿ӵasӵthereӵisӵccntradicticnӵ
andӵne¿aticnӵthereӵisӵalscӵccnfirmaticnӵcfӵaӵreality.ӵ
jŦ4 4 4 ]Ŧ
ThcusandӵcfӵkissesӵtcӵthisӵnewӵHélicCaetaCéricƂӵ
Clarkӵ
8 Novcmbcr 1968
Ly¿ia,ӵmyӵDearӵ
jŦ. . . Ŧ]Ŧ
Ycurӵ letter,ӵ asӵ always,ӵ wasӵ fantastic.ӵ Thisӵ issueӵ cfӵ bein¿ӵ deflcweredӵ byӵ theӵ
spectatcrӵisӵtheӵmcstӵdramaticӵthin¿.ӵ inӵfactӵeverycneӵis,ӵsinceӵbeycndӵtheӵacticnӵ
thereӵisӵtheӵmcment-ccnscicusnessӵcfӵeachӵacticn, ӵevenӵifӵthisӵccnscicusnessӵisӵ
mcdifiedӵ laterӵ cn,ӵ crӵ inccrpcratesӵ ctherӵ livedӵ experiencesӵ jvívcncíos].Ŧ Thisӵ
businessӵ cfӵ participaticnӵ isӵ reallyӵ terribleӵ sinceӵ itӵ isӵ whatӵ isӵ actuallyӵ
inccnceivableӵthatӵmanifestsӵitselfӵinӵeachӵperscn,ӵatӵeachӵmcment,ӵasӵifӵtakin¿ӵ
pcssessicn.ӵ likeӵ ycu,ӵ lӵ alscӵ feltӵ thisӵ necessityӵ cfӵ killin¿ӵ theӵ spectatcrӵ crӵ
participatcr,ӵ whichӵ isӵ aӵ ¿ccdӵ thin¿ӵ sinceӵ itӵcreatesӵ anӵ intericrӵ dynamicӵ withӵ
re¿ardӵtcӵtheӵrelaticn.ӵCcntraryӵtcӵwhatӵhasӵbeenӵhappenin¿ӵaӵlctӵlately,ӵitӵshcwsӵ
thatӵ thereӵ isӵ ncӵ aestheticizaticnӵ cfӵ participaticn.ӵ theӵ ma¡crity̅ӵcreatesӵ anӵ
academicismӵcfӵtheӵrelaticnӵcrӵcfӵtheӵideaӵcfӵspectatcrӵparticipaticn,ӵtcӵsuchӵanӵ
extentӵthatӵitӵhasӵleftӵmeӵwithӵdcubtsӵabcutӵtheӵideaӵitself.ӵTheӵctherӵdayӵwithӵ
[MȩricĉӵSchember¿ӵlӵdiscussedӵthisӵ issueӵaӵlctӵcverӵhere.ӵ heӵthinksӵ inӵ factӵthatӵ
thereӵisӵncӵ participaticn,ӵ crӵthisӵissue,ӵ whichӵisӵperhapsӵdueӵtcӵhisӵexa¿¿eratedӵ
¿eneralizaticnӵwithӵre¿ardӵtcӵ this.ӵWhatӵ lӵthinkӵ˭isӵ thatӵtheӵ fcrmalӵaspectӵcfӵthisӵ
issueӵwasӵcverccmeӵscmeӵtimeӵa¿c,ӵbyӵtheӵ'relaticnӵinӵitself',ӵitsӵdynamic,ӵbyӵtheӵ
inccrpcraticnӵ cfӵ allӵ theӵ livedӵ experiencesӵ cfӵ precaricusness,ӵ byӵ theӵ ncn-
fcrmulated,ӵandӵscmetimesӵwhatӵappearsӵtcӵbeӵparticipaticnӵisӵaӵmereӵdetailӵcfӵ
it,ӵbecauseӵtheӵartistӵcannctӵinӵfactӵmeasureӵthisӵparticipaticn,ӵsinceӵeachӵperscnӵ
experiencesӵ itӵ differently.ӵ Thisӵ isӵ whyӵ thereӵ isӵ thisӵ unbearableӵ experienceӵ
[ vivcncia| cfӵcurs,ӵ cfӵbein¿ӵdeƜcwered,ӵ cfӵpcssessicn,ӵ asӵ ifӵhe,ӵ theӵ spectatcr,ӵ
wculdӵ say.ӵ 'Whcӵareӵ ycu?ӵ Whatӵdcӵlӵ careӵ ifӵycuӵcreatedӵ thisӵ crӵnctđӵWell,ӵlӵ amӵ
hereӵtcӵmcdifyӵeverythin¿,ӵthisӵunbearableӵshitӵthatӵprcpcsesӵdullӵexperiences,ӵ
crӵ¿ccdӵcnes,ӵlibidincus,ӵfuckӵycu,ӵandӵallӵcfӵthisӵbecauseӵlӵdevcurӵycu,ӵandӵthenӵ
lӵ shitӵ ycuӵ cut,ӵ whatӵ isӵ cfӵinterestӵ cnlyӵ lӵ canӵ experienceӵ andӵ ycuӵ willӵ neverӵ
evaluateӵwhatӵlӵ feelӵ andӵthink,ӵtheӵlustӵthatӵdevcursӵme.'ӵAndӵtheӵartistӵccmesӵ
cutӵcfӵitӵinӵtatters.ӵ Butӵitӵisӵ¿ccd.ӵltӵisӵnct,ӵasӵcneӵcculdӵima¿ine,ӵaӵquesticnӵ cfӵ
mascchism,ӵ it'sӵ ¡ustӵ theӵ trueӵ natureӵ cfӵtheӵ business.ӵ lt'sӵ funny,ӵ scmethin¿ӵ lӵ
experiencedӵtheӵctherӵdayӵhas,ӵtcӵaӵcertainӵextent,ӵaӵrelaticnӵtcӵallӵcfӵthis,ӵl'mӵnctӵ
sureӵ ifӵycu'llӵ a¿ree.ӵ theӵ idcl,ӵ theӵartistӵ perscnӵwhcӵ usesӵ himselfӵinӵ crderӵ tcӵ
ClOtk/Oi!icicO/ĸ /Le!!etS/ĸ /¡ ¡ ¡ ĸ
express.ӵ Caetanoӵ [Velosoӵŀӵ forӵexample,ӵ whenӵ heӵ sin¿sӵ andӵ doesӵ allӵ ofӵthat,ӵ isӵ
totallӞӵdevoured,ӵinӵanӵalmostӵphysicalӵsense.ӵonceӵcomin¿ӵoutӵfromӵ Chacrinhaӵ
[musicӵ showӵ recordedӵ forӵ TVȖ,ӵ lӵ sawӵ inӵ theӵ corridorsӵ millionsӵ ofӵ students,ӵ
adolescents,ӵ inӵ anӵ incredibleӵ fury,ӵ ¿rabbin¿ӵ himӵtoӵ askӵ forӵ auto¿raphs,ӵbutӵ inӵ
realityӵitӵwasӵ notӵ onlyӵthatĞӵ Theӵ true,ӵ profoundӵmeanin¿ӵofӵallӵ ofӵthatӵwasӵ ofӵaӵ
veritableӵcoitusӵ- Caetanoӵreactedӵpassively,ӵrcloxŦ [ori¿inallyӵinӵ Fn¿lishɯ,ӵasӵyouӵ
wouldӵ say,ӵ butӵtheӵ wholeӵ thin¿ӵscaredӵmeӵ profoundly,ӵsuchӵaӵcollectiveӵfuryӵinӵ
contrastӵ withӵ theӵ nobleӵ andӵ delicateӵ intentionsӵ ofӵ Caetano.ӵ aӵ poet,ӵ ultra-
sensitive,ӵallӵofӵaӵsuddenӵisӵthrownӵintoӵanӵarenaӵofӵwildӵbeasts,ӵbutӵbeastsӵnotӵinӵ
theӵ senseӵofӵanimalsӵ fromӵ whichӵ youӵ haveӵtoӵdefendӵ yourselfӵphysicallyӵmoreӵ
thanӵpsycholo¿ically,ӵbutӵhumanĥbeasts,ӵlikeӵ meӵandӵyou,ӵchildrenӵalmost,ӵeachӵ
oneӵpro¡ectin¿ӵtheirӵ ownӵpsycholo¿icalӵ char¿eӵ inӵaӵterribleӵmanner.ӵSomethin¿ӵ
worseӵhappenedĻӵ atӵthatӵcrapӵson¿ӵfestival,ӵdurin¿ӵtheӵ SȨoӵPauloӵ preliminariesӵ
thatӵ lӵ watchedӵ onӵ TV,ӵ theӵ furyӵ ofӵ theӵ or¿anizedӵ fan-clubsӵ inӵ theӵ audienceӵ
functionedӵ asӵ acclamation,ӵ equalӵ butӵ inӵ reverse,ӵ butӵ ultimatelyӵ booin¿ӵ andӵ
applauseӵbecomeӵidentifiedӵwithӵdevourin¿.ӵTheӵaudienceӵscreamed,ӵbooedӵlikeӵ
lӵ haveӵ neverӵ seenӵ before,ӵ toӵ theӵ pointӵ thatӵ itӵ wasӵ noӵ lon¿erӵpossibleӵ toӵ sin¿.ӵ
Whenӵtheӵson¿ӵwasӵselectedӵtoӵ¿oӵonӵtoӵtheӵnextӵsta¿e,ӵthenӵitӵwasӵevenӵworse.ӵ
itӵwasӵasӵifӵtheӵintellectualӵintentionӵofӵdestructionӵbecameӵconsciousӵofӵitself.ӵlfӵ
Caetanoӵ hadӵ beenӵ atӵ people'sӵ reachӵ heӵ wouldӵ haveӵ beenӵ destroyedӵ inӵ aӵ
horrendousӵ manner.ӵ eveģǥoneӵ shoutedӵqueer,ӵqueer,ӵqueer,ӵandӵthrewӵob¡ects,ӵ
bitsӵofӵwoodӵ atӵ himӵ andӵtheӵ Mutantesӵ [ popIJrockӵbandӵ inspiredӵ byӵ theӵBeatlesӵ
andӵ psychedeliaӵ ͍ӵ andӵ thenӵ theyӵ turnedӵ theirӵ backsӵ toӵ theӵ sta¿e.ӵ Thenӵ theӵ
Mutantesӵalsoӵturnedӵtheirӵbacksӵtoӵ theӵ audienceӵandӵCaetanoӵstoppedӵsin¿in¿ӵ
andӵsaidӵtheӵmostӵdramaticӵandӵprofoundӵthin¿sӵlӵhaveӵeverӵseen,ӵnotӵdueӵtoӵtheӵ
wordsӵthemselvesӵbutӵinӵtheӵsenseӵofӵtheirӵclosureӵandӵwhatӵtheyӵrepresentedӵatӵ
thatӵmoment.ӵltӵwasӵ incredible,ӵandӵdoӵyouӵknowӵwhatӵitӵremindedӵmeӵofđӵTheӵ
sceneӵ withӵAbelӵ Cance'sӵ Napoleonӵ inӵ frontӵofӵtheӵtribunalӵ withӵthatӵ|rovcllín¿Ŧ
thatӵCanceӵmade,ӵimitatin¿ӵtheӵmovementӵofӵtheӵsea,ӵrememberđӵThisӵisӵwhatӵisӵ
terrible.ӵtheӵdis¡unctionӵbetweenӵtheӵalwaysӵ noble,ӵetc.,ӵintentionsӵofӵtheӵartistӵ
andӵtheӵfuryӵofӵtheӵparticipatoryӵrelation.ӵ lӵ believeӵthatӵthatӵmomentӵ revealedӵ
manyӵthin¿sӵforӵme,ӵespeciallyӵtheӵ'wellӵnourished'ӵappearanceӵofӵpeople,ӵofӵtheӵ
destructiveӵ fury,ӵ asӵ ifӵ thatӵ momentӵ ofӵ lackӵ ofӵ repressionӵ wasӵ aӵ chanceӵ forӵ
destruction,ӵwhichӵtoӵanӵextentӵitӵalwaysӵ is.ӵ Butӵitӵisӵaӵ¿oodӵtestӵofӵtheӵvalidityӵofӵ
theӵ proposition.ӵ toӵ notӵ acceptӵ passivelyӵ isӵ moreӵ importantӵ thanӵ toӵ acceptӵ
everythin¿,ӵ andӵ inӵ thisӵ dynamicӵ ofӵtheӵ relationӵ newӵ possibilitiesӵ ariseӵ which,ӵ
evenӵifӵpainful,ӵareӵessential.ӵ lӵ believeӵthatӵperhapsӵinӵVeniceӵyouӵexperiencedӵ
thisӵ inӵ relationӵtoӵ theӵwork-spectator-creator,ӵ andӵ theӵwillӵtoӵkillӵ him,ӵ toӵ pushӵ
asideӵ people'sӵ unbearableӵ lust;ӵ thisӵ isӵ importantӵ withinӵtheӵdialecticsӵ ofӵtheӵ
issue.ӵ becauseӵ ¿ivin¿ӵ doesӵ notӵ pushӵ asideӵ theӵ takin¿,ӵ onӵ theӵ contrary,ӵ itӵ
¡ ¡ 2//ĸAT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
stimulatesӵit,ӵ inӵ anӵeroticӵwayӵ too.ӵAsӵ Marcuseӵwouldӵsay,ӵitӵliberatesӵ theӵ Frosӵ
thatӵ isӵ repressedӵ byӵ repressiveӵ activities.ӵ theӵ rcloxŦ inӵ participationӵ isӵ aӵ ѫon-
repressiveӵactivity,ӵwhichӵconfusesӵanƙ liberatesӵtrulyӵunpredictableӵforces,ӵandӵ
inӵthis,ӵlӵbelieve,ӵyouӵbaseӵyourselfӵonӵyourӵownӵexperience,ӵwhichӵisӵalsoӵhi¿hlyӵ
revolutionary,ӵthisӵisӵtheӵ¿reatӵcurrentӵissue.ӵ
lӵ believeӵthatӵourӵ¿reaӀӵinnovationӵisӵpreciselyӵtheӵformӵofӵparticipation,ӵthatӵis,ӵ
itsӵmeanin¿,ӵwhichӵisӵwhereӵweӵdifferӵfromӵwhatӵisӵproposedӵinӵsuper-civilizedӵ
Furopeӵorӵinӵ theӵ USA.ӵ weӵ haveӵ hereӵ aӵfarӵ rou¿herӵscene,ӵ perhaps,ӵ becauseӵweӵ
haveӵ reachedӵ theseӵ issuesӵ inӵ aӵ moreӵ violentӵ manner.ӵ Forӵexample,ӵ yourӵblackӵ
withӵ whiteӵ lineӵ phase,ӵ orӵ evenӵ theӵ oneӵ beforeӵ that,ӵ evenӵ theӵ breakin¿ӵofӵtheӵ
frame,ӵthisӵtypeӵofӵpaintin¿ӵcontainsӵaӵsuíŦ¿cncrísŦdramaticalityӵthatӵdidӵnotӵoccurӵ
evenӵ inӵAr¿entina,ӵsinceӵ theӵAr¿entines,ӵtoӵaӵcertainӵextent,ӵareӵ moreӵcivilized,ӵ
moreӵFuropeanӵthanӵus.ӵBrazilӵisӵaӵformӵofӵsynthesisӵofӵtheӵpeoples,ӵraces,ӵhabits,ӵ
whereӵ theӵ Furopeanӵ speaksӵ butӵ doesӵ notӵ speakӵ soӵ loudly,ӵ exceptӵ inӵ theӵ
universalist,ӵacademicӵfields,ӵwhichӵareӵnotӵthoseӵofӵ'culturalӵcreation'ӵbutӵthoseӵ
ofӵclosure.ӵ Creation,ӵ evenӵ inӵTarsilaӵ [doӵAmaralŀӵ andӵ especiallyӵinӵDswaldoӵdeӵ
Andrade,ʭӵ possessesӵ aӵ sub¡ectiveӵ char¿eӵ thatӵ differsӵ extremelyӵ fromӵ theӵ
rationalismӵ ofӵ theӵ Furopean,ӵ thisӵ isӵ ourӵ 'thin¿',ƅӵ thatӵ Cuyӵ Brettӵ wasӵ ableӵ toӵ
understandӵ soӵ wellӵ andӵ thatӵ theӵ Furopeansӵ willӵ haveӵ toӵ swallow,ӵ inӵ factӵwithӵ
appetiteӵsinceӵtheyӵareӵfedӵupӵwithӵeverythin¿ӵandӵitӵlooksӵasӵ ifӵthatӵsaturatedӵ
civilizationӵisӵdryin¿ӵ theirӵima¿ination.ӵ
[ӵ. ª
|
Kiiiisses,ӵ
Hélioӵ
14 Novcmbcr 1968
DearӵHélioӵ
[ӵ. ª ª
|
Asӵfarӵasӵtheӵideaӵofӵparticipationӵisӵconcerned,ӵasӵalwaysӵthereӵareӵwcoŋęŦor!ís|sŦ
whoӵ cannotӵ reallyӵ expressӵ themselvesӵ throu¿hӵ thou¿ht,ӵ soӵ insteadӵ theyӵ
illustrateӵtheӵissue.ӵForӵmeӵthisӵissueӵdoesӵinƚeedӵexistӵandӵisӵveryӵimportant.ӵAsӵ
youӵsay,ӵitӵisӵexactlyӵtheӵ'relationӵinӵitself'ӵthatӵmakesӵitӵaliveӵandӵimportant.ӵForӵ
example,ӵthisӵhasӵbeenӵtheӵissueӵinӵmyӵworkӵsinceӵtheӵsixties,ӵifӵweӵ¿oӵbackӵevenӵ
furtherӵtoӵ l955,ӵ lӵproducedӵtheӵ maquetteӵforӵtheӵhouse.ӵ 'buildӵyourӵownӵlivin¿ӵ
spaceċ.ӵ Butӵitӵisӵnotӵparticipationӵforӵparticipation'sӵsakeӵ andӵ itӵ isӵnotӵaӵfactӵ ofӵ
sayin¿,ӵlikeӵɰ|ulioӵ| LeӵParc'sӵ¿roupӵ[CRAV.ӵCroupeӵdeӵrechercheӵd'artӵvisuelбӵdoes,ӵ
thatӵartӵisӵanӵissueӵforӵtheӵbour¿eoisie.ӵltӵwouldӵbeӵtooӵsimpleӵanƚ linea҈.ӵThereӵ
isӵnoӵdepthӵ inӵ thisӵ simplicityӵandӵ nothin¿ӵisӵtrulyӵlinear.ӵTheyӵne¿ateӵ preciselyӵ
ClOtk/O!!!c!cO/ĸ /Le!!etS/ĸ /¡¡öĸ
whatӵ isӵ impcrtantĐӵ thcu¿ht.ӵlӵ thinkӵthatӵncwӵweӵ areӵthcseӵ whcӵ prcpcse,ӵ andӵ
thrcu¿hӵ theӵ prcpcsiticnӵ thereӵ shculdӵ beӵ thcu¿ht,ӵ andӵ whenӵ theӵ spectatcrӵ
expressesӵthisӵprcpcsiticn,ӵheӵisӵinӵrealityӵ¿atherin¿ӵtheӵcharacteristicӵcfӵaӵwcrkӵ
cfӵartӵcfӵallӵ times.ӵ thcu¿htӵandӵexpressicn.ӵAndӵfcrӵmeӵallӵcfӵthisӵisӵccnnected.ӵ
Frcmӵtheӵcpticn,ӵtheӵact,ӵtcӵimmanenceӵasӵaӵmeansӵcfӵccmmunicaticn,ӵandӵtheӵ
lackӵcfӵanyӵmythӵ extericrӵtcӵ manӵ andӵ mcreӵ sc,ӵ inӵ myӵfantasy,ӵ itӵccnnectsӵ itselfӵ
withӵtheӵanti-universeӵwhereӵthin¿sӵareӵthereӵbecauseӵitӵhappensӵnow.Ŧltӵwculdӵ
beӵ perhapsӵtheӵfirstӵcccasicnӵinӵwhichӵ ccnscicusnessӵ cfӵtheӵactualӵabscluteӵisӵ
achievedӵ inӵtheӵ ncw.ӵAnctherӵ thin¿ӵthatӵ lӵ amӵ veryӵ impressedӵ withӵ isӵ tcday'sӵ
ycuthӵ whc,ӵ likeӵ us,ӵwantӵ tcӵ ¿iveӵ themselvesӵ meanin¿ӵfrcmӵ theӵinsideӵtcwardsӵ
theӵ cutsideӵasӵcppcsedӵ tc,ӵ asӵitӵhasӵ alwaysӵ been,ӵfrcmӵ theӵcutsideӵtcwardsӵ theӵ
inside.ӵTrueӵ participaticnӵ isӵ cpenӵandӵ weӵ willӵ neverӵ beӵ ableӵ tcӵ kncwӵwhatӵweӵ
¿iveӵtcӵ theӵ spectatcr-authcr.ӵ ltӵisӵpreciselyӵbecauseӵ cfӵthisӵthatӵlӵspeakӵcfӵaӵwell,ӵ
frcmӵinsideӵwhichӵaӵscundӵwculdӵbeӵtaken,ӵnctӵbyӵtheӵycu-wellӵbutӵbyӵtheӵcther,ӵ
inӵtheӵsenseӵthatӵheӵtȽrcwsӵhisӵcwnӵstcneӵ. . . ӵMyӵexperienceӵcfӵdeflcwerin¿ӵisӵnctӵ
quiteӵ theӵ sameӵ asӵ ycurs.ӵ ltӵ isӵ nctӵ myselfӵwhcӵ isӵdeflcweredӵ butӵ theӵ prcpcsalӵ
itself.ӵAndӵwhenӵlӵcryӵabcutӵthisӵphencmencnӵitӵisӵnctӵbecauseӵlӵfeelӵwcundedӵinӵ
myӵ perscnalӵ inte¿rity,ӵ butӵ becauseӵ theyӵ ruinӵ everythin¿ӵ andӵ lӵ haveӵ tcӵ startӵ
ccnstructin¿ӵ theӵ wcrkӵ allӵ cverӵ a¿ain.ӵ 0nӵ theӵ ccntrary,ӵ lӵ dcn'tӵ evenӵ putӵ cnӵ myӵ
mŢsksӵandӵclcthes,ӵbutӵlӵhcpeӵscmecneӵwillӵ ccmeӵalcn¿ӵandӵ¿iveӵmeanin¿ӵtcӵtheӵ
fcrmulaticn.ӵAndӵtheӵmcreӵdiverseӵtheӵlivedӵexperiencesӵare,ӵtheӵmorcŦopcnŦísŦ!ncŦ
proposí!íonŦ andӵ itӵ isӵ therefcreӵ mcreӵ impcrtant.ӵ lnӵ fact,ӵ lӵ thinkӵ thatӵ ncwӵ lӵ amӵ
prcpcsin¿ӵtheӵsameӵtypeӵcfӵissueӵthatӵbefcreӵwasӵstillӵachievedӵviaӵtheӵcb¡ect.ӵ
theӵ empty-full,ӵ theӵ fcrmӵ andӵ itsӵ cwnӵ space,ӵ theӵ cr¿anicityӵ . . . ӵ 0nlyӵ ncw,ӵ withӵ
theseӵnewӵsenscrialӵmasks,ӵitӵisӵmanӵwhcӵdisccversӵhimselfӵinӵallӵhisӵplenitude,ӵ
andӵevenӵwhenӵheӵfillsӵtheӵplasticӵba¿sӵ¦whatӵisӵimpcrtantӵncwӵisӵalscӵtcӵmakeӵ
theӵmask)ӵheӵfeelsӵthatӵheӵisӵcastin¿ӵhimselfӵ¦inӵtheӵsenseӵthatӵheӵexhalesӵtheӵairӵ
andӵtheӵba¿ӵtakesӵshape).ӵThisӵsameӵspaceӵthatӵccmesӵcutӵcfӵhim,ӵasӵheӵbeccmesӵ
ccnscicusӵcfӵhisӵcwnӵbcdilyӵspaceӵthatӵ¿cesӵbeycndӵhim,ӵtakesӵaӵfcrmӵthatӵwculdӵ
fillӵtheӵactualӵspaceӵarcundӵhim.ӵlӵfcrӵinstance,ӵfeelӵthatӵafterӵfcrmulatin¿ӵtheseӵ
lar¿eӵplasticӵba¿sӵwithӵmyӵcwnӵlun¿s,ӵ whenӵlyin¿ӵdcwnӵcnӵtheӵflccrӵinӵmyӵflatӵlӵ
cculdӵtcuch,ӵwithӵaӵ simpleӵ¿esture,ӵtheӵ ceilin¿,ӵ whichӵisӵncӵ lessӵ thanӵ6ӵmetresӵ
hi¿hӵ. . . ӵ ltӵ isӵ asӵ ifӵ lӵ hadӵ createdӵ anӵ e¿¿ӵ cfӵ spaceӵ thatӵ belcn¿sӵ tcӵ meӵ andӵ thatӵ
embracesӵ me.ӵ ltӵ wculdӵ beӵ theӵ mcstӵ cr¿anicӵ 8rco!ncŦ wí!nŦ mcŦ [ l966ĉӵ yetӵ lessӵ
illustrativeƬӵ Manӵwhenӵputtin¿ӵcnӵtheseӵmasksӵturnsӵhimselfӵintcӵanӵauthenticӵ
beast,ӵsinceӵtheӵmaskӵisӵhisӵappendix,ӵnctӵlikeӵtheӵfirstӵcnesӵwhereӵthereӵwasӵinӵ
factӵaӵrcolŦmosk.ŦTheyӵturnӵthemselvesӵintcӵmcnstersӵlilŊeӵelephantsӵcrӵencrmcusӵ
birdsӵwithӵ¿reatӵcrcps.ӵMcreӵandӵmcreӵ[MȩricĉӵPedrcsa'sӵsentenceӵfuncticnsӵfcrӵ
myӵ wcrkĐӵ 'manӵasӵtheӵcb¡ectӵcfӵhimself'.ӵAsӵycuӵ see,ӵ participaticnӵisӵincreasin¿lyӵ
¿reater.ӵThereӵncӵ lcn¿erӵisӵtheӵcb¡ectӵtcӵ expressӵanyӵccnceptӵbutӵtheӵspectatcrӵ
l¡ 4//ĸATl5T5'ĸWlT¡NG5ĸ
whcӵreaches,ӵmcreӵandӵmcreӵprcfcundly,ӵhisӵcwnӵself.ӵHe,ӵman,ӵisӵncwӵaӵ'beast'ӵ
andӵɞheӵdialc¿ueӵisӵncwӵӗithӵhimself,ӵtcӵtheӵextentӵcχӵtheӵcr¿anicityӵandӵalscӵtheӵ
ma¿icӵthatӵheӵisӵableӵtcӵbcrrcwӵfrcmӵwithinӵhimself.ӵAsӵfarӵasӵCaetanc'sӵprcblemӵ
isӵccncerned,ӵitӵisӵdifferentӵsinceӵheӵisӵaffectedӵasӵaӵperscnӵbutӵisӵonŦíJolėŦheӵisӵtheӵ
cppcsiteӵ cfӵmyself,ӵ whcӵ ncӵ lcn¿erӵ pc
Җ
sessesӵ anythin¿,ӵ nctӵ evenӵ asӵ aӵ creativeӵ
artistӵwhcӵprcvidesӵwhatӵisӵstillӵaӵtctalӵceuvreӵthatӵinӵҮheӵendӵisӵmyӵself.ӵFachӵdayӵ
lӵlccseӵ mcreӵcfӵmyӵapparentӵperscnality,ӵenterin¿ӵϻntcӵ theӵccllectiveӵinӵseaɕchӵcfӵ
aӵ dialc¿ueӵ andӵ acccmplishin¿ӵ myselfӵthrcu¿hӵ theӵ spectatcr.ӵ Andӵ theӵ crises,ӵ
whenӵtheyӵarrive,ӵappearӵinӵaӵmcreӵbrutalӵɍanner,ӵmuchӵmcreӵpainful,ӵyetӵtheyӵ
passӵbyӵquickerӵthanӵΎefcreӵ. . . ӵ
[ӵµ . . ӵĉӵ
ThcusandӵcfӵkissesӵandӵdcӵwriteĹӵ
Clarkӵ
27 )unc 1969
Ly¿ia,ӵmyӵlcveӵ
[ӵ. æ 4 ĉӵ
YcurӵletterĐӵ
lӵveŒĿӵmuchӵlikedӵtheӵideasӵandӵincredibleӵrelaticnsӵccncernin¿ӵycu,ӵthatӵlӵwrcteӵ
abcutӵinӵanctherӵpartӵcfӵtheӵencrmcusӵtextӵthatӵlӵ preparedӵ fcrӵtheӵsympcsiumӵlӵ
menticned.ӵ l'llӵtranslateӵaӵ secticnӵ andӵ lӵ amӵsureӵycuӵ willӵlcveӵit,ӵ since,ӵ inӵ factӵ
afterӵlӵwrcteӵ it,ӵlӵdisccveredӵinӵMaƤcuse'sӵmcstӵrecentӵbcckӵaӵchapterӵinӵwhichӵheӵ
prcpcsesӵ aӵ 'biclc¿icalӵ scciety'ӵ thatӵwculdӵ beӵ unrepressedӵ andӵ basedӵ upcnӵ aӵ
directӵ chainӵ cfӵ ccmmunicaticn,ӵ theӵ sameӵ thin¿ӵ lӵ hadӵ thcu¿htӵ abcutӵ whenӵ
writin¿ӵabcutӵycurӵissues,ӵseeӵbelcwӵinӵaӵceŒүainӵpassa¿eӵcfӵtheӵtext.ӵ
'ӵ. . . ӵ theӵ mcstӵ recentӵ experiencesӵ cfӵ Ly¿iaӵ Clarkӵ haveӵ ledӵ herӵ tcӵ fascinatin¿ӵ
prcpcsalsӵasӵ sheӵ disccveredӵ thatӵcertainlyӵherӵ ccmmunicaticnӵ willӵhaveӵtcӵbeӵ
mcreӵ cfӵanӵ ín!roJuc!íonŦ tcӵ aӵ practiceӵ thatӵ sheӵ callsӵ ccllulorēŦ Frcmӵ perscnӵ tcӵ
perscn,ӵthisӵisӵanӵimprcvisedӵccrpcralӵdialc¿ueӵǠhatӵcanӵexpandӵintcӵaӵtctalӵcnoínŦ
creatin¿ӵscmethin¿ӵcfӵanӵollŦcncompossín¿ŦDíolo¿ícolŦcn!í!¡Ŧcrӵwhatӵlӵwculdӵcallӵaӵ
crcproc!ícc.'Ŧ Theӵ ideaӵ cfӵ creatin¿ӵ suchӵ relaticnsӵ ¿cesӵ beycndӵ thatӵ cfӵaӵ facileӵ
participaticn,ӵsuchӵasӵinӵtheӵmanipulaticnӵcfӵcb¡ectsĐӵthereӵisӵtheӵsearchӵfcrӵwhatӵ
cculdӵ beӵ describedӵ asӵ aӵ Díolo¿ícolŦ rí!uol,Ŧ whereӵ interperscnalӵ relaticnsӵ areӵ
enrichedӵ andӵ establishӵaӵcommuníco!íonŦ o]Ŧ¿row!nŦ atӵanӵ cpenӵ level.ӵ lӵ sayӵ cpenӵ
level,ӵbecauseӵitӵdcesӵnctӵrelateӵtcӵanӵcb¡ect-basedӵccmmunicaticn,ӵcfӵsub¡ect-
cb¡ect,ӵ butӵ tcӵ anӵ interperscnalӵ practiceӵ thatӵ leadsӵ tcwardsӵ aӵ trulyӵ cpenӵ
ccmmunicaticnĐӵ aӵme-ycuӵrelaticn,ӵrapid,ӵbriefӵasӵtheӵactualӵact,ӵncӵccrruptedӵ
benefit,ӵcfӵinterest,ӵshculdӵ beӵexpectedӵ- cbservaticnsӵ suchӵasӵɹthisӵisӵncthin¿ɺӵ
crӵǬwhatӵisӵitӵabcut?ǫ,ӵetc.,ӵshculdӵbeӵexpectedĽӵanӵintrcducticnӵasӵinitiaticnӵisӵ
ClOtk/O!!ic!cO/ĸ /Le!!etS//¡ ¡õĸ
necessaryņӵTheӵelementsӵthatӵareӵusedӵinӵallӵcfӵtheseӵprccess-basedӵexperiences,ӵ
aӵvitalӵprccess,ӵareӵthcseӵthatӵareӵaӵpartӵcfӵitӵinsteadӵcfӵbein¿ӵisclatedӵcb¡ectsĐӵ
theyӵareӵoŕJcrsŦínŦuŔ!o!olíŠŦ..Ŧ.

¯ ¯
ĉӵ
AӵKissӵfcrӵycu,ӵ
Hélicӵ
BéIiCoeroCérioǪ - composiIcͥ namcͥ Iorͥ HcIioͥ OiIicica,ͥ CacIanoͥ VcIosoͥ andͥ ko¿crioͥ DuarIc,ͥ
su¿¿csIin¿ͥIhaIͥHcIioͥwasͥaIͥIhaIͥmomcnIͥimmcrscdͥ inͥhisͥidcasͥandͥacIiviIicsͥrcspccIivcIyͥwiIhͥ
Ihcͥ sin¿crjcomposcrͥandͥ Ihcͥ ¿raphicͥ dcsi¿ncrjpocIjcomposcrͥ ͍TransIaIor].ͥ ForͥIurIhcrͥ rcadin¿ͥ
onͥIhcͥcoIIaboraIionͥbcIwccnͥOiIicica,ͥVcIosɠ,ͥ DuarIcͥ andͥoIhcrsͥ sccͥ TropicŴlio.ǪAǪkevoIurionǪinǪ
8roziIionǪ CuƘrttre,Ǫ cd.ͥ CarIosͥ 6asuaIdoͥ(Chica¿o.ͥ MuscumͥoIͥConIcmporaryͥArIjSʍoͥFauIo.ͥ Cʨsacͥ
NaIIy,ͥ?005).ͥ
?ͥ ThcͥmodcrnisIͥpocIͥOswaIdoͥdcͥ Andradcͥ(1890-1954)ͥ wasͥ Ihcͥ auIhorͥ oIͥpoIcmicaIͥ IcxIsͥ onͥ
6raziIianͥ cuIIuraIͥ idcnIiIyͥwhichͥ inlIucnccdͥ Ihcscͥ arIisIs,ͥ parIicuIarIyͥ hisͥ noIionͥ oIͥ'cuIIuraIͥ
cannibaIism'ͥinͥIhcͥ'AnIhropopha¿iIcͥManiIcsIo'ͥ pubIishcdͥinͥkevisroǪdeǪAnrropoƜo¿io,ǪNoǮ 1ͥ (Sʎoͥ
FauIo,ͥ Mayͥ 19?8),ͥ IransIaIcdͥ inͥ Dawnͥ Adès,ͥArrǪinǪ LorinǪAmericoĻǪTheǪModemǪ £ro,Ǫ l820-l980Ǫ
(NcwͥHavcn.ͥYaIcͥUnivcrsiIyͥFrcss,ͥ 1989).ͥ
3ͥ 'FIa`:ͥsIan¿ͥmcanin¿ͥapproximaIcIyͥ'conIcxI`.ͥįTransIaIorńͥ
4ͥ 'Crc'ͥIromͥcrcaIc,ͥscc.ͥOiIicica'sͥconccpIͥoIͥCrcIcisurc.ͥįTransIaIorńͥ
LcIIcrsͥbcIwccnͥly¿iaͥCIarkͥandͥHcIioͥOiIicica,ͥrcprinIcdͥinͥLucianoͥFi¿ucircdoͥ(cd)ŏͥL,¿ioǪClorkǪǦBélioǪ
0iticico.ǪCorrosǪĊl96İ-74)Ǫ (kioͥdcͥ|anciro.ͥ EdiIoraͥUFk|,ͥ 199b)ͥb1-?,ͥb9-73,ͥ83-b, 1?1-?.ͥ TransIaIcdͥ
byͥ MichacIͥAsbury,ͥ?00b.ͥ
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l958ŦsowŦonŦírrup!íonŦ o]Ŧpolí!ícízcJŦpor!ícípo!orjŦproc!íccŦ ínŦmon¡Ŧ coun!rícs,Ŧ onJŦ
!ookŦ oŦpor!ículorl¡Ŧ Jromo!ícŦ]ormŦ ínŦAr¿cn!íno.Ŧ !ncŦ£xpcrímcn!olŦAr!ŦC¡clcŦwosŦoŦ
scrícsŦo]Ŧoc!íonsŦínŦkosorío,Ŧ mon¡Ŧo]ŦwnícnŦworkcJŦ onŦ !ncŦouJícnccŦosŦ oŦprívílc¿cJŦ
or!ís!ícŦ mo!críol.Ŧ 6rocícloŦ Comcvolc'sŦpro)cc!Ŧrcprcscn!sŦ !ncŦ mos!Ŧcx!rcmcŦcxomplcŦ
o]Ŧ!nísŦ opproocnŦ InŦ !ncŦ ¡corsŦ !no!Ŧ]ollowcJ,Ŧ Comcvolc,Ŧ líkcŦ mon¡Ŧ o]Ŧ!ncŦ or!ís!sŦ
ínvolvcJŦínŦ !ncŦC¡clc,Ŧ oDonJoncJŦor!Ŧ]orŦ!cocnín¿.Ŧ
Theӵ wcrkӵ ccnsistsӵ cfӵ ĶĊrstӵ preparin¿ӵaӵ tctallyӵ emptyӵ rccm,ӵwithӵ tctallyӵ emptyӵ
walls,ӵ cneӵ cfӵtheӵwalls,ӵwhichӵ wasӵ madeӵ cfӵ¿lass,ӵhadӵtcӵbeӵccveredӵ inӵ crderӵtcӵ
achieveӵ aӵ suitablyӵ neutralӵ spaceӵ fcrӵ theӵ wcrkӵ tcӵ takeӵ place.ӵ lnӵ thisӵ rccmӵ theӵ
participatin¿ӵaudience,ӵwhichӵhasӵccmeӵtc¿etherӵbyӵchanceӵfcrӵtheӵcpenin¿,ӵhasӵ
beenӵ lcckedӵ in.ӵTheӵ dccrӵ hasӵ beenӵ hermeticallyӵ clcsedӵ withcutӵ theӵ audienceӵ
bein¿ӵawareӵ cfӵit.ӵ lӵhaveӵtakenӵ priscners.ӵTheӵpcintӵ isӵtcӵ allcwӵpecpleӵtcӵenterӵ
andӵ tcӵ preventӵthemӵ frcmӵleavin¿.ӵHereӵ theӵ wcrkӵccmesӵ intcӵ bein¿ӵandӵ theseӵ
pecpleӵareӵtheӵactcrs.ӵThereӵisӵncӵpcssibilityӵcfӵescape,ӵinӵfactӵtheӵspectatcrsӵhaveӵ
ncӵchcice,ӵ theyӵ areӵ cbli¿ed,ӵ viclently,ӵ tcӵ participate.ӵTheirӵ pcsitiveӵcrӵne¿ativeӵ
reacticnӵisӵalwaysӵaӵfcrmӵcfӵparticipaticn.ӵTheӵendӵcfӵtheӵwcrk,ӵasӵunpredictableӵ
fcrӵtheӵ viewerӵ asӵ itӵ isӵ fcrӵ me,ӵ isӵneverthelessӵ intenticnedĐӵ willӵ theӵ spectatcrӵ
tclerateӵ theӵ situaticnӵ passively?ӵ Willӵ anӵ unexpectedӵ eventӵ - helpӵ frcmӵ theӵ
cutsideӵ Ū rescueӵ himӵ frcmӵ bein¿ӵ lcckedӵ in?ӵ 0rӵ willӵ heӵ prcceedӵ viclentlyӵ andӵ
breakӵtheӵ¿lass?ӵ
Thrcu¿hӵanӵ actӵcfӵa¿¿ressicn,ӵ theӵwcrkӵintendsӵtcӵprcvckeӵtheӵviewerӵintcӵ
awarenessӵcfӵtheӵpcwerӵwithӵwhichӵviclenceӵisӵenactedӵinӵeverydayӵlife.ӵDailyӵweӵ
submitӵcurselves,ӵpassively,ӵcutӵcfӵfear,ӵcrӵhabit,ӵcrӵccmplicity,ӵtcӵallӵde¿reesӵ cfӵ
viclence,ӵ frcmӵ theӵ mcstӵ subtleӵ andӵ de¿radin¿ӵ mentalӵ ccercicnӵ frcmӵ theӵ
infcrmaticnӵ mediaӵ andӵ theirӵ falseӵ repcrtin¿,ӵ tcӵ theӵ mcstӵ cutra¿ecusӵ andӵ
scandalcusӵviclenceӵexercisedӵcverӵtheӵlifeӵcfӵaӵstudent.ӵ
Theӵrealityӵcfӵtheӵdailyӵviclenceӵinӵwhichӵweӵareӵ immersedӵcbli¿esӵmeӵtcӵbeӵ
a¿¿ressive,ӵtcӵalscӵexerciseӵaӵde¿reeӵcfӵviclenceӵ- ¡ustӵencu¿hӵtcӵbeӵeffectiveӵ- inӵ
theӵwcrk.ӵTcӵ thatӵend,ӵlӵalscӵhadӵtcӵdcӵviclenceӵmyself.ӵ lӵwantedӵeachӵaudienceӵ
memberӵtcӵhaveӵtheӵexperienceӵcfӵbein¿ӵlcckedӵ in,ӵ cfӵdisccmfcrt,ӵanxiety,ӵandӵ
ultimatelyӵtheӵsensaticnsӵcfӵasphyxiaticnӵandӵcppressicnӵthatӵ¿cӵwithӵanyӵactӵcfӵ
unexpectedӵ viclence.ӵ lӵ madeӵ everyӵ effcrtӵ tcӵ fcreseeӵ theӵ reacticns,ӵ risksӵ andӵ
dan¿ersӵthatӵmi¿htӵattendӵ thisӵwcrk,ӵandӵ lӵ ccnscicuslyӵassumedӵ respcnsibilityӵ
fcrӵ theӵ ccnsequencesӵ andӵ implicaticns.ӵ lӵ thinkӵ anӵ impcrtantӵ elementӵ inӵ theӵ
COrnĖOle/ĸ /Ptojec!ĸ!otĸ!heĸ£petimen!OlĸĢʎ5erieS,ĸRoSOtio/ĸ/¡¡7ĸ
ccncepticnӵ cfӵtheӵ wcrkӵ isӵ theӵ ccnsideraticnӵ cfӵtheӵ naturalӵ impulsesӵ thatӵ ¿etӵ
repressedӵ byӵ aӵ sccialӵ systemӵ desi¿nedӵ tcӵ createӵ passiveӵ bein¿s,ӵ tcӵ ¿enerateӵ
resistanceӵtcӵ acticn,ӵ tcӵ deny,ӵinӵsum,ӵtheӵpcssibilityӵcfӵchan¿e.ӵ
Theӵʕlcckӵ up'ӵ hasӵalreadyӵbeenӵ inccrpcratedӵ inӵ theӵverbal ȅima¿eӵ ¦literature)ӵ
andӵ inӵtheӵ visualӵima¿eӵ¦film).ӵHereӵtheӵ¿ambitӵisӵnctӵfilteredӵthrcu¿hӵanythin¿ӵ
ima¿inaryĽӵratherӵitӵϼsӵexperienced,ӵatӵcnceӵvitallyӵandӵartistically.ӵlӵccnsiderӵthatӵ
materializin¿ӵ anӵ a¿¿ressiveӵ actӵ cnӵ Ұheӵ aestheticӵ levelӵ asӵ anӵ artisticӵ eventӵ
necessarilyӵimpliesӵ¿reatӵrisk.ӵButӵitӵisӵpreƐiselyӵthisӵriskӵthatӵclarifiesӵtheӵartӵinӵ
theӵwcrk,ӵthatӵ¿ivesӵaӵ Ιlearӵsenseӵcfӵart,ӵ rele¿atin¿ӵtcӵctherӵlevelsӵcfӵmeanin¿ӵ
whateverӵpsychclc¿icalӵcrӵscciclc¿icalӵsenseӵtheӵwcrkӵmi¿htӵhave.ӵ
Crac|cIaͥCarncvaIc,ͥsIaIcmcnIͥor|¿|naIIyͥpubI|shcdͥasͥparIͥolͥaͥscr|csͥolͥbrochurcsͥaccompany|n¿ͥIhcͥ
'C|dŹͥ dcͥ Mcͥ Expcr|mcnIaI'Ǎͥ CarncvaIc'sͥ cxh|b|I|onͥIookͥ pIaccͥ ínͥkosarío,ͥ 7ŕ19ͥOcIobcrͥ 19b8Ȩͥ Irans.ͥ
Mar¿ucr|Icͥ Fc|IIowIIï,ͥ |nͥAndrca||unIaͥ andͥ Incsͥ KaIïcnsIcIn,ͥ cds,ͥLisrcn,ǪBcrc,ǪNowlǪAr¿cnrincǪArrǪo)Ǫ
tnjcʎ l960ĄǪ(NcwͥYorkȜͥThcͥMuscumͥolͥModcrnͥArI,ͥ?004)ͥ?99ŕ301.ͥ
1 1ȕŝŝͥAT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
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Û1ðOC¡ð LðDCVð¡C, řroǯcƔtʎ ƺcɃʎ ɢcʎĮʁȵcŃǤȆcȕtƆʎĠǻɛʎŢcrǣcs.ʎ ŝcsƀɄǢc,ʎ 1968ʎ
Joseph BeUys OnO Dirk 5ChwOrZe
Repor¡ on O DOy's ProCeeO¡nQs O¡ ¡he DUIOOU
ÍOI ÏÌIOCÍ ÏOIOCIOCy/ /ÌVJ<
]oscpnŦ 8cu¡s'Ŧ conccp!Ŧ o]Ŧ '5ocíolŦ 5culp!urc'Ŧ rcmoínsŦ onŦ ímpor!on!Ŧ rc]crcnccŦ ]orŦ
con!cmporor¸Ŧ or!ís!sŦ sucnŦ osŦ !nomosŦ HírscnnośŦ !ncŦ]ollowín¿Ŧrcpor!ŦonŦ 8cu¡s'Ŧ
BureauӵforӵDirectӵDemocracyӵ(l972),Ŧ oŦ ŌĤĜ-Jo¡ŦlívcŦíns!ollo!íonŦ o!ŦDocumcn!oŦ5,Ŧ
rccorJsŦ ínŦ conJíJŦJc!oílŦ!ncŦ !¸pcŦo]Ŧrclo!íonolŦcncoun!crsŦ¿cncro!cJŦD¡ŦnísŦoc!ívís!Ŧ
opproocn.Ŧ l!ŦísŦ]ollowcJŦ D¡Ŧ `ŷʎomŦscorcnín¿Ŧ]orŦ]íclJŦcnoroc!cr'Ŧ(l97ċ),Ŧ 8cu¡s'Ŧmos!Ŧ
concíscŦs!o!cmcn!ŦonŦ5ocíolŦ5culp!urc.Ŧ
80ӵēuneӵ toӵ8ӵ Dctoberӵ l972Ȋӵēosephӵ Beuysӵ runsӵanӵofficeӵ ofӵinformationӵforӵtheӵ
'Dr¿anizationӵforӵDirectӵDemocracyӵthrǛu¿hӵReferendum'ӵatӵDocumentaӵ5.Ŧ
Beuys'ӵ participationӵ inӵ theӵ Documentaӵwasӵ institutedӵwithӵtheӵ intentionӵofӵ
representin¿ӵandӵmakin¿ӵknownӵhisӵexpandin¿ӵartӵconceptӵthrou¿hӵanӵofficeӵofӵ
informationӵatӵthisӵinternationallyӵrespectedӵ andӵvisitedӵartӵforum.ӵDurin¿ӵtheӵ
l00ӵ daysӵ ofӵtheӵDocumenta,ӵBeuysӵwasӵ presentӵdailyӵatӵ thisӵ informationӵofficeӵ
andӵ discussedӵ withӵ visitorsӵ theӵ ideaӵ ofӵdirectӵdemocracyӵ throu¿hӵ referendumӵ
andӵitsӵpossibilitiesӵforӵrealization.ӵ
Reportӵ ofӵ aӵ day'sӵ proceedin¿sӵ inӵ theӵ officeӵ ofӵēosephӵ Beuys,ӵ ŵridericianum,ӵ
writtenӵbyӵDirkӵSchwarze.ӵ
l0.00ӵa.m.ӵTheӵDocumentaӵopensĽӵBeuys,ӵinӵaӵredӵfishin¿ӵvestӵandӵfeltӵhat,ӵisӵ
inӵ hisӵoffice.ӵ Heӵhasӵtwoӵco-workers.ӵDnӵtheӵdeskӵisӵaӵlon¿-stemmedӵrose,ӵnextӵ
toӵitӵareӵpilesӵofӵhandbills.ӵDnӵtheӵwallӵwithӵtheӵwindowӵisӵaӵblueӵneonӵsi¿nӵthatӵ
saysӵ 'Dfficeӵ ofӵ theӵ Dr¿anizationӵ forӵ Directӵ Democracyӵ throu¿hӵ Referendum'.ӵ
Besidesӵthis,ӵthereӵareӵseveralӵ blackboardsӵonӵtheӵwalls.ӵDnӵeachӵisӵwrittenӵtheӵ
wordӵ'man'.ӵ
llӵ.00ӵa.m.ӵ Untilӵ nowӵaboutӵ80ӵvisitorsӵinӵtheӵoffice.ӵ Half,ӵhowever,ӵ remainӵ
standin¿ӵinӵtheӵdoorwayӵandӵlookӵaround,ӵothersӵwalkӵpastӵtheӵblackboardsӵandӵ
thenӵremainӵlon¿erӵinӵtheӵoffice.ӵSomeӵonlyӵcomeӵtoӵtϠeӵdoorӵandӵleaveӵinӵfri¿ht,ӵ
asӵifӵtheyӵhadӵ comeӵ intoӵ theӵ wron¿ӵrestroom.ӵ
llӵ.07ӵa.m.ӵTheӵroomӵfillsӵup.ӵBeuysӵoffersӵaӵyoun¿ӵmanӵmaterialӵandӵinitiatesӵ
theӵfirstӵdiscussion.ӵ Aӵyoun¿ӵmanӵasksӵ aboutӵ Beuys'ӵ ¿oalӵ andӵ thinksӵ thatӵatӵaӵ
referendumӵ 90ӵ perӵ centӵ wouldӵ declareӵ themselvesӵ inӵ favourӵ ofӵ theӵ presentӵ
system.ӵBeuysӵ explainsӵtheӵpresentӵpartyӵstructure,ӵwhichӵisӵruledӵ fromӵ topӵtoӵ
bottom.ӵHeӵwantsӵaӵsystemӵthatӵisӵruledӵfromӵbottomӵtoӵtop.ӵStill,ӵifӵ60ӵperӵcentӵ
votedӵ forӵtheӵ presentӵsystemӵ inӵ aӵ referendum,ӵ itӵ wouldӵ beӵ aӵ successӵ becauseӵ
throu¿hӵitӵaӵnewӵawarenessӵcouldӵbeӵcreated.ӵ
¡20//ĸ AT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
11 .?0Ŧa.m.ӵTheӵdiscussionӵ expands:ӵ fiveӵ listeners.ӵ Aӵ manӵ whoӵ saysӵ heӵ isӵ aӵ
memberӵofӵaӵpartyӵtakesӵpartӵinӵtheӵtalkĞӵBeuysӵexplainsӵhisӵconcept:ӵ'Weӵ doӵnotӵ
wantӵtoӵbeӵaӵpowerӵfactor,ӵbutӵanӵindependentӵfreeӵschool.'ӵTheӵ¿oalӵwouldӵbeӵtoӵ
establishӵaӵwholeӵnetworkӵofӵofficesӵasӵschoolin¿ӵplacesӵwhichӵwouldӵcontributeӵ
toӵ consciousnessӵ formationːӵ 0neӵ mustӵ startӵ withӵ theӵ presentӵ possibilities.ӵ
ReferendumӵisӵprovidedӵforӵinӵtheӵconstitutionӵofӵNorthӵRhineřWestphalia.ӵŵorӵaӵ
voteӵ ofӵ theӵ Federalӵ Dietӵ Beuysӵ recommendsӵ aӵvoteӵ ofӵabstinence,ӵ linkedӵ toӵ aӵ
'counterřdemonstration',ӵtoӵmakeӵclearӵwhyӵoneӵisӵnotӵvotin¿.ӵTheӵpartyӵmemberӵ
acceptsӵtheӵmaterial:ӵ'Thisӵisӵveryӵinterestin¿ӵtoӵme.'ӵ
11 .45Ŧ a.m.ӵ ăpӵ toӵ nowӵ 130Ŧ visitors.ӵ Theӵ discussionӵ continues,ӵ withӵ ei¿htӵ
listeners.ӵAӵyoun¿ӵSwissӵasksӵwhetherӵBeuysӵwantsӵ nationalizationӵofӵindustry.ӵ
Theӵ answer:ӵ 'No,ӵ lӵ haveӵ noӵuseӵforӵ nationalization,ӵbutӵlӵ doӵwantӵsocialization.'ӵ
Theӵ state,ӵ whetherӵ eastӵ orӵ west,ӵ appearsӵ toӵ himӵ asӵ evil.ӵ Heӵ quotesӵ Bishopӵ
Dibelius,ӵwhoӵdescribesӵtheӵstateӵasӵ 'theӵanimalӵfromӵunder¿round'.ӵ
1?. ?0Ŧ a.m.ӵ ăpӵ toӵ nowӵ ?10Ŧ visitors.ӵ Aӵ vi¿orousӵ ar¿umentӵ be¿insӵ betweenӵ
Beuysӵ andӵ aӵ youn¿ӵ manӵ whoӵ desi¿natesӵ himselfӵ aӵ memberӵ ofӵ theӵ Cermanӵ
Communistӵ şarty.ӵ Sixteenӵ listeners.ӵ Theӵ youn¿ӵ manӵ callsӵ Beuys'ӵ activitiesӵ
'nonsense',ӵ aӵ wasteӵ ofӵ ener¿y.ӵ 'Whatӵ haveӵ youӵ accomplished?'ӵ heӵ aslśs,ӵ andӵ
invitesӵBeuysӵtoӵ¡oinӵtheӵworkers'ӵmovementӵratherӵthanӵtoӵleadӵanӵor¿anizationӵ
thatӵ isӵ financedӵ byӵ industrialists.ӵ Beuysӵ replies:ӵ 'Youӵ cannotӵ thinkӵstrai¿ht.ӵ lӵ
cannotӵworkӵwithӵtheӵconceptӵofӵclass.ӵWhatӵisӵimportantӵisӵtheӵconceptӵofӵman.ӵ
0neӵ mustӵ strai¿htforwardlyӵ realizeӵ whatӵ hasӵ notӵ yetӵ appearedӵ inӵ history,ӵ
namely,ӵdemocracɨ.'ӵ
1?. 35Ŧa.m.ӵlnӵtheӵmeantimeӵ??Ŧlisteners.ӵAnӵelderlyӵmanӵ¡oinsӵin:ӵ'Canӵweӵtalkӵ
aboutӵtheӵDocumentaӵhereӵandӵnotӵ¡ustӵaboutӵpolitics?'ӵ Beuys:ӵ'şoliticsӵandӵtheӵ
creativityӵofӵallӵareӵdealtӵwithӵhere.'ӵWhenӵtheӵmanӵspeaksӵofӵtheӵ failureӵofӵtheӵ
exhibitionӵ becauseӵnoӵoneӵhereӵisӵdirectlyӵinterested,ӵBeuysӵasserts,ӵ 'ltӵisӵalsoӵaӵ
failureӵonӵtheӵpartӵofӵtheӵvisitors,ӵbecauseӵtheyӵareӵnotӵmoreӵcapableӵofӵ¿ivin¿ӵofӵ
themselves.'ӵ
ĉŦ. 00Ŧ pņm.ӵ ăntilӵ nowӵ 350Ŧ visitors.ӵ Theӵ vi¿orousӵ talkӵ withӵ theӵ Communistӵ
şartyӵ memberӵ continues,ӵ ??Ŧ listeners.ӵ Beuysӵ ener¿eticallyӵ defendsӵ himselfӵ
a¿ainstӵ theӵ reproachӵ thatӵ heӵ indul¿esӵ inӵ aӵ utopia,ӵ replyin¿:ӵ 'lӵ amӵ a¿ainstӵ aӵ
revolutionӵ inӵ whichӵ oneӵ dropӵ ofӵbloodӵ flows.'ӵ Marxists,ӵ heӵ saysıӵ are,ӵ forӵ him,ӵ
devoutӵfetishistsӵinӵthisӵconnection.ӵ
1Ŧ.05Ŧp.m.ӵAӵyoun¿ӵwoman:ӵ'MrӵBeuys,ӵyourӵartworksӵareӵanӵin¿redientӵinӵtheӵ
systemӵ Ū theyӵ canӵ beӵ bou¿ht.'ӵ Beuys:ӵ ŖFveryoneӵ whoӵ livesӵ inӵ theӵ systemӵ
participatesӵinӵit.ӵlӵmakeӵuseӵofӵitӵthrou¿hӵtheӵsaleӵofӵmyӵwork.'ӵ
1Ŧ.30Ŧp.m.ӵ ăntilӵ nowӵ 450Ŧ visitors.ӵAtӵpresentӵthirtyӵ listeners.ӵAӵmiddleřa¿edӵ
manӵ addressesӵ Beuysӵ re¿ardin¿ӵtheӵ possibilitiesӵ ofӵchan¿eӵ throu¿hӵ art.ӵ Beuysӵ
wardsӵitӵoff:ӵ 'Artӵisӵnotӵthereӵtoӵoverthrowӵtheӵstate.ӵAccordin¿ӵtoӵmyӵconceptӵofӵ
ßeuyS/5chwOrĶe/ĸ /ReporİĸonĸOĸDOy'Sĸ ProceedingS/ĸ/¡2¡ĸ
art,ӵlӵwantӵtcӵaffectӵallӵareasӵcfӵlife.ӵWhatӵlӵpracticeӵhereӵisӵmyӵccnceptӵcfӵartʼnӵHeӵ
admits,ӵ'lӵbelieveӵinӵmanħӵ
?. 00Ŧp.m.ӵ ăntilӵncwӵ535Ŧ visitcrs.ӵAfterӵtheӵ distributicnӵcfӵmaterialsӵaӵquietӵ
pericdӵsetsӵin.ӵBeuysӵfcrtifiesӵhimself.ӵccffeeӵandӵyc¿urt.ӵHeӵexplainsӵhisӵmcdelsӵ
tcӵaӵycun¿ӵ¿irl.ӵRudclphӵSteiner,ӵSchiller,ӵandӵ|eanӵşaul.ӵ
?Ď30Ŧ p.m.ӵAӵycun¿ӵman.ӵ ´Íʎ dcn'tӵseeӵtheӵ ccnnecticnӵ betweenӵycurӵthecriesӵ
andӵ ycurӵ feltӵ cb¡ectsħӵ Beuys.ӵ 'Manyӵ haveӵ seenӵ cnlyӵ myӵ cb¡ects,ӵ butӵ nctӵ myӵ
ccncepts,ӵwhichӵbelcn¿ӵtcӵthemħӵ
3. 00Ŧp.m.ӵ ăntilӵ ncwӵ550Ŧvisitcrs.ӵAӵycun¿ӵ¿irlӵccmesӵtcӵBeuysӵandӵ asks.ӵ 'lsӵ
thisӵart?'ӵAnswer.ӵ'Aӵspecialӵtypeӵcfӵartņӵ0neӵcanӵthinkӵwithӵit,ӵthinkӵwithӵitʼnӵ
4.05Ŧp.m.ӵăntilӵncwӵ5?5Ŧvisitcrs.ӵTwcӵ ltaliansӵwantӵtcӵkncwӵwhetherӵBeuysӵ
cculdӵbeӵcalledӵaӵncn-viclentӵanarchist.ӵBeuysӵsaysӵ'yesʼnӵ
4. 15Ŧpņm.ӵTheӵcfficeӵfillsӵupӵa¿ain.ӵAӵteacherӵasks.ӵ'Whcmӵdcӵycuӵrepresent?ӵ
Demccracy,ӵwhatӵdcesӵthatӵmean?ӵWhatӵmcdelsӵdcӵycuӵhave?'ӵBeuys.ӵ´Íʎhaveӵncӵ
histcricalӵ mcdelӵapartӵ frcmӵ realityӵ andӵ wantӵtcӵ betterӵ theseӵ realitiesӵ fcrӵ theӵ
well-bein¿ӵcfӵaͯħӵAnӵar¿umentӵstartsӵcverӵwhetherӵdirectӵcrӵcnlyӵrepresentativeӵ
¿cvernmentӵisӵpcssible.ӵ
4. 30Ŧp.m.ӵăntilӵncwӵ570Ŧvisitcrs.ӵAtӵpresentӵtwentyӵlisteners.ӵAnӵelderlyӵman.ӵ
'0neӵisӵentertainedӵtccӵlittleӵ here,ӵ thereӵ isӵ scӵmuchӵatӵtheӵDccumentaӵ thatӵ isӵ
bcrin¿.ӵDccumentaӵisӵstillӵtccӵeliteʼnӵBeuys.ӵ'Artӵisӵexperiencin¿ӵaӵcrisis.ӵAllӵfieldsӵ
areӵinӵaӵstateӵcfӵcrisis.'ӵ
4.40Ŧ pņm.ӵAӵ ycun¿ӵ man.ӵ 'Ycuӵ areӵaӵ bi¿ӵ earnerӵcnӵtheӵCermanӵ artӵ market.ӵ
Whatӵ dcӵ ycuӵ dcӵ withӵ theӵ mcney?'ӵ Beuys.ӵ 'Theӵ mcneyӵ ¿cesӵ intcӵ thisӵ
cr¿anizaticn.'ӵ
4.45Ŧ pņm.ӵFi¿hteenӵlisteners.ӵBeuysӵsu¿¿estsӵ tcӵ aӵteacherӵthatӵheӵresi¿nӵhisӵ
civilӵserviceӵstatus,ӵaӵlivelyӵdiscussicnӵbein¿s.ӵTheӵteacherӵar¿uesӵthatӵcnlyӵBeuysӵ
cculdӵacccmplishӵ suchӵaӵ thin¿,ӵ becauseӵheӵisӵaӵfamcusӵartist.ӵTheӵteacher.ӵ 'Myӵ
situaticnӵ isӵ fairlyӵ bad.ӵ lt'sӵ easyӵ fcrӵ ycuӵ tcӵ standӵ thereӵ withӵ ycurӵ mcralӵ
declaraticnsʼnӵ
5. 15Ŧ p.m.ӵ ăntilӵ ncwӵ 7?0Ŧ visitcrs.ӵ Afterӵ aӵ discussicnӵ cfӵtheӵ rcleӵ cfӵtheӵ artӵ
marketӵasӵ aӵmiddleӵmarket,ӵanctherӵquietӵpericd.ӵTheӵsaleӵcfӵtheӵba¿sӵwithӵtheӵ
schematicӵrepresentaticnӵcfӵ'directӵdemccracy'ӵisӵ Ķlcurishin¿.ӵ Fcrӵtheӵfirstӵtimeӵ
tcdayӵaӵvisitcrӵasksӵfcrӵBeuys'ӵautc¿raphӵcnӵtheӵba¿.ӵ
5. 00Ŧp.m.ӵVisitcrsӵslackenӵ ncticeably.ӵ ăntilӵncwӵabcutӵ780Ŧvisitcrs.ӵ
7ď40Ŧp.mņӵAӵtctalӵcfӵ81ĊŦ visitcrs,ӵcfӵwhichӵ35Ŧaskedӵquesticnsӵcrӵdiscussed.ӵ
8. 00Ŧp.m.ӵ Beuys'ӵcϒceӵclcses.ӵ
ÇucsŞonŦ Tcӵwhatӵextentӵdcӵycuӵ believeӵanӵexhibiticnӵcanӵbeӵtheӵmcstӵsuitableӵ
fcrumӵfcrӵpassin¿ӵcnӵtcӵtheӵpublicӵtheӵǔmpulsesӵwhichӵycuӵhcpeӵtcӵattain?ӵ
8cu¡sŦ Theӵplaceӵisӵ relativelyӵ unimpcrtant.ӵ lӵ haveӵthcu¿htӵthisӵcverӵfcrӵaӵ lcn¿ӵ
¡22//ĸ ART¡5T5'ĸWR¡T¡NG5ĸ
Jo8eµD ÙPuj5 ðDd LÎIK bCDVðI2P, ŜƵȴȪrtʎcȓ aʎĬaʂ´sʎŘrcƓccƫȔǀsʎatʎtNJƶʎÙuIPðu 1O1 LíteCI LCpÇ¢1ðCj, 1972ʎ
time.ӵFcrӵexample,ӵlӵhaveӵtheӵcfficeӵhereĽӵ itӵisӵaӵccpyӵcfӵmyӵcfficeӵ inӵDƩsseldcrf,ӵ
whichӵ¿ivesӵcntcӵtheӵstreet.ӵThisӵisӵscӵthatӵpecpleӵcanӵccmeӵinӵri¿htӵcffӵtheӵstreet.ӵ
ltӵ lccksӵ exactlyӵ likeӵ curӵ cffice,ӵ exactly.ӵ Andӵ thereӵ anycneӵ canӵ ccmeӵ in.ӵ lӵ haveӵ
thcu¿htӵabcutӵwhichӵisӵmcreӵeffectiveĐӵifӵlӵremainӵinӵDƩsseldcrfӵcrӵifӵlӵclimbӵcntcӵ
thisӵplatfcrmӵandӵreachӵmenӵhere.ӵlӵcameӵveryӵsimplyӵtcӵtheӵccnclusicnӵthatӵitӵisӵ
vacatłcnӵtłmeӵncwӵłnӵDƩsseldcrfȐӵthereӵweӵwculdӵhaveӵperhapsӵcneӵvłsłtcrӵaӵƙay,ӵ
andӵ hereӵ weӵ canӵ reachӵ mcreӵ pecple.ӵ Hereӵ lӵ canӵ reachӵ pecpleӵ frcmӵ allӵ cverӵ theӵ
wcrld.ӵ Hereӵ lӵcanӵestablishӵinternaticnalӵccntacts.ӵThisӵ isӵveryӵimpcrtant.ӵ
Çucs!ionŦ DcӵycuӵseeӵycurselfӵasӵanӵindividualistӵandӵdcӵycuӵseeӵycurӵcfĶłceӵhereӵ
asӵanӵisclatedӵdepartment?ӵ
8cu¡sŦ Nc,ӵ inӵncӵway.ӵ lӵdcӵnctӵseeӵmyselfӵasӵ bein¿ӵisclatedӵhere.ӵlӵhaveӵallӵkindsӵ
cfӵpcssibilitiesӵhere.ӵlӵcanӵspeakӵfreelyӵwithӵeveģǥcne.ӵNcӵcneӵhasӵpreƕentedӵmeӵ
yet.ӵWhetherӵscmecneӵwillӵtryӵtcӵinӵtheӵfuture,ӵthatӵweӵwillӵfindӵcut.ӵ(Lau¿hin¿)ӵ
Yes,ӵthatӵweӵwillӵĶłndӵcut,ӵwcn'tӵwe?ӵ
Çucs|íonŦ Ycuӵ haveӵ setӵ upӵycurӵcfficeӵ hereӵatӵtheӵ fłfthӵ Dccumenta,ӵandӵwithӵitӵ
ycuӵpursueӵnctӵcnlyӵpcliticalӵintenticnsӵbutӵalscӵartisticӵcnesӵɻ. ӵ
8cu¡sŦ Becauseӵrealӵ futureӵ pcliticalӵintenticnsӵmustӵbeӵartistic.ӵThisӵmeansӵthatӵ
theyӵmustӵcri¿inateӵfrcmӵhumanӵcreativity,ӵfrcmӵtheӵindividualӵfreedcmӵcfӵman.ӵ
Fcrӵ thisӵ reascnӵ hereӵ lӵ dealӵ mcstlyӵ withӵ theӵ prcblemӵ cfӵeducaticn,ӵ withӵ theӵ
peda¿c¿icalӵ aspect.ӵ Thisӵ isӵ aӵ mcdelӵ cfӵ freedcm,ӵ aӵ revcluticnaryӵ mcdelӵ cfӵ
freedcm.ӵltӵbe¿insӵwithӵhumanӵthcu¿htӵandӵwithӵtheӵ educaticnӵcfӵmanӵinӵthisӵ
areaӵcfӵfreedcm.ӵAndӵthereӵmustӵalscӵbeӵfreeӵ press,ӵ freeӵ televisicn,ӵandӵ scӵcn,ӵ
independentӵ cfӵstateӵ influence.ӵ|ustӵ asӵ thereӵ mustӵ beӵ anӵ educaticnalӵ systemӵ
independentӵcfӵstateӵ influence.ӵ Frcmӵ thisӵ ňӵ attemptӵ tcӵ develcpӵaӵrevcluticnaryӵ
mcdelӵ whichӵ fcrmulatesӵ theӵ basicӵ demccraticӵ crderӵ asӵ pecpleӵ wculdӵ likeӵ it,ӵ
acccrdin¿ӵ tcӵ theӵ willӵ cfӵtheӵ pecple,ӵ fcrӵweӵ wantӵaӵdemccracy.ӵltӵisӵpartӵcfӵtheӵ
fundamentalӵlaw.ӵallӵstateӵpcwerӵccmesӵfrcmӵtheӵpecple.ӵ
Theӵareaӵcfӵ freedcmӵŪ nctӵaӵfreeӵareaӵ- lӵwantӵtcӵemphasizeӵthis,ӵbecauseӵtheyӵ
areӵalwaysӵbein¿ӵinterchan¿edĽӵpecpleӵsayӵBeuysӵwantsӵaӵfreeӵarea.ӵǀӵdcӵnctӵwantӵ
aӵfreeӵarea,ӵanӵextraӵarea,ӵbutӵlӵwantӵanӵareaӵcfӵfreeέcmӵthatӵwillӵbeccmeӵkncwnӵ
asӵtheӵplaceӵwhereӵrevcluticnӵcri¿inates,ӵchan¿edӵbyӵsteppin¿ӵthrcu¿hӵtheӵbasicӵ
demccraticӵstructureӵandӵthenӵrestructurin¿ӵtheӵeΚcncmyӵinӵsuchӵaӵwayӵthatӵitӵ
wculdӵserveӵtheӵneedsӵcfӵmanӵandӵnctӵmerelyӵtheӵneedsӵcfӵaӵmincrityӵfcrӵtheirӵ
cwnӵprcfitİӵThatӵisӵtheӵccnnecticn.ӵAndӵthatӵlӵunderstandӵasӵart.ӵ
|oscphͥ ŤcuysjDirkͥ Schwarïc,ͥ rcportͥ onͥ aͥ dayĕsͥ procccd|n¿sͥ aIͥ Ihcͥ InIormationsbtiros dcr
Or¿anisation h)r dircktc Dcmokrat!c durch 'oIksabstimmun¿, DocumcnIaͥ J (KasscI,ͥ 1972);
transIatcdͥ|nͥAdr|an|ͥCütï,ͥctͥ aI.¿ łosc¡hǪßcu¡s. Li)cǪ cnd Work (NcwͥYork.ͥ6arron's,ͥ1979) 211-9.
l24//ĸATl5T5'ĸWlTlNG5ĸ
JOsCph ßCUys
I Am 5CoïCh!nQ ¡Oï Ï!C!O ChoïoC¡CïJ Jl973
0nlyӵonӵconditionӵofӵaӵradicalӵwidenin¿ӵofӵdefinitionӵwillӵitӵbeӵpossibleӵforӵartӵandӵ
activitiesӵrelatedӵtoӵartӵtoӵprɏvideӵevidenceӵthatӵartӵisӵnowӵtheӵonlyӵevolutionaryө
revolutionaryӵpower.ӵ0nlyӵartӵisӵcapableӵofӵdismantlin¿ӵtheӵrepressiveӵeffectsӵofӵ
aӵsenileӵsocialӵ systemӵthatӵcontinuesӵtoӵ totterӵalon¿ӵtheӵƙeathline.ӵ toӵ dismantleӵ
inӵorderӵtoӵbuildӵAӵS0ClALӵ0RCANͺSMӵASӵAӵW0RKӵ0FӵART.ӵ
Thisӵmostӵmodernӵartӵ disciplineӵ- SocialӵSculpturejSocialӵArchitectureӵ- willӵ
onlyӵreachӵfruitionӵwhenӵ everyӵ livin¿ӵ personӵ becomesӵ aӵcreatorŬӵ aӵ sculptorӵorӵ
architectӵofӵtheӵsocialӵor¿anism.ӵ0nlyӵthenӵwouldӵtheӵinsistenceӵonӵparticipationӵ
ofӵtheӵactionӵartӵofӵFluxusӵandӵHappenin¿ӵbeӵfulfilled,ӵonlyӵthenӵwouldӵdemoc-
racyӵbeӵfullyӵrealized.ӵ0nlyӵaӵconceptionӵofӵartӵrevolutionizedӵtoӵthisӵde¿reeӵcanӵ
turnӵ intoӵ aӵ politicallyӵ productiveӵ forceıӵ coursin¿ӵ throu¿hӵ eachӵ personӵ andӵ
shapin¿ӵhistoryıӵ
Butӵallӵ thisŇӵandӵmuchӵ thatӵisӵasӵyetӵunexploredŇӵhasӵfirstӵtoӵformӵpartӵofӵourӵ
consciousness.ӵ insi¿htӵ isӵ neededӵ intoӵ ob¡ectiveӵ connections.ӵ Weӵ mustӵ probeӵ
¦theoryӵ ofӵ knowled¿e)ӵ theӵ momentӵ ofӵ ori¿inӵ ofӵ freeӵ individualӵ productiveӵ
potencyӵ ¦creativity).ӵ Weӵ thenӵ reachӵ theӵ thresholdӵ whereӵ theӵ humanӵ bein¿ӵ
experiencesӵ himselfӵ primarilyӵ asӵ aӵ spiritualӵ bein¿Ňӵ whereӵ hisӵ supremeӵ
achievementsӵ¦workӵofӵart)ıӵhisӵactiveӵthinkin¿ıӵhisӵactiveӵfeelin¿ıӵhisӵactiveӵwillıӵ
andӵ theirӵ hi¿herӵ formsŇӵ canӵ beӵ apprehendedӵ asӵ sculpturalӵ ¿enerativeӵ meansŇӵ
correspondin¿ӵtoӵtheӵexplodedӵconceptsӵofӵsculptureӵdividedӵintoӵitsӵelementsӵ-
indefiniteӵ - movementӵ - definiteӵ ¦seeӵ theoryӵ ofӵ sculpture)Ňӵ andӵ areӵ thenӵ
reco¿nizedӵasӵ flowin¿ӵinӵ theӵ directionӵthatӵisӵshapin¿ӵtheӵcontentӵofӵtheӵworldӵ
ri¿htӵthrou¿hӵintoӵtheӵfuture.ӵ
Thisӵ isӵ theӵ conceptӵ ofӵ artӵ thatӵ carriesӵ withinӵ itselfӵ notӵ onlyӵ theӵ
revolutionizin¿ӵ ofӵ theӵ historicӵ bour¿eoisӵ conceptӵ ofӵlƢowled¿eӵ ¦materialismŇӵ
positivism)ıӵbutӵalsoӵofӵreli¿iousӵactivity.ӵ
FVFRYӵHUMANӵBFȧNCӵȧSӵANӵARTlSTӵwhoӵ - fromӵhisӵ stateӵ ofӵfreedomӵ - theӵ
positionӵofӵfreedomӵ thatӵ heӵexperiencesӵatӵfirstӵhandӵ - learnsӵtoӵdetermineӵtheӵ
otherӵ positionsӵ inӵ theӵT0TALӵARTW0RKӵ 0Fӵ THFӵ FUTURFӵ S0ClALӵ0RDFR.ӵ Self-
determinationӵandӵ participationӵ inӵ theӵ culturalӵ sphereӵ ¦freedom)ȉӵ inӵ theӵ struc-
turin¿ӵ ofӵlawsӵ ¦democracy),ӵ andӵ inӵ theӵ sphereӵ ofӵeconomicsӵ ¦socialism).ӵ Selfǧ
administrationӵ andӵ decentralizationӵ ¦ threefoldӵ structure)ӵ occurs.ӵ FRFFӵ
DFM0CRATlCӵS0ClALlSM.ӵ
THFӵFlFTHӵlNTFRNATl0NALӵisӵbornӵ
ßeuyS/ĸ /¡ĸAĸ5eOtch!ngĸ!otĸF!eldĸChOtOc!et//¡2õĸ
Communicationӵoccursӵinӵreciprocity.ӵitӵmustӵneverӵbeӵaӵone-wayӵflowӵfromӵtheӵ
teacherӵtoӵtheӵtau¿ht.ӵTheӵteacherӵtakesӵequallyӵfromӵ theӵtau¿ht.ӵSoӵoscillatesӵ-
atӵ allӵ timesӵ andӵ everywhere,ӵ inӵ anyӵ conceivableӵ internalӵ andӵ externalӵ
circumstance,ӵbetweenӵallӵde¿reesӵofӵability,ӵinӵtheӵworkӵplace,ӵinstitutions,ӵtheӵ
street,ӵ woržӵ circles,ӵ researchӵ ¿roups

schoolsӵ - theӵ masterjpupil,ӵ
transmitterjreceiver,ӵ relationship.ӵ Theӵ waysӵ ofӵ achievin¿ӵ thisӵ areӵ manifold,ӵ
correspondin¿ӵ toӵ theӵ varyin¿ӵ ¿iftsӵ ofӵ individualsӵ andӵ ¿roups.ӵ THFӵ
DRCANlŌATlDNӵFDRӵDǀRFCφӵDFMDCRACYӵTHRDUCHӵRFFFRFNDUMӵisӵoneӵsuchӵ
¿roup.ӵltӵseeksӵtoӵlaunchӵmanyӵsimilarӵworžӵ¿roupsӵorӵinformationӵcentres,ӵandӵ
strivesӵtowardsӵworldwideӵcooperation.ӵ
|oscphͥ 6cuys,ͥ 'Łʎ amͥ Scarchin¿ͥ lorͥ FicIdͥ CharaʖIcr'ͥ (1973),ͥ inͥ Carinͥ Kuoni,ͥ cd.,ͥ £nerƆǪ PlonǪ)orǪ theǪ
WestenǪMonļ]osephǪ8eu,sǪinǪAmericoǪ(NcwYoɉƆʗͥ FourWaIIsͥ́¿h̶ ɳ̂dows,ͥ i990)ͥ?1Ǟ3.ͥ
1ȋȒ//ͥ ATl5T5'ĸWlTlNG5ĸ
COIICC¡¡VC AC¡¡Ons
TCn AppCOïO0CCsJ J!96!
7ncŦ]ivc-¡crsonŦCollcc!ivcŦAc!ionsŦ¿rou¡,Ŧworkin¿ŦinŦMoscowŦ]romŦ!ncŦmiJ- l970sŦ!oŦ
!ncŦ miJ-lº80s,Ŧ rc¡rcscn!Ŧ oŦ ¡or!iculorl¡Ŧ ¡oc!icŦ onJŦ ccrccrolŦ o¡¡roocnŦ !oŦ
¡or!ici¡o!ion.Ŧ Tenӵ Appearancesӵ isŦ !¡¡icolŦ o]Ŧ!ncirŦ workŦ inŦ !okin¿Ŧ ¡loccŦ inŦ ]iclJsŦ
ou!siJcŦ!ncŦcitj,Ŧwi!nŦoŦsmollŦnumccrŦo]Ŧ¡or!ici¡on!sŦwnoŦ !ookŦ onŦoc!ivcŦ¡or!Ŧ inŦ !ncŦ
oc!ionŦ onJŦ !ncnŦ con!ricu!cJŦ !oŦ i!sŦ onol¡sis.Ŧ 7ncscŦ ¿cs!urcsŦ JĿj]crŦ]romŦ Wcs!cmŦ
cquivolcn!sŦ o]Ŧ !nisŦ ¡crioJŦ inŦ ccin¿Ŧ ¡rcoccu¡icJŦ wi!nŦ or!'sŦ in!crnolŦ rccc¡!ionŦ onJŦ
circulo!ion,Ŧro!ncrŦ!nonŦinŦi!sŦ rclo!ionsni¡Ŧ!oŦsociolŦins!i!u!ions.Ŧ
lnӵtheӵmiddleӵofӵaӵlar¿e,ӵsnowedĥoverӵfieldӵsurroundedӵbyӵaӵforest,ӵto¿etherӵwithӵ
theӵaction'sӵor¿anizersӵstrodeӵtenӵparticipants,ӵknowin¿ӵneitherӵtheӵnameӵofӵthatӵ
inӵwhichӵtheyӵwereӵaboutӵtoӵparticipate,ӵnorӵwhatӵwasӵtoӵhappen.ӵ
Tenӵspoolsӵonӵverticalӵnailsӵwereӵaffixedӵtoӵaӵboardӵ¦60ӵxӵ90ӵcm)ӵwhichӵwasӵ
laidӵ uponӵ theӵ snow.ӵFachӵofӵtheӵ spoolsӵ wasӵwoundӵ withӵtwoӵtoӵ threeӵhundredӵ
metresӵofӵstron¿,ӵwhiteӵthread.ӵFachӵofӵtheӵparticipantsӵwasӵrequiredӵtoӵtakeӵtheӵ
endӵ ofӵaӵ threadӵ fromӵ oneӵ ofӵ theӵ spoolsӵ and,ӵ unravellin¿ӵ theӵ threadӵ fromӵ theӵ
spoolƻӵmoveӵ inӵ aӵstrai¿htӵlineӵintoӵtheӵforestӵsurroundin¿ӵtheӵfield.ӵThusӵtheӵtenӵ
participantsӵwereӵtoӵhaveӵdispersedӵfromӵtheӵcentŃeӵofӵtheӵfieldӵinӵtheӵfollowin¿ӵ
directions.ӵ
I.ʎ ÏÍVDVB1DVB
P. ÏD7ÌDV
1. ZDÍ_BÌDV
`ʎ bKE15Í5Í
ŵʎ 1ÌDE1l ¬ L. JBÌDLHKÍD
1·LDUÍKDV
Ŗ.ʎ ÀB5ÍÌÍEV
`ʎ PEK1B5DV
l.ʎ ÏBDBKDV
Theӵparticipantsӵwereӵinstructedӵtoӵ moveӵinӵaӵstrai¿htӵlineӵasӵfarӵasӵtheӵforestӵandӵ
then,ӵenterin¿ӵtheӵforest,ӵtoӵcontinueӵonӵintoӵtheӵdepthsӵofӵtheӵforestӵforӵ aboutӵ
anotherӵϖĸӵtoӵ oneӵ hundredӵmetres,ӵorӵ toӵ theӵ pointӵwhereӵtheӵfieldӵcouldӵ noӵ
Collec!!VeĸAc!ionS/ĸ/TenĸAppeOtOnceS/ĸ /¡27ĸ
lon¿erӵbeӵseen.ӵFachӵofӵtheӵparticipantsӵtravelledӵthreeӵtoӵfourӵhundredӵmetres.ӵ
Walkin¿ӵinӵ theӵ fieldӵ andӵ forestӵ entailedӵ aӵ considerableӵ physicalӵ effort,ӵ asӵtheӵ
snowӵran¿edӵ fromӵ halfӵaӵmetreӵtoӵaӵmetreӵinӵdepth.ӵHavin¿ӵcompletedӵhisӵtrek,ӵ
eachӵparticipantӵ¦alsoӵaccordin¿ӵtoӵpriorӵinstructions)ӵwasӵtoӵ pullӵ toӵ himselfӵtheӵ
otherӵendӵofӵtheӵthreadӵ ¦whichӵwasӵnotӵattacheΣӵ toӵ theӵspool),ӵtoӵ whichӵaӵpieceӵ
ofӵpaperӵwithӵfacto¿raphicӵtextӵ¦theӵlastӵnamesӵofӵtheӵor¿anizers,ӵtimeӵandӵplaceӵ
ofӵtheӵaction)ӵwasӵaffixed.ӵ
lnӵ soӵfarӵasӵnoӵfurtherӵinstructionsӵhadӵ beenӵ ¿iven,ӵ eachӵ participantĂӵhavin¿ӵ
extractedӵ hisӵ facto¿raphy,ӵ wasӵ leftӵtoӵ hisӵ ownӵ discretionӵ asӵ toӵ furtherӵ action,ӵ
theyӵcouldӵ returnӵ toӵtheӵfield'sӵcentre,ӵwhereӵ theӵor¿anizersӵremained,ӵor,ӵnotӵ
returnin¿,ӵleaveӵthisӵplaceӵbehind,ӵmovin¿ӵonӵfurtherӵthrou¿hӵtheӵforest.ӵ
Fi¿htӵ participantsӵ cameӵ backӵ toӵ theӵ centreӵ ofӵ theӵ fieldӵ withinӵ anӵ hour,ӵ
moreover,ӵsevenӵofӵthemӵ returnedӵ alon¿ӵtheirӵownӵpaths,ӵandӵ oneӵ¦N.ӵKozlov)ӵ
alon¿ӵaӵnei¿hbour'sӵpath.ӵTwoӵparticipantsӵ- V.ӵ NekrasovӵandӵA.ӵŌhi¿alovӵ- didӵ
notӵreturn.ӵ
Theӵ returnin¿ӵ participantsӵ receivedӵ photo¿raphsӵ [30Ŧ xӵ 40Ŧ cm),ӵ ¿luedӵ toӵ
cardboard,ӵ fromӵ theӵ or¿anizers.ӵ Fachӵ photo¿raphӵ depictedӵ theӵ portionӵ ofӵ theӵ
forestӵ intoӵ whichӵ theӵ participantӵ receivin¿ӵ thatӵ photoӵ hadӵ walkedӵ atӵ theӵ
be¿innin¿ӵ ofӵ theӵ action,ӵ andӵ theӵ scarcelyӵ distin¿uishableӵ fi¿ureӵ ofӵ aӵ manӵ
emer¿in¿ӵfromӵtheӵforest.ӵTheӵphoto¿raphsӵwereӵouthttedӵwithӵlabeljsi¿naturesӵ
uponӵ whichӵ wereӵwrittenӵ theӵ lastӵ namesӵ ofӵtheӵ action'sӵ authors,ӵ theӵaction'sӵ
nameӵ 7cnŦ A¡¡coi0nccs,Ŧ andӵ theӵ eventӵ 'represented'ӵ inӵ theӵ photo¿raph,ӵ forӵ
example,ӵ'Theӵappearanceӵofӵl.ӵChuikovӵonӵtheӵfirstӵofӵFebruary,ӵ 1981',Ŧandӵsoӵ on.ӵ
Theseӵ photo¿raphsӵwereӵ takenӵwithinӵtheӵweekӵbeforeӵ theӵ action.ӵ theӵactionāsӵ
or¿anizersӵ photo¿raphedӵ inӵ aӵ 'zoneӵ ofӵ indifferentiation'ӵ inӵ theӵ veryӵ sameӵ
directionsӵ inӵ whichӵtheӵ participantsӵ hadӵ beenӵdirectedӵandӵ fromӵ whenceӵtheyӵ
hadӵreturned.ӵ
Thusӵ theӵ nameӵ ofӵtheӵ actionӵ andӵ itsӵ fullӵ si¿nificanceӵ becameӵ clearӵ Dʎ theӵ
participantsӵonlyӵatӵtheӵmomentӵwhenӵtheyӵreceivedӵtheӵ photo¿raphs,ӵandӵ notӵ
whenӵ theyӵ pulledӵ theӵ facto¿raphicӵ documents,ӵ whichӵ si¿nifiedӵ onlyӵ theӵ
completionӵofӵtheӵ firstӵsta¿eӵofӵtheӵactionӵ - theӵdistancin¿ӵofӵtheӵparticipantsӵ
intoӵ portionsӵ ofӵtheӵ forestӵvisuallyӵisolatedӵ oneӵ fromӵ anotherӵ¦atӵtheӵterminalӵ
pointsӵofӵtheirӵpathsӵoutӵfromӵtheӵcentreӵofӵtheӵfield,ӵinӵtheӵdepthsӵofӵtheӵforest,ӵ
theӵparticipantsӵcouldӵnotӵseeӵeachӵother,ӵasӵtheӵintersticesӵbetweenӵtheseӵpointsӵ
measuredӵ noӵ lessӵ thanӵ fourӵhundredӵ metres).ӵ Durin¿ӵ theӵ action,ӵ photo¿raphsӵ
wereӵtakenӵofӵtheӵactualӵappearancesӵfromӵtheӵforest.ӵTheseӵphoto¿raphsӵcouldӵ
beӵdistin¿uishedӵfromӵthoseӵhandedӵtoӵtheӵparticipantsӵatӵtheӵconclusionӵofӵtheӵ
actionӵ byӵ theӵ differin¿ӵ conditionsӵ ofӵtheӵ forestӵ ¦snowӵ whichӵ hadӵ coveredӵ theӵ
branchesӵ ofӵtheӵtreesӵ aӵ weekӵbeforeӵ theӵactionӵ hadӵ meltedӵ away),ӵandӵ byӵ theӵ
absenceӵofӵtheӵquotationӵmarks,ӵwhichӵonӵtheӵfirstӵphoto¿raphsӵhadӵbeenӵplacedӵ
¡28//ĸ AT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
aroundӵ theӵ namesӵ ofӵ theӵ eventsӵ depictedӵ onӵ them,ӵ i.e.,ӵ inӵ theӵ ¿ivenӵ
circumstancesӵtheӵsimpleӵappearanceӵofӵl.ӵChuikov,ӵl.ӵKabakov,ӵl.ӵPivovarovaӵandӵ
soӵon.ӵTheӵfi¿uresӵ ofӵtheӵparticipantsӵemer¿in¿ӵfromӵtheӵforestӵwereӵpracticallyӵ
indistin¿uishableӵfromӵtheӵfi¿uresӵinӵtheӵfirstӵ'metaphorical'ӵphoto¿raphs,ӵowin¿ӵ
toӵ theӵ factӵ thatӵ theyӵ wereӵ takenӵ fromӵ equalӵ distancesӵ ¦inӵ theӵ 'zoneӵ ofӵ
indifferentiation').ӵTheӵfunctionӵofӵtheseӵ'metaphorical'ӵphoto¿raphsӵwas,ӵinӵtheӵ
caseӵofӵtheӵparticipants'ӵreturn,ӵtoӵindicateӵonlyӵtheӵ factӵofӵtheirӵreturnӵ¦whichӵ
wasӵ utterlyӵ volitional,ӵ asӵ noӵ instructionӵ toӵ returnӵ hadӵ beenӵ ¿iven),ӵ withoutӵ
addin¿ӵ anyӵ supplementaryӵ meanin¿ӵ toӵ theirӵ priorӵ actsӵ ofӵ walkin¿ӵ offӵ andӵ
dispersin¿ӵintoӵtheӵdepthsӵofӵtheӵforest.ӵAtӵtheӵsameӵtimeӵtheseӵ'metaphoricalāӵ
photo¿raphsӵwereӵsi¿nsӵofӵtimeӵ extrademonstrationalӵ ¦forӵtheӵ participants)ӵtoӵ
theӵ eventӵandӵ wereӵ includedӵ inӵ theӵ structureӵ ofӵtheӵ actionӵ andӵ servedӵ asӵ itsӵ
'emptyӵact'.ӵlnӵotherӵwords,ӵtheyӵwereӵsi¿nsӵofӵtheӵtimeӵbetweenӵtheӵ'end'ӵofӵtheӵ
actionӵ andӵ theӵ momentӵ whenӵ theyӵwereӵ handedӵ theӵ photo¿raphsӵ indicatin¿ӵ
theirӵ appearanceӵ (orӵ return)ӵ fromӵ theӵ forest,ӵ whichӵ theӵ participantsӵ didӵ notӵ
reco¿nizeӵandӵcouldӵnotӵhaveӵreco¿nizedӵasӵtheӵsi¿nifiedӵandӵculminatin¿ӵeventӵ
inӵtheӵstructureӵofӵtheӵaction.ӵ
Theӵfactӵthatӵofӵtheӵtenӵpossibleӵappearancesӵonlyӵei¿ht,ӵandӵnotӵallӵten,ӵcameӵ
toӵpass,ӵrepresentsӵinӵourӵviewӵnotӵaӵ failin¿ӵofӵtheӵactionӵbut,ӵonӵtheӵcontrary,ӵ
underscoresӵ theӵ realizationӵ ofӵ zonesӵ ofӵ psychicӵ experienceӵ ofӵ theӵ Ţctionӵ asӵ
aestheticallyӵsufficientӵonӵtheӵplaneӵofӵtheӵdemonstrationalӵfieldӵofӵtheӵactionӵasӵ
aӵwhole.ӵ
Thisӵisӵtoӵsayӵthatӵtheӵplannedӵappearanceӵinӵrealityӵturnedӵoutӵtoӵ lieӵ
entirelyӵ inӵ theӵ extrademonstrationalӵ timeӵ ofӵ theӵ eventӵ - theӵ participantӵ
appearedӵfromӵaӵnon-artistiƐ,ӵnon-artificially-constructedӵspaceğӵ
CoIIccIivcͥAcIionsͥ(AndrciͥMonasIyrsky,ͥ Ccor¿iiͥ KˆzcvaIIcr,ͥ Scr¿ciͥ komashko,ͥNikiIaͥAIcksccv,ͥ l¿orͥ
Makarcvích,ͥ EIcnaͥ EIa¿ína,ͥ NíkoIaíͥ FaníIƎov),ͥ TcrăǪ A¡¡coi0nccsǪ (ƶKicvi-Corky',ͥ SavcI,ͥ Moscowͥ
FrȀvincc,ͥFcDruaryͥ1981);ͥIransIaIcdͥinͥDavidͥA.ͥkoss,ͥcIͥaɓ,ͥcdsŏͥ8crwccnǪS¡rin¿ǪondǪSťmmcrǪ- SovicrǪ
Concc¡|uolǪArrǪ inǪ rhcǪ£i0Ǫ o)Ǫ Lo|cǪ CommunismǪ (6osIon:ͥ lnsIiIuIcͥ olͥ ConIcmporaryͥ ArIjCamDrid¿c,ͥ
MassachuscIIs:ͥThcͥ MlTͥFrcss,ͥ 1990)ͥ 15Ą-8.ͥ
Collec!!ĴeĸAc!ionS/ĸ/TenĸAppeOtOnceS/ĸ/¡2ºĸ
AOt!On P!pCt
NO¡Cs On ÏUnX, άI//l96bJ63
AJrionŦPi¡cr'sŦFunkӵLessonsӵ(lº82-84),ŦwcrcŦoŦscricsŦo]Ŧ¡or!ici¡o!oijŦsociolŦcvcn!sŦ
inŦ wnicnŦ !ncŦ or!is!Ŧ !ou¿n!Ŧ wni!cŦ ¡or!ici¡on!sŦ ocou!ŦclockŦ]unkŦ musicŦ onJŦ nowŦ !oŦ
JonccŦ!oŦ i!.Ŧ HcrŦ]ourŦcsso¡sŦcn!i!lcJŦ 'No!csŦonŦFunk'Ŧ¡rcscn!ŦoŦ!nou¿n!]lŦonol¡sisŦ o]Ŧ
ncrŦin!cnŝions,Ŧ cx¡cricnccsŦonJŦo]Ŧ]ccJcockŦ]őomŦncrŦcollocoro!ors.Ŧ
Notcs on Funk I
Fromӵ l982ӵ toӵ l984Ăӵ lӵ sta¿edӵ collaborativeӵ performancesӵ withӵ lar¿eӵ orӵ smallӵ
¿roupsӵofӵpeople,ӵ entitledӵ FunkŦLcssons.Ŧ Theӵ firstӵwordӵ inӵtheӵ titleӵ refersӵ toӵaӵ
certainӵbranchӵofӵblackӵpopularӵmusicӵandӵdanceӵknownӵasӵ'funk'ӵ(inӵcontrast,ӵforӵ
example,ӵtoӵ'punk',ӵ'rap'ӵorӵ'rock').ӵltsӵrecentӵancestorӵisӵcalledӵ'rhythmӵandӵblues'ӵ
orӵ'soul',ӵandӵitӵhasӵbeenӵdevelopin¿ӵasӵaӵdistinctiveӵculturalӵidiom,ӵwithinӵblackӵ
cultureӵ sinceӵ theӵ earlyӵ l970s.ӵ Funkӵ constitutesӵ aӵ lan¿ua¿eӵ ofӵ interpersonalӵ
communicationӵ andӵ collectiveӵ self-expressionӵ thatӵ hasӵ itsӵ ori¿insӵ inӵ Africanӵ
tribalӵ musicӵ andӵ danceӵ andӵ isӵ theӵ resultӵ ofӵ theӵ increasin¿ӵ interestӵ ofӵ
contemporaryӵblackӵmusiciansӵandӵtheӵpopulaceӵinӵthoseӵsourcesӵelicitedӵbyӵtheӵ
civiĚӵri¿htsӵmovementӵofӵtheӵ l960sӵandӵearlyӵl970sӵ(Africanӵtribalӵdrummin¿ӵbyӵ
slavesӵ wasӵ bannedӵ inӵ theӵ Unitedӵ Statesӵ durin¿ӵ theӵ nineteenthӵ century,ӵ soӵ itӵ
makesӵsenseӵtoӵdescribeӵthisӵincreasin¿ӵinterestӵasӵaӵ'rediscovery').ӵ
Thisӵmediumӵofӵexpressionӵhasӵbeenӵlar¿elyӵinaccessibleӵtoӵwhiteӵculture,ӵinӵ
partӵbecauseӵofӵtheӵdifferentӵrolesӵofӵsocialӵdanceӵinӵwhiteӵasӵ opposedӵtoӵ blackӵ
culture.ӵ Forӵexample,ӵwhereasӵsocialӵdanceӵinӵwhiteӵcultureӵ isӵoftenӵviewedӵ inӵ
termsӵ ofӵ achievement,ӵ socialӵ ¿raceӵ orӵ competence,ӵ orӵ spectator-orientedӵ
entertainment,ӵitӵisӵaӵcollectiveӵandӵparticipatoryӵmeansӵofӵself-transcendenceӵ
andӵsocialӵunionӵinӵblackӵcultureӵalon¿ӵmanyӵdimensions,ӵandӵsoӵ isӵoftenӵ muchӵ
moreӵ fullyӵ inte¿ratedӵ intoӵ dailyӵ life.ӵ Thusӵ itӵ isӵbasedӵ onӵ aӵ systemӵ ofӵsymbols,ӵ
culturalӵ meanin¿s,ӵattitudesӵandӵ patternsӵofӵmovementӵthatӵoneӵmustӵdirectlyӵ
experienceӵinӵorderӵtoӵunderstandӵfully.ӵThisӵ isӵparticularlyӵtrueӵ inӵfunk,ӵwhereӵ
theӵ concernӵ isӵ notӵ howӵ spectacularӵ anyoneӵ looksӵ butӵ ratherӵ howӵ completelyӵ
everyoneӵparticipatesӵinӵaӵcollectivelyӵshared,ӵen¡oyableӵexperience.ӵ
Myӵimmediateӵaimӵ inӵsta¿in¿ӵtheӵlar¿e-scaleӵperformanceӵ(preferablyӵwithӵ
sixtyӵpeopleӵorӵmore)ӵwasӵtoӵenableӵeveryoneӵ presentӵtoӵ
CFTӵDDWNӵANDӵPARTY.ӵTDCFTHFR.ӵ
Thisӵ helpsӵ explainӵ theӵ secondӵwordӵinӵtheӵtitle,ӵthatӵis,ӵ 'Lessons'.ӵ lӵ be¿anӵbyӵ
introducin¿ӵsomeӵofӵtheӵbasicӵdanceӵ movementsӵtoӵtheӵaudience,ӵandӵdiscussin¿ӵ
theirӵculturalӵ andӵ historicalӵ back¿round,ӵ meanin¿s,ӵ andӵ theӵrolesӵtheyӵplayӵ inӵ
¡ö0//ĸAT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
blackӵculture.ӵThisӵ firstӵ paŧtӵofӵtheӵ performanceӵ includedӵ demonstratin¿ӵsomeӵ
basicӵmovesӵandӵthen,ӵwithӵtheӵaudience,ӵrehearsin¿,ӵinternalizin¿,ӵre-rehearsin¿,ӵ
andӵimprovisin¿ӵonӵthem.ӵTheӵaimӵwasӵtoӵtransmitӵandӵshareӵaӵphysicalӵlan¿ua¿eӵ
thatӵ everyoneӵ wasӵ thenӵ empoweredӵ toӵ use.ӵ Byӵ breakin¿ӵ downӵ theӵ basicӵ
movementsӵintoӵtheirӵessentials,ӵtheseӵapparentlyӵdifficultӵorӵcomplexӵpatternsӵ
becameӵ easilyӵ accessibleӵ toӵ everyone.ӵ Needlessӵ toӵ say,ӵ noӵ priorӵ trainin¿ӵ inӵ orӵ
acquaintanceӵwithӵdanceӵwasӵnecessaryƋӵ Becauseӵbothӵrepetitionӵandӵindividualӵ
self-expressionӵareӵ bothӵimportantӵaspectsӵofӵthisӵ kindӵ ofӵdance,ӵ itӵwasӵonlyӵaӵ
matterӵofӵaӵ relativelyӵ shortӵtimeӵ beforeӵ theseӵ patternsӵ becameӵ secondӵ nature.ӵ
However,ӵ sometimesӵ thisӵworkedӵmoŧeӵsuccessfullyӵthanӵothers,ӵdependin¿ӵonӵ
theӵenvironmentӵandӵtheӵnumberӵandӵcompositionӵofӵtheӵaudience-participants.ӵ
¦Seeӵmyӵvideotape,ӵFunkŦ͖ĄҕsŔœsӵwi!nŦAJrionŦPi¡cr,ŦproducedӵbyӵSamӵSamoreӵandӵ
dϺsйЩΓɡdӵ byӵ TϤӵ ͔Ӎhen,ӵ foҀӵ aӵ recordӵ ofӵ oneӵ ofӵ theӵ moreӵ successϗl ӵ
performances.)ӵAlso,ӵtheӵlaŧ¿e-scaleӵperformanceӵcompressedӵaӵseriesӵofӵlessonsӵ
thatӵmi¿htӵnormallyӵextendӵoverӵaӵperiodӵofӵweeksӵorӵmonths.ӵ
Asӵweӵexploҁedӵtheӵ experienceӵ ofӵtheӵ danceӵ moreӵ fully,ӵ ňӵ wouldӵ ¿raduallyӵ
introduceӵ andӵ discussӵ theӵ musicӵ ¦whichӵ had,ӵ upӵ toӵ thisӵ point,ӵ functionedӵ
primarilyӵasӵaӵrhythmicӵback¿round)ӵandӵtheӵrelationӵbetweenӵtheӵdanceӵandӵtheӵ
music.ӵ Becauseӵofӵtheӵparticipatoryӵandӵcollectiveӵaspectsӵofӵthisӵmedium,ӵitӵ isӵ
oftenӵmuchӵeasierӵtoӵdiscernӵtheӵrhythmicӵandӵmelodicӵcomplexitiesӵofӵtheӵmusicӵ
i fӵoneӵisӵphysicallyӵequippedӵtoӵrespondӵtoӵitӵbyӵ dancin¿.ӵThusӵtheӵIĊrstӵpartӵofӵ
theӵperformanceӵpreparedӵtheӵaudienceӵ forӵtheӵsecond.ӵHereӵlӵconcentratedӵonӵ
theӵstructuralӵfeaturesӵthatӵdefineӵfunkӵmusic,ӵandӵonӵsomeӵofӵitsӵma¡orӵthemesӵ
andӵsub¡ectӵmatter,ӵusin¿ӵrepresentativeӵexamples.ӵlӵwouldӵdiscussӵtheӵrelationӵ
ofӵfunkӵtoӵ disco,ӵrap,ӵ rock,ӵ punkӵ andӵ newӵwave,ӵandӵ illustrateӵ myӵ pointsӵwithӵ
differentӵ selectionsӵ ofӵ each.ӵ Durin¿ӵ thisӵ se¿ment,ӵ exceptӵ forӵ briefӵpausesӵ forӵ
questions,ӵ dialo¿ueӵandӵmyӵ ¦short)ӵ commentaries,ӵ everyoneӵwasӵrefinin¿ӵtheirӵ
individualӵ techniques,ӵthatӵis,ӵ theyӵ wereӵ LlSTFNlNCӵ byӵ DANClNC.ӵWeӵwereӵ allӵ
en¿a¿edӵ inӵ theӵ pleasurableӵ processӵ ofӵ self-transcendenceӵ andӵ creativeӵ
expressionӵ withinӵ aӵ hi¿hlyӵstructuredӵandӵ controlledӵ culturalӵ idiom,ӵ inӵ aӵ wayӵ
thatӵ attemptedӵ toӵ overcomeӵ culturalӵ andӵ racialӵ barriers.ӵ lӵ hopedӵ thatӵ itӵ alsoӵ
overcameӵsomeӵofӵourӵculturallyӵandӵraciallyӵinfluencedӵbiasesӵaboutӵwhatӵ'Hi¿hӵ
Culture'ӵisӵorӵou¿htӵ toӵbe.ӵA¿ain,ӵthisӵdidn'tӵalwaysӵworkout¦seeӵ'NotesӵonӵFunkӵlll').ӵ
Theӵ'Lessons'ӵformatӵdurin¿ӵthisӵprocessӵbecameӵeverӵmoreӵclearlyӵaӵkindӵofӵ
didacticӵ foilӵ forӵ collaboration.ӵ Dialo¿ueӵ quicklyӵ replacedӵ pseudo-academicӵ
lecturejdemonstration,ӵ andӵ socialӵ unionӵ replacedӵ theӵ audience-performerӵ
separation.ӵWhatӵlӵpurportedӵtoӵ'teach'ӵmyӵaudienceӵwasӵrevealedӵtoӵbeӵaӵkindӵofӵ
fundamentalӵsensoryӵ'knowled¿e'ӵthatӵeveryoneӵhasӵandӵcanӵuse.ӵ
Theӵ small-scale,ӵ usuallyӵ unannouncedӵ andӵ unidentifiedӵ spontaneousӵ
performancesӵ consistedӵ inӵ oneӵ intensiveӵ dialo¿ueӵ orӵ aӵ seriesӵ ofӵ intensiveӵ
Pípet//No!eSĸonĸFunk/ėĸ¡öĸlĸ

ğƬƉʎśȶƷɅ.ʎ ŒotcsʎonʎıɮnDzʎ Ļ, 1985ʎ
dialo¿uesӵ withӵ anywhereӵ fromӵ oneӵ toӵ sevenӵ otherӵ peopleӵ ¦moreӵ thanӵ ei¿htӵ
peopleӵtendӵtoӵconstituteӵaӵparty,ӵtheӵinterpersonalӵdynamicsӵofӵwhichӵareӵveryӵ
different).ӵlӵwouldӵhaveӵpeopleӵoverӵtoӵ dinner,ӵorӵforӵaӵdrink,ӵand,ӵ asӵisӵ standardӵ
middle-classӵ behaviour,ӵ initiallyӵ selectӵ myӵ back¿roundӵ musicӵ fromӵ theӵ Usualӵ
Can¿ӵofӵldiotsӵ ¦Bach,ӵ Mozart,ӵBeethoven,ӵ Brahms,ӵ etc.).ӵ lӵwouldӵthenӵinterposeӵ
someӵfunkӵandӵwatchӵpeopleӵbecomeӵ puzzled,ӵa¿itatedӵorӵannoyed,ӵandӵthenӵlӵ
wouldӵattemptӵtoӵinitiateӵsystematicӵdiscussionӵofӵtheӵsourceӵofӵtheirӵdismayӵ¦inӵ
factӵtheseӵreactionsӵtoӵmyӵunreflectiveӵintroductionӵofӵtheӵmusicӵintoӵthisӵsocialӵ
contextӵ wereӵ whatӵ initiallyӵ alertedӵ meӵ toӵ theӵ needӵ toӵ confrontӵ theӵ issuesӵ
systematicallyӵ andӵ collaborativelyӵ inӵ theӵ performanceӵ context).ӵ Thisӵ usuallyӵ
includedӵlistenin¿ӵtoӵsamplesӵofӵfunkӵmusicӵandӵanalyzin¿ӵtheirӵstructures,ӵcontentӵ
andӵ personalӵ connotationsӵ forӵ eachӵ listener,ӵ inӵaӵ sympatheticӵ andӵ supportiveӵ
atmosphere.ӵDccasionally,ӵitӵalsoӵ includedӵ danceӵ lessonsӵofӵtheӵ kindӵ describedӵ
previously,ӵthou¿hӵthisӵusuallyӵworkedӵbetterӵwithӵpartyĥsizeӵorӵlar¿erӵ¿roups.ӵ
Theӵintimateӵscaleӵofӵtheӵdialo¿ueӵpermittedӵaӵmoreӵextensiveӵexplorationӵofӵ
individualӵ reactionsӵtoӵfunkӵ musicӵandӵ dance,ӵ whichӵareӵusuallyӵ fairlyӵ intenseӵ
andӵ complex.ӵ Forӵ example,ӵ itӵ sometimesӵ elicitedӵ anxiety,ӵ an¿erӵ orӵ contemptӵ
fromӵ middle-class,ӵ colle¿e-educatedӵ whites.ӵ anxiety,ӵ becauseӵ itsӵ associationӵ
withӵblack,ӵworkin¿-classӵcultureӵen¿endersӵunresolvedӵracistӵfeelin¿sӵthatӵareӵ
thenӵ repressedӵ orӵ deniedӵ ratherӵ thanӵ examined,ӵ an¿er,ӵ becauseӵ itӵ isӵ bothӵ
sexuallyӵthreatenin¿ӵandӵculturallyӵintrusiveӵtoӵ individualsӵschooledӵexclusivelyӵ
inӵ theӵ idiomӵ ofӵ theӵ Furopean-descendedӵ traditionӵ ofӵ classical,ӵ folk,ӵ andjorӵ
popularӵ music,ӵ contempt,ӵ becauseӵ itӵ soundsӵ 'mindless'ӵ orӵ 'monotonous'ӵ toӵ
individualsӵwho,ӵthrou¿hӵlackӵofӵexpˁsureӵorӵmusicolo¿icalӵtrainin¿,ӵareӵunableӵ
toӵdiscernӵitsӵrhythmic,ӵmelodicӵandӵtopicalӵcomplexity.ӵ
Alternately,ӵfunkӵsometimesӵ elicitedӵcondescensionӵorӵembarrassmentӵ fromӵ
middle-class,ӵcolle¿e-educatedӵblacks:ӵcondescension,ӵbecauseӵitӵisӵperceivedӵasӵ
blackӵ populorŦ culture,ӵ thatӵ is,ӵ relativelyӵ unsophisticatedӵ orӵ undevelopedӵ byӵ
comparisonӵ withӵ ¡azzӵ asӵ blackӵ hi¿hӵ culture,ӵ embarrassment,ӵ becauseӵ funk'sӵ
explicitӵ andӵ a¿¿ressiveӵ sexualityӵ andӵ useӵ ofӵ Cospel-derivedӵ vocalӵ techniquesӵ
sometimesӵ seemӵ excessiveӵ byӵcomparisonӵ withӵtheӵmoreӵ restrained,ӵ subdued,ӵ
white- orӵ Furopean-influencedӵ middle-classӵ lifestyle.ӵDftenӵ thisӵ musicӵ isӵ alsoӵ
associatedӵ withӵ adolescentӵ popularityӵ traumasӵ concernin¿ӵ dancin¿,ӵ datin¿ӵ orӵ
sexualӵcompetence.ӵTheseӵne¿ativeӵassociationsӵlin¿erӵintoӵadulthoodӵandӵinhibitӵ
one'sӵabilityӵevenӵtoӵlistenӵtoӵthisӵ¿enreӵofӵmusicӵwithoutӵpainfulӵpersonalӵfeelin¿s.ӵ
Theseӵ andӵ otherӵ intenseӵ responsesӵ wereӵ sympatheticallyӵ confronted,ӵ
articulatedӵandӵsometimesӵexorcisedӵinӵtheӵcourseӵofӵdiscussin¿ӵandӵlistenin¿ӵtoӵ
theӵ music.ӵ Theӵ resultӵ wasӵ oftenӵ cathartic,ӵ therapeuticӵ andӵ intellectuallyӵ
stimulatin¿.ӵtoӵen¿a¿eӵconsciouslyӵwithӵtheseӵandӵrelatedӵissuesӵcanӵliberateӵoneӵ
toӵlistenӵtoӵandӵunderstandӵthisӵartӵformӵofӵblack,ӵworkin¿-classӵcultureӵwithoutӵ
Pipet//No!eSĸonĸFunk//lööĸ
fearӵorӵshame,ӵandӵsoӵtoӵ¿ainӵaӵdeeperӵunderstandin¿ӵofӵtheӵculturalӵandӵpoliticalӵ
dimensionsӵofӵone'sӵsocialӵidentity.ӵWhatӵfollowsӵ areӵnotesӵlӵ tookӵafterӵhavin¿ӵ
sta¿edӵ theӵ performanceӵ atӵ differentӵ times.ӵTheyӵareӵ theӵ fruitӵofӵmyӵdialo¿uesӵ
withӵparticipantsӵandӵofӵmyӵobservationsӵofӵtheirӵresponsesӵtoӵҠheӵperformance.ӵ
Notcs on Funk lI
[ӵ. s + ĉ ň ӵsupposeӵthatӵwhatӵfinallyӵvindicatesӵtheӵperformancesӵinӵmyӵownӵeyesӵ¦asӵ
wellӵ asӵ theӵ effortӵtoӵcontinueӵen¿a¿in¿ӵwithӵveryӵdifferentӵ kindsӵ ofӵpeopleӵ inӵ
doin¿ӵthem)ӵisӵtheӵundeniableӵcx¡cŘcnccŦpeopleӵseemӵtoӵ¿et,ӵalmostӵinvariably,ӵ
fromӵparticipatin¿ӵinӵ them,ӵ includin¿ӵme.ӵ ltӵ¡ustӵ seemsӵ toӵ beӵtrueӵthatӵmostӵofӵ
myӵ whiteӵ friendsӵ feelӵ lessӵ alienatedӵ fromӵ thisӵ aestheticӵ idiomӵ afterӵ havin¿ӵ
participatedӵ inӵ itӵ directly,ӵ andӵ discussedӵ theirӵ feelin¿sӵ aboutӵ itӵ inӵ aӵ receptiveӵ
context,ӵre¿ardlessӵofӵtheirӵreservationsӵaboutӵwhetherӵwhatӵl'mӵ doin¿ӵisӵ'art'ӵorӵ
not,ӵ whetherӵ funkӵdeservesӵtheӵle¿itimationӵofӵ'hi¿hӵculture'ӵ orӵnot,ӵandӵsoӵ on.ӵ
Forӵmeӵwhatӵitӵmeansӵisӵthatӵtheӵexperiencesӵofӵsharin¿,ӵcommonalityӵandӵself-
transcendenceӵturnӵ outӵtoӵ beӵmoreӵintenseӵandӵ si¿nificant,ӵ inӵ someӵ ways,ӵ thanӵ
theӵpostmodernistӵcate¿oriesӵmostӵofӵusӵart-typesӵbrin¿ӵtoӵaestheticӵexperience.ӵ
Thisӵ isӵimportantӵtoӵ meӵbecauseӵlӵ don'tӵbelieveӵthoseӵcate¿oriesӵ shouldӵ beӵtheӵ
soleӵarbitersӵofӵaestheticӵevaluation.ӵ
ButӵperhapsӵtheӵrealӵpointӵofӵitӵforӵmeӵhŢsӵtoӵdoӵwithӵtheӵwaysӵinӵwhichӵitӵenǦ
ablesӵ meӵtoӵ overcomeӵ myӵownӵsenseӵofӵalienation,ӵ bothӵ fromӵwhiteӵ andӵ blackӵ
culture.ӵAsӵaӵWomanӵofӵColourӵ¦lӵthinkӵthat'sӵtheӵ¿oin¿ӵphraseӵtheseӵdays,ӵasӵmyӵ
parentsӵ oftenӵ complain,ӵ 'What'sӵ theӵ matterӵ withӵ 'coloured'?ӵ Drӵ 'colouredӵ
woman'Ŝӵ Thatӵwasӵ aӵ¿ood,ӵ serviceable,ӵaccurateӵ descriptionӵ fortyӵ yearsӵ a¿oĹӵ')ӵ
whoӵisӵoftenӵputӵinӵtheӵmoralӵ dilemmaӵ ofӵbein¿ӵidentifiedӵasӵ whiteӵandӵ henceӵ
sub¡ectӵ toӵ theӵ accusationӵ ofӵ 'passin¿',ӵ itӵ ¿ivesӵ meӵ theӵ chanceӵ toӵ affirmӵ andӵ
exploreӵtheӵculturalӵdimensionsӵofӵmyӵidentityӵasӵaӵblackӵinӵwaysӵthatӵilluminateӵ
myӵpersonalӵandӵpoliticalӵconnectionӵtoӵotherӵ¦moreӵidentifiably)ӵblackӵpeople,ӵ
andӵcelebrateӵourӵcommonӵculturalӵherita¿e.ӵAtӵtheӵsameӵtime,ӵtheӵpieceӵenablesӵ
meӵ toӵ affirmӵ andӵ utilizeӵ theӵconventionsӵ andӵ idiomsӵ ofӵcommunicationsӵ l'veӵ
learnedӵ inӵ theӵ processӵ ofӵmyӵ acculturationӵ intoӵ whiteӵ culture.ӵ theӵ analyticalӵ
mode,ӵ theӵ formalӵ andӵ structuralӵ analysis,ӵ theӵ processӵ ofӵ consideredӵ andӵ
constructiveӵ rationalӵ dialo¿ue,ӵ theӵ pseudo-academicӵ lecturejdemonstrationIJӵ
¿roupӵparticipationӵsĸle,ӵandӵsoӵon.ӵTheseӵmodesӵofӵfluencyӵreinforceӵmyӵsenseӵ
ofӵidentificationӵwithӵmyӵaudienceӵ andӵ ultimatelyӵempowerӵallӵ ofӵusӵ toӵ moveӵ
withӵ¿reaterӵeaseӵandӵ fluidityӵfromӵoneӵsuchӵmodeӵtoӵ another.ӵ ltӵalsoӵ reinforcesӵ
myӵsenseӵofӵoptimismӵthatӵeventuallyӵtheӵtwainӵsnollŦmeetĹӵ
Adr|anͥ F|pcr,ͥ 'NotcsͥonͥFunkͥŶʎ(i985)ňͥ 'NotcsͥonͥFunkͥll'ͥ(i983),ͥ0u|Ǫo)Ǫ0rderĜǪ 0u|Ǫo)ǪSi¿h|,Ǫ ŦoIumeǪ ìĊʎ
SeIec|edǪWri|in¿sǪinǪMe|o-Ar|,Ǫ l9IJ8-l992Ǫ(CamDr|d¿c,ͥMassachuscttsũͥThcͥMlTͥFrcss,ͥi99b)ͥ195Ŗ8;ͥ201.
¡ö4//ĸ ATl5T5'ĸWlT¡NG5ĸ
CrOUp NOtCriO!
On DCmOCrOCyJJl990
!ncŦ ͭȞӵ collcc!ívcŦ Crou¡Ŧ Mo!críolŦ cc¿onŦ workín¿Ŧ ínŦ !ncŦ lo!cŦ l970s,Ŧ ¡roJucín¿Ŧ
collocoro!ívcŦ cxnící!íonsŦ wí!nŦ rcsíJcn!sŦ o]Ŧ !ncírŦ ncí¿ncournooJŦ ínŦ Monno!!on.Ŧ
!nrou¿nou!Ŧ !ncŦ l980sŦ !ncírŦ ¡ro]cc!sŦ ¿rcwŦ morcŦ crí!ícolŦ o]Ŧ !ncŦ kc¡ucliconŦ
¿ovcrnmcn!,Ŧ ¡or!ículorl¡Ŧ ŀ!sŦ ¡olíc¡Ŧ onŦ ȔŶDȞ.ӵ !ncŦ ]ollowín¿Ŧ !cx!Ŧ ín!roJuccsŦ
Democracy,ӵ oŦ con]crcnccŦ onJŦ íns!ollo!íonŦ ¡ro]cc!Ŧ !nc¡Ŧ or¿onízcJŦ o!Ŧ !ncŦ DíoŦ Ar!sŦ
FounJo!íon,ŦNcwŦYork,Ŧ ínŦ l988.Ŧ
şarҡicipatin¿ӵ inӵ theӵ systemӵ doesn'tӵ meanӵ thatӵ weӵ m͕Рstӵ identiϘӵ withӵ ϥt,ӵ stopӵ
criticizin¿ӵit,ӵorӵstopӵimprovin¿ӵtheӵlittleӵpieceӵofӵturfӵonӵwhichӵweӵ operate.ӵ
-Şud¿eӵBruceӵWri¿ht,ӵŞustice,ӵľewӵYorkӵStateӵSupremeӵŝourt˱ӵ
ldeally,ӵdemocracyӵisӵaӵsystemӵ inӵwhichӵpoliticalӵpowerӵrestsӵwithӵ theӵpeople.ӵallӵ
citizensӵ activelyӵ participateӵ inӵ theӵ processӵ ofӵ self-representationӵ andӵ selfǦ
¿overnin¿,ӵ anӵ on¿oin¿ӵ discussionӵ inӵ whichӵ aӵ multitudeӵ ofӵ diverseӵ voicesӵ
conver¿e.ӵButӵinӵl987,ӵafterӵalmostӵtwoӵtermsӵofӵtheӵRea¿anӵpresidencyӵandӵwithӵ
anotherӵelectionӵyearӵatӵhand,ӵitӵwasӵclearӵthatӵtheӵstateӵofӵAmericanӵdemocracyӵ
wasӵ inӵnoӵwayӵid˄eal.ӵAccessӵtoӵpoliticalӵpowerӵwasӵobstructedӵ inӵ complexӵways,ӵ
participationӵinӵpoliticsӵhadӵde¿eneratedӵintoӵpassiveӵandӵsymbolicӵinvolvement,ӵ
andӵ theӵ currentӵofӵ'official'ӵ politicsӵ precludedӵ aӵ diversityӵofӵviewpoints.ӵWhenӵ
theӵ DiaӵArtӵFoundationӵapproachedӵȣsӵwithӵ thΰӵ ideaӵofӵdoin¿ӵaӵpro¡ect,ӵ itӵwasӵ
immediatelyӵapparentӵtoӵusӵthatӵdemocracyӵshouldӵserveӵasӵtheӵtheme.ӵ
Theӵsub¡ectӵofӵdemocracyӵnotӵ onlyӵbecameӵ ourӵcontentӵbutӵinfluencedӵ ourӵ
methodӵ ofӵ workin¿.ӵ Thisӵ themeӵ promptedӵ aӵ ¿reaterӵ awarenessӵ ofӵourӵ ownӵ
process.ӵDneӵofӵtheӵfirstӵquestionsӵweӵaskedӵwas.ӵ 'Whyӵareӵtheyӵaskin¿ӵus?'ӵToӵ
us,ӵ theӵ Diaӵ Artӵ Foundationӵ si¿nifiedӵ 'exclusive',ӵ 'white',ӵ 'esoteric',ӵ andӵ 'male',ӵ
whereasӵweӵhadӵalwaysӵattemptedӵtoӵredehneӵcultureӵaroundӵanӵopposin¿ӵsetӵofӵ
terms.ӵ 'inclusive',ӵ 'multicultural',ӵ 'nonsexist',ӵ andӵ 'sociallyӵ relevant'.ӵ lnӵ ¿eneral,ӵ
weӵ seeӵ ourselvesӵ asӵtheӵoutspokenӵdistantӵrelativeӵatӵ theӵ annualӵ reunionӵwhoӵ
canӵbeӵcountedӵonӵtoӵbrin¿ӵupӵtheӵoneӵsub¡ectӵnoӵoneӵwantsӵtoӵtalkӵabout.ӵ
Theӵsub¡ectӵthatӵnoӵoneӵinӵtheӵartӵworldӵwantsӵtoӵtalkӵaboutӵisӵusuallyӵpolitics.ӵ
Yet,ӵbecauseӵeveryӵsocialӵorӵculturalӵrelationshipӵisӵaӵpoliticalӵone,ӵweӵre¿ardӵ anӵ
understandin¿ӵ ofӵ theӵ linkӵ
betweenӵ politicsӵ andӵ cultureӵ asӵ essential.ӵ 'Politics'ӵ
cannotӵbeӵrestrictedӵtoӵthoseӵarenasӵstipulatedӵasӵsuchӵbyӵprofessionalӵpoliticians.ӵ
lndeed,ӵ itӵ isӵ fundamentalӵ toӵ ourӵ methodolo¿yӵ toӵ questionӵ everyӵ aspectӵofӵourӵ
culturalӵ situationӵ fromӵ aӵ politicalӵ pointӵ ofӵview,ӵtoӵ ask,ӵ 'Whatӵ politicsӵ informӵ
GtoupĸNO!etiOĥ/OnĸDemoctOcy//¡öõĸ
acceptedӵunderstandin¿sӵofӵartӵandӵculture?ӵWhoseӵinterestsӵareӵservedӵbyӵsuchӵ
culturalӵconventions?ӵHowӵisӵcultureӵmade,ӵandӵforӵwhomӵisӵitӵmade?'ӵ
lnӵ conceptualizin¿ӵ thisӵ pro¡ect,ӵ therefore,ӵ weӵ proposedӵ aӵ structureӵ thatӵ
differedӵ fromӵtheӵconventionalӵartӵexhibitions,ӵlecturesӵandӵpanelsӵthatӵDiaӵhadӵ
previouslyӵ sponsored.ӵ Weӵ identiIiedӵ fourӵ si¿nificantӵ areasӵ ofӵ theӵ crisisӵ inӵ
democracy.ӵ education,ӵ electoralӵ politics,ӵ culturalӵ participationӵ andӵAlDS.ӵ Forӵ
eachӵtopic,ӵweӵcollaborativelyӵor¿anizedӵaӵroundӵtableӵdiscussion,ӵanӵexhibitionӵ
andӵaӵtownӵmeetin¿.ӵForӵeachӵroundӵtableӵweӵ invitedӵindividualӵspeakersӵ fromӵ
diverseӵprofessionsӵandӵperspectivesӵtoӵ participateӵinӵanӵinformalӵconversation.ӵ
Theseӵdiscussionsӵhelpedӵusӵtoӵprepareӵtheӵinstallationsӵandӵprovidedӵimportantӵ
informationӵforӵplannin¿ӵtheӵa¿endasӵforӵtheӵtownӵmeetin¿s.ӵ
Fachӵofӵtheӵfourӵexhibitionsӵthatӵweӵinstalledӵatӵ77ӵWoosterӵ
Streetӵreiteratedӵ
theӵ interǝαlatednessӵ ofӵ ourӵ sub¡ectsӵ andӵ theӵ necessityӵ ofӵ ourӵ collaborativeӵ
process.ӵ 0urӵworkin¿ӵmethodӵ mi¿htӵ bestӵbeӵdescribedӵasӵ painfullyӵdemocratic.ӵ
becauseӵ soӵ muchӵ ofӵourӵ processӵ dependsӵ onӵtheӵ review,ӵ selectionӵ andӵ criticalӵ
¡uxtapositionӵofӵinnumerableӵculturalӵob¡ects,ӵadherin¿ӵtoӵaӵcollectiveӵprocessӵisӵ
extremelyӵtime-consumin¿ӵandӵdifficult.ӵHowever,ӵtheӵsharedӵlearnin¿ӵandӵideasӵ
produceӵresultsӵthatӵareӵoftenӵinaccessibleӵtoӵ thoseӵwhoӵworkӵalone.ӵ
0urӵ exhibitionsӵ andӵpro¡ectsӵareӵ intendedӵ toӵ beӵ forumsӵ inӵ whichӵ multipleӵ
pointsӵofӵviewӵareӵrepresentedӵinӵaӵvarietyӵofӵstylesӵandӵmethods.ӵWeӵbelieve,ӵasӵ
theӵ feministӵ writerӵ bellӵ hooksӵ hasӵ said,ӵ thatӵ 'weӵ mustӵ focusӵ onӵ aӵ policyӵ ofӵ
inclusionӵsoӵ asӵnotӵtoӵ mirrorӵoppressiveӵstructures'.ӵAsӵaӵresȤlt,ӵeachӵexhibitionӵ
isӵaӵveritableӵmodelӵofӵdemocracy.ӵMirrorin¿ӵtheӵvariousӵformsӵofӵrepresentationӵ
thatӵstructureӵourӵ understandin¿ӵofӵculture,ӵ ourӵexhibitionsӵ brin¿ӵto¿etherӵsoǦ
calledӵfineӵartӵwithӵ productsӵfromӵ supermarkets,ӵmass-culturalӵ artefactsӵ withӵ
historicalӵob¡ects,ӵ actualӵdocumentationӵwithӵ homemadeӵ pro¡ects.ӵWeӵareӵ notӵ
interestedӵ inӵ makin¿ӵ definitiveӵ evaluationsӵ orӵ declarativeӵ statements,ӵ butӵ inӵ
creatin¿ӵsituationsӵthatӵofferӵourӵchosenӵsub¡ectӵasӵaӵcomplexӵandӵopen-endedӵ
issue.ӵWeӵencoura¿eӵ¿reaterӵaudienceӵpartiƐipationӵthrou¿hӵinterpretation.ӵ
0neӵ formӵ ofӵparticipationӵ wasӵ theӵ townӵ meetin¿ӵ heldӵ forӵ eachӵ exhibition.ӵ
Theseӵmeetin¿sӵwereӵwellӵ publicizedӵandӵwereӵopenӵtoӵtheӵ publicӵ atӵ lar¿e.ӵ lnӵ
selectin¿ӵ theӵ townӵ meetin¿ӵ format,ӵ weӵ meantӵ notӵ onlyӵ toӵ alludeӵ toӵ theӵ
prototypicalӵ democraticӵ experienceӵ butӵ alsoӵ toӵ eliminateӵ theӵ demarcationӵ
betweenӵexpertsӵandӵtheӵpublicӵsoӵevidentӵatӵmostӵpublicӵlectures.ӵForӵtheӵtownӵ
meetin¿sӵallӵaudienceӵmembersӵwereӵ potentialӵparticipants.ӵBeyondӵ theӵ desireӵ
toӵerodeӵsuchӵtraditionalӵcate¿ories,ӵourӵexpectationsӵforӵtheseӵdiscussionsӵwereӵ
somewhatӵ undefined.ӵ lnӵ theӵ end,ӵ eachӵ townӵ meetin¿ӵ hadӵ aӵ lifeӵ ofӵ itsӵ own,ӵ
determinedӵnotӵonlyӵbyӵtheӵmoderator,ӵbutӵbyӵwhoӵwasӵinӵtheӵaudienceӵandӵwhoӵ
amon¿ӵthemӵhadӵtheӵcoura¿eӵtoӵspeakӵup.ӵMuchӵofӵtheӵpublicӵdiscussionӵbuiltӵonӵ
issuesӵraisedӵinӵtheӵroundӵtableӵmeetin¿s,ӵandӵitӵwasӵ¿ratifyin¿ӵtoӵhearӵdifferentӵ
löó//ĸ AT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
peopleӵdiscussin¿ӵtheirӵrelationӵtoӵthoseӵissues.ӵ
Theӵfinalӵpartӵofӵ'Democracy',ӵandӵperhapsӵtheӵmostӵimportant,ӵisӵthisӵbook.ӵ
Throu¿hӵthisӵbookӵweӵtriedӵtoӵencapsulateӵmanyӵofӵtheӵideasӵthatӵwentӵintoӵandӵ
cameӵ outӵ ofӵtheӵ Democracyӵ Pro¡ectӵ inӵ orderӵtoӵ makeӵ themӵ availableӵ toӵ aӵ farӵ
widerӵpublicӵ thanӵ couldӵ
attendӵ theӵ ev
ents.ӵWeӵ or¿anizedӵ thisӵ publicationӵveryӵ
muchӵ asӵweӵ or¿anizeӵ ourӵ exhibitions,ӵbrin¿in¿ӵto¿etherӵaӵvarietyӵ ofӵvoicesӵ andӵ
pointsӵ ofӵ viewӵ toӵ addressӵ theӵ issues.ӵ lnӵ thisӵ case,ӵ weӵ hopeӵ thatӵ theӵ resultsӵ
provideӵaӵstron¿ӵanalysisӵ ofӵtheӵcurrentӵsituationӵ ofӵdemocracyӵinӵAmericaӵandӵ
su¿¿estӵpossibleӵmeansӵforӵ
respondin¿ӵ
toӵitsӵchallen¿esƊӵ
¨ ¨ ¯
|
Croupͥ MaIcrialͥ (Dou¿ͥ Ashlord,ͥ|uIicͥ AulI,ͥ FcIixͥ ConïʏIcï-Torrcs),ͥ Dcmocio
Ç
:Ǫ AǪ Pro)ccrǪ b,Ǫ Cmu¡Ǫ
Mo|criolǪ(ScaIIIc:ͥ 6ayͥFrcss.ͥ 1990)Ǫ 1ĒįĝǪ
GtoupĸNO!etiOl//OnĸDemoctOcy/ĸ /¡ö7ĸ
LOo CUlCr
1IOISIOC!OIO!O/ A JOuïnCy fïOm ¡hC Los¡ ¡O ¡hC
WCs¡¡¡l99ó
7ncŦ]ivc-monŦ 5lovcnionŦ collcc|ivcŦ lkWlNŦ orcŦ or¿uocl¡Ŧ |ncŦ rclo|ionolŦ or|is|sŦ parӵ
excellenceӵo]Ŧ£os|cmŦ£uro¡c.Ŧ7ncirŦlivcŦins|ollo|ionŦ NĩKӵFmbassyӵMoscowӵ(lºº2)Ŧ
oJJrcsscJŦ sociolŦ onJŦ ¡oli|icolŦ rclo|ionsŦ inŦ |ncŦ ¡os|-Communis|Ŧ ¡crioJ,Ŧ onJŦ |ncŦ
cons|ruc|ionŦ o]Ŧ £os|crnŦ £uro¡conŦ iJcn|i|¡.Ŧ 7ncŦ]ollowin¿Ŧ |cx|Ŧ c¡Ŧ |ncirŦ]rcqucn|Ŧ
collocoro|or,Ŧ |ncŦ or|is|Ŧ £JoŦ CĦ]ci,Ŧ isŦ |¡¡icolŦ o]Ŧ |ncirŦ o¡¡roocnđŦ oŦ wi¸Ŧ scʼnj-
in|crro¿o|ionŦ onJŦ¡oi¿non|Ŧonol¡sisŦ o]Ŧ |ncŦ limi|o|ionsŦ o]ŦoŦ Jiscussion-coscJŦ rooJŦ
|ri¡ŦocrossŦ|ncŦU5,Ŧ wnicnŦ |ncŦ¿rou¡ŦunJcr|ookŦinŦ Iºº5.Ŧ
Howӵtoӵ conceptualizeӵ¡os|Ŧ]cs|um,Ŧ anӵartisticӵ eventӵwhich,ӵ asӵ such,ӵ tookӵplaceӵ
withinӵ individualӵ andӵ collectiveӵthou¿ht,ӵ inӵ aӵ flowӵ ofӵthou¿htsӵ andӵ emotionsӵ
lar¿elyӵdeterminedӵbyӵtheӵveryӵcorporeityӵandӵdirectnessӵofӵevents,ӵvanishin¿ӵinӵ
timeӵasӵtheӵ¡ourneyӵpro¿ressedӵfromӵmileӵtoӵmile,ӵfromӵcityӵtoӵcity,ӵfromӵmeetin¿ӵ
toӵmeetin¿?ӵ
Theӵ non-differentiated,ӵ sub¡ectiveӵ materialӵ ofӵ čŒonsnocionoloŦ whichӵ theӵ
¡ourney'sӵparticipantsӵbrou¿htӵhomeӵfromӵthisӵexperienceӵisӵaӵkindӵofӵamal¿amӵ
ofӵima¿es,ӵ impressions,ӵ memoriesӵ andӵ realizations.ӵTheӵ banalitiesӵofӵeverydayӵ
life,ӵ whichӵ ran¿eӵ fromӵ sleepin¿,ӵ eatin¿,ӵ theӵ cleanin¿ӵ ofӵ theӵ crowdedӵ livin¿ӵ
environmentӵ andӵ self,ӵ toӵ psycholo¿icalӵ tensionsӵ andӵ attemptsӵ toӵ relaxӵ - allӵ
intertwineӵ withӵ moreӵ sublimeӵ impressionsӵ ofӵunfor¿ettableӵ landscapes,ӵ wideӵ
expansesӵandӵpeople,ӵwithӵreflectionsӵphysicallyӵlinkedӵtoӵtheseӵdifferentӵbanalӵ
orӵexhaledӵstates, ӵwithӵmemoriesӵofӵconversationsӵandӵmemoriesӵofӵtownsӵandӵ
theӵatmospheresӵinӵwhichӵtheyӵtookӵplace,ӵ asӵ wellӵasӵ withӵtentativeӵsynthesesӵ
occasionedӵ byӵ thou¿ht-shiftsӵ betweenӵ differentӵ time-spaceӵ andӵ existentialӵ
zonesӵ- betweenӵAmerica,ӵFuropeӵandӵtheӵworld,ӵbetweenӵmemoriesӵofӵlocalӵlifeӵ
situationsӵinӵL¡ubl¡ana,ӵMoscow,ӵNewӵYorkӵandӵChica¿oӵ- allӵcau¿htӵupӵinӵtheӵdullӵ
¿azeӵandӵtheӵmonotonousӵima¿eӵthatӵdefined,ӵforӵhoursӵandӵhours,ӵtheӵcontentӵ
andӵbasicӵsituationӵofӵtheӵmotorӵhomes.ӵ
Althou¿hӵitӵisӵdifficultӵtoӵpartӵfromӵthisӵnon-differentiatedӵima¿e,ӵimpressionӵ
andӵexperienceӵofӵ7i0nsnocionolo,Ŧtheӵthreżӵmonthsӵthatӵhaveӵelapsedӵsinceӵtheӵ
pro¡ectӵ endedӵ inӵ ĩeattleӵ onӵ 28ӵ|ulyӵ l996ӵ provideӵ aӵ sufficientӵ time-distanceӵtoӵ
produceӵatӵleastӵaӵrou¿hӵreckonin¿ӵofӵwhatӵtheӵ directӵexperienceӵofӵtheӵ pro¡ectӵ
si¿nihes,ӵ inӵrespectӵtoӵitsӵinitialӵconceptualӵpointsӵofӵdeparture.ӵ
Dneӵ ofӵ theseӵ fundamentalӵ points,ӵ whichӵ specificallyӵ enabledӵ theӵ laterӵ
physicalӵ andӵ metaphysicalӵ frameworkӵ ofӵ theӵ ¡ourney,ӵ wasӵ theӵ positiveӵ
experienceӵ ofӵ theӵA¡|ŦAr|Ŧ pro¡ect,ӵ moreӵ precisely,ӵ theӵ N5Ƽʎ £mcoss¡Ŧ MoscowŦ
¡öß//ĸ AT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
pro¡ectӵwhichӵtookӵplaceӵinӵ l998.ӵTheӵprimaryӵmotiveӵforӵ7ronsnocíonoloŦwasӵtoӵ
or¿anizeӵ anӵ internationalӵ artӵ pro¡ectӵ toӵ takeӵ placeӵ outsideӵ theӵ establishedӵ
internationalӵinstitutionalӵnetworks,ӵwithoutӵintermediaries,ӵwithoutӵaӵcurator-
formulatedӵconcept,ӵandӵ withoutӵanyӵ directӵ responsibilityӵtowardsӵitsӵsponsors.ӵ
lnӵshort,ӵtoӵ or¿anizeӵaӵpro¡ectӵasӵaӵdirectӵnetworkӵofӵindividualsӵbrou¿htӵto¿etherӵ
byӵaӵcommonӵinteěestӵinӵ particularlyӵopenӵ aesthetic,ӵethical,ӵsocialӵandӵpoliticalӵ
questions,ӵ allӵ ofӵwhomӵ wouldӵ travelӵ to¿etherӵ forӵ oneӵ month,ӵ exchan¿eӵ views,ӵ
opinionsӵandӵimpressions,ӵmeetӵnewӵpeopleӵinӵtheirӵlocalӵenvironments,ӵandӵtryӵ
toӵ expandӵ theӵ networkӵ basedӵ onӵ theӵ topicalityӵ ofӵ questionsӵ posedӵ -
spontaneouslyӵ andӵ withoutӵ anyӵ predetermineǍ,ӵ centralizedӵ aesthetic,ӵ
ideolo¿icalӵorӵpoliticalӵob¡ective.ӵ
Theӵ secondӵ methodolo¿icalӵ pointӵ ofӵ departure,ӵ alsoӵ basedӵ onӵ theӵ positiveӵ
experienceӵ ofӵ Moscowӵ inӵ l992,ӵ wasӵ toӵ createӵ conditionsӵ forӵ aӵ kindӵ ofӵ
experimentalӵexistentialӵsituation.ӵȚikeӵ theӵ one-monthӵstayӵinӵ anӵ apartmentӵ atӵ
l2ӵ Țeninskyӵ Prospekt,ӵ Moscow,ӵ inӵ l992,ӵ theӵ one-monthӵ cohabitationӵ ofӵ tenӵ
individualsӵ inӵtwoӵmotorӵhomes,ӵ inӵbarelyӵtenӵsquareӵmetresӵofӵphysicalӵspace,ӵ
alsoӵshouldӵhaveӵenabledӵaӵquestionin¿ӵofӵtheӵmythӵofӵtheӵpublicӵandӵintimateӵ
aspectsӵofӵartistӵandӵartӵ- thatӵis,ӵofӵtheӵsplitӵformin¿ӵtheӵbasisӵofӵtheӵsystemӵofӵ
representation.ӵ
Theӵ nextӵresearch-orientedӵpointӵofӵdepartureӵwasӵtoӵ analyseӵtheӵ problemsӵ
ofӵ theӵ ¿lobalӵ artӵ system,ӵ theӵ systemӵ ofӵ values,ӵ ofӵ existential,ӵ lin¿uisticӵ andӵ
marketӵmodelsӵcontainedӵtherein.ӵTheӵaestheticӵandӵethicalӵpointӵofӵdepartureӵ
wasӵ theӵ veryӵ implementationӵ ofӵ theӵ pro¡ectӵ itselfӵ- anӵ attemptӵtoӵ establishӵ aӵ
complexӵpersonalӵ andӵ ¿roupӵ experience,ӵ theӵ creationӵofӵaӵtime-spaceӵ moduleӵ
livin¿ӵwithinӵtheӵmultitudesӵofӵlin¿uisƦicallyӵinΩefinableӵconnections.ӵ
Dnӵtheӵsurface,ӵtheӵ7ronsnocíonoloŦpro¡ectӵmayӵseemӵyetӵanotherӵattemptӵtoӵ
establishӵ orӵ reaffirmӵ theӵmythӵ ofӵcommunication.ӵltsӵmissionӵcouldӵ beӵ definedӵ
asӵanӵattemptӵtoӵbrid¿eӵpersonal,ӵcultural,ӵideolo¿ical,ӵ political,ӵracialӵandӵotherӵ
differences.ӵ ltӵ wasӵ inӵ thisӵ positive,ӵ optimisticӵ spiritӵ thatӵ theӵ firstӵ lettersӵ toӵ
prospectiveӵparticipantsӵandӵhostsӵwereӵcomposed,ӵandӵquiteӵfrequentlyӵsuchӵanӵ
a¿it-propӵdiscourseӵwasӵalsoӵusedӵinӵtheӵprocessӵofӵestablishin¿ӵcommunicationӵ
withӵtheӵpublicӵ inӵtheӵfiveӵ USӵ citiesӵweӵvisited.ӵlt'sӵmoreӵdifficult,ӵ however,ӵ toӵ
defineӵhowӵandӵwithӵwhatӵcomplicationsӵthisӵcommunicationӵreallyӵtookӵplace.ӵ
Theӵsuccessӵ ofӵcommunicationӵ byӵ individualsӵ lar¿elyӵ comin¿ӵfromӵ spacesӵ andӵ
timesӵseparate,ӵasӵtoӵbothӵcultureӵandӵexperience,ӵdependsӵprimarilyӵonӵtheӵskillӵ
ofӵtheӵindividualsӵandӵ¿roupsӵwishin¿ӵtoӵcommunicateӵ Ĥ theirӵskillӵatӵplayin¿ӵaӵ
roleӵwithinӵtheӵstructureӵofӵtheӵdialo¿ue.ӵlnӵtheӵcontextӵofӵcontemporaryӵartӵandӵ
theory,ӵtheӵ roleӵofӵtheӵen¿ineersӵofӵsuchӵaӵcommunicationӵstructureӵ isӵlar¿elyӵ
playedӵ byӵ variousӵ internationalӵ institutions,ӵ intermediariesӵ whoӵ haveӵ
successfullyӵmaintained,ӵforӵtheӵentireӵcentСТģĿ,ӵtheӵillusionӵthatӵdespiteӵcultural,ӵ
Cu!et/ĸ /ĸTrODSDOC!oDOIO/ĸAĸJoutneyĸ!tomĸ!heĸEOS!ĸ!oĸ!heĸWeS]ĸ /¡öºĸ
pclitical,ӵeccncmicӵandӵ individualӵdifferencesӵtheӵccntempcraryӵartӵccmmunityӵ
speaksӵtheӵsameӵlan¿ua¿e.ӵSinceӵtheӵ ccllapseӵinӵtheӵseventiesӵcfӵwhatӵcculdӵbeӵ
termedӵtheӵcpticnӵcfӵtheӵleft,ӵanӵcpticnӵwhichӵdeterminedӵtheӵsystemӵcfӵvaluesӵ
andӵ theӵ ccnsistencyӵ cfӵlan¿ua¿eӵ cnӵ whichӵ theӵ abcveӵ illusicnӵ wasӵ based,ӵ thisӵ
instituticnalizedӵ ccmmunicaticnӵ framewcrkӵ hasӵ beenӵ shcwin¿ӵ itsӵcracksӵ andӵ
fissures.ӵltӵhasӵshcwnӵitselfӵinadequate,ӵyetӵatӵtheӵsameӵtimeӵitӵremainsӵtheӵcnlyӵ
mcdelӵ linkin¿ӵ separateӵ individualsӵ andӵ ¿rcups.ӵ ltӵ prctectsӵ themӵ frcmӵ sinkin¿ӵ
backӵintcӵmcreӵcrӵlessӵprimitiveӵnaticnalӵandӵlccalӵccmmunities.ӵ
Byӵ tryin¿ӵ tcӵ circumventӵ theӵ instituticnalӵ framewcrk,ӵ andӵ tcӵ i¿ncreӵ theӵ
pctentialӵ cfӵskilfulӵ prcfessicnalsӵ whcӵ wculdӵ inevitablyӵtryӵtcӵ placeӵ theӵ eventӵ
withinӵ anӵ establishedӵ ccntextӵ cfӵ recepticn,ӵ theӵ 7runsnucionuluŦ prc¡ectӵ
deliberatelyӵprcvckedӵwhatӵcculdӵbeӵcalledӵaӵccmmunicaticnӵncise.ӵltӵplacedӵtheӵ
eventӵinӵaӵcertainӵmar¿inӵ- aӵmar¿inӵthatӵwasӵccnstantlyӵbrin¿in¿ӵupӵquesticnsӵ
abcutӵtheӵpcintӵcfӵtheӵparticipants'ӵcwnӵactivity,ӵabcutӵwhatӵmakesӵtheӵprc¡ectӵ
differentӵfrcmӵaӵ tcuristӵ tripӵabusin¿ӵartӵasӵ anӵexcuseӵ fcrӵ stealin¿ӵ naticnalӵ andӵ
internaticnalӵfundsӵinӵtheӵinterestӵcfӵstructurin¿ӵpleasure,ӵasӵwellӵasӵvaricusӵself-
accusatcryӵ ima¿esӵ inӵ whichӵ theӵ participantsӵ sawӵ themselvesӵ asӵ aӵ bunchӵ cfӵ
demcralized,ӵ neurcticӵ individualsӵ inӵ pursuitӵ cfӵscmeӵabstractӵ privateӵ utcpias,ӵ
ncn-existentӵrelaticns,ӵandӵdeficienciesӵthatӵcannctӵbeӵccmpensatedӵfcr.ӵTheseӵ
feelin¿sӵ¿raduallyӵtcckӵcnӵtheӵstatusӵcfӵaӵ uniqueӵexperience,ӵcfӵaӵstateӵ weӵhadӵ
deliberatelyӵprcvcked.ӵTheyӵbecameӵtheӵsub¡ectӵandӵthemeӵcfӵtheӵ¡curney.ӵ
Theӵprcblemӵcfӵtheӵ structureӵandӵdcminicnӵcfӵtheӵ publicӵisӵspecificallyӵthatӵ
pcwerӵwhichӵdecidesӵwhetherӵaӵparticularӵindividualӵcrӵccllectiveӵartӵprcducticnӵ
isӵaӵrealӵpartӵcfӵtheӵpublicӵexchan¿eӵcfӵvaluesӵ- crӵmerelyӵwhatӵcculdӵbeӵtermedӵ
theӵhyper-prcducticnӵcfӵanӵalienatedӵ sub¡ect,ӵtcӵbeӵstuckӵinӵtheӵcellarӵcrӵatticӵcfӵ
aӵprivateӵ hcuse,ӵ inӵtheӵinventcryӵcfӵaӵ bankruptӵ¿allery,ӵ inӵaӵccllecticnӵthatӵhasӵ
lcstӵitsӵvalueӵcverni¿ht,ӵcrӵinӵscmeӵctherӵcfӵhistcry'sӵmanyӵdumpin¿ӵ¿rcunds.ӵ
lnӵ viewӵ cfӵtheӵ prevailin¿ӵFastӵFurcpeanӵ prcvenanceӵcfӵtheӵartistsӵwhcӵhadӵ
embarkedӵ cnӵtheӵadventureӵ cfӵdisccverin¿ӵAmericaӵ- theӵ centralӵ mythӵcfӵtheӵ
Westӵ- weӵrepeatedУyӵpcsedӵaӵbasicӵquesticnӵtcӵtheӵAmericanӵpublicӵpresentӵatӵ
curӵ publicӵ events.ӵ whatӵdcesӵ theӵ Americanӵculturalӵ publicӵ understandӵ byӵ theӵ
ncticnsӵcfӵtheӵ Fastӵ- cfӵFasternӵart,ӵcfӵFasternӵsccieties?ӵWhatӵalreadyӵexistsӵinӵ
theӵ mindsӵ cfӵcurӵinterlccutcrs?ӵ Dnӵ theӵ ctherӵ hand,ӵ weӵwereӵ facedӵ withӵ theӵ
questicnӵ cfӵ hcwӵ tcӵ presentӵ curӵ realӵ histcrical,ӵ existentialӵ andӵ aestheticӵ
experienceӵinӵsuchӵaӵwayӵasӵtcӵtranscendӵtheӵcultural,ӵideclc¿icalӵandӵ pcliticalӵ
headlinesӵlinkedӵtcӵtheӵccllapseӵcfӵtheӵFasternӵpcliticalӵsystemsӵandӵtheӵwarsӵinӵ
ex-Yu¿cslaviaӵ andӵ theӵ ex-Scvietӵ Unicn.ӵ Hcwӵtcӵdefineӵ histcrical,ӵ culturalӵ andӵ
existentialӵ differencesӵ inӵtheӵ ccntextӵ cfӵ¿lcbal,ӵ transnaticnalӵ capitalism?ӵ Andӵ
finally,ӵ hcwӵ tcӵ transcendӵ scciclc¿icalӵ disccurseӵ andӵ establishӵ ccnditicnsӵ fcrӵ
aestheticӵdisccurse?ӵŝcmmunicatin¿ӵandӵ asscciatin¿ӵwithӵvaricusӵAmericanӵartӵ
̛̑̕ȇȇӵAT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
andӵ intβllectualӵ communitiesӵ revealedӵ aӵ certainӵ similarityӵ betweenӵ theӵ
psycholo¿icalӵ relationӵ orӵ
attitudeӵ - evenӵ frustrationӵ - ofӵ variousӵ Americanӵ
minorityӵ¿roupsӵ¦national,ӵcultural,ӵraciaɪ,ӵsexual,ӵreli¿ious,ӵideolo¿ical)ӵtowardsӵ
theӵ activityӵ ofӵ centralӵ socialӵ institutions,ӵ andӵ theӵ frustrationӵ ofӵFastӵ Furopeanӵ
culturesӵ inӵ relationӵ toӵ theirӵ economicallyӵstron¿erӵWestӵ Furopeanӵ andӵ Northӵ
Americanӵcounterparts.ӵlnӵotherӵwords,ӵtheӵrelationӵofӵtheӵmar¿inӵtoӵtheӵcentre.ӵ
Whenӵ mentionin¿ӵ thisӵ psycholo¿icalӵ relationshipӵ orӵ attitude,ӵ orӵ simplyӵ
frustration,ӵ towardsӵ theӵ constantӵ
ofӵ
theӵ worldӵ orderӵ asӵ aӵ pointӵ ofӵ potentialӵ
identificationӵ withinӵ theӵ contextӵ ofӵdifference,ӵ lӵ haveӵ inӵ mindӵ primarilyӵ theӵ
semi-conscious,ӵambivalentӵandӵnon-structuredӵnatureӵofӵtheӵlan¿ua¿esӵusedӵinӵ
theӵ structureӵofӵpublicӵdialo¿ueӵinӵconnectionӵwithӵthisӵquestionĞӵWhoӵareӵwe,ӵ
whomӵandӵwhatӵdoӵ weӵ represent?ӵWhoӵamӵl,ӵ whomӵ andӵ whatӵdoӵ lӵ represent?ӵ
Bein¿ӵ theӵϓǘӵťŔɢ¿Ąӵofӵprivateӵ conversationsӵ amon¿ӵ theӵ participantsӵ inӵ theӵ trip,ӵ
thisӵquestionӵwasӵ¿raduallyӵ¿ainin¿ӵinӵimportance,ӵ¿ivin¿ӵtheӵpro¡ectӵaӵkindӵofӵ
ontolo¿icalӵstampӵpreciselyӵbecauseӵofӵitsӵambivalenceӵandӵ insolubility,ӵ whichӵ
¿rewӵ withӵ time.ӵ Noneӵ ofӵ theӵ so-calledӵ Fastӵ Furopeanӵ artistsӵ identifiedӵ
themselvesӵ withӵ theӵ Fastӵ inӵ theӵ senseӵ ofӵ representin¿ӵ itsӵ politicalӵ orӵ evenӵ
cultural,ӵ messianicӵrole.ӵDurӵ commonӵattitudeӵtoӵthisӵquestionӵcouldӵbeӵdefinedӵ
asӵ anӵ attemptӵtoӵtakeӵaӵ differentӵview,ӵtoӵ formulateӵaӵ differentӵquestion.ӵ 'Howӵ
doesӵ theӵ Fastӵ seeӵ itselfӵ fromӵ theӵ outside,ӵ fromӵ theӵ pointӵ ofӵ viewӵ ofӵanotherӵ
continent,ӵandӵwhatӵconsumedӵ itsӵroleӵandӵplaceӵ inӵtheӵstructureӵofӵtheӵ¿lobalӵ
worldӵ order?'ӵ Whatӵ remainsӵ ofӵ ourselvesӵ andӵ ourӵ conceptualӵ andӵ aestheticӵ
pointsӵofӵdeparture,ӵonceӵweӵareӵtransposedӵintoӵaӵforei¿nӵculturalӵandӵhistoricalӵ
context?ӵWhoӵareӵweӵbyӵourselves?ӵ Canӵartӵreallyӵconceptualizeӵandӵinterpretӵ
itselfӵthrou¿hӵitself?ӵŵromӵwhereӵdoӵformӵandӵcoшtentӵderive?ӵDoesӵautonomy ӥ
freedomӵofӵartӵandӵtheӵ individualӵ- exist?ӵlfӵitӵdoes,ӵonӵwhatӵvaluesӵitӵisӵbased?ӵ
Theseӵ seemin¿lyӵclear,ӵ evenӵ worn-outӵ andӵ abusedӵ questions,ӵ brou¿htӵ aboutӵ
numerousӵconflicts,ӵdeadlockedӵdiscussions,ӵretreatsӵintoӵsilenceӵandӵreƜection,ӵ
depressions,ӵexaltedӵvisionsӵofӵsolutions,ӵutopianӵimpulses,ӵfeelin¿sӵofӵabsurdity,ӵ
emptinessӵandӵexposureӵtoӵtheӵmechanismsӵofӵlife,ӵwhichӵ inӵtheӵdesertӵbetweenӵ
Chica¿oӵandӵ Sanӵ ŵranciscoӵlookedӵ wonderful,ӵyetӵtotallyӵincomprehensibleӵandӵ
indifferentӵtoӵtheӵ symbolicalӵ andӵ valueӵ¿amesӵ playin¿ӵ themselvesӵ outӵӫinӵ ourӵ
mentalӵspaces.ӵlnӵtheӵmiddleӵofӵtheӵdesert,ӵwhereӵallӵpointsӵofӵtheӵuniverseӵseemӵ
equallyӵcloseӵto,ӵandӵequallyӵdistantӵfrom,ӵmanӵasӵitsӵcentre,ӵweӵwereӵdiscoverin¿ӵ
thatӵ asӵ Fastӵ Furopeanӵ artistsӵ weӵ wereӵ notӵ definedӵ soӵ muchӵ byӵ theӵ formӵandӵ
contentӵ ofӵ ourӵ mentalӵ spacesӵ asӵ byӵ theirӵ symbolicalӵ exchan¿eӵ value.ӵ Theӵ
previouslyӵ mentionedӵ frustrationӵ ofӵFasteǞщӵ culturesӵ andӵ societiesӵ visӵ J visӵ
Westernӵones,ӵwhichӵ¿rewӵevenӵbi¿¿erӵafterӵtheӵcollapseӵofӵsocialism,ӵisӵmanifestӵ
inӵtheӵfieldӵ ofӵartӵprimarilyӵasӵtheӵproblemӵofӵtheӵ non-existenceӵofӵaӵ systemӵ ofӵ
contemporaryӵartӵinӵ theӵterritoryӵ
ofӵ
theӵ Fastӵ- thatӵ is,ӵ ofӵaӵ systemӵofӵsymbolicӵ
ĒuĮet//ĸTrODSDOC!ĨDOIO/ĸ AĸJoijtneyĸ!tomĸ!heĸEOS!ĸ!oĸ!heĸWeSµ/ĸ¡4¡ĸ
andӵ economicӵ exchan¿eӵ whichӵ wouldӵ takeӵ placeӵ inӵ countriesӵ sharin¿ӵ theӵ
commonӵhistoricalӵexperienceӵ ofӵ socialism,ӵ pavin¿ӵtheӵ wayӵ toӵinte¿rationӵintoӵ
theӵ¿lobalӵcontemporaryӵartӵsystem.ӵButӵwhyӵwouldӵweӵre¿retӵtheӵnon-existenceӵ
ofӵ somethin¿ӵ suppressin¿ӵ theӵ individualӵ andӵ theirӵ artisticӵ freedom,ӵ atӵ leastӵ
accordin¿ӵtoӵtheӵ romantic,ӵ utopianӵ definitionӵ ofӵart?ӵ Whichӵ evenӵtodayӵisӵstillӵ
formallyӵadvocatedӵ byӵ aӵ ¿reatӵ numberӵofӵideolo¿uesӵandӵ usersӵ ofӵtheӵexistin¿ӵ
(andӵ virtuallyӵ theӵ only)ӵ Westӵ Furopeanӵ andӵ Northӵ Americanӵ systemӵ ofӵ
contemporaryӵart?ӵ lnӵfact,ӵthisӵisӵnotӵaӵre¿retӵbutӵaӵrealizationӵthatӵ- withoutӵaӵ
systemӵofӵinstitutionsӵwhichӵbyӵdefinitionӵrepresentsӵtheӵfieldӵofӵcontemporaryӵ
artӵ- thereӵisӵnoӵbroaderӵintellectualӵandӵcreativeӵproduction,ӵwithoutӵaӵbroaderӵ
intellectualӵ andӵ creativeӵ productionӵ thereӵ areӵ noӵ differences,ӵ withoutӵ
differencesӵthereӵisӵnoӵhierarchyӵofӵvalues,ӵwithoutӵaӵhierarchyӵofӵvaluesӵthereӵisӵ
noӵcriticalӵreflection,ӵwithoutӵcriticalӵreflectionӵthereӵisӵnoӵtheory,ӵandӵwithoutӵ
theoryӵ thereӵ isӵ noӵ universally-understoodӵ referentialӵ lan¿ua¿e,ӵ capableӵ ofӵ
communicatin¿ӵonӵanӵequalӵ footin¿ӵwithӵotherӵreferentialӵ lan¿ua¿esӵ inӵ otherӵ
placesӵandӵtimesӵofӵtheӵexistin¿ӵworld.ӵ
Despiteӵ brin¿in¿ӵ upӵ problemsӵ thatӵ promiseӵ noӵ imminentӵ solutions,ӵ andӵ
despiteӵaӵcommunicationӵthatӵlackedӵcolloquialӵ smoothnessӵ ¦andӵ whichӵwasӵinӵ
factӵatӵtimesӵ fullӵ ofӵclashesӵ andӵ thorns),ӵ theӵ 7ronsnoıonoloŦ pro¡ectӵachievedӵ itsӵ
conceptualӵob¡ectiveӵpreciselyӵbyӵob¡ectivizin¿ӵitselfӵinӵtheӵsphereӵofӵintimacyӵandӵ
closeness,ӵwhichӵinӵtheӵprocessӵinӵtheӵ¡ourneyӵtookӵonӵtheӵformӵofӵaӵmicroӵvolumeӵ
ofӵ publicӵ space.ӵ Aӵ publicӵ space,ӵ furthermore,ӵ inӵ whichӵ viewsӵ thatӵ areӵ stillӵ
consideredӵtabooӵinӵmostӵpublicӵcontextsӵofӵcontemporaryӵartӵcouldӵbeӵexpressedĺӵ
Amon¿ӵ theӵ participantsӵ inӵ theӵ¡ourney,ӵandӵ amon¿ӵ someӵ otherӵindividualsӵ
metӵ alon¿ӵ theӵ way,ӵ relationshipsӵ wereӵ establishedӵ formin¿ӵ aӵ direct,ӵ livin¿ӵ
network.ӵAӵnetworkӵ inӵwhichӵ aӵsumӵofӵproblemsӵ andӵ realizationsӵconstitutin¿ӵ
theӵ¿ermӵofӵaӵreferentialӵlan¿ua¿eӵwereӵcau¿htӵupӵandӵarticulated,ӵinӵorderӵtoӵbeӵ
furtherӵdeveloped.ӵ
TronsnocionoIo:ǪA]ounc,Ǫ)romǪrhcǪ£osrǪroǪrhcǪWcsrǪwasͥanͥarIͥpro¡ccIͥ|n|I|aIcdͥbyͥIhcͥL¡ubl¡ana͕
bascdͥv|sualͥarIͥ¿roupͥ |kW|Nͥ |nͥIhcͥsummcrͥoIͥ1996ĞǪThcͥpro¡ccIͥIookͥIhcͥ IormͥoIͥaͥ¡ourncyͥ|nͥ
rcalͥI|mcͥIromͥIhcͥEasIͥIoͥ IhcͥWcsIͥCoasIͥoIͥIhcͥUSA.ͥThcͥparI|c|panIs,ͥanͥ|nIcrnaI|onalͥ¿roupͥoIͥ
arI|sIsͥ compr|s|n¿ͥAlcxandcrͥ6rcncr,ͥ Vad|mͥF|shk|n,ͥYurŀͥ Lc|dcrman,ͥCoranͥ Dordcv|c,ͥM|chaclͥ
6cnson,ͥEdaͥCuIcrͥandͥIhcͥĸ|vc-mcmbcrͥ|kW|Nͥ¿roupͥscIͥouIͥonͥaͥonc-monIhͥ ¡ourncyͥacrossͥ
IhcͥUn|IcdͥSIaIcsͥ |nͥIwoͥrccrcaI|onalͥvch|clcs.ͥThcͥa|m,ͥqu|Icͥs|mply,ͥwasͥIorͥc|I|zcnsͥoIͥEasIcrnͥ
Europcͥ Ioͥ cxpcr|cnccͥ Ihcͥ myIholo¿yͥ oIͥIhcͥ Amcr|canͥ h|¿hwayͥ kouIcͥ 66,Ǫ andͥ Ioͥ cn¿a¿cͥ cachͥ
oIhcrͥandͥIhcͥpcoplcͥIhcyͥwouldͥ mccIͥalon¿ͥ Ihcͥwayͥ|nͥ |nIormalͥ andͥIormalͥ d|scuss|onsͥabouIͥ
arI,ͥ Ihcory,ͥ pol|I|csͥ andͥ l|Icͥ |IsclI.ͥ Dur|n¿ͥ or¿an|zcdͥ sIopsͥ |nͥ AIlanIa,ͥ k|chmond,ͥ Ch|ca¿o,ͥ Sanͥ
Franc|scoͥandͥScaIIlc,ͥaͥnumbcrͥoIͥarI|sI|cͥ cvcnIs,ͥ prcscnIaI|onsͥandͥd|sctƑss|onsͥw|Ihͥ localͥarIͥ
commun|I|csͥIookͥplaccģͥThcͥTransnac|onalaͥ¡ourncyͥ- |IsͥIalks,ͥd|scuss|onsͥandͥaImosphcrcsͥ-
¡42//ĸ AT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
|sͥ documcntcdͥ |nͥ thcͥ Dookͥ Trŭnsnocionolo.Ǫ Bi¿hwo,Ǫ CollisionsǪ 8c|wccnǪ £ŮrǪonűiǪ Wcs|Ǫ o|Ǫ|hcǪ
CrossroodsǪo)ǪArr,Ǫcd|tcdͥDyͥ EdaͥCulcrͥ(L¡ubI¡IanaŪͥ Koda,ͥ 1999).ͥ
Edaͥ Culcr,ͥ cd|tcdͥ vcrs|onͥ olͥ tcxtͥ writtcnͥ |nͥ L¡uDIľIana,ͥ OctoDcrͥ 1995ȝͥ l|rstͥ puDI|shcdͥ |nͥ lkWINǪ
TronsnocionoloǪ8orcclonoǪ(6arccIonaŪͥ Fundac|oͥ IaͥCa|xaǎͥ 1997).ͥTransIatcdͥ lromͥ SIovcn|anͥ Dyͥ |asnaͥ
Hrastn|k.ͥ
Cu!et{{ĸTīODSDOCĜODOģO{ĸAĸJoutneyĸ!tomĸ!heĸEoS!ĸ!oĸ!heĸWeSį{ĸ {¡4öĸ
COrstCn HOIICr
ThC BOUOOU¡nJBOUOCw¡jn LxpCr¡mCn¡.
A DCI¡DCrO¡C, NOn-FO¡OI¡s¡¡C LOrQC 5COIC CrOUp
LxpCr¡mCn¡ ¡n DCV¡O¡¡OnJ J2000
0ri¿inoll¡Ŧ!roincJŦosŦoŦ¡n¡!o¡o!nolo¿is!,ŦCors!cnŦHollcrŦo]!cnŦcrco!csŦcx¡crimcn!sŦinŦ
wnicnŦ numonŦ ¡or!ici¡on!sŦ orcŦ suc]cc!Ŧ !oŦ ccnoviourolŦ si!uo!ions.Ŧ Theӵ
BaudouinjBoudewi¡nӵ Fxperiment.ӵ Aӵ Deliberate,ӵ Non-Fatalistic,ӵ țar¿e-Scaleӵ
Croupӵ Fxperimentӵ inӵ Deviationӵ wosŦ ori¿inoll¡Ŧ ¡lonncJŦ]orŦ !ncŦ 8russclsŦ Ci!¡Ŧ o]Ŧ
Cul!urcŦ 2000,Ŧ cu!Ŧ wosŦ conncJŦ o]!crŦ !ncŦ ÇuccnŦ o]Ŧ 8cl¿iumŦ (8ouJouin'sŦ wiJow)Ŧ
oc]cc!cJŦ!oŦHollcr'sŦ¡ro¡osol.Ŧ 7ncŦ¡ro]cc!Ŧ]inoll¡Ŧ !ooōŦ¡loccŦ!ncŦ]ollowin¿Ŧ¡cor,Ŧ onJŦ
¡ro¡oscsŦ collcc!ivcŦ oc!ionŦ osŦ oŦ ]ormŦ o]Ŧ roJicolŦ inoc!ivi!¡.Ŧ l!Ŧ nosŦ noŦ visuolŦ
Jocumcn!o!ion.Ŧ
Theӵlateӵkin¿ӵofӵBel¿ium,ӵBaudouinӵorӵBoudewi¡n,ӵfoundӵaӵremarkableӵsolutionӵtoӵ
aӵ personalӵ dilemma.ӵ Asӵ aӵ kin¿,ӵ heӵ wasӵ supposedӵ toӵ si¿nӵ eƕeģĿӵ newӵ lawӵ
establishedӵbyӵtheӵ parliament.ӵHisӵcontributionӵtoӵ theӵ actualӵ formulationӵofӵtheӵ
law,ӵ however,ӵ wasӵ null,ӵ thusӵ producin¿ӵaӵ purelyӵformalisticӵ actӵ inӵ si¿nin¿ӵ theӵ
document.ӵAtӵaӵcertainӵtime,ӵtheӵparliamentӵwasӵworkin¿ӵoutӵaӵlawӵwhichӵwouldӵ
liberalizeӵ abortion.ӵ BaudouinjBoudewŁīn,ӵ bein¿ӵaӵconfessedӵ catholic,ӵ hadӵ moralӵ
problemsӵsi¿nin¿ӵtheӵ paper,ӵ onӵtheӵ otherӵhand,ӵheӵdidӵ notӵwantӵtoӵ obstructӵtheӵ
implementationӵ ofӵ aӵ newӵ law.ӵ Whenӵ theӵ timeӵ cameӵ andӵ hisӵ si¿natureӵ wasӵ
requested,ӵ heӵ resi¿nedӵ fromӵ bein¿ӵ aӵkin¿ӵ forӵoneӵ day.ӵAnotherӵkin¿ӵwasӵelectedӵ
forӵthisӵoneӵday,ӵwhoӵsi¿nedӵtheӵnewӵlaw.ӵTheӵfollowin¿ӵday,ӵBaudouinjBoudewŁīnӵ
wasӵkin¿ӵa¿ain.ӵ
Theӵ solutionӵ toӵ thisӵ dilemmaӵ isӵ in¿eniouslyӵ simple.ӵ ltӵ isӵ aӵ short-termӵ
deviationӵfromӵyourӵusualӵbehaviour,ӵaӵshiftӵinӵcharacterӵforӵtheӵsakeӵofӵavoidin¿ӵ
producin¿ӵ somethin¿ӵ youӵ don'tӵ wantӵ toӵ produce,ӵ aӵ refusalӵ inӵ timeӵ toӵ beӵ theӵ
professionalӵ youӵ usuallyӵ are.ӵ ltӵisӵ asӵ ifӵyouӵ wouldӵ cutӵoffӵaӵ continuousӵ lineӵ ofӵ
bein¿.ӵStop,ӵandӵstartӵa¿ain?ӵNotӵaӵchan¿eӵinӵwhatӵyouӵdo,ӵbutӵtoӵincludeӵanӵalienӵ
momentӵofӵnotӵdoin¿.ӵAӵ deviation,ӵaӵ ne¿ativeӵdeviationӵeven,ӵsinceӵ theӵwayӵisӵ
shortenedӵbyӵincludin¿ӵaӵmomentӵofӵmotionlessness.ӵ
Theӵ experimentӵ plannedӵ hereӵ willӵ beӵ asӵ follows.ӵ aӵ spaceӵ isӵ providedӵ toӵ
accommodateӵ200ӵpeople,ӵwillin¿ӵtoӵstepӵoutӵofӵtheirӵ'usualӵlife'ӵforӵ24ӵhoursӵ¦theӵ
amountӵofӵtimeӵdurin¿ӵwhichӵtheӵkin¿ӵwasӵnotӵkin¿).ӵTheӵspaceӵwillӵbeӵclosedӵ
fromӵ theӵ outsideӵworldӵandӵ mobileӵ phones,ӵ radiosӵorӵTVsӵ willӵ notӵbeӵallowed.ӵ
Thisӵisӵtoӵemphasizeӵtheӵ¿roupӵaspectӵofӵtheӵexperimentӵandӵtoӵcreateӵaӵstructureӵ
inӵ whichӵ theӵ 'step-out'ӵ canӵ beӵ doneӵ commonly.ӵ Theӵ necessaryӵ infrastructureӵ
¦furniture,ӵfood,ӵsanitaryӵinstallations,ӵsafety)ӵwillӵbeӵprovided,ӵbutӵitӵisӵrefrainedӵ
¡9//ĸAT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
frcmӵprcvidin¿ӵaӵprc¿rammeӵcrӵmethcdsӵtcӵentertainӵ(pecpleӵ areӵfreeӵ tcӵbrin¿ӵ
whatӵtheyӵ like).ӵ Basically,ӵ theӵ experimentӵwillӵ beӵ tcӵseeӵwhatӵhappensӵ underӵ
theseӵccnditicns,ӵpecpleӵareӵfreedӵfrcmӵtheirӵusualӵccnstraints,ӵandӵyetӵccnfinedӵ
tcӵaӵspaceӵandӵaӵtime.ӵ
TheӵBaudcuinIJBcudewi¡nӵFxperimentӵwillӵnctӵbeӵreccrdedӵbyӵmeansӵcfӵfilm,ӵ
videcӵcrӵctherwiseӵ¦andӵthusӵisӵccntraryӵtcӵanyӵBi¿-Brcther-likeӵsetӵup),ӵtheӵcnlyӵ
'reccrdin¿s'ӵwillӵbeӵtheӵmemcriesӵcfӵtheӵparticipants,ӵandӵtheyӵwillӵbeӵ'brcadcast'ӵ
byӵ theӵ stcriesӵ theyӵ areӵ willin¿ӵ tcӵ tell.ӵ Theӵ experimentӵ willӵ thusӵ beӵ aӵ veryӵ
unscientificӵ cne,ӵ asӵ cb¡ectivityӵ isӵ nctӵ theӵ aim.ӵ ltӵ willӵ ratherӵ beӵ aӵ uniqueӵ
cppcrtunityӵtcӵexperienceӵwithӵcthersӵtheӵpcssibilityӵcfӵ¿ettin¿ӵawayӵfrcmӵwhatӵ
ycuӵusuallyӵare.ӵ
Caďstcnͥ HüIIcr,ͥ 'Thcͥ 6audouinj6oudcwˇ¡nͥ Expcrimcnt.ͥ Aͥ DcIibcratc,ͥ Non-FataIistic,ͥ Lar¿c-ScaIcͥ
Cďoupͥ ExpcrimcntͥinͥDcviation'ͥ(?000),ͥȼżͥɴƇt̷żͥɢĵĵʰǏͥNo. 9ͥ(6russcIs,ͥMay-Ċunc,ͥ?00i).ͥ
Hĩllet/ĸ /TheĸßOudou!n/ßoudeĵjnĸ£pet!men]ĸ /¡4õĸ
Jeremy DeIIer
The BoHe O¡ OrQreoVeJ J2002
7ncŦ8rí|ísnŦor|ís|Ŧġcrcm¡ŦDcllcrŦo]|cnŦ collocoro|csŦwí|nŦs¡ccíĹcŦsocíolŦcons|í|ucncícsŦ
|oŦrcolízcŦcvcn|-coscJŦ¡ro]cc|s.ŦlnŦ200lŦncŦor¿onízcJŦ|ncŦrccnoc|mcn|Ŧo]ŦoŦkc¡Ŧcvcn|Ŧ
]romŦ|ncŦ£n¿lísnŦmíncrs'Ŧs|ríkcŦo]Ŧ Iº84,ŦoŦvíolcn|ŦclosnŦcc|wccnŦmíncrsŦonJŦ¡olíccŦínŦ
|ncŦ |ownŦ o]Ŧ0r¿rcovc.Ŧ 7ncŦ cvcn|Ŧ wosŦ unJcr|okcnŦ wí|nŦ]ormcrŦ¡or|ící¡on|sŦ ínŦ |ncŦ
s|ríkcŦ onJŦ oŦnumccrŦo]Ŧnís|orícolŦ rccnoc|mcn|Ŧsocíc|ics.Ŧ Documcn|o|íonŦo]ŦDcllcr'sŦ
workŦ cccomcŦ |ncŦ ¡rcmíscŦ]orŦ MíkcŦ Fíĺís'Ŧ ¡olí|ícolŦ Jocumcn|orjŦ Theӵ Battleӵ ofӵ
Dr¿reaveӵ(Cnonncl 4ĈAr|on¿cl,Ŧ200lŦĢ.Ŧ
Dnӵ l8ӵ|uneӵl984 ǀӵwasӵwatchin¿ӵtheӵevenin¿ӵnewsӵ andӵsawӵfoota¿eӵofӵaӵpicketӵatӵ
theӵ Dr¿reaveӵ cokin¿ӵplantӵinӵ SouthӵYorkshireӵ inӵ whichӵthousandsӵofӵ menӵ wereӵ
chasedӵupӵaӵ fieldӵ byӵ mountedӵ police.ӵ ltӵ seemedӵ aӵcivilӵ warӵ betweenӵ theӵ northӵ
andӵ southӵ ofӵtheӵ countryӵwasӵ takin¿ӵ placeӵ inӵallӵ butӵ name.ӵTheӵ ima¿eӵ ofӵthisӵ
pursuitӵupӵtheӵhillӵstuckӵinӵmyӵmind,ӵandӵforӵyearsӵlӵhaveӵwantedӵtoӵfindӵoutӵwhatӵ
exactlyӵhappenedӵonӵthatӵdayӵwithӵaӵviewӵtoӵreenactin¿ӵorӵcommemoratin¿ӵitӵinӵ
someӵway.ӵ
Whenӵlӵ startedӵtoӵdoӵ properӵresearch,ӵtheӵ consequencesӵofӵ thatӵ dayӵtoolƳӵonӵ
aӵmuchӵlar¿erӵhistoricӵperspective.ӵAfterӵoverӵaӵyearӵofӵarchiveӵreadin¿,ӵlistenin¿ӵ
andӵinterviewin¿ӵmanyӵofӵthoseӵinvolvedӵ- theӵreenactmentӵfinallyӵdidӵtakeӵplaceӵ
on,ӵorӵasӵcloseӵtoӵasӵpossible,ӵtheӵori¿inalӵsite,ӵwithӵoverӵ800ӵparticipants.ӵManyӵ
ofӵtheseӵ participantsӵ wereӵformerӵ minersӵ (andӵ aӵfewӵ formerӵ policemen)ӵ whoӵ
wereӵrelivin¿ӵeventsӵfromӵl984ӵthatӵtheyӵthemselvesӵtookӵpartӵin.ӵTheӵrestӵwereӵ
membersӵofӵBattleӵreenactmentӵsocietiesӵfromӵallӵoverӵtheӵcountry.ӵ
lӵwantedӵtoӵinvolveӵ membersӵ ofӵtheseӵsocietiesӵforӵmainlyӵtwoӵreasons.ӵ firstӵ
ofӵall,ӵ theyӵ areӵ wellӵ trainedӵ inӵ recreatin¿ӵcombatӵandӵ inӵ obeyin¿ӵorders.ӵ Moreӵ
importantly,ӵlӵwantedӵtheӵreenactmentӵofӵTheӵBattleӵofӵDr¿reaveӵtoӵbecomeӵpartӵ
ofӵtheӵlinea¿eӵofӵdecisiveӵbattlesӵinӵFn¿lishӵhistory.ӵ
lӵ wasӵ alsoӵ interestedӵ inӵ theӵ termӵ 'livin¿ӵ history'ӵ thatӵ isӵ frequentlyӵ usedӵ inӵ
relationӵtoӵ reenactments,ӵandӵlӵthou¿htӵitӵwouldӵbeӵinterestin¿ӵforӵreenactorsӵtoӵ
workӵ alon¿sideӵ veteransӵ ofӵ aӵ battleӵ fromӵ recentӵ history,ӵ whoӵ areӵ aӵ
personificationӵofӵtheӵterm.ӵ
Also,ӵasӵanӵartistӵlӵwasӵinterestedӵinӵhowӵfarӵanӵideaӵcouldӵbeӵtaken,ӵespeciallyӵ
anӵ ideaӵ thatӵ isӵ onӵ theӵ faceӵ ofӵ itӵ aӵ contradictionӵ inӵ termsӵ 'aӵ recreationӵ ofӵ
somethin¿ӵthatӵwasӵessentiallyӵchaos'.ӵ
Dfӵcourseӵlӵwouldӵneverӵhaveӵundertakenӵtheӵpro¡ectӵifӵpeopleӵlocallyӵfeltӵitӵ
wasӵ unnecessaryӵ orӵ inӵ poorӵ taste.ӵ Asӵ itӵwas,ӵ weӵ encounteredӵ aӵ lotӵ ofӵsupportӵ
¡4ó//ĸ ARTl5T5'ĸWRlTlNG5ĸ
fromӵ theӵ outsetӵ becauseӵ thereӵ seemedӵ toӵ beӵ anӵ instinctiveӵ understandin¿ӵ ofӵ
whatӵtheӵreenactmentӵwasӵaboutĞӵ
űcrcmyͥDcI˵cr,ͥɫhcͥ6aIIIcͥoIͥOrͥ ¿rcavc',ͥ inűamcsͥLin¿wood,ͥMichacIͥMorrisŐͥcdsŎͥɜʵɔƈ̃ƇƜsȞͥţȁȳ̸̜ĵ̋ʼŽ˴ͥ
ɞ̝ƖˣŽʘƜs,ͥƾlondonȟͥ McrrcIIͥ FubIishcrsͥlimi̹cd,ͥĮ00?)Ǫ90-9ı.Ǫ
Dellet//TheĸßOIJleĸo!ĸOtgteOVe//¡47ĸ
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ŞǴtʎŨǡɂſɵaȞǮa,ʎ őcʎĵNjcsɜsʎǨnʎ ɣcʎŲƇƈ .ʎ?00+ʎ
R¡rkr¡¡ T¡rOVOn¡jO
NO ChOs¡s ¡n ¡hC WOIIJ/2004
kirkri!Ŧ 7irovon(joŦ nosŦ cccnŦ o!Ŧ !ncŦ ccn!rcŦ o]Ŧ Jcco!csŦ ocou!Ŧ rclo!ionolŦ or!.Ŧ lnŦ !ncŦ
]ollowin¿Ŧ!cx!,Ŧ uscJŦ osŦ !ncŦscri¡!Ŧ]orŦonŦouJio¿uiJcŦ!oŦoccom¡on¡ŦnisŦrc!ros¡cc!ivcŦ
o!Ŧ!ncŦMuscumŦ8o(jmonsŦvonŦ8cunin¿cnŦ¸2004),Ŧ 7irovon(joŦ¡rcscn!sŦoŦJiscussionŦ o]Ŧ
nisŦ workŦ inŦ !ncŦ !nirJŦ¡crson.Ŧ 7ncŦ norro!ivcŦ o]]crsŦ insi¿n!sŦ in!oŦ nisŦ mo!ivo!ionsŦ]orŦ
workin¿Ŧwi!nŦ'lo!sŦo]Ŧ ¡co¡lc',ŦonJŦ rc¡rcscn!sŦonŦ innovo!ivcŦsolu!ionŦUʎ !ncŦ¡roclcmŦ
o]Ŧ¡rcscn!in¿ŦoŦrc!ros¡cc!ivcŦo]Ŧ¡or!ici¡o!oi¸Ŧor!.Ŧ7ncŦ muscumŦ JiJŦno!ŦsnowŦon¡Ŧo]Ŧ
nisŦ¡os!Ŧworks,Ŧ]us!Ŧcm¡tjŦs¡occsŦ!no!Ŧrclo!cJŦ !oŦ !ncŦori¿inolŦvcnucs.Ŧ
j7ncŦDoccn!Ŧ!umsŦowo¡Ŧ]romŦ!ncŦwinJowŦonJŦ lcoJsŦ!ncŦ¿rou¡Ŧin!oŦ!ncŦ¡or!i!ioncJŦ
roomŦ!oŦ!ncŦlc]!Ŧo]Ŧ!ncŦs¡occŦ. . . Ŧi!ŦisŦ!ncŦrc¡lico!cJŦo¡¡roximo!ionŦo]ŦoŦs¡occŦwnicnŦisŦ
!ncŦ¡ro]cc!ŦroomŦ o]Ŧ!ncŦPouloŦAllcnŦ¿ollci¸Ŧ. . . Ŧ!ncŦDoccn!ŦlincsŦ cvci¸oncŦu¡Ŧo¿oins!Ŧ
!ncŦwollŦosŦ (jŦ!ncrcŦwosŦonŦ ins!ollo!ionŦinŦ !ncŦmiJJlcŦo]Ŧ !ncŦ roomŦ onJŦ¡rocccJsŦ !oŦ
!olkŦ ¤ ¤ .ӵljӵ Dccent.ӵ Theӵ relativeӵsuccessӵ cfӵ¡oJŦ !noiŦfrcmӵ nineteenӵ ninetyӵ andӵ theӵ
perplexedӵ ccnfusicnӵ fcllcwin¿ӵ hisӵ firstӵ cneӵmanӵ exhibiticnӵ un!i!lcJŦ clinJ,Ŧ putӵ
Tiravani¡aӵ cnӵ theӵ radarӵcfӵtheӵ NewӵYcrkӵ artӵwcrld,ӵ whereӵcneӵexhibiticnӵ canӵ
makeӵcrӵbreakӵanӵartistӵcverni¿ht.ӵWeӵncwӵmcveӵfcrwardӵ tcӵ theӵyearӵnineteenӵ
ninetyӵtwcӵandӵTiravani¡a'sӵ seccndӵ sclcӵ exhibiticnӵ inӵ NewӵYcrk,ӵ withӵ theӵwcrkӵ
un!i!lcJŦ inŦ ¡orcn!ncsisŦ]œcc.Ŧ 0nceӵ a¿ainӵ theӵ reintrcducticnӵ cfӵ fccdӵ asӵ theӵ keyӵ
elementӵ inӵ theӵ apprcachӵ cfӵ theӵ wcrkӵ isӵ central.ӵ lnӵ tandemӵ withӵ thisӵ elementӵ
TiravanЌaӵmakesӵreferencesӵtcӵtheӵccreӵideasӵcfӵΔcnceptualӵartӵthatӵquesticnӵtheӵ
idealismӵ behindӵ theӵ relevanceӵ cfӵauthcrshipӵ andӵ authenticity.ӵThereӵareӵ twcӵ
partsӵtcӵtheӵexhibiticn,ӵweӵenterӵtcӵfindӵanӵexhibiticnӵspaceӵ whichӵisӵfullӵtcӵ theӵ
brimӵwithӵanӵeclecticӵmixӵcfӵcb¡ects.ӵTheӵcverallӵviewӵisӵthatӵcfӵtheӵcverpackedӵ
stcra¿eӵspaceӵcfӵaӵ¿allery.ӵltӵisӵfullӵcfӵartwcrksӵinӵframesӵ¦manyӵareӵphctc¿raphs,ӵ
sinceӵ theӵ ¿allery,ӵ 808,ӵ ccncentratedӵ veryӵ strcn¿lyӵ cnӵ phctc¿raphy),ӵ scmeӵ
paintin¿sӵandӵpartsӵandӵpiecesӵcfӵsculptures.ӵWhenӵycuӵenterӵfrcmӵtheӵelevatcrӵ
ycuӵcanӵseeӵaӵpaintedӵblaclŊӵcartwheelӵbelcn¿in¿ӵtcӵaӵNjarenӵNjilimnikӵinstallaticn.ӵ
Behindӵthisӵisӵaӵcuricuslyӵtallӵwccdӵchipӵcrateӵstandin¿ӵupri¿htӵfcrmin¿ӵaӵcclumnӵ
butӵnctӵquiteӵ reachin¿ӵ theӵ ceilin¿Ĉӵ thereӵareӵ drawersӵ fcrӵdrawin¿s,ӵ cardbcardӵ
bcxesӵ fullӵ cfӵ unkncwnӵ ccntentsӵ andӵ scmeӵ bcxesӵ withӵ tennisӵ shcesӵ andӵ aӵ
tccthbrushӵ- allӵhaveӵbeenӵdra¿¿edӵ cutӵfrcmӵallӵ ccrnersӵcfӵtheӵ¿alleryӵandӵputӵ
cnӵdisplay,ӵasӵifӵtcӵmakeӵanӵexhibiticnӵcfӵtheӵentireӵccntentsӵcfӵtheӵ¿allery.ӵ
Thereӵisӵanӵaisleӵrunnin¿ӵarcundӵ andӵ thrcu¿hӵ theӵrccmӵandӵweӵcanӵmakeӵcurӵ
wayӵthcu¿hӵtheӵstcra¿eӵandӵbehindӵtheӵpileӵcfӵartӵetc.ӵ0nceӵweӵmakeӵcurӵwayӵtcӵ
theӵbackӵcfӵtheӵ¿alleryӵweӵareӵsurprisedӵtcӵdisccverӵtheӵdeskӵcfӵtheӵ¿alleryӵcwner,ӵ
TítOVOħíğO//NoĸGhoS!Sĸinĸ!heĸWOll//¡4ºĸ
andӵherӵassistantsӵsittin¿ӵthereӵamcn¿stӵthisӵ pile.ӵTheyӵareӵwcrkin¿ӵasӵ ifӵitӵwasӵ
¡ustӵ anctherӵ day.ӵ Hereӵ theӵ intimacyӵ cfӵ theӵ ¿alleryӵ hasӵ beenӵ eĀpcsed.ӵ walls,ӵ
cupbcards,ӵstcra¿eӵ racksӵ cfӵartӵandӵevenӵtheӵtciletӵwereӵstrippedӵbare,ӵwithcutӵ
dccrsӵtcӵhinderӵtheӵviewӵcfӵallӵpcssibleӵccrnersӵcfӵtheӵrccmsӵinӵtheӵ¿allery.ӵ
Weӵ canӵ smellӵ theӵ scentӵ cfӵ aӵ steamin¿ӵ pctӵ cfӵ¡asmineӵ rice,ӵ withӵ itsӵ veryӵ
distinctӵccmbinaticnӵcfӵwaterӵandӵ theӵ perfumeӵcfӵ¡asmine.ӵlt'sӵ encu¿hӵtcӵ makeӵ
cneӵcuricusӵwithӵhun¿er,ӵandӵasӵweӵ makeӵcurӵwayӵthcu¿hӵtheӵ spaceӵweӵccmeӵtcӵ
theӵ rccmӵ atӵ theӵ endӵ cfӵtheӵ hallway,ӵ wellӵ lit,ӵwithӵwindcwsӵatӵ theӵ ccrnerӵcfӵtheӵ
buildin¿.ӵĩunli¿htӵpcursӵinӵfrcmӵ anӵDctcberӵafternccn,ӵandӵalreadyӵweӵfeelӵtheӵ
ccmpressicnӵ cfӵtheӵ ¿alleryӵ liftedӵ frcmӵ curӵ shculders.ӵThereӵareӵpecpleӵ sittin¿ӵ
arcundӵ rcundӵ tablesӵ andӵ cnӵ stccls,ӵ theyӵ areӵ talkin¿,ӵ readin¿ӵ theӵ ¿uideӵ fcrӵ
¿alleries,ӵwei¿hin¿ӵtheirӵneĀtӵmcve.ӵTheӵ 303Ŧ Calleryӵisӵ atӵ theӵ ccrnerӵ cfӵĩprin¿ӵ
andӵCreeneӵĩtreetsӵinӵĩchc,ӵNewӵYcrk,ӵfcrmerlyӵtheӵmainӵartӵdistrictӵcfӵtheӵcity.ӵ
Thereӵ isӵ aӵ messӵ cfӵ dccrsӵ leanin¿ӵ a¿ainstӵ theӵ wallsӵ inӵ thisӵ rccm,ӵ dccrsӵ
presumablyӵcfӵtheӵ ¿allery.ӵTheyӵareӵ unhin¿edӵ andӵ stacked.ӵTcӵtheӵ ri¿htӵasӵ weӵ
enterӵisӵ aӵmakeshiftӵtableӵmadeӵ frcmӵ sawhcrses,ӵandӵyetӵ anctherӵdccrӵfrcmӵ theӵ
space.ӵAӵ ccupleӵ cfӵpecpleӵ seemӵtcӵ busyin¿ӵ themselvesӵ withӵ theӵ preparaticnӵ cfӵ
scmeӵ ve¿etablesӵ - theӵ chcppin¿ӵ andӵ cuttin¿,ӵ cpenin¿ӵ ¿allcnӵ cansӵ cfӵbambccӵ
shccts.ӵlnӵtheӵmiddleӵcfӵtheӵrccmӵthereӵareӵtwcӵpctsӵccckin¿ӵcnӵcampin¿ӵrin¿s.ӵ
Dneӵ seemsӵ tcӵhaveӵbeenӵ preparedӵ already,ӵ theӵ ctherӵisӵcnӵ itsӵ way.ӵ şecpleӵareӵ
helpin¿ӵ themselvesӵ tcӵ theӵ riceӵfrcmӵ aӵ ccckerӵ lar¿eӵ encu¿hӵ tcӵ feedӵ theӵ whcleӵ
lslandӵcfӵManhattan.ӵRi¿htӵneĀtӵtcӵtheӵlcwӵ¿asӵccckersӵisӵanӵcldӵusedӵrefri¿eratcr,ӵ
white,ӵwithӵhintsӵcfӵa¿eӵarcundӵtheӵed¿es.ӵAsӵcneӵ sitsӵ dcwnӵfcrӵtheӵ bcwlӵ¦whiteӵ
enamelӵwithӵblueӵrims)ӵcfӵfccd,ӵcneӵbe¿insӵtcӵ realizeӵthatӵthisӵisӵaӵdistinctivelyӵ
differentӵeĀperienceӵfrcmӵcthersӵweӵhaveӵhadӵi nӵanӵartӵ¿alleryӵcrӵwithӵart.ӵThereӵ
areӵ alscӵ manyӵ milkyӵ whiteӵcylindricalӵ bucketsӵ whichӵ seemӵ tcӵ beӵslcshin¿ӵwithӵ
wasteӵfccd,ӵallӵthatӵisӵleftӵcver.ӵlnӵtheӵrefri¿eratcrӵthereӵareӵThaiӵlcn¿ӵbeans,ӵThaiӵ
rcundishӵ ¿reenӵ e¿¿plants,ӵ asӵ wellӵ asӵ theӵ miniӵ peaӵ e¿¿plants,ӵ lcckin¿ӵ ratherӵ
¿reen,ӵ withӵ aӵ strcn¿ӵ bitternessӵ tcӵ theirӵ taste.ӵ Bitterӵ andӵ strcn¿er.ӵ Andӵ scmeӵ
packetsӵcfӵ¿reenӵcurry.ӵ
Thisӵ eĀhibiticnӵ cameӵ atӵ anӵ eccncmicallyӵ depressedӵ mcmentӵ inӵ Newӵ Ycrkӵ
thatӵ prcvidedӵ fertileӵ ¿rcundsӵ tcӵ establishӵ itӵ asӵ theӵ ccrnerstcneӵ cfӵTiravanǗa'sӵ
practice.ӵWeӵ dcn'tӵ useӵ theӵwcrdӵ'practice'ӵli¿htlyӵ - it'sӵ asӵ ifӵtheӵ artistӵwereӵaӵ
dcctcrӵadministerin¿ӵtheӵviewerӵwithӵaӵdcseӵcfӵcpiateӵtcӵcureӵallӵmaladies.ӵ
Tiravani¡aӵ describedӵ hisӵ wcrkӵatӵ thisӵ timeӵ asӵ ccmparableӵ tcӵ reachin¿ӵ cut,ӵ
remcvin¿ӵMarcelӵDuchamp'sӵ'Urinal'ӵfrcmӵitsӵpedestal,ӵreinstallin¿ӵitӵbackӵcnӵtheӵ
wall,ӵandӵthen,ӵ inӵanӵactӵcfӵreturnӵtcӵitsӵcri¿inalӵ use,ӵpissin¿ӵintcӵit.ӵ
lnterestӵ inӵ theӵ identityӵ cfӵtheӵartisticӵ hasӵ ncwӵfullyӵreccveredӵ tcӵ theӵ pcintӵ
thatӵtheӵwcrkӵsimplyӵisӵtheӵartistӵcrӵsimplyӵbyӵtheӵartist.ӵYetӵthereӵisӵaӵprevalentӵ
sensibilityӵtcӵ hisӵ endeavcur,ӵcneӵcfӵwhichӵ a)ӵ resistsӵ artifice,ӵ b)ӵ resistsӵ theӵtimeӵ
¡õ0//ĸ ART¡5T5'ĸWR¡T¡NG5ĸ
andӵ spaceӵ continuumӵ whichӵ hasӵ beenӵ imposedӵ onӵtheӵontolo¿icalӵstructureӵofӵ
artӵmakin¿,ӵc)ӵresistsӵunnecessaryӵsta¿in¿ӵofӵaӵrealityӵwhichӵdoesӵnotӵexist.ӵj!/ìcŦ
¿|ios!ŦğiosŦcccnŦs|Ŋi]!in¿ŦorounJŦnowŦ. . . ŦwcŦconŦncorŦnimŦ¿oin¿ŦonŦonJŦonŦocou!ŦworksŦ
w|iic|ìŦJoŦ no!Ŧncccssoril¡Ŧcorrclo!cŦ!oŦ wno!Ŧ!ncŦDoccn!ŦnosŦcccnŦs¡cokin¿Ŧocou!.]Ŧ
j!/ìcŦDoccn!ŦlcoJsŦ!licŦ¿rou¡ŦovcrŦ!oŦ!ncŦ winJowsŦ o]Ŧuntitledӵfree,ӵ onJŦcrosscsŦ !ncŦ
nollŦin!oŦ!lìcŦs¡occŦ o]Ŧ!ncŦĶŅlniscncrŦĸuns!ŢcrcinĂ]Ŧ Docent.ӵ lnӵnineteenӵninetyĥsixӵ
Tiravaniķa,ӵ havin¿ӵ wonӵ theӵ prizeӵ fromӵ theӵ Kƌln-basedӵ Centralӵ lnsuranceӵ
Companyӵ (whichӵ isӵ comprisedӵ ofӵ aӵ sixӵ monthӵ stayӵ inӵ theӵ cityӵ ofӵ Colo¿ne,ӵ
Cermany),ӵ wasӵ commissionedӵ byӵ theӵ companyӵ toӵ produceӵ aӵ workӵ forӵ anӵ
exhibitionӵatӵtheӵKƌlnischerӵKunstverein.ӵWhatӵweӵareӵlookin¿ӵatӵisӵaӵstructuralӵ
replicaӵinӵfullӵscaleӵofTiravaniķaċsӵapartmentӵinӵNewӵYork.ӵTiravaniķaӵhadӵlivedӵinӵ
thisӵapartmentӵforӵalmostӵtwentyӵyearsӵupӵtoӵthatӵpoint.ӵltӵisӵaӵfour-fli¿htӵwalkupӵ
inӵ aӵ tenementӵ buildin¿.ӵ Theӵ ori¿inalӵ apartmentӵ isӵ veryӵ old.ӵ Theӵ apartmentӵ
numberӵ isӵ twenty-one,ӵactuallyӵaӵ luckyӵ numberӵforӵTiravaniķa,ӵ asӵ heӵ wasӵ alsoӵ
bornӵ onӵ theӵ twenty-firstӵ day.ӵTheӵ actualӵ titleӵ ofӵ theӵ exhibitionӵ isӵ un!i!lcJŦ inŦ
¡orcn!ncsisŦ!omorrowŦisŦono!ncrŦJo¡.ŦTheӵphraseӵ'tomorrowӵisӵanotherӵday'ӵcameӵ
fromӵ theӵ directorӵ ofӵ theӵ Kunstvereinӵ himself,ӵ Udoӵ Kittelmannӵ - anӵ utteranceӵ
oftenӵ usedӵ asӵ anӵ expressionӵofӵreliefӵandӵ resi¿nation.ӵButӵforӵTiravaniķaӵ itӵ wasӵ
aboutӵtheӵinevitabilityӵofӵdailyӵlife.ӵ!omorrowŦisŦono!ncrŦJo¡ŦwasӵforӵTiravanϦЎaӵaӵ
workӵwhereӵallӵhisӵessentialӵideasӵcameӵto¿ether.ӵTiravaniķaӵhasӵoftenӵsaidӵthatӵ
hisӵworkӵwasӵ'aboutӵuse,ӵandӵthrou¿hӵthisӵuseӵmeanin¿ӵisӵconstructed'.ӵHereӵweӵ
seeӵ theӵ apartmentӵwhichӵwasӵ openedӵforӵthreeӵ monthsӵ andӵ wasӵ openӵtwenty-
fourӵhoursӵaӵday,ӵ sixӵ daysӵ aӵweekӵ(itӵwouldӵ haveӵ beenӵ sevenӵ daysӵ butӵ Cermanӵ
labourӵlawsӵprohibitedӵtheӵworkӵbein¿ӵopenӵoъӵSundays).ӵThisӵwasӵperhapsӵtheӵ
firstӵandӵ onlyӵtimeӵanӵ exhibitionӵ spaceӵwasӵleftӵopenӵwithӵ ful l ӵaccessƋӵForӵtheӵ
threeӵ monthsӵ itӵ wasӵ openӵ peopleӵ cameӵ andӵ stayedӵ inӵ theӵ apartment,ӵ theyӵ
cooked,ӵtheyӵate,ӵtheyӵbathedӵ(everythin¿ӵfunctionedӵinӵtheӵapartmentӵreplicaӵasӵ
inӵ aӵ normalӵ habitat),ӵ theyӵ slept,ӵ ¿otӵ married,ӵ hadӵ birthdays,ӵ many,ӵ manyӵ
performancesӵ ofӵ musicӵ andӵ otherwise,ӵ Ǡheӵ spaceӵ surroundin¿ӵ theӵ apartmentӵ
becameӵ aӵ ¿arden.ӵ Many,ӵ manyӵ peopleӵ spentӵ aӵ lotӵ ofӵtimeӵ inӵ andӵ aroundӵ theӵ
apartment,ӵandӵtheyӵsharedӵtheirӵtimeӵandӵspaceӵto¿ether.ӵTheyӵdrewӵandӵwroteӵ
notes,ӵ comments,ӵ drawin¿s,ӵ youn¿ӵ andӵ old.ӵ ltӵwasӵ anӵ openӵ houseӵ and,ӵ a¿ainstӵ
expectations,ӵ nothin¿ӵ terribleӵ happened.ӵ TiravanŁīaӵ leftӵ Kƌlnӵ soonӵ afterӵ theӵ
apartmentӵopened.ӵ Heӵleftӵeverythin¿ӵheӵhadӵbrou¿htӵ(house-wares,ӵTV,ӵ stereo,ӵ
kitchenwareӵ. . . ӵetc.)ӵforӵhisӵ stayӵatӵtheӵresidencyӵ. . . ӵnothin¿ӵwentӵmissin¿ӵandӵinӵ
factӵ peopleӵ leftӵ moreӵ thin¿sӵ behind,ӵ thin¿sӵ ofӵ valueӵ andӵ usefulӵ thin¿s.ӵ j!/ìcŦ
Doccn!Ŧ !okcsŦ !ncŦ¿rou¡Ŧ !nrou¿nŦ !oŦ !ncŦ ncx!Ŧ onJŦ los!Ŧ s¡occŦ. . . Ŧ wnilcŦ wolkin¿Ŧ !ncŦ
Doccn!Ŧcon!inucsŦwi!nŦ!ncŦJiolo¿ucŦ. . . Ŧ]Ŧ Docent.ӵSimilarlyӵtoӵun!i!lcJŦinŦ¡orcn!ncsisŦ
!omorrowŦ isŦ ono!ncrŦ Jo¡Ŧ . . . ӵ nowӵ atӵ thisӵ pointӵ youӵ mayӵ haveӵ allӵ noticedӵ thatӵ
TítoVoníjo//NOĸGhOS!Sĸínĸ!heĸWoll//IöIĸ
Tiravani¡aӵ mostӵ oftenӵ ifӵ notӵ alwaysӵ leavesӵ bothӵ hisӵ exhibitionsӵ andӵ worksӵ
untitledӵ. . . ӵhowever,ӵalsoӵalwaysӵwithinӵtheӵparenthesis,ӵfromӵtheӵveryӵfirstӵwork,ӵ
weӵ canӵ seeӵ thatӵ Tiravani¡aӵ wantsӵ toӵ directӵ ourӵ attentionӵ toӵ theӵ subtext,ӵ orӵ
subtitle,ӵofӵhowӵweӵcanӵdirectӵourӵthou¿htsӵandӵideasӵtowardsӵtheӵexperienceӵweӵ
areӵhavin¿ӵwithӵ hisӵworksӵ. . . ӵ
Yes,ӵun!i!lcJŦínŦ¡orcn!ncsisŦncŦ¡romiscJŦfromӵtwoӵthousandӵandӵ two.ӵl t ӵi sӵtheӵ
lastӵworkӵweӵwillӵfocusӵon.ӵAsӵlӵwasӵsayin¿.ӵsimilarlyӵtoӵ!omorrowŦ. . . Ŧ ,ŦncŦ¡romiscJŦ
isӵanotherӵfull-scaleӵarchitecturalӵrepresentation.ӵlnӵthisӵcaseӵitӵisӵtheӵhouseӵofӵanӵ
Austrianӵ architectӵ whoӵ livedӵ inӵ exileӵinӵ LosӵAn¿elesӵ byӵ theӵ nameӵ ofӵRudolphӵ
Schindler.ӵ Żerhapsӵ littleӵ knownӵ toӵ theӵ layӵ world,ӵ Schindlerӵ wasӵ aӵ veryӵ
inspirationalӵfi¿ureӵforӵaӵlotӵofӵarchitectsӵandӵartistsӵdueӵtoӵhisӵ quietӵbutӵstudiedӵ
ideasӵ concernin¿ӵ theӵ philosophicalӵ conditionsӵ ofӵ livin¿ӵ andӵ architecture.ӵ
DbviouslyӵTiravani¡aӵfoundӵhimӵso,ӵandӵinӵthisӵwork,ӵwhichӵwasӵmadeӵforӵViennaӵ
atӵtheӵSecessionӵexhibitionӵspaceӵ. . . ӵheӵmadeӵaӵreplicaӵofӵpartӵofӵtheӵhouseӵwhichӵ
Schindlerӵ hadӵ desi¿nedӵ andӵ builtӵ forӵ himself.ӵ ¦Thisӵ isӵ veryӵ similarӵ toӵ Żhilipӵ
|ohnson'sӵClassӵHouse,ӵwhichӵwasӵalsoӵdesi¿nedӵandӵbuiltӵasӵtheӵresidenceӵofӵtheӵ
architectӵhimself˲)ӵ
ThisӵhouseӵwasӵinӵLosӵAn¿elesӵonӵKin¿'sӵRoadӵǻhenceӵitӵisӵknownӵasӵtheӵKin¿'sӵ
RoadӵHouse).ӵTiravanŁЏaӵhasӵreplicatedӵinӵfullӵscaleӵSchindler'sӵownӵstudio,ӵwhichӵ
isӵ oneӵ ofӵ fiveӵ sectionsӵ ofӵ theӵ house.ӵ Weӵ areӵ notӵ lookin¿ӵ atӵ theӵ completeӵ
representationӵofӵtheӵ house,ӵasӵTiravani¡aӵwantedӵusӵtoӵfocusӵonӵ thisӵ particularӵ
spaceӵasӵanӵidea,ӵasӵanӵidealӵspace.ӵWeӵcanӵsenseӵwhatӵlifeӵinӵtheӵstructureӵwasӵ
like,ӵandӵis,ӵasӵweӵpassӵthrou¿hӵthisӵbuildin¿.ӵSchindlerӵwasӵhi¿hlyӵinfluencedӵbyӵ
Frankӵ Lloydӵ Wri¿htӵ ǻhavin¿ӵ workedӵ forӵ him),ӵ asӵ wellӵ asӵ byӵ theӵ naturalӵ
environment,ӵve¿etationӵandӵclimateӵofӵSouthernӵʺaliforna.ӵTheӵ houseӵwasӵveryӵ
open,ӵ withӵ aӵ ¿reatӵ dealӵ ofӵFastern,ӵ Drientalӵ feel,ӵ blurrin¿ӵ ofӵ theӵ interiorӵ andӵ
exteriorӵ- mer¿in¿ӵ alsoӵ theӵfunctionsӵofӵlifeӵinsideӵandӵ out.ӵ lnӵ thisӵreplication,ӵ
however,ӵ allӵ partsӵ ofӵtheӵ architectureӵ areӵ madeӵ fromӵ chromedӵ andӵ mirroredӵ
stainlessӵ steel.ӵ Theӵ entireӵ structureӵ isӵ cloakedӵ inӵ theӵ reflectionӵ ofӵ itsӵ
environment.ӵ ltӵshimmersӵasӵ ifӵtoӵdisappear,ӵ camoufla¿edӵbyӵ theӵwhiteӵofӵtheӵ
spaceӵ . . . ӵandӵunlikeӵ|omorrowŦ..Ŧ.ŦncŦ¡romiscJŦ. . . ӵwasӵnotӵopen-endedӵ- itӵwasӵonlyӵ
openӵallӵdayӵandӵni¿htӵoneӵdayӵofӵtheӵweek.ӵltӵwasӵnotӵmeantӵtoӵfunctionӵtwenty-
fourӵhoursӵaӵday.ӵHowever,ӵtimeӵ andӵspaceӵwouldӵbeӵanӵimportantӵaspectӵofӵtheӵ
workӵ- usa¿eӵwasӵ stillӵ primal.ӵ Butӵratherӵthanӵ keepin¿ӵ itӵ open-ended,ӵ itӵ wӰsӵ
pro¿rammed.ӵThereӵwasӵaӵseriesӵofӵdifferentӵeventsӵinӵwhichӵtheӵhouseӵactedӵ
ӱ

aӵplatformӵandӵ asӵaӵlivedӵspace,ӵhostin¿ӵdifferentӵdiscussions,ӵexhibitions,ӵ filmsӵ
andӵmusicalӵevents,ӵThaiӵmassa¿eӵandӵofӵcourseӵaӵbarbecue.ӵTheӵprocess,ӵwhichӵ
weӵ sayӵ atӵ theӵ be¿innin¿ӵ ofӵallӵ Tiravani¡a'sӵ work,ӵ wasӵ veryӵ clearӵ andӵ almostӵ
extremeӵinӵthisӵsituation.ӵTheӵhouseӵwasӵfabricatedӵinӵCuadala¡ara,ӵMexico,ӵandӵ
sinceӵthereӵwasӵnotӵenou¿hӵtimeӵandӵtooӵmuchӵdistance,ӵtheӵpartsӵofӵtheӵhouseӵ
¹
¡õ2//ĸ ATl5T5'ĸWlTlNG5ĸ
wereӵ slcwlyӵ shippedӵ tcӵ Vienna.ӵ Asӵ theӵ partsӵ arrived,ӵ theӵ hcuseӵ wasӵ putӵ up.ӵ
Durin¿ӵtheӵccurseӵcfӵtheӵexhibiticn,ӵwhichӵlastedӵabcutӵtwcӵanţlӵ aӵhalfӵmcnths,ӵ
theӵ hcuseӵwasӵ cnlyӵccmpletedӵtwcӵdaysӵbefcreӵ theӵexhibiticnӵ clcsed.ӵ Picturesӵ
wereӵtakenӵ cfӵtheӵslcwӵprccessӵcf,ӵ amcn¿stӵctherӵthin¿s,ӵwhatӵwentӵcnӵinӵtheӵ
space,ӵasӵwellӵasӵthatӵcfӵtheӵccnstructicnӵprccessӵinӵ Mexicc.ӵVisitcrsӵinӵViennaӵ
cculdӵbuyӵcneӵticketӵandӵreturnӵtcӵtheӵspaceӵatӵaӵlaterӵdateӵtcӵkeepӵupӵwithӵtheӵ
ccnstructicnӵ cfӵ theӵ hcuseӵ asӵ wellӵ asӵ participateӵ inӵ theӵ dailyӵ eventsӵ cffered.ӵ
TiravanŁīaӵ neverӵ didӵ participateӵ inӵ theӵ prccessӵ cfӵ theӵ exhibiticnӵ crӵ seeӵ theӵ
ccmpleticnӵ cfӵ theӵ hcuseӵ itself. . . ӵ but,ӵ likeӵ allӵ thisӵwcrk,ӵ Tiravani¡aӵ wasӵ muchӵ
mcreӵinterestedӵinӵtheӵpecpleӵandӵhcwӵtheyӵcameӵandӵwent,ӵhcwӵtheyӵmayӵhaveӵ
hadӵdifferentӵviewsӵandӵmemcriesӵcfӵwhatӵtheyӵhadӵpassedӵthrcu¿h.ӵ
Thankӵ ycuӵ fcrӵ ķcinin¿ӵ us,ӵ fcrӵ walkin¿ӵ thrcu¿hӵ withӵ usӵ andӵ ¿ivin¿ӵ ycurӵ
attenticnӵtcӵthisӵ'retrcsӵѷctive'.ӵYcuӵmayӵhaveӵwcnderedӵallӵthisӵtimeӵwhyӵweӵareӵ
nctӵinӵtheӵpresenceӵcfӵtheӵwcrkӵitselfӵandӵareӵ insteadӵ¡ustӵ¿ivenӵaӵstcryӵabcutӵcrӵ
descripticnsӵcfӵtheӵwcrkӵcrӵevent.ӵTiravanŁīaӵandӵtheӵcuratcrsӵbelievedӵthatӵthisӵ
isӵcneӵcfӵtheӵpcssibleӵwaysӵthisӵbcdyӵcfӵwcrkӵcculdӵbeӵrepresented.ӵThereӵ isӵncӵ
cb¡ect,ӵncӵpicture,ӵncӵmcment,ӵncӵspaceӵandӵevenӵ perhapsӵncӵtime,ӵbutӵinӵthisӵ
vcidӵcfӵrepresentaticnӵweӵhcpeӵycuӵhaveӵ heardӵandӵhaveӵima¿inedӵaӵ pictureӵcfӵ
ycurӵcwn,ӵaӵmemcryӵcfӵ ycurӵcwn,ӵandӵthatӵinӵtheӵendӵitӵwasӵanӵexperienceӵcfӵitsӵ
cwnӵmakin¿ӵ. ø ø j!ncŦDoccn!ŦsnowsŦcvcQoncŦou!.Ŧæ+ Ȗӵ
THijӵijNDӵ
k|rkr|tͥ T|ravan˶¡a,ͥ 'Noͥ Chostsͥ |nͥ thcͥ WaII',ͥ kirkǂƔ|ǪTirovomƛo.Ǫ AǪ kc|roǐ¡cc|ivcǪ (kottcrdamŧͥ Muscumͥ
6oi¡mansͥVanͥ6cun|n¿cn,ͥ?004)ĸS1-º?ĸ
TítoVoníjo/ĸ /NOĸGhOS!Sĸínĸ!heĸWoll/ĸ /¡õöĸ
ThOmOs HirsChhOrn
24h ÏOuCouI| J2004
UnlikcŦmon¡Ŧor!is!sŦwnoŦworkŦcollocoro!ivcl¡ŦinŦorJcrŦ!oŦ]iscŦor!ŦonJŦsociolŦ¡roxis,Ŧ
7nomosŦHirscnnornŦ nosŦolwo¡sŦosscr!cJŦ !ncŦ im¡or!onccŦo]Ŧor!'sŦou!onom¡ăŦ Pro)cc!sŦ
sucnŦ osŦ !ncŦ Batailleӵ Monumentӵ (2002)Ŧ onJŦ Muséeӵ Précaireӵ (2004)Ŧ involvcJŦ
collocoro!ionsŦ wi!nŦ lor¿cl¡Ŧ workin¿-clossŦ onJŦ immi¿ron!Ŧ communi!ics.Ŧ 24hӵ
Foucaultӵ !rons]crrcJŦ !nisŦ cĭllocoro!ivcŦ o¡¡roocnŦ !oŦ ¡niloso¡ncrs,Ŧ ¡oc!sŦ onJŦ
musicionsŦo!Ŧ!ncŦPoloisŦJcŦ7ok¡oĄŦ
24nŦ Foucoul!Ŧisӵtheӵovon!-¿orJcŦ ofӵtheӵFoucoul!ŦAr!ŦWork.ŦTheӵFoucoul!ŦAr!ŦWorkŦisӵ
theӵ pro¡ectӵ thatӵ lӵ haveӵ developedӵ followin¿ӵ meetin¿sӵ withӵ Danielӵ Defertӵ andӵ
PhilippeӵArtięresӵonӵtheӵinvitationӵofӵNicolasӵBourriaudӵatӵtheӵPalaisӵdeӵTokyoӵinӵ
ȁӵ
Dctoberӵ 2008.ӵ Foucoul!ŦAr!Ŧ WorkŦ isӵ aӵ pro¡ectӵ ¦likeӵ otherӵ pro¡ectsӵ lӵ have)ӵ thatӵ
remainsӵtoӵbeӵrealizedӵinӵtheӵyearsӵtoӵcome.ӵltӵdependsӵonӵmeӵfindin¿ӵtheӵtime,ӵ
ener¿y,ӵ places,ӵpartnersӵandӵ moneyӵtoӵshowӵ theӵ Foucoul!ŦAr!Ŧ Work.Ŧ Thisӵ isӵmyӵ
ob¡ectiveӵ andӵ lӵ don'tӵ wantӵ toӵ loseӵ si¿htӵ ofӵ it.ӵ Thisӵ isӵ whyӵ theӵ 24nŦ Foucoul!Ŧ isӵ
basicallyӵtheӵsameӵFoucoul!ŦAr!ŦWorkŦ pro¡ectӵcondensedӵandӵspeededӵ up.ӵlӵwantӵ
theӵ24nŦFoucoul!Ŧtoӵaffirmӵandӵproveӵthatӵit'sӵnecessaryӵtoӵworkӵasӵanӵartistӵwithӵ
precisionӵandӵwithӵexcess.ӵlӵwantӵthisӵpro¡ectӵtoӵbeӵpreciseӵandӵexa¿¿eratedĹӵ Forӵ
me,ӵ theӵ Foucoul!ŦAr!Ŧ WorkŦ willӵ notӵ chan¿e,ӵ onlyӵ speedӵ up.ӵ Theӵ 24nŦ Foucoul!Ŧ
comprisesӵ l.ӵanӵauditoriumӵ 2.ӵaӵlibraryIJdocumentationӵcentreӵ8.ӵaӵsoundӵ libraryӵ
4.ӵaӵvideoӵlibraryӵ5.Ŧanӵexhibitionӵ6.ӵtheӵMcrvcŦvcrlo¿Ŧarchivesӵ7.ӵaӵ7oolcoxŦbarӵ8.ӵ
aӵ souvenirӵ shopӵ 9.ӵ aӵ newspaperӵ l0.ӵ aӵ Foucaultӵ studio.ӵ 24nŦ Foucoul!Ŧ isӵ anӵ
autonomousӵworkӵmadeӵcollectively.ӵ24nŦFoucoul!ŦisӵaӵworkӵofӵartĹӵ
ZØD Ï0UCdUÍL thc prc-pro|cct
lӵwantӵtoӵtryӵhereӵtoӵexpressӵ myӵwishӵforӵtheӵFoucoul!ŦAr!ŦWork.Ŧ Thisӵ isӵ theӵtitleӵ
ofӵtheӵworkӵandӵatӵtheӵsameӵtimeӵit'sӵtheӵMichelӵFoucaultӵexhibitionӵpro¿ramme.ӵ
lt'sӵ theӵ pro¿rammeӵ becauseӵ it'sӵ notӵ aboutӵ doin¿ӵ anӵ exhibitionӵ onӵ Michelӵ
Foucault.ӵ Forӵ meӵ it'sӵ aboutӵ showin¿,ӵ affirmin¿,ӵ ¿ivin¿ӵ formӵ toӵ theӵ factӵ thatӵ
MichelӵFoucaultӵwasӵ anӵartist.ӵThatӵ hisӵ lifeӵ andӵ hisӵworkӵwereӵaӵworkӵofӵart.ӵ lt'sӵ
alsoӵ aboutӵ¿ivin¿ӵformӵtoӵ thisӵ affirmationӵ thatӵ lӵ shareӵ withӵ Marcusӵ Steinwe¿.ӵ
philosophyӵ isӵ artĹӵ Pureӵ philosophy,ӵ true,ӵ cruel,ӵ pitilessӵ philosophy,ӵ philosophyӵ
thatӵaffirms,ӵacts,ӵcreates.ӵTheӵphilosophyӵofӵSpinoza,ӵofӵNietzsche,ӵofӵDeleuze˳ӵofӵ
Foucault.ӵlӵdon'tӵknowӵFoucault'sӵphilosophy,ӵbutӵlӵseeӵhisӵworkӵofӵart.ӵltӵpermitsӵ
meӵtoӵapproachӵit,ӵtoӵnotӵunderstandӵitӵbutӵtoӵseizeӵitėӵtoӵseeӵit,ӵtoӵbeӵactiveӵwithӵ
it.ӵ lӵ don'tӵhaveӵtoӵbeӵ aӵ historian,ӵ aӵ connoisseur,ӵ aӵ specialistӵ toӵconfrontӵmyselfӵ
¡õ4//ĸ AT¡5T5'ĸW¡T¡NG5ĸ
withӵworksӵofӵartČӵ lӵ canӵseiŨeӵ theirӵ ener¿y,ӵ theirӵ ur¿ency,ӵ theirӵnecessity,ӵtheirӵ
densityƴӵ Michelӵ Foucault'sӵworkӵofӵartӵ isӵ char¿ed.ӵ lt'sӵaӵbatteryİӵ lӵ canӵ seiŨeӵ thisӵ
char¿edӵ batteryƋӵ lӵ wantӵtoӵ¿iveӵ formӵ toӵ this.ӵ lnӵ theӵFoucoul!ŦAr!ŦWorkŦ pro¡ect,ӵ
thereӵ isӵ moreӵ thanӵ aӵ vision.ӵ thereӵ isӵ aӵ sin¿ularӵ commitmentİӵ Thereӵ isӵ theӵ
commitmentӵtoӵmakeӵaӵworkӵofӵart.ӵThereӵisӵtheӵaffirmationӵthatӵtheӵworkӵofӵartӵ
ísŦphilosophyĂӵandӵthatӵphilosophyӵísŦaӵworkӵofӵart˴ӵWeӵmustӵfreeӵourselvesӵfromӵ
exhibitions.ӵlӵhateӵ andӵ neverӵ useӵ theӵtermӵsnowŦinӵ Fn¿lish,ӵlӵhateӵ andӵlӵ neverӵuseӵ
theӵtermӵ¡íccc.Ŧ lӵneverӵuseӵandӵlӵhateӵtheӵtermӵíns!ollo!íon.Ŧ Butӵlӵwantӵtoӵmakeӵaӵ
workĂӵaӵworkӵofӵartƂӵ lӵwantӵtoӵbecomeӵwhatӵlӵ am.ӵlӵwantӵtoӵbecomeӵanӵ artistƂӵ lӵ
wantӵtoӵappropriateӵwhatӵlӵam.ӵThisӵisӵmyӵworkӵasӵanӵartist.ӵ
Foucoul!ŦAr!ŦWorkŦ isӵnotӵdocumentation.ӵDocumentation,ӵdocumentaryӵIilmsӵ
haveӵbeenӵovertakenӵbyӵIictionӵandӵbyӵrealityӵofӵallӵtypesūӵBecauseӵdocumentationӵ
wantsӵtoӵplaceӵitselfӵinӵ theӵmiddle.ӵ lӵ don'tӵwantӵtoӵplaceӵmyselfӵinӵtheӵmiddle.ӵlӵ
wantӵtoӵovertakeӵtheӵdocumentĂӵtheӵdocumentary.ӵlӵwantӵtoӵmakeӵanӵexperience.ӵ
Anӵ experienceӵ isӵ somethin¿ӵ fromӵ whichӵ lӵ emer¿eӵ chan¿ed.ӵ Anӵ experienceӵ
transformsӵme.ӵlӵwantӵtheӵpublicӵtoӵbeӵtransformedӵbyӵtheӵexperienceӵofӵFoucoul!Ŧ
Ar!ŦWork.Ŧ lӵwantӵtheӵpublicӵtoӵappropriateӵ Michelӵ Foucault'sӵworkӵofӵart.ӵlӵwantӵ
theӵpublicӵtoӵbeӵactive,ӵparticipate.ӵFvidentlyӵtheӵmostӵimportantӵparticipationӵisӵ
activity,ӵ theӵ participationӵ ofӵreĶlexion,ӵ questionin¿,ӵ makin¿ӵyourӵ brainӵ worlǎӵ lӵ
wantӵ theӵ publicӵ o]Ŧ Foucoul!Ŧ Ar!Ŧ WorkŦ toӵ seiŨeӵ theӵ ener¿yĂӵ theӵ stren¿th,ӵ theӵ
necessityӵofӵFoucault'sӵwork.ӵlӵwantӵtheӵpublicӵtoӵ confrontӵwhatӵisӵimportantӵinӵ
theӵ workӵ ofӵFoucaultĽӵ lӵ wantӵ theӵ publicӵ toӵ seiŨeӵ theӵran¿eӵ andӵtheӵ powerӵ ofӵ
Foucault'sӵphilosophy.ӵlӵdon'tӵwantӵtheӵpublicӵtoӵ understand.ӵlӵwantӵtheӵpublicӵtoӵ
seiŨeӵtheӵpower.ӵTheӵpowerӵofӵart,ӵtheӵpowerӵofӵphilosophyƬӵ
L0HCT0l0Í¿
TheӵFoucoul!ŦAr!ŦWorkŦ takesӵ placeӵfromӵ l4ӵ0ctoberӵtoӵ 5Ŧ Decemberӵ(7ӵweeks)ӵatӵ
theӵPalaisӵdeӵTokyo.ӵlӵwantӵtoӵmakeӵaӵsortӵofӵ8o!oíllcŦMonumcn!,ŦbutӵonӵtheӵinsideĂӵ
inӵanӵinstitution.ӵWhatӵhaveӵbeenӵtheӵlessonsӵfromӵmyӵexperienceӵofӵtheӵ8o!oíllcŦ
Monumcn!|ŦThatӵthisӵexperienceӵproducesӵsomethin¿.ӵ meetin¿sĂӵconfrontation,ӵ
productionĂӵthou¿htĂӵmoreӵwork,ӵloss,ӵdiscussions,ӵfriendship.ӵToӵ produceӵthat,ӵlӵ
haveӵunderstoodӵthatӵitċsӵnecessaryӵforӵtheӵartistӵtoӵbeӵpresentӵallӵ theӵtimeӵandӵ
notӵtoӵbeӵalone.ӵThisӵcvcn!Ŧmustӵbeӵveryӵwellӵprepared.ӵYouӵhaveӵtoӵworkӵuphillӵ
onӵthisӵpro¡ectӵwithӵcontributorsĂӵparticipants,ӵco-producers.ӵFoucoul!ŦAr!ŦWorkŦ
ísŦ¿oin¿ӵtoӵbeӵ anӵ eventӵthatӵmustӵbeӵ producedӵelsewhereӵatӵleastӵonceӵ¦USĂӵ|apanӵ
orӵelsewhere).ӵlӵwantӵtheӵ PalaisӵdeӵTokyoӵ toӵbeӵonlyӵtheӵIirstӵcvcn!.ŦThereӵmustӵ
beӵanother.ӵAnotherӵpartnerӵmustӵbeӵfound.ӵFoucoul!ŦAr!ŦWorkŦ mustӵbeӵanӵeventӵ
withӵbetweenӵ700ӵandӵl000ӵsquareӵmetresӵofӵspace.ӵTheӵproposedӵalcoveӵofӵtheӵ
Palaisӵ deӵTokyoӵ isӵ tooӵ small.ӵ lӵ needӵ moreӵ spaceƂӵ ltӵ needsӵ aӵ minimumӵ ofӵ700ӵ
squareӵ metres.ӵ lnӵ theӵFoucoul!ŦAr!Ŧ WorkŦ eventĂӵlӵ wantӵtoӵ workӵ closelyӵwithӵ myӵ
HítSchhotn{ĸ /24hĸFoucoul!//¡õõĸ
philosopherӵfriendӵMarcusӵȟteinwe¿ӵfromӵ Berlin.ӵHeӵwillӵbeӵwithӵmeӵonӵsiteӵallӵ
theӵtime,ӵdurin¿ӵtheӵcvcn!.ŦHeӵprepares,ӵheӵproposes,
Ȃӵ
andӵ heӵaccompaniesӵ thisӵ
work.ӵHeӵisӵpartӵofӵtheӵworkĔӵHeӵwillӵaĶσìrm.ӵHeӵwillӵappropriate.ӵHeӵwillӵactӵwithӵ
love,ӵ likeӵ me,ӵbutӵ notӵ withӵrespect.ӵWithӵ theӵloveӵofӵphilosophy,ӵ notӵwithӵ theӵ
respectӵofӵaӵhomma¿e.ӵFoucoul!ŦAr!ŦWorkŦ willӵ beӵmadeӵwithӵ loveӵ andӵ withoutӵ
respect.ӵFveryӵdayӵthereӵwìllӵbeӵtheӵin!crvcn!ionŦo]ŦoŦ¡niloso¡ncr,Ŧo]ricnJ,ŦoŦwri!crŦ
wnoŦwillŦin!cr¡rc!Ŧ!ncŦworkŦo]ŦFoucoul!.Ŧ 7ncrcŦwillŦccŦoŦMicnclŦFoucoul!Ŧcxnici!ion.Ŧ
lӵ wantӵtheӵ publicӵtoӵunderstand.ӵ theӵ exhibitionӵ isӵonlyӵoneӵpartӵofӵtheӵFoucoul!Ŧ
Ar!ŦWork.ŦTheӵexhibitionӵwithӵphotos,ӵpersonalӵbooks,ӵori¿inalӵdocuments,ӵpressӵ
cuлin¿sӵ¦international).ӵPeterӵCenteӵofӵtheӵMcrvc-vcrlo¿Ŧ8crlinŦmadeӵaӵbeautifulӵ
exhibitionӵ atӵŌKMӵ inӵ Karlsruhe.ӵ7ncrcŦ willŦ ccŦoŦsounJ-,Ŧ cook- onJŦmcJiolibraryӵ
withӵ allӵ theӵ booksӵ ¦inӵ allӵ lan¿ua¿es),ӵ allӵ theӵ videosӵ andӵ allӵ audioӵ materialӵ ofӵ
Foucault.ӵ ňӵ wantӵ thereӵ toӵbeӵ photocopiers,ӵvideoӵ material,ӵ soundӵ material,ӵ onӵ
site,ӵsimpleӵandӵefĶìcient,ӵsoӵthatӵtheӵ publicӵcanӵtakeӵhomeӵphotocopiesӵorӵvideoӵ
andӵaudioӵcopiesĂӵbooks,ӵextractsӵ ofӵbooksӵorӵotherӵdocuments,ӵasӵtheyӵwishĔӵ1ʎ
wantӵ theӵ Foucoul!ŦAr!Ŧ WorkŦ notӵ onlyӵ toӵ beӵaӵ placeӵ ofӵproduction,ӵ butӵ alsoӵ ofӵ
dissemination.ӵltӵisӵimportantӵtoӵdiffuseӵandӵ¿ivcŦJi]]šsionŦ!oŦ!ncŦworkŦo]ŦFoucoul!Ŧ
orӵtoӵpartsӵofӵFoucault'sӵworks.ӵ7ncrcŦwillŦccŦoŦMicnclŦFoucoul!Ŧsno¡.ŦTheӵshopӵisn'tӵ
aӵplaceӵtoӵsellӵƧhin¿s,ӵtheӵshopӵisӵinӵfactӵanotherӵexhibition.ӵlt'sӵanӵexhibitionӵofӵ
souvenirsӵmadeӵtoӵlookӵat,ӵnotӵtoӵbuy.ӵAsӵ inӵtheӵvitrinesӵofӵaӵbi¿ӵfootballӵclub,ӵ
wheſeӵtſophiesӵōreӵexhibitedƉӵ photosӵ ofӵformerӵ playeſs,ӵ theӵ plōyeſs'ӵ vests,ӵ theӵ
club'sӵ differentӵ stadiums,ӵ theӵ celebrityӵ visits.ӵ Theseӵ areӵ importantӵ butӵ notӵ
decisiveӵsouvenirs.ӵ Decisiveӵ isӵ whatӵisӵ madeӵtodayĔӵTodayӵ andӵ tomorrowĔӵ7ncrcŦ
willŦccŦoŦFoucoul!-Mo¡.ŦAӵworkӵthatӵlӵwillӵdoӵwithӵMarcusӵȟteinwe¿ĔӵLikeӵlӵdidӵtheӵ
Nic!zscnc-Mo¡Ŧ andӵ theӵ HonnonŦ ArcnJ!-Mo¡.Ŧ lt'sӵ aӵ veryӵ bi¿ӵ planӵ ofӵ theӵ
philosophicalӵpositionӵofӵFoucaultӵinӵtheӵ¿alaxyӵofӵphilosophy.ӵThereӵwillӵalsoӵbeӵ
documentsӵandӵelementsӵthatӵputӵtheӵFoucoul!ŦArcnivcsŦatӵyourӵdisposal.ӵThisӵcanӵ
beӵ inte¿ratedӵ inӵ theӵ Foucoul!ŦAr!ŦWorkŦ pro¡ect.ӵ Howeverӵ theӵ archivesӵ mustӵ beӵ
exposedӵ inӵ anotherӵ¦second)ӵ manifestation.ӵFinallyӵlӵwantӵthereӵtoӵ beӵaӵsimpleӵ
andӵcondensedӵauditoriumӵforӵ lectures,ӵconcerts,ӵspeechesĔӵŀʎ won!Ŧ!ncŦ¡uclicŦ!oŦ
ccŦ insiJcŦ oŦ croinŦ inŦ oc!ion.Ŧ Thereӵ willӵ beӵ noӵ narration,ӵ noӵ discussion,ӵ noӵ
illustrationĔӵ Thereӵ willӵ beӵ affirmation.ӵ Thereӵ willӵ beӵ ideas.ӵ Thereӵ willӵ beӵ
confrontation.ӵWhenӵlӵ say.ӵ thereӵ isӵ noӵdiscussion,ӵlӵmean.ӵ it'sӵnotӵtoӵdebateӵandӵ
discussӵ philosophyӵandӵart.ӵlt'sӵnecessaryӵtoӵ confrontӵyourselϐӵlt'sӵnecessaryӵtoӵ
for¿eӵ aӵ resistanceĔӵ lӵ wantӵ allӵ theӵ forms,ӵ allӵ theӵ contributionsӵ toӵ beӵ chosenӵ
politically,ӵphilosophically,ӵartistically.ӵBecauseӵit'sӵtheӵsameӵthin¿.ӵNoӵelementӵisӵ
chosenӵforӵanyӵreasonӵotherӵthanӵpolitical.ӵlӵwantӵtheӵFoucoul!ŦAr!ŦWorkŦ pro¡ectӵ
toӵbeӵaӵpropositionӵthatӵovertakesӵme,ӵthatӵmakesӵmyӵcapacityӵforӵresponsibilityӵ
explode.ӵlt'sӵnecessaryӵtoӵtryӵandӵbeӵresponsibleӵforӵsomethin¿ӵwhichӵlӵcanӵtakeӵ
responsibilityӵfor.ӵThereӵ mustӵ alsoӵ beӵ aӵ Foucoul!-5!uJio.Ŧ Aӵ placeӵ ofӵworkӵ withӵ
¡õó//ĸ ATl5T5'ĸĐlTlNG5ĸ
computersӵ andӵ spaceӵ forӵ workin¿.ӵ Makin¿ӵ sculpture,ӵ doin¿ӵ research,ӵ havin¿ӵ
experiencesӵ thatӵ youӵ don'tӵ usualĚyӵ have.ӵ Learnin¿ӵ anotherӵ lan¿ua¿e,ӵ forӵ
example.ӵ lӵ repeat.ӵ theӵ Foucoul!-5!uJio,Ŧ theӵ Foucoul!-5no¡,Ŧ theӵ AuJi!orium,Ŧ theӵ
cook-,Ŧ sounJ- onJŦ mcJio-licroQ,ŦtheӵFoucoul!Ŧ£xnici!ion,Ŧtheӵcon!iŁcu!orsŦʻeveryӵ
otherӵday),ӵtheӵFoucoul!-Mo¡,ŦtheӵFoucoul!ŦArcnivcs.ŦTheseӵei¿htӵelementsӵwillӵbeӵ
putӵalon¿sideӵ eachӵotherӵasӵ inӵ theӵ humanӵ brain̠ӵ theyӵdisruptӵ eachӵ other,ӵ theyӵ
completeӵeachӵother,ӵtheyӵcompeteӵa¿ainstӵeachӵother.ӵButӵtheyӵneverӵcontradictӵ
eachӵotherӵ- theyӵdemonstrateӵthżӵcomplexityӵandӵtheӵinfinityӵofӵthou¿ht.ӵThereӵ
willӵ beӵ chairs,ӵ lotsӵ ofӵ chairs,ӵ armchairs,ӵ lotsӵ ofӵ armchairsӵ forӵsittin¿ӵ downӵ andӵ
reflectin¿,ӵreadin¿ӵandӵexchan¿in¿.ӵThereӵwillӵbeӵlotsӵofӵli¿htČӵFoucoul!ŦAr!ŦWorkŦ
willӵ beӵ veryӵ lit.ӵ lnӵ theӵ Foucoul!Ŧ Ar!Ŧ WorkŦ thereӵ willӵ beӵ lotsӵ ofӵ computers,ӵ
photocopiers,ӵaudioĥrecorders,ӵvideoӵandӵDVDӵrecorders,ӵTVӵscreens,ӵbutӵallӵtheseӵ
obАectsӵwҢllӵbeӵȿnte¿rated,ӵmastered̯ӵtools,ӵarms,ӵbutӵneverӵaestheǡϧcӵeffecӐӵwȿthӵ
whichӵ toӵ intimidateӵ theӵ public,ӵ orӵ toӵ showӵ themӵ newӵ technolo¿y.ӵ Theӵ
technolo¿iesӵ serveӵ art,ӵ theyӵ serveӵ philosophy.ӵ Theyӵ willӵ beӵ toolsƉӵ butӵ notӵ
necessities.ӵToӵ killӵthem,ӵit'sӵnotӵnecessaryӵtoӵhaveӵaӵ¿un.ӵToӵ constructӵaӵhouse,ӵit'sӵ
notӵnecessaryӵtoӵhaveӵaӵhammer.ӵYouӵmustӵalwaysӵworkӵfirstlyӵwithӵyourӵbrain.ӵ
Foucoul!ŦAr!Ŧ WorkŦ willӵ notӵ beӵ aӵThomasӵ Hirschhornӵ exhibition.ӵ lӵ willӵ haveӵ
contributedӵtoӵ thisӵ pro¡ectӵ withӵ others,ӵlӵ hopeӵlotsӵ ofӵothers.ӵMarcusӵSteinwe¿,ӵ
Manuelēoseph,ӵChristopheӵFiat,ӵPeterӵCente,ӵnotӵtoӵmentionӵthoseӵtoӵwhomӵl'veӵ
alreadyӵƥpokenӵofӵtheӵpro¡ect.ӵThisӵpro¡ectӵwillӵbeӵmadeӵto¿ether,ӵмultiply,ӵwithӵ
multipleӵ sin¿ularities,ӵ active,ӵturnedӵ towardsӵ affirmation,ӵ theӵother.ӵTurnedӵtoӵ
theӵ otherӵ withӵ friendship,ӵ butӵ withoutӵ compromise.ӵ Neitherӵ visual,ӵ norӵ ofӵ
meanin¿,ӵnorӵofӵspace,ӵnorӵofӵcontent.ӵ
Foucoul!ŦAr!ŦWorkŦ isӵanӵambitiousӵpro¡ect.ӵ ltӵisӵitselfӵanӵaffirmationӵasӵ muchӵ
asӵaӵworkӵofӵart.ӵ
ThomasͥHirschhorn,ͥartisI'sͥproposaI,ŢţˀͥňoucoulrƝounolǪ(Far|s:ͥFaIaisͥdcͥTokyo,ͥ?-JĸOcIobcrͥ?004).ĸ
TransIatcdͥDyͥ CIa|rcͥ6ishop,ͥ?00C.ĸ
HítSchhotn{/24hĸFoucoulıĸ/¡õ¯ĸ
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¡5 ¯MË 1IbH
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¯MË w1Ëb¯¡LI
CRÏTÏCAL AND CURATORÏAL PO5ÏTÏON5
NiCo!Os BoUrriOUO Re!OtionO! AesthetiCsJ JIò0
LOrs BOng LOrsen 5oCiO! AesthetiCsJ JI72
No!!y NesDit, HOns U!riCh ODrist, Rirkrit TirOVOnijO
WhOt is O 5tOtion? JJIö4
HO! Foster ChOt RoomsJ JI90
N¡COIOs BOUrr¡OUO
RCIO¡¡OnOI ACs¡hC¡¡CsJ J !996
RelaticnalӵAestheticsӵhas comc to bc sccn as a dchnin¿ tcxt for a ¿cncratIon of
artists who camc to promincncc in £uropc in thc carlj to mid Iºº0s. !hc
followin¿ tcxt is a sclcction of cxccrpts from ßourriaud's collcction of scvcn
discrctc cssajs ori¿inallj pubíishcd in ma¿azincs and cxhibition catalo¿ucs.
Tc work oI art as sociaI intcrsticc
Theӵpcssibilityӵcfӵaӵrclo|ionolŦartӵ¦anӵartӵthatӵtakesӵasӵ itsӵ thecreticalӵ hcrizcnӵtheӵ
sphereӵ cfӵhumanӵinteracticnsӵandӵitsӵsccialӵccntext,ӵratherӵthanӵtheӵasserticnӵcfӵ
anӵautcncmcusӵandӵ¡Ŕivo!cŦsymbclicӵspaceӵ͏ӵisӵtestimcnyӵtcӵtheӵradicalӵupheavalӵ
inӵ aesthetic,ӵculturalӵ andӵ pcliticalӵ cb¡ectivesӵbrcu¿htӵ abcutӵ byӵ mcdernӵ art.ӵ Tcӵ
cutlineӵ itsӵ scciclc¿y.ӵ thisӵ develcpmentӵ stemsӵ essentiallyӵ frcmӵ theӵ birthӵ cfӵaӵ
¿lcbalӵurbanӵcultureӵandӵtheӵextensicnӵcfӵtheӵurbanӵmcdelӵtcӵalmcstӵallӵculturalӵ
phencmena.ӵTheӵspreadӵcfӵurbanizaticn,ӵwhichӵbe¿anӵtcӵtakeӵ cffӵatӵtheӵ endӵcfӵ
theӵĩeccndӵWcrldӵWar,ӵallcwedӵanӵextracrdinaryӵincreaseӵinӵsccialӵexchan¿es,ӵasӵ
wellӵ asӵ¿reaterӵindividualӵmcbilityӵʼthanksӵtcӵtheӵdevelcpmentӵcfӵrailӵandӵ rcadӵ
netwcrks,ӵ teleccmmunicaticnsӵ andӵ theӵ ¿radualӵ cpenin¿ӵ upӵ cfӵisclatedӵ places,ӵ
whichӵwentӵhandӵ inӵ handӵ withӵ theӵ cpenin¿ӵ upӵ cfӵmindsӵ). Becauseӵ thisӵ urbanӵ
wcrld'sӵ inhabitableӵ placesӵ areӵ scӵ cramped,ӵ weӵ haveӵ alscӵ witnessedӵ aӵ scalin¿ӵ
dcwnӵcfӵfurnitureӵandӵcb¡ects,ӵwhichӵhaveӵbeccmeӵmuchӵeasierӵtcӵhandleĻӵfcrӵaӵ
lcn¿ӵtime,ӵ artwcrksӵ lcckedӵ likeӵ lcrdlyӵluxuryӵitemsӵ inӵ thisӵ urbanӵccntextӵ¦theӵ
dimensicnsӵ cfӵbcthӵ artwcrksӵ andӵ theӵ apartmentsӵ whereӵ theyӵwereӵ displayedӵ
wereӵintendedӵtcӵsi¿nalӵtheӵΪisńiœȬńiŔœӵbetweenӵtheirӵcwnersӵandӵtheӵhoi polloi),
butӵ theӵ wayӵtheirӵfuncticnӵandӵtheirӵmcdeӵcfӵpresentaticnӵhasӵevclvedӵrevealsӵaӵ
¿rcwin¿ӵurconizo!ionŦ cfӵtheӵ artisticӵ experience.ӵ Whatӵ isӵ ccllapsin¿ӵ befcreӵ curӵ
veryӵeyesӵ isӵquiteӵ simplyӵ theӵ pseudc-aristccraticӵccncepticnӵ cfӵhcwӵartwcrksӵ
shculdӵbeӵdisplayed,ӵwhichӵwasӵ bcundӵ upӵwiƧhӵtheӵfeelin¿ӵcfӵhavin¿ӵacquiredӵaӵ
territcry.ӵ Weӵ can,ӵ inӵ ctherӵwcrds,ӵ ncӵ lcn¿erӵ re¿ardӵ ccntempcraryӵwcrksӵ asӵ aӵ
spaceӵweӵhaveӵtcӵwalkӵthrcu¿hӵ¦weӵwereӵshcwnӵarcundӵccllecticnsӵinӵtheӵsameӵ
wayӵ thatӵweӵwereӵshcwnӵarcundӵ¿reatӵ hcusesӵ).Ccntempcraryӵartӵresemblesӵaӵ
pericdӵ cfӵtimeӵ thatӵ hasӵ tcӵ beӵexperienced,ӵ crӵtheӵ cpenin¿ӵ cfӵaӵ dialc¿ueӵ thatӵ
neverӵends.ӵTheӵcityӵpermitsӵandӵ¿eneralizesӵtheӵexperienceӵcfӵprcximityĻӵthisӵisӵ
theӵtan¿ibleӵsymbclӵandӵhistcricalӵframewcrkӵcfӵtheӵstateӵcfӵscciety,ӵcrӵtheӵ'stateӵ
cfӵ enccunter',ӵ thatӵ hasӵ beenӵ 'impcsed'ӵ cnӵ pecple,ӵ asӵ Althusserӵ putsӵ it,DZӵ asӵ
cppcsedӵtcӵtheӵdenseӵandӵunprcblematicӵ¡un¿leӵcfӵ|ean-|acquesӵRcusseau'sӵstateӵ
o]Ŧno!urc.Ŧ Rcusseau'sӵ¡un¿leӵwasӵsuchӵthatӵthereӵcculdӵbeӵncӵlastin¿ӵenccunters˵ӵ
¡ó0/ĸ /CR¡T¡CAANDĸCURATOR¡AĸPO5¡T¡ON5ĸ
Dncγӵ itӵ hadӵ beenӵ elevatedӵ toӵ theӵ statusӵ ofӵ anӵ absoluteӵ civilizationalӵ ruleӵthisӵ
intenseӵencounterӵfinallyӵ¿aveӵriseӵtoӵartisticӵpracticesӵthatӵwereӵinӵkeepin¿ӵwithӵ
it.ӵltӵ¿aveӵ risećӵthatӵisćӵtoӵaӵformӵofӵartӵwithӵintersubķectivityӵasӵitsӵsubstratum.ӵltsӵ
centralӵ themesӵ areӵ bein¿ǿto¿etherӵ jl'c|rc-cn>cmc|c],Ŧ theӵ 'encounter'ӵ betweenӵ
viewerӵ andӵ paintin¿ćӵ andӵ theӵ collectiveӵ elaborationӵ ofӵmeanin¿.ӵWeӵ canӵ leaveӵ
asideӵtheӵ problemӵofӵtheӵphenomenon'sӵhistoricity.ӵartӵhasӵalwaysӵbeenӵrelationӵ
toӵsomeӵeĭtent.ӵltӵhas,ӵinӵotherӵwords,ӵalwaysӵbeenӵaӵfactorӵinӵsociabilityӵandӵhasӵ
alwaysӵbeenӵtheӵbasisӵforӵaӵdialo¿ue.ӵDneӵofӵtheӵima¿eʅsӵpotentialsӵisӵitsӵcapacityӵ
˶ӵ
forӵ'linka¿e'ӵ jrc|ioncc],Ŧ toӵ useӵ Michelӵ Maffesoli'sӵ term.ӵ fla¿sćӵ lo¿os,ӵ iconsӵ andӵ
si¿nsӵ allӵ produceӵ empathyӵ andӵ sharin¿,ӵ andӵ ¿enerateӵ link>.´Ŧ Artӵ ¦practicesӵ
derivedӵfromӵpaintin¿ӵandӵsculptureӵandӵdisplayedӵinӵtheӵformӵolanӵeĭhibition)ӵ
provesӵ toӵ beӵ anӵ especiallyӵ appropriateӵ eĭpressionӵ ofӵ thisӵ civilizationӵ ofӵ
proĭimity.ӵltӵcompressesӵrelationalӵspace,ӵwĠereasӵtelevisionӵandӵbooksӵsendӵusӵ
allӵbackӵtoӵ spacesӵwhereӵweӵconsumeӵinӵprivate,ӵandӵwhereasӵtheӵtheatreӵorӵtheӵ
cinemaӵbrin¿ӵsmallӵ¿roupsӵto¿etherӵtoӵlookӵatӵunivocalӵima¿es,ӵthereӵisӵinӵfactӵnoӵ
liveӵcommentaryӵonӵwhatӵaӵtheatreӵorӵcinemaӵ audienceӵ isӵseein¿ӵ¦theӵtimeӵforӵ
discussionӵcomesӵafterӵ theӵ show).ӵAtӵanӵeĭhibition,ӵ inӵ contrast,ӵ thereӵ isӵ alwaysӵ
theӵpossibilityӵofӵanӵimmediateӵ- inӵ bothӵ sensesӵofӵtheӵ termӵ - discussion,ӵevenӵ
whenӵ theӵ formsӵ onӵ showӵ areӵ inert.ӵ lӵ see,ӵ commentӵ andӵ moveӵ aroundӵ inӵ oneӵ
spaceĜtime.ӵ Artӵ isӵ aӵsiteӵ thatӵproducesӵ aӵ specificӵ sociabilityȏӵ whatӵstatusӵ thisӵ
spaceӵhasӵwithinӵtheӵran¿eӵofӵ'statesӵofӵencounter'ӵproposedӵbyӵtheӵPo|i>Ŧremainsӵ
toӵbeӵseen.ӵHowӵcanӵanӵartӵthatӵisӵcentredӵonӵtheӵproductionӵofӵsuchӵmodesӵofӵ
convivialityӵsucceedӵinӵrelaunchin¿ӵtheӵ modernӵ proķectӵofӵemancipationӵasӵweӵ
contemplateӵit?ӵ Howӵdoesӵitӵallowӵusӵtoӵdefineӵ newӵculturalӵandӵpoliticalӵ¿oals?ӵ
Beforeӵ turnin¿ӵ toӵ concreteӵ eĭamples,ӵ itӵ isӵ iнportantӵ toӵtakeӵaӵ newӵlookӵ atӵ
whereӵ artworksӵ areӵ situatedӵ withinӵ theӵ overallӵ systemӵ ofӵ theӵ economyӵ -
symbolicӵorӵmaterialӵ- thatӵ¿overnsӵcontemporaryӵsociety:ӵquiteӵapartӵfromӵ itsӵ
commodifiedӵ natureӵorӵsemanticӵvalue,ӵ theӵ artworkӵ representsćӵ inӵ myӵview,ӵaӵ
socialӵ in|cr>|icc.ŦTheӵtermӵin|cr>|iccŦ wasӵ usedӵbyӵKarlӵMarĭӵtoӵdescribeӵtradin¿ӵ
communitiesӵ thatӵ escapedӵ theӵ frameworkӵ ofӵtheӵ capitalistӵ economy:ӵ barter,ӵ
sellin¿ӵatӵaӵloss,ӵautarkicӵformsӵofӵproduction,ӵandӵsoӵon.ӵAnӵintersticeӵisӵaӵspaceӵ
inӵsocialӵrelationsӵwhich,ӵalthou¿hӵitӵfitsӵmoreӵorӵlessӵharmoniouslyӵandӵopenlyӵ
intoӵ theӵ overallӵ system,ӵ su¿¿estsӵ possibilitiesӵ forӵeĭchan¿esӵ otherӵthanӵ thoseӵ
thatӵprevailӵwithinӵtheӵsystem.ӵFĭhibitionsӵofӵcontemporaryӵartӵoccupyӵpreciselyӵ
theӵsameӵ positionӵ withinӵtheӵfieldӵofӵtheӵtradeӵinӵ representations.ӵTheyӵcreateӵ
freeӵspacesӵ andӵ periodsӵofӵtimeӵ whoseӵrhythmsӵareӵ notӵtheӵ sameӵ asӵthoseӵ thatӵ
or¿anizeӵeverydayӵlife,ӵandӵtheyӵencoura¿eӵanӵinterǿhumanӵintercourseӵwhichӵisӵ
differentӵ toӵ theӵ 'zonesӵ ofӵ communication'ӵ thatӵ areӵ forcedӵ uponӵ us.ӵ Theӵ
contemporaryӵsocialӵconteĭtӵrestrictsӵopportunitiesӵforӵinterhumanӵ relationsӵinӵ
thatӵ itӵ createsӵ spacesӵ desi¿nedӵ forӵ thatӵ purpose.ӵ ĩuperloosӵ wereӵ inventedӵ toӵ
ßouttíoud/ĸ /Relo!íonolĸAeS!he!ícS/ĸ /¡ó¡ĸ
keepӵ theӵ streetsӵ clean.ӵ Theӵ sameӵ lineӵ ofӵ thinkin¿ӵ ¿overnedӵ theӵ developmentӵ
communicationalӵtoolsӵwhileӵtheӵstreetsӵofӵourӵcitiesӵwereӵbein¿ӵsweptӵcleanӵofӵ
allӵ relationalӵ dross.ӵ Theӵ resultӵ isӵ thatӵ nei¿hbourhoodӵ relationsӵ haveӵ beenӵ
impoverished.ӵ Theӵ ¿eneralӵ mechanizationӵ ofӵ socialӵ functionsӵ isӵ ¿raduallyӵ
reducin¿ӵourӵrelationalӵspace.ӵUntilӵonlyӵaӵfewӵyearsӵa¿o,ӵtheӵearlyӵmornin¿ӵcallӵ
serviceӵstillӵusedӵhumanӵvoicesĽӵ theӵresponsibilityӵforӵwakin¿ӵusӵupӵnowӵfallsӵtoӵ
synthesizedӵvoicesӵĺ ĺ . ӵTheӵATMӵ hasӵbecomeӵtheӵtransitӵmodelӵforӵtheӵmostӵbasicӵ
socialӵ functions,ӵandӵ professionalӵbehavioursӵareӵmodelledӵonӵtheӵ efficiencyӵofӵ
theӵmachinesӵthatӵareӵreplacin¿ӵthemĺӵTheӵsameӵmachinesӵnowӵperformӵ taslŊsӵ
thatӵonceӵrepresentedӵsoӵmanyӵopportunitiesӵforӵexchan¿es,ӵpleasureӵorӵconflict.ӵ
Contemporaryӵartӵisӵreallyӵpursuin¿ӵaӵpoliticalӵpro¡ectӵwhenӵitӵattemptsӵtoӵmoveӵ
intoӵtheӵrelationalӵ sphereӵbyӵproblematizin¿ӵit.ӵ
Whenӵ Cabrielӵ Drozcoӵ putsӵ anӵ oran¿eӵ onӵ theӵ stallsӵ ofӵaӵ desertedӵ marketӵ inӵ
Brazilӵ( CŖz¡Ŧ !ourís!,Ŧ 1991)Ŧorӵsetsӵ upӵaӵ hammockӵinӵtheӵ¿ardenӵofӵNewӵYork'sӵ
MuseumӵofӵModernӵArtӵ(HomocŦcnŦ clŦMoMo,Ŧ 1993),Ŧheӵ isӵ operatin¿ӵinӵ theӵ heartӵ
ofӵtheӵ'socialӵinfraĜthin'ӵj ín]omínccŦ|,Ŧorӵthatӵtinyӵspaceӵforӵeverydayӵ¿esturesӵthatӵ
isӵdeterminedӵbyӵtheӵsuperstructureӵconstructedӵandӵdeterminedӵbyӵlar¿e-scaleӵ
exchan¿es.ӵ Drozco'sӵ photo¿raphsӵ areӵ anӵ uncaptionedӵ documentaryӵ recordӵ ofӵ
tinyӵ revolutionsӵ inӵ ordinaryӵ urbanӵ orӵ semiĦurbanӵ lifeӵ (aӵ sleepin¿ӵ ba¿ӵ onӵ theӵ
¿rass,ӵanӵemptyӵshoebox). ӵtheyӵbearӵwitnessӵtoӵtheӵsilentӵlifeӵ(aӵstillӵlifeӵorӵno!urcŦ
mor!c)Ŧthatӵisӵnowӵpaintedӵbyӵourӵrelationsӵwithӵothers.ӵWhen|ensӵHaanin¿ӵusesӵ
aӵ loudspeakerӵ toӵ broadcastӵ¡okesӵ toldӵ inӵTurkishӵ onӵ aӵ squareӵ inӵ Copenha¿enӵ
(!urkísnŦĠokcs,Ŧ 1994),Ŧ heӵinstantlyӵproducesӵ aӵ microĜcommunityӵ ofӵimmi¿rantsӵ
whoӵ haveӵ beenӵ brou¿htӵ to¿etherӵ byӵ theӵ collectiveӵ lau¿hterӵ thatӵ invertsӵ theirӵ
situationӵasӵexilesĺӵThatӵcommunityӵisӵformedӵinӵrelationӵtoӵandӵinsideӵtheӵwork.ӵ
Anӵ exhibitionӵ isӵ aӵprivile¿edӵ placeӵ whereӵ instantӵcommunitiesӵ likeӵ thisӵcanӵbeӵ
established.ӵ dependin¿ӵ onӵ theӵde¿reeӵofӵaudienceӵ participationӵ demandedӵ byӵ
theӵartist,ӵtheӵnatureӵofӵtheӵworksӵonӵshowӵandӵtheӵmodelsӵofӵsociabilityӵthatӵareӵ
representedӵ orӵ su¿¿ested,ӵ anӵ exhibitionӵ canӵ ¿enerateӵ aӵ particularӵ 'domainӵ ofӵ
exchan¿es'.ӵ Andӵ weӵ mustӵ ¡ud¿eӵ thatӵ 'domainӵ ofӵ exchan¿es'ӵ onӵ theӵ basisӵ ofӵ
aestheticӵcriteria,ӵorӵinӵotherӵwordsӵbyӵanalysin¿ӵtheӵcoherenceӵofӵitsӵform,ӵandӵ
thenӵ theӵ symbolicӵ valueӵ ofӵ theӵ 'world'ӵ itӵ offersӵ usӵ orӵ theӵ ima¿eӵ ofӵ humanӵ
relationsӵthatӵitӵreIФects.ӵWithinӵthisӵsocialӵinterstice,ӵtheӵartistӵowesӵitӵtoӵhimselfӵ
toӵtakeӵresponsibilityӵforӵtheӵsymbolicӵmodelsӵheӵisӵshowin¿.ӵallӵrepresentationӵ
refersӵ toӵ valuesӵ thatӵcanӵ beӵtransposedӵintoӵ societyӵ (thou¿hӵ contemporaryӵartӵ
doesӵ notӵ soӵ muchӵ representӵ asӵ moJc|)Ŧ andӵ insertsӵ itselfӵintoӵ theӵ socialӵ fabricӵ
ratherӵthanӵtakin¿ӵinspirationӵfromӵit).ӵBein¿ӵaӵhumanӵactivityӵthatӵisӵbasedӵuponӵ
commerce,ӵartӵisӵbothӵtheӵob¡ectӵandӵtheӵsub¡ectӵofӵanӵethics.ӵallӵtheӵmoreӵsoӵinӵ
that,ӵ unlikeӵ otherӵ humanӵ activities,ӵ í|sŦ on|¡Ŧ]nc!íonŦ ísŦ |oŦ ccŦ cxposcJŦ ɦʎ !no|Ŧ
commcrcc.ŦArtӵisӵaӵstateӵǛfӵencounter.ӵ44 jŦ. . . Ŧ|Ŧ
¡ó2/ĸ /CRlT¡CAĸADĸCURATOR¡AĸPO5¡T¡ON5ĸ
ConviviaIity and cncottntcrs
Aӵ workӵ canӵ functionӵ asӵ aӵ relationalӵ deviceӵ inӵ whichӵ thereӵ isӵ aӵ de¿reeӵ ofӵ
randomness.ӵ ltӵ canӵ beӵ aӵ machineӵ forӵ provokin¿ӵ andӵ mana¿in¿ӵ individualӵ orӵ
collectiveӵencounters.ӵToӵciteӵaӵfewӵ examplesӵfromӵtheӵ lastӵtwoӵ decadesıӵ thisӵ isӵ
trueӵ ofӵ Bracoӵ DimitrϨБevic'sӵ CusuulŦ Pusscr-c¡Ŧ series,ӵ whichӵ disproportionallyӵ
celebratesӵƨheӵnamesӵandӵfacesӵofӵanonymousӵpassers-byӵonӵpostersӵtheӵsɀzeӵofӵ
thoseӵusedӵforӵadvertisements,ӵorӵonӵbustsӵlikeӵthoseӵofӵcelebritiesƊӵƑnӵtheӵearlyӵ
1970s,ӵ Stephenӵ Willatsӵ painstakin¿lyӵ chartedӵ theӵ relationshipsӵ thatӵ existedӵ
betweenӵ theӵ inhabitantsӵ ofӵaӵ blockӵ ofӵflats.ӵAndӵ muchӵ ofӵSophieӵ Calle'sӵ workӵ
consistsӵ ofӵaccountsӵofӵherӵ encountersӵ withӵstran¿ers.ӵ sheӵfollowsӵaӵpasser-by,ӵ
searchesӵ hotelӵ roomsӵafңerӵ¿ettin¿ӵ aӵ¡obӵ asӵ aӵ chamberӵ maid,ӵ asksӵblindӵ peopleӵ
howӵtheyӵdefineӵbeauty,ӵandӵ then,ӵ afterӵ theӵ event,ӵformalizesӵtheӵbio¿raphicalӵ
experimentsӵthatӵledӵherӵtoӵ'collaborate'ӵwithӵtheӵpeopleӵsheӵmet.ӵWeӵcouldӵalsoӵ
cite,ӵ almostӵ atӵ random,ӵ Dnӵ Kawara'sӵ IŦ mc!Ŧ series,ӵ theӵ restaurantӵ openedӵ byӵ
Cordonӵ Matta-Clarkӵ inӵ 1971ӵ (FooJ),Ŧtheӵdinnersӵor¿anizedӵbyӵ DanielӵSpoerriӵ orӵ
theӵ playfulӵshopӵopenedӵbyӵCeor¿eӵ BrechtӵandӵRobertӵFilliouӵinӵVillefrancheӵ[LuŦ
CcJí|lcŦ quíŦ sourň!).Ŧͣheӵ formalizationӵofӵconvivialӵ relationsӵ hasӵ beenӵ aӵhistoricalӵ
constantӵ sinceӵ theӵ 1960s.ӵ Theӵ ¿enerationӵ ofӵ theӵ 1980sӵ pickedӵ upӵ theӵ sameӵ
problematic,ӵbutӵtheӵdefinǔtionӵofӵaѼt,ӵwhichӵwasӵcentralӵtoӵtheӵ1960sӵandӵ1970s,ӵ
wasӵnoӵlon¿erӵanӵissue.ӵTheӵproblemӵwasӵnoӵlon¿erӵtheӵexpansionӵofӵtheӵ limitsӵ
ofӵart,ƅӵbutӵtestin¿ӵart'sӵcapacityӵforӵresistanȭeӵwithinӵtheӵsocialӵfieldӵasӵaӵwhole.ӵ
Aӵ sin¿leӵ familyӵ ofӵ practicesӵ thereforeӵ ¿ivesӵ riseӵ toӵ twoӵ radicallyӵ differentӵ
problematics.ӵ inӵ theӵ 1960s,ӵ theӵemphasisӵ wasӵ onӵrelationshipsӵinternalӵtoӵtheӵ
worldӵofӵartӵwithinӵaӵmodernistӵcultureӵthatӵprivile¿edӵ'theӵnew'ӵandӵcalledӵforӵ
lin¿uisticӵsubversionĈӵitӵisӵ nowӵplacedӵonӵexternalӵrelationshipsӵinӵtheӵcontextӵofӵ
anӵeclecticӵcultureӵwhereӵtheӵworkӵofӵartӵresistsӵtheӵmincerӵofӵtheӵ'Societyӵofӵtheӵ
Spectacle'.ӵSocialӵutopiasӵandӵrevolutionaryӵhopesӵhaveӵ¿ivenӵwayӵtoӵdayĜto-dayӵ
micro-utopiasӵandӵ mimeticӵstrate¿ies.ӵanyӵ'direct'ӵcritiqueӵofӵsocietyӵisӵpointlessӵ
ifӵitӵ isӵ basedӵ uponӵ theӵ illusionӵ ofӵaӵ mar¿inalityӵthatӵ isӵ nowӵ impossible,ӵ ifӵnotӵ
re¿ressive.ӵAlmostӵthirtyӵyearsӵa¿o˅ӵFélixӵCuattariӵwasӵalreadyӵrecommendin¿ӵtheӵ
nei¿hbourhoodӵ strate¿iesӵ onӵwhichӵ contemporaryӵ artisticӵpracticesӵareӵbased.ӵ
'|ustӵasӵlӵthinkӵitӵisӵillusoryӵtoӵcountӵonӵtheӵ¿radualӵtransformationӵofӵsocietyӵsoӵňӵ
believeӵthatӵmicroscopicӵattemptsӵ ˢ communities,ӵ nei¿hbourhoodӵ committees,ӵ
or¿anizin¿ӵcręchesӵinӵuniversitiesӵĤ playӵanӵabsolutelyӵfundamentalӵrole.
ƃӵ
Traditionalӵcriticalӵ philosophyӵ ¦andӵ especiallyӵtheӵ FƤankfurtӵ school)ӵ canӵ noӵ
lon¿erӵsu
ʆ
stainӵartӵunlessӵitӵtakesӵtheӵformӵofӵanӵarchaicӵfolklore,ӵorӵofӵaӵsplendidӵ
rattleӵ thatӵ achievesӵ nothin¿.ӵ Theӵ subversiveӵ andӵ criticalӵ functionӵ ofӵ
contemporaryӵ artӵ isӵ nowӵ fulfilledӵ throu¿hӵ theӵ inventionӵ ofӵ individualӵ orӵ
collectiveӵ vanishin¿ӵ lines,ӵ andӵ throu¿hӵ theӵ provisionalӵ andӵ nomadicӵ
constructionsӵ artistsӵ useӵtoӵ modelӵ andӵdistributeӵ disturbin¿ӵ situations.ӵHenceӵ
ßouttíoud/ĸ/Relo!íonolĸAeS!he!ícS/ĸ /¡óöĸ
theӵcurrentӵenthusiasmӵforӵrevisitedӵspacesӵofӵconvivia|ityӵandӵcrucib|esӵwhereӵ
hetero¿eneousӵmodesӵofӵsociabi|ityӵcanӵbeӵworkedӵout.ӵForӵherӵexhibitionӵatӵtheӵ
Centreӵpourӵ|aӵCréationӵContemporaine,ӵToursӵ¦Ď998),ӵAn¿e|aӵBu||ochӵinsta||edӵaӵ
café.ӵwhenӵsufficientӵvisitorsӵsatӵdownӵonӵtheӵchairs,ӵtheyӵactivatedӵaӵrecordin¿ӵ
ofӵaӵpieceӵbyӵKraftwerk.ӵForӵherӵRcstaurantsÞuw ¦Paris,ӵDctoberӵl998),ӵCeor¿inaӵ
Starrӵ describedӵ herӵ anxietyӵ aboutӵ 'diniы¿ӵ a|one'ӵ andӵ producedӵ aӵ textӵ toӵ beӵ
handedӵtoӵdinersӵwhoӵcameӵ a|oneӵtoӵ theӵ restaurant.ӵForӵhisӵpart,ӵBenӵ Kiьmontӵ
approachedӵrandom|y-se|ectedӵpeop|e,ӵoffereΫӵtoӵdoӵtheirӵwashin¿ӵupӵforӵthemӵ
andӵ maintainedӵ anӵ informationӵ networkӵ aboutӵ hisӵ work.ӵ Dnӵ aӵ numberӵ ofӵ
occasionsӵ Linco|nӵ Tobierӵ setӵ upӵ radioӵ stationsӵ inӵ artӵ ¿a||eriesӵ andӵ invitedӵ theӵ
pub|icӵtoӵtakeӵpartӵinӵbroadcastӵdiscussions˷ӵ
Phi|ippeӵParrenoӵhasӵdrawnӵparticu|arӵinspirationӵfromӵtheӵformӵofӵtheӵpartyŅӵ
andӵhisӵ exhibitionӵpro¡ectӵforӵtheӵConsortium,ӵDŁВon,ӵconsistedӵ inӵ'takin¿ӵupӵtwoӵ
hoursӵofӵtimeӵ ratherӵ thanӵ tenӵ squareӵ metresӵ ofӵspace'ӵbyӵor¿anizin¿ӵaӵparty.ӵA||ӵ
itsӵ componentӵ e|ementsӵ δventua||yӵ producedӵ re|ationa|ӵ formsӵ asӵ c|ustersӵ ofӵ
individua|sӵ¿atheredӵaroundӵtheӵinsta||edӵartisticӵob¡ectsӵ. . . ӵRirkritӵTiravanϩ¡a,ӵforӵ
hisӵpart,ӵ exp|oresӵtheӵ socioĦprofessiona|ӵaspectӵofӵconvivia|ityļӵhisӵcontributionӵ
toӵburfaccs dc rêparation ¦DŁīon,ӵ l994)ӵwasӵaӵre|axationӵareaӵforӵtheӵ exhibitin¿ӵ
artists,ӵcomp|eteӵ withӵaӵ tab|eƷfootba||ӵ¿ameӵ andӵ aӵwe||-stockedӵfrid¿e.ӵToӵ endӵ
thisӵevocationӵofӵhowӵsuchӵconvivia|ityӵcanӵdeve|opӵinӵtheӵcontextӵofӵaӵcu|tureӵofӵ
'friendship',ӵ mentionӵ shou|dӵbeӵ madeӵofӵtheӵbarӵcreatedӵ byӵHeimoӵŌoberni¿ӵforӵ
theӵ lnitê exhibition,ӵ andӵ Franzӵ West'sӵ ͚ĘssńϪХȬИĄӵ ['adaptives'ŀ.Dzӵ Dtherӵ artistsӵ
sudden|yӵburstӵintoӵtheӵre|ationa|ӵ fabricӵ inӵ moreӵa¿¿ressiveӵ ways.ӵTheӵworkӵofӵ
Dou¿|asӵ Cordon,ӵ forӵexamp|e,ӵ exp|oresӵ theӵ'wi|d'ӵdimensionӵofӵthisӵ interactionӵ
byӵ intervenin¿ӵ inӵ socia|ӵ spaceӵ inӵ parasiticӵ orӵ paradoxica|ӵ ways.ӵ heӵ phonedӵ
customersӵinӵaӵcaféӵandӵsentӵmu|tip|eӵ 'instructions'ӵtoӵse|ectedӵindividua|s.ӵTheӵ
bestӵ examp|eӵ ofӵhowӵ untime|yӵ communicationsӵ canӵ disruptӵ communicationsӵ
networksӵ isӵprobab|yӵaӵ pieceӵ byӵAn¿usӵ Fairhurst.ӵ withӵ theӵ kindӵ ofӵequipmentӵ
usedӵ byӵ pirateӵ radioӵ stations,ӵ heӵ estab|ishedӵ aӵ phoneӵ |inkӵ betweenӵ twoӵ artӵ
¿a||eries.ӵ ijachӵ inter|ocutorӵ be|ievedӵ thatӵ theӵ otherӵ hadӵ ca||ed,ӵ andӵ theӵ
discussionsӵ de¿eneratedӵ intoӵ anӵ indescribab|eӵ confusion.ӵ Byӵ creatin¿ӵ orӵ
exp|orin¿ӵ re|ationa|ӵ schemata,ӵ theseӵ worksӵ estaΌ|ishedӵ re|ationa|ӵ micro-
territoriesӵthatӵcou|dӵbeӵdrivenӵintoӵtheӵdensityӵofӵtheӵcontemporaryӵsocius, theӵ
experiencesӵareӵeitherӵmediatedӵbyӵob¡ectĜsurfacesӵ ¦Liamӵ Ci||ick'sӵ'boards'Ņӵtheӵ
postersӵcreatedӵ inӵtheӵstreetӵbyӵPierreӵHuy¿he,ӵ ijricӵDuyckaerts'ӵvideoӵ|ectures)ӵ
orӵexperiencedӵimmediate|yӵ¦AndreaӵFraser'sӵexhibitionӵtours)ӵ[ӵ¤ ¤ + ]
Tc 5ub|cct oI thc Aork
ijveryӵ artistӵwhoseӵ workӵ derivesӵ fromӵ re|ationa|ӵ aestheticsӵ hasӵ hisӵorӵ herӵownӵ
wor|dӵ ofӵ forms,ӵ hisӵ orӵ herӵprob|ematicӵ andӵ hisӵ orӵ herӵtra¡ectory.ӵ thereӵ areӵ noӵ
¡ó4/ĸ /CR¡T¡CALANDĸCURATOR¡ALĸPO5¡T¡ON5ĸ
stylistic,ӵthematicӵ crӵ iccnc¿raphicӵ linąsӵ betweenӵthem.ӵWhatӵ theyӵ dcӵhaveӵinӵ
ccmmcnӵisӵmuchӵmcreӵdeterminant,ӵnamelyӵtheӵfactӵthatӵtheyӵcperateӵwithӵtheӵ
sameӵpracticalӵandӵthecreticalӵhcrizcn.ӵ theӵsphereӵcfӵinterhumanӵrelaticnships.ӵ
Theirӵ wcrąsӵ brin¿ӵ intcӵ playӵ mcdesӵ cfӵ sccialӵ exchan¿e,ӵ interacticnӵ withӵ theӵ
viewerӵ insideӵ theӵ aestheticӵ experienceӵ heӵ crӵ sheӵ isӵ cffered,ӵ andӵ prccessesӵ cfӵ
ccmmunicaticnӵ inӵ theirӵ ccncreteӵ dimensicnsӵ asӵ tcclsӵ thatӵ canӵ tcӵ beӵ usedӵ tcӵ
brin¿ӵtc¿etherӵindividualsӵandӵhumanӵ¿rcups.ӵ
Theyӵ therefcreӵ allӵ wcrąӵ withinӵ whatӵ weӵ mi¿htӵ callӵ theӵ relaticnalӵ sphere,ӵ
whichӵisӵtcӵtcdayƯsӵartӵwhatӵmassӵprcducticnӵwasӵtcӵPcpӵandӵMinimalism.ӵ
Theyӵallӵ¿rcundӵtheirӵartisticӵpracticeӵinӵaӵprcximiǡƫӵwhich,ӵwhilstӵitӵdcesӵnctӵ
belittleӵ visuality,ӵ dcesӵ relativizeӵ itsӵ placeӵ withinӵ exhibiticnӵ prctcccls.ӵ Theӵ
artwcrąsӵ cfӵ theӵ 1990sӵ transfcrmӵ theӵ viewerӵ intcӵ aӵ nei¿hbcurӵ crӵ aӵ directӵ
interlccutcr.ӵltӵisӵpreciselyӵthisӵ¿eneraticn'sӵattitudeӵtcwardsӵccmmunicaticnӵthatӵ
allcwsӵ itӵ tcӵ beӵ definedӵ inӵ relaticnӵ tcӵ previcusӵ ¿eneraticns.ӵ whilstӵ mcstӵ artistsӵ
whcӵemer¿edӵ inӵtheӵ1980sӵ¦frcmӵ Richardӵ Princeӵtcӵ|effӵKccnsӵviaӵ|ennyӵHclzer)ӵ
emphasizedӵtheӵvisualӵaspectӵcfӵtheӵmedia,ӵtheirӵsuccesscrsӵplaceӵtheӵemphasisӵ
cnӵccntactӵandӵtactility.ӵTheyӵemphasiseӵímmcJíoc¡Ŧ inӵtheirӵvisualӵwritin¿.ӵThisӵ
phencmencnӵcanӵbeӵexplainedӵinӵscciclc¿icalӵtermsӵifӵweӵrecallӵthatӵtheӵdecadeӵ
thatӵhasӵ¡ustӵendedӵwasӵmarąedӵbyӵtheӵeccncmicӵcrisisӵandӵdidӵlittleӵtcӵenccura¿eӵ
spectacularӵ crӵ visicnaryӵ experiments.ӵ Thereӵ areӵ alscӵ purelyӵ aestheticӵ reascnsӵ
whyӵthisӵshculdӵhaveӵbeenӵtheӵcase,ӵinӵtheӵ1980s,ӵtheӵ'bacąӵtc'ӵpendulumӵstcppedӵ
withӵ theӵ mcvementsӵ cfӵ theӵ 1960sӵ andӵ especiallyӵ Pcpӵ art,ӵ whcseӵ visualӵ
effectivenessӵ underpinnedӵ mcstӵ cfӵ theӵ fcrmsӵ prcpcsedӵ byӵ símu|o!íonísm.Ŧ Fcrӵ
betterӵcrӵwcrse,ӵcurӵpericdӵidentifiesӵwithӵtheӵArteӵPcӚeraӵandӵexperimentalӵartӵ
cfӵtheӵ 1970s,ӵandӵevenӵwithӵtheӵatmcsphereӵcfӵcэsisӵthatӵwentӵwithӵit.ӵSuperficialӵ
asӵ itӵmayӵbe,ӵ thisӵ fashicnӵeffectӵhadӵmadeӵitӵpcssibleӵtcӵ re-examineӵtheӵwcrąӵcfӵ
artistsӵ suchӵ asӵ Ccrdcnӵ MattaƷClarąӵ crӵ Rcbertӵ ĩmithscn,ӵ whilstӵ theӵ successӵ cfӵ
MiąeӵKelleyӵhasӵrecentlyӵenccura¿edӵaӵnewӵreadin¿ӵcfӵtheӵCalifcrnianӵ'¡unlśӵart'ӵcfӵ
PaulӵTheąӵandӵTetsumiaӵ Kudc.ӵ Fashicnӵ canӵthusӵ createӵ aestheticӵ micrcclimatesӵ
whichӵ affectӵ theӵveryӵwayӵweӵ readӵrecentӵhistcry.ӵ tcӵ putӵitӵaӵdifferentӵway,ӵthe
ȃӵ
meshӵ cfӵtheӵ sieve'sӵ netӵ canӵ beӵ wcvenӵ inӵ differentӵways.ӵ ltӵ thenӵ 'letsӵ thrcu¿h'ӵ
differentӵtypesӵcfӵwcrą,ӵandӵthatӵinIluencesӵtheӵpresentӵinӵreturn.ӵ
Havin¿ӵsaidӵthat,ӵwhenӵweӵ lccąӵatӵrelaticnalӵartists,ӵweӵfindӵcurselvesӵ inӵtheӵ
presenceӵ cfӵaӵ¿rcupӵcfӵartistsӵ whc,ӵ fcrӵ theӵ firstӵ timeӵ sinceӵ theӵ emer¿enceӵ cfӵ
ccnceptualӵartӵinӵtheӵmid-1960s,ӵsimplyӵdcӵnctӵtaąeӵasӵtheirӵstartin¿ӵpcintӵscmeӵ
aestheticӵmcvementӵfrcmӵ theӵpast.ӵRelaticnalӵartӵisӵneitherӵaӵ'revival'ӵ cfӵscmeӵ
mcvementӵncrӵtheӵreturnӵcfӵaӵstyle.ӵltӵisӵbcrnӵcfӵtheӵcbservaticnӵcfӵtheӵpresentӵ
andӵcfӵaӵreflecticnӵ cnӵ theӵdestinyӵcfӵartisticӵactivity.ӵltsӵ basicӵhypcthesisӵ - theӵ
sphereӵcfӵhumanӵrelaticnsӵasӵ siteӵfcrӵtheӵartwcrąӵ- isӵwithcutӵprecedentӵinӵtheӵ
histcryӵcfӵart,ӵevenӵ thcu¿hӵ itӵcanӵ cfӵccurseӵbeӵseen,ӵ afterӵ theӵ event,ӵ tcӵbeӵ theӵ
ßouttíoud/ĸ/ReIo!íonoIĸAeS!he!ícS/ĸ /¡óõĸ
obviousӵ baclŊdropӵ toӵ allӵ aestheticӵ practice,ӵ andӵ theӵ modeоistӵ themeӵ porŦ
cxcc||cncc.ŦAnyoneӵwhoӵneedsӵtoӵbeӵconvincedӵthatӵinteractivityӵisӵscarcelyӵaӵnewӵ
notionӵhasӵ onlyӵtoӵrereadӵ Marcelӵ Duchamp'sӵ lDŽ57ӵlectureӵ onӵ Ćtheӵcreativeӵ act'.ӵ
Theӵ noveltyӵ liesӵ elsewhere.ӵ ltӵ residesӵ inӵ theӵ factӵ that,ӵ forӵ thisӵ ¿enerationӵ ofӵ
artists,ӵ intersub¡ectivityӵ andӵ interactionӵ areӵ neitherӵ fashionableӵ theoreticalӵ
¿ad¿etsӵnorӵad¡unctsӵtoӵ¦alibisӵforǼӵaӵtraditionalӵartisticӵpractice.ӵTheyӵareӵatӵonceӵ
aӵstartin¿ӵpointӵandӵaӵpointӵofӵarrival,ӵorӵinӵshortӵtheӵmainӵthemesӵthatӵinformӵ
theirӵwork.ӵTheӵ spaceӵ inӵ whichӵ theirӵ worksӵareӵ deployedӵ isӵdevotedӵ entirelyӵ toӵ
interaction.ӵ ltӵ isӵaӵspaceӵforӵ theӵ opennessӵ¦Ceor¿esӵBatailleӵwouldӵhaveӵcalledӵitӵ
aӵ'rent'Ǽӵthatӵ inau¿uratesӵ allӵ dialo¿ue.ӵ Theseӵ artistsӵ produceӵ relationalӵ space-
times,ӵ interhumanӵ experiencesӵ thatӵ tryӵ toӵ shakeӵ offӵ theӵ constraintsӵ ofӵ theӵ
ideolo¿yӵ ofӵmassӵ communications,ӵ theyӵ areӵ inӵ aӵ senseӵ spacesӵ whereӵ weӵ canӵ
elaborateӵ alternativeӵ formsӵ ofӵ sociability,ӵ criticalӵ modelsӵ andӵ momentsӵ ofӵ
constructedӵconviviality.ӵltӵis,ӵhowever,ӵobviousӵthatӵtheӵdayӵofӵtheӵNewӵManӵofӵ
theӵ future-orientedӵ manifestosӵ andӵ theӵ callsӵ forӵ aӵ betterӵ worldӵ 'withӵ vacantӵ
possession'ӵ isӵ wellӵ andӵ trulyӵ ¿one.ӵ utopiaӵ isӵ nowӵ experiencedӵ asӵ aӵ dayӵ toӵdayӵ
sub¡ectivity,ӵ inӵ thȲӵ realӵ timeӵ ofӵ concreteӵ andӵ deliberatelyӵ fra¿mentaryӵ
experiments.ӵ Theӵ artworkӵ nowӵ looksӵ likeӵ aӵ sociolŦ in!crs!iccŦ inӵ whichӵ theseӵ
experiencesӵandӵtheseӵnewӵ'lifeӵpossibilities'ӵproveӵtoӵbeӵpossible.ӵlnventin¿ӵnewӵ
relationsӵ withӵourӵnei¿hboursӵseemsӵ toӵ beӵ aӵ matterӵofӵmuchӵ ¿reaterӵ ur¿encyӵ
thanӵ'makin¿ӵtomorrowsӵsin¿'.ʇӵThatӵisӵall,ӵbutӵitӵisӵstillӵaӵlot.ӵAndӵitӵatӵleastӵoffersӵ
aӵwelcomeӵalternativeӵtoӵ theӵ depressive,ӵauthoritarianӵandӵreactionaryӵthou¿htӵ
that,ӵ atӵ leastӵ inӵ France,ӵ passesӵ forӵartӵ theoryӵ inӵ theӵ shapeӵ ofӵ'commonӵ sense'ӵ
rediscovered.ӵAndӵyetӵmodernityӵisӵnotӵdead,ӵifӵweӵdefineӵasӵĆmodern'ӵmeanin¿ӵ
aӵ tasteӵ forӵaestheticӵ experienceӵ andӵ adventurousӵ thinkin¿,ӵ asӵ opposedӵ toӵ theӵ
timidӵconformismsӵthatӵareӵdefendedӵbyӵphilosophersӵwhoӵareӵpaidӵbyӵtheӵline,ӵ
neoŘtraditionalistsӵ¦theӵludicrousӵDaveӵHickey'sӵ'Beauty')ӵandӵmilitantӵposscis!csŦ
likeӵ|eanӵClair.ӵ Whetherӵfundamentalistӵbelieversӵinӵyesterday'sӵ¿ooJŦ!os!cŦlikeӵitӵ
orӵnot,ӵ contemporaryӵ artӵ hasӵ takenӵ upӵ andӵ doesӵ representӵtheӵ herita¿eӵ ofӵtheӵ
avant-¿ardesӵofӵtheӵ twentiethӵ century,ӵwhilstӵatӵ theӵ sameӵ timeӵ re¡ectin¿ӵtheirӵ
do¿matismӵandӵtheirӵteleolo¿y.ӵ lӵ haveӵtoӵadmitӵthatӵaӵlotӵofӵthou¿htӵwhenӵintoӵ
thatӵ lastӵ sentence.ӵ itӵ wasӵ simplyӵ timeӵ toӵ writeӵ it.ӵ Becauseӵ modernismӵ wasӵ
steepedӵinӵanӵ'oppositionalӵima¿inary',ӵtoӵborrowӵaӵphraseӵfromӵCilbertӵDurand,ӵ
itӵworkedӵwithӵbreaksӵandӵ clashes,ӵandӵcheerfullyӵdishonouredӵtheӵpastӵinӵtheӵ
nameӵofӵtheӵfuture.ӵltӵwasӵbasedӵonӵconflict,ӵwhereasӵtheӵima¿inaryӵofӵourӵperiodӵ
isӵconcernedӵwithӵne¿otiations,ӵlinksӵandӵcoexistence.ӵWeӵnoӵlon¿erӵtryӵtoӵmakeӵ
pro¿ressӵ thanksӵ toӵ conflictӵandӵ clashes,ӵ butӵ byӵ discoverin¿ӵ newӵ assembla¿esˆӵ
possibleӵ relationsӵ betweenӵ distinctӵ units,ӵ andӵ byӵ buildin¿ӵ alliancesӵ betweenӵ
differentӵ partners.ӵ Likeӵ socialӵ contracts,ӵ aestheticӵ contractsӵ areӵ seenӵ forӵwhatӵ
theyӵare.ӵ noӵoneӵexpectsӵtheӵColdenӵA¿eӵtoӵbeӵusheredӵinӵonӵthisӵearth,ӵandӵweӵ
¡óó/ĸ /CR¡T¡CAĸADĸCURATOR¡AĸPO5¡T¡ON5ĸ
areӵquiteӵhappyӵtcӵcreateӵmoJusŦvivcnJĻŦthaҤӵmalśeӵpcssibleӵfaiŃerӵsccialӵŃelaticnsćӵ
mcreӵdenseӵwaysӵcfӵlife,ӵandӵmultiple,ӵfruitfulӵ ccmbinaəicnsӵcfӵexistence˸ӵByӵtheӵ
sameӵcritericn,ӵartӵncӵlcn¿erӵtriesӵtcӵrepresentӵutcpiasdžӵ itӵisӵtryin¿ӵtcӵccnstructӵ
ccncreteӵspacesӵ[ӵq ( ( |
Thc Critcrion oI Cocxistcncc (Works and IndividuaIs]
Ccnzalez-Tcrres'ӵartӵ¿ivesӵaӵcentralӵrcleӵtcӵne¿ctiaticnӵandӵtcӵtheӵccnstructicnӵcfӵ
aӵsƝaredӵhabitat.ӵltӵalscӵccntainsӵanӵethicsӵcfӵtheӵ¿aze.ӵTcӵthatӵextent,ӵitӵbelcn¿sӵ
withinӵaӵspecificӵhistcry.ӵthatӵcfӵartwcrksӵthatӵmakeӵtheӵviewerӵccnscicusӵcfӵtheӵ
ccntextӵ inӵ whichӵ heӵ crӵ sheӵ findsӵ himselfIJherselfӵ ¦theӵ happenin¿sӵ andӵ
'envircnments'ӵcfӵtheӵ l960s,ӵsite-specificӵinstallaticns).ӵ
AtӵcneӵCcnzalez-Tcrresӵexhibiticn,ӵlӵsawӵvisitcrsӵ¿rabbin¿ӵhandfulsӵcfӵsweetsӵ
andӵcrammìn¿ӵasӵmanyӵcfӵthemӵasӵtheyӵcculdӵintcӵtheirӵpccžets.ӵ theyӵwereӵbein¿ӵ
ccnfrcntedӵ withӵ theirӵ cwnӵ sccialӵ behavicur,ӵ fetishismӵ andӵ acquisitiveӵ
wcrldviewӵ . . . ӵDthers,ӵinӵccntrast,ӵdidӵnctӵdareӵtcӵtakeӵtheӵsweets,ӵcrӵwaitedӵuntilӵ
thcseӵnextӵtcӵthemӵtcckӵcneӵbefcreӵdcin¿ӵlikewise.ӵTheӵ'candyӵspill'ӵwcrksӵthusӵ
raiseӵ anӵethicalӵ prcblemӵ inӵaӵseemin¿lyӵancdyneӵfcrяҥӵ curӵ relaticnshipӵ withӵ
authcrity,ӵ theӵ useӵ museumӵ attendantsӵ makeӵ cfӵ theirӵ pcwer,ӵ curӵ senseӵ cfӵ
prcpcrticnӵandӵtheӵnatureӵcfӵcurӵrelaticnshipӵwithӵtheӵartwcrk.ӵ
Tcӵ theӵ extentӵ thatӵ theӵ latterӵ representsӵ anӵ cppcrtuniəyӵ fcĬӵ aӵ senscryӵ
experienceӵbasedӵ upcnӵexchan¿e,ӵitӵmustӵbeӵsub¡ectӵtcӵ criteriaӵanalc¿cusӵwithӵ
thcseӵ cnӵ whichӵ weӵ baseӵ curӵevaluaticnӵcfӵanyӵccnstructedӵ sccialӵ reality.ӵ
ͤ
heӵ
basisӵ cfӵ tcday'sӵ experienceӵ cfӵartӵ isӵ theӵ co-prcscnccŦ o]Ŧ spcc!o!orsŦ cc]orcŦ !ncŦ
or!work,Ŧbeӵitӵactualӵcrӵsymbclic.ӵTheӵfirstӵquesticnӵweӵ shculdӵaskӵwhenӵweӵfindӵ
curselvesӵinӵtheӵpresenceӵcfӵanӵartwcrkӵis.ӵ
Dcesӵitӵallcwӵmeӵtcӵexistӵasӵlʎ lcckӵatӵitӵcrӵdcesӵit,ӵcnӵtheӵccntrary,ӵ denyӵ myӵ
existeюceӵasӵ aӵsub¡ectӵandӵdcesӵitsӵstructureӵrefuseӵtcӵ ccnsiderӵtheӵ Dther?ӵDcesӵ
theӵspace-timeӵsu¿¿estedӵ crӵdescribedӵbyӵthisӵartwcrk,ӵ tc¿etherӵwithӵtheӵlawsӵ
thatӵ¿cvernӵ it,ӵ ccrrespcndӵtcӵmyӵ real-lifeӵ aspiraticns?ӵDcesӵitӵfcrmӵaӵcritiqueӵcfӵ
whatӵneedsӵcritique?ӵlfӵthereӵwasӵaӵccrrespcndin¿ӵspace-timeӵinӵreality,ӵcculdӵlʎ
liveӵinӵit?ӵ
Theseӵquesticnsӵ dcӵ nctӵrelateӵ tcӵ anӵ excessivelyӵ anthrcpcmcrphicӵ visicnӵ cfӵ
art.ӵ Theyӵ relateӵ tcӵ aӵ visicnӵ thatӵ isӵ Ѹuiteӵ simplyӵ numonĔŦ tcӵ theӵ bestӵ cfӵ myӵ
kncwled¿e,ӵ artistsӵ intendӵtheirӵwcrkӵtcӵ beӵseenӵbyӵtheirӵccntempcraries,ӵunlessӵ
theyӵ re¿ardӵ themselvesӵ asӵ livin¿ӵ cnӵ bcrrcwedӵ timeӵ crӵ believeӵ inӵ aӵ fascist-
fundamentalistӵversicnӵcfӵhistcryӵ¦timeӵȯcsin¿ӵcverӵitsӵmeanin¿ӵandӵcri¿ins).ӵDnӵ
theӵccntrary,ӵthcseӵartwcrksӵthatӵsεemӵtcӵmeӵtcӵbeӵwcrt
Ϟ
yӵcfӵsustainedӵinterestӵ
areӵtheӵcnesӵthatӵfuncticnӵasӵinterstices,ӵasӵspace-timesӵ¿cvernedӵbyӵ
anӵeccncmyӵ
thatӵ¿cesӵbeycndӵtheӵprevailin¿ӵrulesӵfcrӵtheӵmana¿ementӵcfӵtheӵpublic.ӵTheӵfirstӵ
thin¿ӵthatӵstrikesӵmeӵabcutӵthisӵ¿eneraticnӵcfӵartistsӵisӵthatӵtheyӵareӵ inspiredӵbyӵ
ßouDíoud/ĸ /Relo!íonolĸAeS!he!ícS{ĸ/ló¯ĸ
aӵ concernӵ forӵ Jcmocroc¡.Ŧ ŵorӵ artӵ doesӵ notӵ transcendӵ ourӵ dayӵ toӵ dayӵ
preoccupationsŲӵitӵbrin¿sӵusӵfaceӵtoӵfaceӵwithӵrealityӵthrou¿hӵtheӵsin¿ularityӵofӵaӵ
relationshipӵwithӵtheӵworld,ӵthrou¿hӵaӵfiction.ӵNoӵoneӵwillӵconvinceӵmeӵthatӵanӵ
authoritarianӵartӵcanӵreferӵitsӵviewersӵtoӵanyӵrealӵ- beӵitӵaӵfantasyӵorӵanӵacceptedӵ
realityӵ - otherӵthanӵ thatӵofӵanӵ intolerantӵ society.ӵ lnӵ sharpӵ contrastӵartistsӵ likeӵ
Conzalez-Torres,ӵ andӵ nowӵ An¿elaӵ Bulloch,ӵ Carstenӵ Hƣller,ӵ Cabrielӵ Drozcoӵ orӵ
Pierreӵ Huy¿he,ӵ brin¿ӵ usӵ faceӵ toӵ faceӵ withӵ exhibitionӵ situationsӵ inspiredӵ byӵ aӵ
concernӵ toӵ '¿iveӵ everyoneӵ aӵ chance'ӵ thanksӵ toӵ formsӵ thatӵ doӵ notӵ ¿iveӵ theӵ
producerӵ anyӵ oŦpríoriŦ superiorityӵ ¦let'sӵ callӵ itӵ divine-ri¿htӵ authority)ӵ overӵtheӵ
viewer,ӵ butӵ whichӵ ne¿otiateӵ openӵ relationsӵ thatӵ areӵ notӵ pre-established.ӵ Theӵ
statusӵofӵtheӵviewerӵalternatesӵbetweenӵthatӵofӵaӵpassiveӵconsumer,ӵandӵthatӵofӵ
aӵwitness,ӵanӵassociate,ӵaӵclient,ӵaӵ¿uest,ӵaӵco-producerӵandӵaӵprota¿onist.ӵSoӵweӵ
needӵtoӵpayӵattention:ӵweӵknowӵthatӵattitudesӵbecomeӵforms,ӵandӵweӵnowӵhaveӵ
toӵ realizeӵthatӵformsӵinduceӵmodelsӵofӵsociability.ӵ
Andӵtheӵexhibitionˣformӵitselfӵisӵnotӵimmuneӵ toӵtheseӵwarnin¿sĐӵ theӵspreadӵ
ofӵ 'curiosityӵ cabinets'ӵ thatӵɣeӵ haveӵ beenӵ seein¿ӵ forӵ someӵ timeӵ now,ӵ toӵ sayӵ
nothin¿ӵofӵtheӵ elitistӵattitudesӵofӵcertainӵactorsӵinӵ theӵartӵworld,ӵ whichӵ revealsӵ
theirӵ holyӵterrorӵofӵpublicӵspacesӵ andӵ collectiveӵ aestheticӵexperimentation,ӵandӵ
theirӵloveӵofӵboudoirsӵthatӵareӵreservedӵforӵspecialistsȄӵ Makin¿ӵthin¿sӵavailableӵ
doesӵnotӵnecessarilyӵmakeӵthemӵbanal.ӵÍʎ withӵoneӵofӵConzalez-Torres'ӵ pilesӵ ofӵ
sweets,ӵ thereӵ canӵ beӵ anӵ idealӵ balanceӵ betweenӵ formӵ andӵ itsӵ pro¿rammedӵ
disappearance,ӵbetweenӵvisualӵbeautyӵandӵmodestӵ¿estures,ӵbetweenӵaӵchildlikeӵ
wonderӵatӵtheӵima¿eӵandӵtheӵ complexityӵofӵtheӵdifferentӵlevelsӵatӵwhichӵitӵcanӵ
beӵread.ӵ[ӵ= . ¤ ĉӵ
RcIationaI Acsthctics and Constmctcd 5ituations
Theӵ Situationistӵ conceptӵ ofӵaӵ 'constructedӵ situation'ӵ wasӵ intendedӵ toӵ replaceӵ
artisticӵ representationӵ withӵ theӵ experimentalӵ realizationӵ ofӵartisticӵ ener¿yӵ inӵ
everydayӵ environments.ӵ Whilstӵ Cuyӵ Debord'sӵ dia¿nosisӵ ofӵ theӵ spectacularӵ
processӵofӵproductionӵseemsӵpitiless,ӵSituationistӵtheoryӵoverlooksӵtheӵfactӵthat,ӵ
whilstӵ theӵ spectacle'sӵ primaryӵ tar¿etsӵ areӵ formsӵ ofӵ humanӵ relationsӵ ¦theӵ
spectacleӵisӵ'aӵsocialӵrelationshipӵbetweenӵpeople,ӵmediatedӵbyӵima¿es'),ӵtheӵonlyӵ
wayӵweӵcanӵanalyseӵandӵresistӵitӵisӵbyӵproducin¿ӵnewӵmodesӵofӵhumanӵrelations.ӵ
Nowӵtheӵ notionӵofӵaӵ situationӵ doesӵ notӵnecessarilyӵ implyӵ coexistenceӵwithӵ
myӵfellows.ӵ ltӵisӵ possibleӵ toӵ ima¿eӵ situationsӵ thatӵareӵ'constructed'ӵforӵprivateӵ
use,ӵorӵevenӵsituationsӵthatӵdeliberatelyӵexclȣdeӵothers.ӵTheӵnotionӵofӵaӵsituationӵ
reintroducesӵ theӵ unitiesӵ ofӵtime,ӵ placeӵ andӵ actionӵ inӵ aӵ theatreӵ thatӵ doesӵ notӵ
necessaěilyӵinvolveӵaӵrelationshipӵwithӵtheӵDther.ӵNow,ӵartisticӵpracticeӵalwaysӵ
involvedӵ aӵ relationshipӵ withӵ theӵ other,ӵ atӵ theӵ sameӵ time,ӵ itӵ constitutesӵ aӵ
relationshipӵ withӵ theӵ world.ӵ Aӵ cons!ruc!cJŦ sí!uo!ionŦ doesӵ notӵ necessarilyӵ
¡óß/ĸ /CR¡T¡CAANDĸCURATOR¡ALĸPO5¡T¡ON5ĸ
correspondӵtoӵaӵrclo|ionolŦworldŦfoundedӵonӵtheӵbasisӵofӵaӵfi¿ureӵofӵexchan¿e.ӵl sӵ
i tӵ ¡ustӵaӵcoincidenceӵthatӵDebordӵdiviȮlesӵtheӵtemporalityӵofӵtheӵspectacleӵintoӵtheӵ
'exchan¿eableӵtime'ӵofӵlabour,ӵ ('|ncŦ cndlcssŦ occumulo|ionŦ o]Ŧcquívolcn|Ŧín|crvols')Ŧ
anȰӵtheӵ'consumableӵtime'ӵofӵholidays,ӵwhichӵimitatesӵtheӵcyclesӵofӵnatureӵbutӵisӵ
atӵtheӵsameӵtimeӵnoӵmoreӵthanӵaӵspectacleӵ'|oŦoŦmorcŦin|cnscŦdc¿rcc'.ŦTheӵnotionӵ
ofӵexchan¿eableӵtimeӵprovesӵhereӵtoӵ
beӵpurelyӵne¿ative:ӵtheӵne¿ativeӵelementӵisӵ
notӵtheӵexchan¿eӵ asӵ suchӵ- exchan¿eӵisӵaӵfactorӵ inӵlifeӵandӵ sociabilityӵ- butӵtheӵ
copi|olis|Ŧ ]ormsŦ o]Ŧ cxcnon¿cŦ thatӵ Debordӵ identifies,ӵ perhapsӵ wron¿ly,ӵ withӵ
interhumanӵexchan¿e.ӵThoseӵformsӵofӵexchan¿eӵareӵbornӵofӵtheӵ 'encounter'ӵthatӵ
takesӵ placeӵ inӵ theӵformӵofӵaӵcontractӵbetweenӵ anӵ accumulationӵofӵcapitalӵ¦theӵ
employer)ӵandӵ availableӵ labour-powerӵ¦theӵfactoryӵ orӵ officeӵ workers).ӵTheyӵ doӵ
notӵrepresentӵexchan¿eӵinӵtheӵabsoluteӵsense,ӵbutӵaӵhistoricalӵfoƤmӵofӵproductionӵ
¦capĪtalĪsm)ƍӵ labourӵtĪmeӵ Īsӵ thereforeӵ notӵsoӵ muchӵ 'exchan¿eableӵ tĪme'ӵ Īnӵ theӵ
stron¿ӵsenseӵofӵtheӵterms,ӵasӵ timeӵthatӵcanӵbeӵcou¿n|Ŧinӵtheӵformӵofӵaӵwa¿e.ӵAnӵ
artworkӵ thatӵ formsӵ aӵ 'relationalӵ world'ӵ orӵ aӵ socialӵ intersticeӵ canӵ updateӵ
Situationismӵandӵreconcileӵit,ӵinӵsoӵfarӵasӵthatӵisӵpossible,ӵwithӵtheӵworldӵofӵart.ӵ
[ӵ.
*
Thc ßchaviouraI Fconomy oI Contcmporary An
'Howӵ canӵ youӵ brin¿ӵ aӵ classroomӵ toӵ lifeӵ asӵ thou¿hӵ itӵ wereӵ anӵ artworkŜ'ӵ asksӵ
Ĵuattari.ʈӵByӵaskin¿ӵthisӵquestion,ӵheӵraisesӵtheӵultimateӵaestheticӵproblem.ӵHowӵ
isӵaestheticsӵ toӵ beӵ used,ӵ andӵ canӵ itӵpossiblyӵbeӵin¡ectedӵ intoӵ tissuesӵ thatӵ haveӵ
beenӵ ri¿idifiedӵbyӵtheӵcapitalistӵeconomyŜӵ Fverythin¿ӵsu¿¿estsӵthatӵmodernityӵ
was,ӵfromӵtheӵ lateӵ nineteenthӵcenturyӵonwards,ӵconstructedӵonӵtheӵbasisӵ ofӵtheӵ
ideaӵofӵʉlifeӵ asӵaӵworkӵ ofӵart'.ӵAsӵ 0scarӵWildeӵʹutӵ it,ӵ moderniɔyӵisӵtheӵ momentӵ
whenӵ'artӵdoesӵnotӵimitateӵlifeĈӵlifeӵiпitatesӵart'.ӵMarxӵwasӵthinkin¿ӵalon¿ӵsimilarӵ
linesӵwhenӵheӵcriticisedӵtheӵclassicalӵdistinctionӵbetweenӵproxísŦ¦theӵactӵofӵselfǧ
transformation)ӵandӵpoiζsísӵ¦aӵ'necessary'ӵbutӵservileӵactionӵdesi¿nedӵtoӵproduceӵ
orӵtransformӵmatter).ӵMarxӵtookӵ
theӵviewӵthat,ӵonӵtheӵcontrary,ӵpraxisӵconstantlyӵ
becomesӵ partӵofӵpoicsis, andӵviceӵversa.ӵĴeor¿esӵBatailleӵlaterӵbuiltӵhisӵworkӵonӵ
theӵcritiqueӵofӵ'theӵrenunciationӵofӵlifeӵinӵexchan¿eӵforӵaӵfunction'ӵonӵwhichӵtheӵ
capitalistӵeconomyӵisӵbased.ӵTheӵthreeӵre¿istersӵofӵ'science',ӵ 'fiction'ӵandӵ 'action'ӵ
destroyӵ humanӵ lifeӵ byӵ colicro|ín¿Ŧ itӵ onӵ theӵ basisӵ ofӵ pre-¿ivenӵ cate¿џries.ɵӵ
Ĵuattari'sӵ ecosophyӵ alsoӵ postulatesӵ thatӵ theӵ totalizationӵ ofӵ lifeӵ isӵ aӵ necessaryӵ
preliminaryӵtoӵ theӵ productionӵofӵsub¡ectivity.ӵ ForӵĴuattari,ӵsub¡ectivityӵ hasӵtheӵ
centralӵ roleӵ thatӵ Marxӵ ascribesӵ toӵ labour,ӵ andӵ thatӵ Batailleӵ ¿ivesӵ toӵ inncrŦ
cxpcncnccŦ inӵ theӵ individualӵ andӵ collectiveӵ attempҦӵ toӵ reconstructӵ theӵ lostӵ
totality.ӵ 'Theӵ onlyӵacceptableӵ¿oalӵ ofӵhumanӵ activities,'ӵ writesӵ Ĵuattari,ӵ 'isӵ theӵ
productionӵ ofӵaӵsub¡ectivityӵthatӵ constantlyӵself-enrichesӵ itsӵ relationshipӵ withӵ
theӵ world'.ɴӵ Hisӵ definitionӵ isӵ ideallyӵ applicableӵ toӵ theӵ practicesӵ ofӵ theӵ
ßouttíoud/ĸ/Re!o!íono!ĸAeS!he!ícS/ĸ /¡óºĸ
contemporaryӵartistsӵwhoӵcreateӵandӵsta¿eӵlife-structuŦesӵthatӵinȯudeӵ workin¿ӵ
methodsӵandӵwaysӵofӵlife,ӵratherӵthanӵtheӵconcreteӵob¡ectsӵthaǢӵonceӵdefinedӵtheӵ
fϫeldӵofӵart.ӵTheyӵuseӵtimeӵasӵaӵrawӵmateriaƒӵFormӵtakesӵpriorityӵoverӵthin¿s,ӵandӵ
flowsӵ overӵ cate¿ories.ӵ theӵ productionӵ ofӵ¿esturesӵ isӵ moreӵ importantӵ thanӵ theӵ
productionӵofӵmaterialӵ thin¿s.ӵToday'sӵviewersӵareӵinvitedӵtoӵcrossӵtheӵthresholdӵ
ofӵ'catalysin¿ӵtemporalӵmodules',ӵratherӵthanӵtoӵcontemplateӵimmanentӵob¡ectsӵ
thatӵdoӵnotӵ openӵ onӵtoӵtheӵworldӵtoӵwhǕchӵtheyӵrefer.ӵTheӵ artistsӵ ¿oӵ soӵ farӵasӵtoӵ
presentӵthemselvesӵasӵworldsӵofӵon¿oin¿ӵsub¡ectivation,ӵorӵasӵtheӵmoJclsŦofӵtheirӵ
ownӵsub¡ectivity.ӵTheyӵbecomeӵtheӵterrainӵforӵprivile¿edӵexperiencesӵandӵforӵtheӵ
syntheticӵ principleӵ behindӵ theirӵwork.ӵThisӵ developmentӵpreIĊ¿uresӵ theӵentireӵ
historyӵ ofӵ modernity.ӵ lnӵ thisӵ behaviouralӵ economy,ӵ theӵ artӵ ob¡ectӵ acquiresӵ aӵ
Jcccp|ivcŦuuru,Ŧanӵa¿entӵthatӵresistsӵitsӵcommodifǕedӵdistributionӵorӵbecomesӵitsӵ
mimeticӵparasite.ӵ
lnӵaӵmentalӵworldӵwhereӵtheӵready-madeӵisӵaӵprivile¿edӵmodelӵtoӵtheӵextentӵ
thatӵthatӵitӵisӵaӵcollectiveӵproductionӵ(theӵ mass-producedӵob¡ect)ӵthatӵhasӵbeηnӵ
assumedӵ andӵ recycledӵ inӵ anӵ autopoeticӵ visualӵ deviceˇӵ Cuattari'sӵ theoreticalӵ
schemaӵhelpӵusӵtoӵconceptualizeӵtheӵmutationӵthatӵisӵunderӵwayӵinӵcontemporaryӵ
art.ӵ Thatӵ wasӵ notӵ howeverӵ theirӵ author'sӵ primaryӵ ¿oal,ӵ asӵ heӵ believedӵ thatӵ
aestheticsӵmust,ӵaboveӵall,ӵaccompanyӵsocietalӵmutationsӵandӵinflectӵthem.ӵ Theӵ
poeticӵfunction,ӵwhichӵconsistsӵinӵreconstructin¿ӵworldsӵofӵsub¡ectivation,ӵmi¿htӵ
thereforeӵ beӵmeanin¿less,ӵunlessӵitӵtooӵcanӵhelpӵusӵtoӵovercomeӵ ʊtheӵordealsӵbyӵ
barbarism,ӵbyӵ mentalӵ implosionӵandӵchaosmicӵspasmӵthatӵ loomӵ onӵ theӵhorizonӵ
andӵtoӵtransformӵthemӵintoӵunforeseeableӵrichesӵandӵ]ouļssunccs.''ºŦ
lou|sͥAIIhusscr,ͥ'ThcͥUndcr¿roundͥCurrcnIͥoIͥIhcͥMaIcr|aI|smͥoIͥIhcͥEncounIcr',ͥ|nͥPhilosoph,Ǫo)Ǫ
thcǪ£ncountcrĘǪLotcrǪWritin¿sǪ ì9/8ʍì98/.ʎIrans.ͥȹ.M.ͥCosh¿ar|anͥ(london:ͥVcrso,ͥ200G) I8J.
2 M|chcIͥMaIIcsoĒ|,ͥLoǪContcmplotionǪduǪmondcǪƿFar|s:ͥCrasscI,ͥ I99J).
J Scc,ͥintcrǪolio,ǪkosaI|ndͥ Krauss,ͥ 'ScuIpIurcͥ |nͥ Ihcͥ Expandcdͥ F|cId`,ͥ 0ctobcr,Ǫ Spr|n¿ͥ I979, luīyͥ
l|ppard,ͥSixǪũcors.ǪThcǪ0cmotcr1olizotionǪo)thcǪArtwork)romǪ ì9bbʎtoǪ !9/2ċʎAǪCross-Ţc)crcnccǪ8ookǪ
o)Ǫln)onnotionǪ onǪ CorcǪAcsthcticǪ 8oundoricsǪ (6crkcIcyͥandͥ losͥAn¿cIcs:ͥ Un|vcrs|IyͥoIͥCaI|Iorn|aͥ
Frcss,ͥ I997)
1 F˛xͥCuaIIar| ,ͥLoǪkévolutionǪNJolƕƠuloircǪ(Far|sȠͥ I0lI8, I977) 22.
J FranzͥWcsI`sͥPosstƖickc,ǪorͥĖadapI|vcsĕ,ͥarcͥuncaIc¿or|zabIcͥworksͥmadcͥoIͥpap|crͥmˈ˩hc,ͥ pIasIcr,ͥ
¿auzcͥandͥ pa|nI,ͥ|nIcndcdͥ IorͥparI|c|panIsͥIoͥ|nIcracIͥw|Ih.ͥWcsIͥcomparcsͥIhcmͥIoͥ 'prosIhcscs`.ͥ
[Ed.İͥ
G Thcͥphrascͥ'mak|n¿ͥIomorrowsͥs|n¿`ͥaIIudcsͥIoͥIhcͥcxprc̰s|onͥ'vcrsͥdcsͥIcndcma|nsͥqu|ͥchanIc':ͥ
IhcͥIasIͥwordsͥ wr|IIcnͥbyͥ IhcͥCommun|sIͥCabr|cIͥFcr|ͥbcIorcͥhcͥwasͥshoIͥbyͥIhcͥCcsIapoͥ- andͥ
IhcͥI|IIcͥoIͥh|sͥposIhumousIyͥpubI|shcdͥauIob|o¿raphy.ͥ[TransIaIor]ͥ
7 FcI|xͥCuaIIar|,ͥChoosmosc,ǪFar|s:ͥEd|I|onsͥCaI|Icc,ͥ I992. I8J.
¡70J/CRITICAL ADĸCURATORIAL PO5ITION5
8 Ccor¿csͥ6aIaiIIc,ͥ'L'ApprcnIiͥsorcicr'ͥinͥDcnisͥHoIIicr,ͥcd.ŐͥLeǪColIŻ¿eǪdeǪsocioIo¿ie,ǪFaris:ͥCaII|mardͥ
'Ɏdžcs',ͥ I979, JG-60.
9 CtɊattari,ͥop.Ǫci|ğ.ǪJ8
I0 íbid. I87
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58-60.88-9, I05-8. TransļaIcdͥDyͥDav|dͥMaccy,ͥ 200G.
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!ncŦDonísnŦcuro|orŦLorsŦ8on¿Ŧ LorscnŦnosŦcccnŦo|Ŧ|ncŦ ]orc]ron|Ŧo]Ŧsuppor|in¿Ŧsocío||¡-
cn¿o¿cdŦ proc|íccsŦ ínŦ |ncŦ NordícŦ rc¿íon.Ŧ ĩnŦ |nísŦ csso¡Ŧ ncŦ prcscn|sŦ oŦ numccrŦ
o]Ŧ
con|cmporoi¸Ŧ5condínovíonŦcxomp|cs,Ŧ ondŦsccksŦ |oŦ rccovcrŦoŦnís|oríco|Ŧcon|cx|Ŧ]orŦ
|nísŦwork.Ŧ
Whatӵ lӵ chccseӵ tcӵ caĚlӵ Ćsccialӵ aesthetics'ӵ isӵ anӵ artisticӵ attitudeӵ fccusin¿ӵ cnӵ theӵ
wcrldӵcfӵacts.ӵltӵalscӵexperimentsӵwithӵtheӵtrans¿ressicnsӵcfӵvaricusӵeccncmies.ӵ
Theӵ termӵisӵccinedӵ asӵaӵ ccmmcnӵ dencminatcr,ӵasӵ cneӵ thatӵsimplyӵlendsӵ itselfӵ
withӵtheӵleastӵresistanceӵtcӵ theӵinternalӵandӵ externalӵ dynamicsӵcfӵscmeӵ recentӵ
andӵ histcricӵ artisticӵandӵarҧ-relatedӵexamples.ӵ Dneӵcculdӵ prcbablyӵsayӵthatӵtheӵ
examplesӵ belcwӵ describeӵ aӵ recentӵ traditicnӵ cfӵartӵ asӵ activism,ӵ yetӵ theyӵ areӵ
perhapsӵ clcserӵ tcӵ aӵ discussicnӵ cfӵtheӵ usesӵ cfӵart-instituticnalӵ spaceӵ thanӵ isӵ
ccmmcnlyӵseenӵ inӵ artӵ activism.ӵTheӵ termӵ 'ephemeral'ӵartӵisӵalscӵ cftenӵ usedӵ inӵ
thisӵdiscussicnӵasӵtheӵ descripticnӵ cfӵaӵsensibilityӵandӵ aӵpracticeӵali¿nedӵtcӵtheӵ
herita¿eӵ cfӵ Fluxusӵ andӵ Situaticnismӵ butӵ nct Ӭӵfittin¿ӵ underӵ theӵ artisticӵ
demarcaticnsӵ cfӵtheseӵschccls.ӵ Ccmmcnӵ tcӵ theӵ understandin¿ӵ cfӵtheӵ elevenӵ
examplesӵ belcwӵ isӵ thatӵ theӵ dynamicӵ betweenӵ artisticӵ activityӵ andӵ theӵ realmsӵ
thatӵ areӵ traditicnallyӵ rele¿atedӵ tcӵ theӵ fabricӵ cfӵ theӵ sccialӵ failsӵ prcperlyӵ tcӵ
describeӵaӵdialectic.ӵSccialӵandӵaestheticӵunderstandin¿ӵareӵinte¿ratedӵintcӵeachӵ
cther.ӵ Here,ӵ scmeӵ fcrmsӵ cfӵ sccialӵ aestheticӵ activityӵ haveӵ deliberatelyӵ beenӵ
launchedӵwithinӵtheӵartӵcircuitӵasӵartӵprc¡ectsĽӵcthersӵqualifyӵasӵart,ӵcrӵqualifyӵfcrӵ
artisticӵdiscussicn,ӵafterӵtheirӵactualizaticnӵinӵctherӵccntexts.ӵ
Theӵuntenableӵdichctcmyӵcfӵartӵversusӵrealityӵisӵexplcdedӵbyӵ theseӵprc¡ectsӵ
- aӵdichctcmyӵthatӵanywayӵusuallyӵ hidesӵ theӵpcsiticnin¿ӵcfӵartӵ inӵ aӵ privile¿edӵ
andӵalccfӵstatusӵ inӵrelaticnӵtcӵctherӵfcrmsӵ cfӵculturalӵactivity,ӵhcweverӵweakӵartӵ
mayӵ beӵ whenӵlccatedӵ inӵ 'livin¿ӵreality'.ӵTheӵdistincticnӵ betweenӵ artӵ andӵ ctherӵ
realmsӵ cfӵ kncwled¿eӵ isӵ madeӵ cperativeӵ inӵ theӵ csmcticӵ exchan¿eӵ betweenӵ
differentӵ capacitiesӵ Dʎ dcӵ thin¿s,ӵ whichӵ cpensӵ upӵtheӵ creaticnӵ cfӵnewӵ sub¡ectӵ
pcsiticnsӵandӵarticulaticnsӵcfӵdemccraticӵequivalence.ӵTheӵ sameӵ thin¿ӵ¿cesӵfcrӵ
theӵdichctcmyӵcfӵinstituticnaljncnȀinstituticnalӵspace.ӵTheӵ presentӵexamplesӵallӵ
shareӵ theӵ factӵ thatӵ artӵ andӵ theӵ artӵ instituticnӵ asӵ rescurceӵ beccmeӵ framesӵ fcrӵ
activityӵthatӵ isӵ real,ӵ becauseӵsccialӵinteracticnӵandӵ theӵ cbservaticnӵ cfӵitsӵeffectsӵ
areӵallcwedӵwithcutӵccnceptualӵri¿idity.ӵ
Theӵ sccialӵ aestheticӵ artwcrkӵ invclvesӵ aӵ utilitarianӵ crӵ practicalӵ aspectӵ thatӵ
¿ivesӵ aӵ senseӵ cfӵpurpcseӵ andӵ directӵ invclvement.ӵ lnӵ theӵ ccnstructicnӵ cfӵtheӵ
l¯2/ĸ /CR¡T¡CALĸADĸCURATOR¡ALĸPO5¡T¡ON5ĸ
sub¡ect'sӵinteractionӵwithӵcultureӵitӵcouldӵbeӵsaidӵthatӵsocialӵaestheticsӵdiscussesӵ
aӵnotionӵofӵtheӵlastin¿ӵphenomenonӵthatӵsubstantiatesӵaӵcriticalӵculturalӵanalysis,ӵ
aӵreasonӵforӵ one'sӵexistence.ӵ ltӵisӵ aӵwayӵ ofӵinvolvin¿ӵtheӵmetaphoricalӵvalueӵofӵ
artisticӵ conceptsӵ andӵ pro¡ectsӵ onӵ otherӵ professionalӵ spheres,ӵ suchӵ asӵ
architecture,ӵ desi¿n,ӵ financialӵ structures,ӵ etc.,ӵ eitherӵ asӵ anӵ understandiѐ¿ӵ
ìnte¿ratedӵinӵanӵartìstìcӵpro¡ect,ӵorӵasӵ
aӵprocessӵofӵdecodìn¿ӵandӵactualizin¿ӵartǧ
relatedӵ activityӵ withinӵitsӵ culturalӵ location.ӵ lnӵ thisӵ wayӵartisticӵ workӵassumesӵaӵ
¿eneralӵfocusӵonӵperformanceӵinӵaӵsocialӵperspective,ӵeitherӵbӛӵmeansӵofӵitsӵownӵ
natureӵasӵanӵon¿oin¿ӵpro¡ectӵwithoutӵclosureӵorӵbyӵtheӵrealӵactivityӵitӵoccasions.ӵ
Thisӵoftenӵinvolvesӵcollectiveӵor¿anizationӵandӵanӵemploymentӵofӵart'sӵcapacitiesӵ
forӵ¿oin¿ӵa¿ainstӵpŧofessionalӵspecialization.ӵ
Nonethelessӵitӵwouldӵbeӵwron¿ӵtoӵsayӵthatӵtheӵoppositeӵofӵsocialӵaestheticsӵisӵ
aӵ paintin¿ӵ orӵ aӵ sculpture,ӵ orӵanyӵ otĠerӵ traditionalӵ formӵ ofӵartisticӵexpression.ӵ
Socialӵ aestheticsӵcan'tӵbeӵ observedӵ aloneӵ andӵ inӵthisӵ senseӵ theӵ termӵisӵdoubleӵ
bound.ӵltӵsaysӵthatӵtheӵsocialӵprobablyӵcan'tӵoperateӵinӵaӵmeanin¿fulӵwayӵwithoutӵ
theӵ aestheticӵ andӵ viceӵ versa,ӵ henceӵ bothӵ theӵ socialӵ andӵ theӵ sphereӵ ofӵartӵandӵ
aestheticsӵinformӵit.ӵ
Theӵfollowin¿ӵexamplesӵareӵallӵrelatedӵtoӵtheӵScandinavianӵartӵscene,ӵwhichӵ
mayӵbeӵdueӵtoӵaӵcertainӵorientation,ӵespeciallyӵamon¿ӵCopenha¿enӵartists.ӵButӵifӵ
oneӵemploysӵtheӵresultsӵofӵtheӵsmallӵbutӵdistinctӵnumberӵofӵcontemporaryӵartistsӵ
workin¿ӵwithӵaӵ productiveӵrevisitationӵofӵ1DŽ60sӵ strate¿iesӵ inӵ theӵ visualӵ artsįӵ itӵ
wouldӵsurelyӵenableӵanӵoutlookӵuntrammelledӵbyӵ¿eo¿raphicӵboundaries.ӵThereӵ
remainӵ manyӵ storiesӵ leftӵ unexploreΦӵ inӵ theӵ localӵ andӵ ¿lobalӵ historiesӵ ofӵart'sӵ
ramificationsӵonӵtheӵsocial.ӵ
Theӵ examplesӵ areӵ presentedӵ inӵ dialo¿ueӵ ͽcrossӵ history.ӵ Theseӵ dialo¿uesӵ
representӵassociatedӵmotifsӵandӵrelatedӵ en¿a¿ementsӵandӵideas.ӵAsӵmotifsӵtheyӵ
qualiӋӵeachӵotherӵbyӵdintӵofӵuncoverin¿ӵmutuallyӵspecifìc,ӵhistoricalӵreferences.ӵ
Aӵsortӵofӵhistoricalӵ double-exposureӵorӵcross-fertilization,ӵifӵyouӵlike.ӵ
ËÎd]@I0UH0 dClÍ0H 0H WÐTT0DT0, Ã000Î J0T Ǭʎ @UdÍÌldlÍv0 Ö0CÌ0Q and
Wbb/Ö]dC0ÔdH¡0
Durin¿ӵ oneӵ Sundayӵ inӵ theӵ sprin¿ӵ ofӵ 1DŽ68,ӵ theӵ artistӵ Palleӵ Nielsenӵ builtӵ aӵ
play¿roundӵinӵtheӵslumӵofӵCopenha¿en'sӵNorthernӵBorou¿h.ӵTo¿etherӵwithӵaӵ¿ŧoupӵ
ofӵleft-win¿ӵstudentsӵheӵplannedӵtoӵclearӵtheӵcourtӵofӵaӵne¿lectedӵhousin¿ӵschemeӵ
andӵerectӵnewӵfacilitiesӵ forӵ children.ӵAtӵ sevenӵo'clockӵinӵ theӵ mornin¿ӵtheӵ ¿roupӵ
wentӵ aroundӵ toӵ allӵ theӵ resiƙentsӵ withӵ aӵ ba¿ӵ containin¿ӵtwoӵ rollsӵ andӵ aӵ paperӵ
attachedӵtoӵitӵwithӵanӵima¿eӵofӵtwoӵchildrenӵplayin¿ӵonӵtheӵkerb.ӵTheӵtextӵreadĻӵ
Doӵyouӵ h;veӵchildrenӵyourselfӵorӵdoӵyouӵ¡ustӵhcarӵtheӵchildrenӵȠ̻reamӵandӵshoutӵ
inӵtheӵstairwellӵandӵcntranceӵwhenӵyouӵcomeӵhoҏeȓӵDoӵyouӵrcmcmberӵyourӵownӵ
LotSen/ĸ /5ocíolĸAeS!he!ícS{ĸ /¡7öĸ
possibilitiesӵ forӵ playin¿ӵ asӵ fewLJӵ Whyӵ doӵ theӵchildrenӵ stillӵ makeӵ noiseӵ inӵ theӵ
entrancesLJӵ Soӵ fewӵ thin¿sӵ haveӵ chan¿edӵ sinceӵ youӵ wereӵ aӵ child.ӵ Youӵ mayӵ nowӵ
f
Ѡ
llowӵ upӵ theӵ demandsӵ forӵ moreӵ kinder¿artensӵ andӵ dayӵ nurseries,ӵ forӵ betterӵ
play¿roundsӵ andӵ youthӵ centres,ӵ andӵ forӵ¿reaterӵ investmentӵ inӵ children'sӵ wellǨ
bein¿ӵbyӵactivelyӵparticipatin¿ӵinӵaӵpublicӵdebate˹ӵHaveӵyouӵaskedӵyourӵcouncilӵorӵ
yourӵlocalӵresidents'ӵ associationӵaboutӵinvestmentsӵinӵchild-oěientatϬonLJӵ ̾oӵyouӵ
knowӵthatӵ theӵauthoritiesӵareӵempoweredӵtoӵ¿iveӵ¿rantsӵ andӵ areӵwillin¿ӵtoӵinvestӵ
inӵchildren'sӵwell-bein¿ӵifӵyouӵdemandӵitȓӵltӵisӵyourӵattitudeӵtowardsӵtheӵneedsӵofӵ
adolescentӵ childrenӵ thatӵ decidesӵ theӵ siŨeӵ ofӵ investmentӵ thatӵ fundsӵ increasedӵ
clearin¿ӵ ofӵ backyards,ӵ betterӵ playӵ facilitiesӵ inӵ futureӵ developmentsӵ andӵ newӵ
desi¿nsӵ ofӵ municipalӵ play¿ěounds.ӵ Sensibleӵ facilitiesӵ forӵ playӵ meansӵ thatӵ theӵ
childrenӵ stopӵ makin¿ӵ noiseӵ inӵ theӵentriesӵ andӵstairwells.ӵTheyӵwonưtӵhaveӵtime.ӵ
They'llӵbeӵplayin¿.ӵ
So,ӵ theӵresidentsӵcameӵdownӵandӵ participatedӵ inӵ theӵaction,ӵandӵbyӵ fourӵo'clockӵ
inӵtheӵafternoonӵeverythin¿ӵwasӵchan¿ed.ӵ
lnӵ 1968,ӵ durin¿ӵ aӵ researchӵ stayӵ inӵ Stockholm,ӵ Palleӵ Nielsenӵ choseӵ theӵ
Modernaӵ Museetӵ asӵ aӵ frameworkӵ toӵ exploreӵ whatӵ heӵ hadӵ previouslyӵ beenӵ
practisin¿ӵasӵactionism.ӵAfterӵaӵperiodӵofӵbar¿ainin¿ӵforӵanӵinvitation,ӵinӵDctoberӵ
1968ӵaӵplay¿roundӵinӵtheӵmuseum,ӵMoJclŦĴorŦoŦÇuolí!o!ívcŦĥoİĽcş,Ŧwasӵbuiltӵwithӵ
theӵ assistanceӵ ofӵ aӵ ¿roupӵ ofӵ localӵ Vietnamӵ activists.ӵ Facilitiesӵ forӵ continuedӵ
creativityӵ wereӵ atӵ theӵ children'sӵ disposalӵ durin¿ӵ theӵ entireӵ courseӵ ofӵ theӵ
manifestation,ӵ inӵ theӵ formӵ ofӵtools,ӵ paint,ӵ buildin¿ӵ materialsӵ andӵ fabrics.ӵ Theӵ
RoyalӵTheatěeӵdonatedӵperiodӵcostumesӵfromӵdifferentӵepochsӵtoӵbeӵusedӵforӵroleӵ
play.ӵ Toӵ thisӵ day,ӵ theӵ noiseӵ levelӵ ofӵ theӵ peda¿o¿icalӵ artӵ pro¡ectӵ isӵ surelyӵ
unparalleledӵinӵartӵhistory.ӵloudspeakerӵtowersӵwereӵplacedӵinӵeachӵcornerӵofӵtheӵ
exhibitionӵspace,ӵandӵtheӵyoun¿ӵmuseum-¿oersӵoperatedӵtheӵturntablesӵwithӵțPsӵ
fromӵeveryӵ¿enre,ӵplayin¿ӵdanceӵ musicӵfromӵtheӵRenaissanceӵatӵanӵearˤsplittin¿ӵ
level.ӵlnӵtheӵrestaurantӵaӵnumberӵofTVӵscreensӵwithӵliveӵtransmissionӵofferedӵaӵ
panopticonӵforӵ uneasyӵparents,ӵandӵ enabledӵmoreӵsedateӵvisitorsӵtoӵtakeӵinӵtheӵ
activeӵ studyӵofӵchildren'sӵcontactӵlan¿ua¿e.ӵTheӵplay¿roundӵarchitectureӵmadeӵ
concreteӵ theӵ peda¿o¿icalӵ aim.ӵ aӵ protectedӵ butӵ peda¿o¿icallyӵ empowerin¿ӵ
milieu,ӵ toӵ beӵ accessedӵ freelyӵ byӵ allӵ ofӵStockholm'sӵ kidsӵ (adultsӵ hadӵ toӵ payӵ 5Ŧ
crownsӵtoӵ¿etӵ in).ӵ Durin¿ӵ itsӵthree-weekӵexhibitionӵ periodӵ theӵMoJclŦ receivedӵ
overӵ88,000ӵvisitors,ӵ 20,000ӵofӵwhomӵwereӵchildren.ӵ
Theӵnotionӵthatӵaӵchild'sӵearlyӵsocialӵrelationsӵformӵtheӵadultӵindividualӵwasӵ
investi¿atedӵ byӵwayӵofӵtheӵMoJcl.Ŧ Creativityӵandӵ experientialӵcontactӵwereӵthusӵ
incitedӵasӵwaysӵofӵassi¿nin¿ӵnewӵprioritiesӵtoӵhumanӵneedsӵandӵacžnowled¿in¿ӵ
theӵ 'qualitativeӵ humanӵ bein¿'ӵ asӵ anӵ individualӵ ofӵsociety.ӵ Theӵ valueӵ ofӵ¿roupӵ
relationsӵ wasӵ madeӵ evidentӵasӵ wellӵ asӵ theӵ necessityӵ toӵ workӵ collectivelyӵasӵ anӵ
¡74/ĸ /CRlTlCAADĸCURATORlAĸPO5lTlON5ĸ
alternativeӵtcӵauthcritarianӵscciety.ӵTheӵModclŦacceptedӵtheӵwhiteӵcubeӵasӵaӵŖfreeċӵ
tcpclc¿icalӵpremise:ӵ freeӵ inӵ theӵ senseӵ cfӵpublicӵaccess,ӵ accentuatedӵ byӵ theӵ anti-
elitistӵ stanceӵ cfӵ theӵ ModclĖŦ freeӵ inӵ theӵ senseӵ thatӵ whatӵ isӵ insertedӵ intcӵ artӵ
instituticnsӵ autcmaticallyӵle¿itimatesӵitsӵexistenceӵ¦crӵthatӵisӵwhatӵtheyӵ tellӵus,ӵ
anyhcw).ӵHenceӵtheӵModclŦembracedӵtheӵartӵinstituticnӵasӵaӵvehicleӵpcsiticnedӵinӵ
suchӵaӵwayӵǠȒʎcultureӵthatӵtheӵstatementsӵitӵccnveysӵareӵcatapultedӵintcӵscciety.ӵ
Theӵ Ccpenha¿enӵ artists'ӵ ¿rcupӵ Źďďӵ rethinkӵ theӵ sccialӵ dimensicnsӵ frcmӵ
whichӵ weӵ basicallyӵ structureӵcurӵeverydayӵ lives.ӵ Ƒnӵ theӵ summerӵ cfӵ l999,ӵ cnӵ aӵ
dcckӵ byӵCcpenha¿enӵ harbcur,ӵtheyӵ builtӵ N55Ŧ 5¡occ]i0mc.Ŧ aӵ residentialӵ unitӵ cfӵ
transfcrmable,ӵ li¿htwei¿htӵ ccnstructicnӵ inӵ Ɯexibleӵ steelӵ mcdulesӵ desi¿nedӵ inӵ
ccllabcraticnӵwithӵanӵarchitect.ӵ Ƒtӵisӵaӵfuncticnalӵandӵ inhabitableӵsculptureӵandӵ
ccnstitutesӵaӵradicalӵrevisicnӵcfӵtheӵhcuseӵasӵweӵkncwӵit,ӵasӵanӵcb¡ectӵstaticnaryӵ
inӵitsӵccnstructicnӵandӵplacement.ӵBein¿ӵmuchӵmcreӵthanӵmerelyӵaӵ¿calĜcrientedӵ
installaticn,ӵtheӵccnstructicnӵcfӵtheӵlivin¿ӵ unitӵsu¿¿estsӵanӵcr¿anicӵprccessӵthatӵ
pecpleӵmayӵenterӵinӵallӵpcssibleӵways.ӵ Musicians,ӵartists,ӵarchitects,ӵwritersӵandӵ
curatcrsӵeachӵccntributeӵtcӵtheӵsccialӵambienceӵcfӵtheӵwcrkӵwithӵprc¡ects,ӵlabcurӵ
fcrce,ӵ andӵ theirӵ mundane,ӵ scciableӵ presence.ӵ N55Ŧ 5¡occŇomcŦ ccnstitutesӵ theӵ
frameӵfcrӵactivitiesӵthatӵtheӵ participantsӵ themselvesӵwillӵestablish,ӵwithcutӵanyӵ
instituticnalӵinterference.ӵN55Ŧ5¡occ]omcŦis,ӵ fcrӵthatӵmatter,ӵaӵutcpianӵprc¡ectӵi nӵ
asӵmuchӵasӵi tӵi sӵanӵinitialӵ¿esture,ӵaӵredisccveryӵcfӵtheӵwcrld.ӵButӵinӵccntrastӵtcӵtheӵ
¿reatӵutcpia,ӵeachӵtimeӵitӵisӵerected,ӵN55Ŧ5¡occ]i0mcŦisӵarchitecturallyӵandӵscciallyӵ
ccnnectedӵwithӵtheӵsccialӵsurplusӵthatӵitӵprcvidesӵinӵccnnecticnӵwithӵtheӵprccessӵ
cfӵccnstructicnӵ andӵtheӵccntextӵ withinӵ whichӵ itӵ functicns.ӵTheӵ 'utcpian'ӵ inӵ theӵ
prcГectӵisӵnctӵlikeӵaӵmasterӵplanӵthatӵanalyticallyӵanticipatesӵsccialӵchan¿e,ӵbutӵcneӵ
thatӵdescribesӵaӵdeterminedӵattitudeӵfrcmӵpecple'ґӵacticnsӵinӵccncreteӵsituaticns.ӵ
Palleӵ Źielsen'sӵ wayӵ cfӵpractisin¿ӵartӵasӵ aӵcritiqueӵ cfӵarchitectureӵandӵ livin¿ӵ
ccnditicnsӵ isӵ ali¿nedӵ withӵ Źďď'sӵ praxisӵ asӵ aӵ sccialӵ fantasyˈӵ scӵ tcӵ speak.ӵ Asӵ aӵ
reccnceptualizaticnӵcfӵtheӵresidence,ӵtheӵN55Ŧ5¡occ]i0mcŦstands,ӵshimmerin¿,ӵinӵ
theӵmiddleӵcfӵCcpenha¿enӵasӵaӵfantasticӵcreatureӵwhichӵhasӵ¡ustӵlanded,ӵstarin¿ӵ
theӵdemandsӵcfӵccntempcraryӵlivin¿ӵri¿htӵinӵtheӵeyes.ӵƑfӵtheӵideaӵcfӵsettlin¿ӵinӵanӵ
N55Ŧ5¡occ]omcŦdcesn'tӵappealӵtcӵ ycu,ӵthenӵtheӵprc¡ect,ӵatӵleastӵccnstructively,ӵ
ccnstitutesӵaӵwayӵcfӵreflectin¿ӵcnӵtheӵcppcsiticnӵbetweenӵtheӵindividualӵandӵtheӵ
fcrmsӵcfӵhabitualӵthinkin¿ӵthatӵtccӵcftenӵsneakӵtheirӵwayӵinӵasӵaӵsyntaxӵfcrӵcurӵ
lives.ӵDneӵcculdӵcb¡ectӵthatӵŹďďӵisӵmerelyӵreplacin¿ӵtheӵcldӵhabitsӵandӵlin¿uisticӵ
fcrmsӵwithӵnewӵhabits,ӵbutӵinӵtheӵspaceӵbetweenӵtheseӵtwcӵpcsiticnsӵandӵinӵtheӵ
mcvementӵawayӵfrcmӵthatӵwhichӵalreadyӵisӵcssifɁedӵ tcwardӵ theӵnewӵandӵ self-
ccnceived,ӵ rccmӵ isӵ bein¿ӵ madeӵ fcrӵ theӵ fcrmulaticnӵ cfӵ newӵ differences.ӵ Źďďӵ
acccmmcdatesӵ whatӵ isӵ currentlyӵ theӵ dcminant,ӵ necliberalӵ determinaticnӵ cfӵ
freedcmӵcfӵchciceӵandӵisӵdisplacin¿ӵtheӵmarketӵmechanisms'ӵrelaticnalӵdynamicsӵ
inӵtheӵdirecticnӵcfӵpcstulatin¿ӵthatӵthereӵareӵthin¿sӵwhichӵmustӵbeӵdcne.ӵ
LotSen/ĸ /5ocíolĸAeS!he!ícS{ĸ/¡¯õĸ
PaIIc NicIscn's pm|ccts Ior Ï05lÌvdÎ ZÜÜ and ÃÌ000ÎDUT@ ÖUHH0T JHHþʎ
lnӵhisӵwritin¿,ӵPalleӵNielsenӵaddressesӵtheӵ notionӵofӵlar¿e-scaleӵcommunicationӵ
includin¿ӵ collectiveӵ productionӵ ofӵ si¿nificanceӵ andӵ value,ӵ andӵ modesӵ ofӵ
distribution.ӵ Proceedin¿ӵ fromӵ aӵ collectiveӵ discussionӵ andӵ praxisӵ surroundin¿ӵ
commonӵ intentions,ӵ andӵ inӵcontradistinctionӵ toӵ'consumption'sʋӵconstraintӵandӵ
theӵproductionӵapparatus'sӵpowerӵoverӵtheӵpeople',ӵoneӵcanӵhaveӵqualitativeӵandӵ
quantitativeӵ¿oalsӵandӵtherebyӵpushӵcommunicationӵboundaries.ӵThisӵcallsӵforӵaӵ
positiveӵ andӵ out¿oin¿ӵ revisionӵ ofӵ aestheticӵ expressionsӵ whichӵ haveӵ beenӵ
overhauledӵandӵrepeated,ӵandӵaӵrevisionӵofӵtraditionalӵformsӵofӵartӵdistribution.ӵ
Theӵartӵinstitution'sӵresourcesӵareӵcastӵintoӵpublicӵspace.ӵ
Fcstival 200Ŧ inӵ l969ӵ wasӵ theӵ 200-yearӵ ¡ubileeӵ ofӵ Charlottenbor¿ӵ
ădstillin¿sby¿nin¿,ӵtheӵexhibitionӵbuildin¿ӵofӵtheӵRoyalӵDanishӵArtӵAcademy.ӵArtӵ
historianӵTroelsӵ Andersenӵwasӵ invitedӵ toӵcurateӵtheӵanniveǝҒaryӵshow,ӵ andӵ inӵ
accordanceӵ withӵ hisӵ orientationӵ towardsӵ non-violentӵ anarchismӵ - andӵ inӵ
responseӵtoӵaӵminimalӵ bud¿etӵ- artistsӵfromӵallӵoverӵFuropeӵwereӵ¿ivenӵaӵtrainӵ
ticketӵ andӵ freeӵ exhibitionӵ spaceӵ ifӵtheyӵ wouldӵ showӵ upӵ andӵ participateӵ withӵ
someӵ pro¡ectӵorӵother.ӵ lnӵ theӵ weekӵbeforeӵ theӵ openin¿ӵ ofӵtheӵ exhibition,ӵ theӵ
invitationӵtoӵparticipateӵwasӵopenӵtoӵeverybody.ӵ
Palleӵ Nielsenӵparticipatedӵinӵthreeӵpro¡ects.ӵaӵshootin¿ӵran¿e,ӵaӵroulette,ӵandӵ
anӵ offset-printin¿ӵ works,ӵ allӵ functionin¿ӵ representationsӵ ofӵ massӵ
communicationӵwithӵpopularӵappeal,ӵimbuin¿ӵtheӵexhibitionӵwithӵaӵthemeӵparkӵ
atmosphere.ӵPlacedӵasӵtheӵfirstӵthin¿ӵbyӵtheӵentrance,ӵtheӵrouletteӵwasӵprovidedӵ
byӵtheӵchild-welfareӵcommitteeӵandӵfunctionedӵasӵaӵmetaphorӵforӵtheӵanarchisticӵ
freedomӵpromisedӵbyӵtheӵexhibition.ӵTheӵshootin¿ӵran¿eӵ offeredӵ airӵ¿unsӵwithӵ
whichӵ youӵ couldӵ shootӵyourӵdislikes,ӵor¿anizedӵinӵtheӵ formӵ ofӵphoto¿raphsӵ ofӵ
Danishӵandӵinternationalӵpoliticiansӵandӵpublicӵpersons.ӵTheӵroulette,ӵasӵwellӵasӵ
theӵshootin¿ӵran¿e,ӵstoodӵunattended.ӵ
Theӵ offset-printin¿ӵworlŊsӵconsistedӵofӵstate-of-the-artӵ rotaprintӵequipmentӵ
toӵbeӵ usedӵ freelyӵbyӵ everybody,ӵ andӵitsӵappurtenantӵphotoӵlabӵenabledӵ¿eneralӵ
accessӵ toӵ artisticӵ expression.ӵ Theӵ festival'sӵ dailyӵ paper,ӵ ǒyers,ӵ leaIlets,ӵ andӵ
printedӵmatterӵinӵallӵcoloursӵwereӵproducedӵhere.ӵSomeӵofӵitӵwasӵ distributedӵ inӵ
theӵcityӵorӵinӵotherӵcontexts,ӵwhileӵothersӵwereӵinte¿ratedӵ intoӵtheӵexhibition.ӵ
PalleӵNielsen'sӵpro¡ectsӵintroducedӵaӵreIlexivityӵbetweenӵplayӵandӵproductionӵ
whichӵ mustӵhaveӵ seemedӵ somewhatӵ frivolousӵ inӵ theӵ li¿htӵ ofӵtheӵera'sӵ willӵtoӵ
revolutionaryӵ upheaval.ӵ Dnӵ theӵ oneӵ hand,ӵ playӵ qualifiedӵ lar¿e-scaleӵ
communicationӵ asӵ aӵ wayӵ ofӵstatin¿ӵthatӵpoliticalӵartisticӵ en¿a¿ementӵ doesn'tӵ
existӵ inӵ termsӵ ofӵ practicalӵ politics,ӵ butӵ asӵ reformӵ workӵ wiҨhӵ theӵ prospectӵ ofӵ
chan¿e.ӵ Dnӵtheӵotherӵhand,ӵplayӵhadӵtoӵbeӵ or¿anizedӵ andӵ setӵfree,ӵseein¿ӵthatӵ
societyӵ noӵ lon¿erӵ offeredӵ inte¿ratedӵ possibilitiesӵ forӵ livin¿ӵ inӵ itsӵ re¿ulated,ӵ
specializedӵ spheres.ӵ Toӵ introduceӵ socialӵ processesӵ inӵ theӵ artӵ institutionӵ is,ӵ
l¯ó/ĸ /CR¡TĤCALANDĸCURATOR¡AĸPO5¡T¡ON5ĸ
accordin¿ӵtoӵNielsen,ӵsociallyӵirrational.ӵ Socialӵ processesӵshouldӵ happenӵwhereӵ
peopleӵare,ӵinӵdirectӵrelationӵtoӵwhatӵtheyӵdo.ӵButӵsinceӵsocialӵreproductionӵisӵinӵ
direӵstraits,ӵthereӵisӵaӵ stron¿ӵneedӵ forӵtheӵ productionӵ ofӵparticipation,ӵ andӵ forӵ
accessibleӵmetaphorsӵofӵfreedom.ӵ
lnӵl99ďӵandӵl996,ӵșensӵHaanin¿ӵproducedӵaӵseriesӵofӵproductionӵlines,ӵwhereӵ
aӵ numberӵ ofӵpeopleӵ en¿a¿edӵinӵ symbolicallyӵ char¿edӵbutӵultimatelyӵ undefinedӵ
activities.ӵ lnӵ WcuponŦ ProJuc!íonŦ¦l99ď),ӵpartӵofӵtheӵ¿roupӵshowӵRM heldӵ inӵaӵ
Copenha¿enӵ suburb,ӵ aӵ handfulӵ ofӵ youn¿ӵ immi¿rantsӵ withӵ someӵ previousӵ
experienceӵ ¦soӵ toӵ speak)ӵ assistedӵ theӵ artistӵ inӵ theӵ productionӵ ofӵ ille¿alӵ streetӵ
weapons,ӵ inӵ Flu¿Ŧ ProJuc!íonŦ ¦l996),ӵ shownӵ atӵ theӵ 1JUc showӵ inӵ Bordeaux,ӵ
France,ӵ Asianӵ pupilsӵ fromӵ theӵ localӵ artӵ academyӵ sewedӵ fla¿sӵforӵ anӵ unknownӵ
nation.ӵ Middclbur¿ bummcr l 99óŦ¦l996),ӵ aӵ soloӵ showӵ atӵ Deӵ Vleeshal,ӵ inӵtheӵ
DutchӵcityӵofӵMiddelbur¿,ӵwasӵinӵaӵsenseӵtheӵculminationӵofӵtheseӵworks,ӵinӵthatӵ
theӵactivityӵofӵtheӵworkersӵwasn'tӵart-relatedӵinӵtheӵfirstӵplaceĐӵ
Haanin¿ӵ en¿a¿edӵ theӵ Turkish-ownedӵ clothin¿ӵ manufacturers,ӵ Marasӵ
Confectie,ӵtoӵrelocateӵitsӵpŧoductionӵfacilitiesӵtoӵtheӵNjunsthalleӵforӵtheӵdurationӵ
ofӵtheӵ exhibition.ӵTheӵ entireӵ institutionӵ wasӵ transformedӵ intoӵ anӵ appropriateӵ
environmentӵforӵMarasӵConfectie'sӵtwelveӵMuslimӵ¦Turkish,ӵlranianӵandӵBosnian)ӵ
employees,ӵ repleteӵ withӵ anӵ officeӵ andӵ canteen,ӵ soccerӵ bannersӵ andӵ blarin¿ӵ
ͥȝ͓͞ȝ¦aӵformӵofTurkishӵblues).ӵÍʎ aӵbeholder,ӵ youӵhadӵtoӵadaptӵtoӵaӵperipheralӵ
position,ӵasӵopposedӵtoӵlayin¿ӵclaimӵtoӵtheӵvisualӵΕontrolӵandӵleisurelyӵre¿ulatedӵ
spaceӵthatӵexhibitionӵarchitectureӵusuallyӵoffers.ӵYouӵwere,ӵinӵfact,ӵtrespassin¿ӵinӵ
forei¿nӵ territory:ӵ notӵonlyӵanӵalienӵworkplace,ӵbutӵaӵ placeӵwhereӵ'aliens'ӵworlǎӵ
Middclbur¿ bummcr l 99óŦprovidedӵanӵepisodicӵmobilizationӵofӵtheӵdynamicsӵofӵ
theӵculturalӵother,ӵorӵ'theӵworldӵmarketӵasӵreadӜ-made',ӵasӵoneӵcriticӵputӵit.ӵ
Theӵ work'sӵ criticalӵ positionӵ couldӵ alsoӵ beӵ summedӵ upӵ inӵ theӵ wordsӵ ofӵ
sociolo¿istӵșohnӵForan,ӵwritin¿ӵinӵtheӵ l99̞ӵ7ncorízín¿Ŧkcvolu!íonsĐŦ 'Dppositionalӵ
culturesӵareӵoftenӵ elaboratedӵinӵcontradistinctionӵtoӵtheӵstate,ӵbutӵtheyӵareӵalsoӵ
alwaysӵrootedӵinӵtheӵactualӵexperienceӵofӵdiverseӵsocialӵsectors,ӵthatӵis,ӵtheyӵhaveӵ
anӵeminentlyӵpracticalӵdimensionħӵAsӵFordistӵartefacts,ӵproductionӵlinesӵembodyӵ
theӵdimensionӵofӵphysicalӵlabour,ӵwhichӵisӵrapidlyӵbecomin¿ӵobsoleteӵinӵtheӵeraӵ
ofӵimmaterialӵwork.ӵApartӵfromӵ privile¿in¿ӵculturalӵ othernessӵ inӵ aӵ collectivelyӵ
or¿anizedӵform,ӵMiddclbur¿ bummcr l 99óŦre¡ectedӵart'sӵserviceӵrelationshipӵtoӵ
informationӵsociety.ӵltsӵlaconic,ӵalienatin¿ӵsta¿eplayӵresistedӵtheӵcommunication-
drivenӵ prescriptionsӵ ofӵ theӵ a¿entsӵ ofӵ theӵ di¿italӵ a¿e,ӵ alon¿ӵ withӵ theirӵ ¦our)ӵ
continualӵinnovationӵofӵformsӵandӵmodalitiesӵforӵtheӵcommerceӵofӵideas.ӵ
NielsenӵandӵHaanin¿ӵpointӵtoӵconflictsӵinӵsocialӵprocessesӵandӵcomeӵupӵwithӵ
solutionsӵ whichӵ areӵ formallyӵ alike,ӵ forӵ bothӵ pro¡ectsӵ Nielsenӵ aptlyӵ callsӵ theӵ
printin¿ӵ worksӵ aӵ 'productionӵ installation'.ӵ ltӵ couldӵ beӵ said,ӵ however,ӵ thatӵ
Middclbur¿ bummcr l99óŦisӵ anӵ aestheticizedӵ versionӵ ofӵNielsen'sӵ productionӵ
LotSen/ĸ/5oēíolĸAeS!he!ícS{ĸ /¡¯¯ĸ
insta||ation.ӵĨctua|ӵpartìcìpationӵìsӵoneӵstepӵremoved,ӵsomethin¿ӵthatӵmayӵma|ʽeӵ
theӵ twoӵ worksӵ seemӵ toӵ differӵ inӵ theirӵ conceptìonӵ ofӵ aesthetìcsŲӵ whatӵactuaNJ|yӵ
a|i¿nsӵthemӵmayӵbeӵtheirӵ po|itica|ӵ stanceӵ inӵtermsӵofӵsocia|ӵirrationa|ity.ӵ¦Ĩsӵanӵ
asideӵ toӵ hisӵ work,ӵ Haanin¿ӵ quotedӵ Ĩrthurӵ Schopenhauer'sӵ dìctumӵ forӵ Deӵ
V|eesha|'sӵ websìteĻӵ 'Theӵ wor|dӵ isӵ myӵ ima¿ination'.)ӵ Theӵ printin¿ӵ worksӵ atӵ
Fcstival 200 andӵ M¡ddc¡bur¿ bummcr Iºº5 eachӵ de|ìveredӵ crìtiquesӵ ofӵ theӵ
differentӵ effectsӵ ofӵ theӵ acce|erationӵ ofӵ modernity'sӵ disp|acements,ӵ whìchӵ
increasin¿|yӵcontro|ӵusӵasӵsocia|ӵbein¿s.ӵ
ËUDHC ÛdlD and N55 Ï]@0H0 Ö]5l0H
lnӵaӵ featureӵ onӵ Copenha¿enӵ ca͐|edӵ 'Burstin¿ӵtheӵ Catesӵ ofӵ We|fareӵ ătopìa',ӵ theӵ
ȥiǘǘͿ¿Ąӵ ȥoiΖĄ'sӵ Davidӵ Curinӵ wroteӵ inӵ Novemberӵ l969ӵ aboutӵ 'theӵ ener¿yӵ andӵ
beautyӵofӵtheӵyoun¿ӵDanesӵinvo|ved'ӵinӵFestiva|ӵ200Đӵ
ŠTroe|sšӵĨndersenӵandӵaӵcommitteeӵofӵDanìshӵartìstsӵofferedӵ aӵsecond-c|assӵtraì nӵ
fareӵtoӵartistsӵfromӵa||ӵoverӵ̀urope.ӵĨnӵadventurousӵ¿ѽoupӵacceptedӵhisӵinvitationӵ
andӵputӵto¿etherӵaӵfantastica||yӵre|axedӵandӵunpretentiousӵshow.ӵźnӵsomeӵdaysӵìtӵ
ìnc|udedӵ aӵrockӵbandӵ ìnӵtheӵsedateӵŝhar|ottenbor¿ӵcourtyard.ӵźtherwiseӵitӵbe¿anӵ
forӵtheӵvisitorӵonӵtheӵwa||ӵaboveӵaӵ¿randӵ staircaseӵthatӵ|eadsӵ toӵtheӵmaìnӵ I|oorӵofӵ
theӵ ¿a||eryӵ- picturesӵ ofӵĨ|berts|undӵ ɂaӵ workin¿-c|assӵ ŝopenha¿enӵ suburbšӵ andӵ
o|dӵŝopenha¿enӵ wereӵ I|ashedӵ sideӵbyӵsideӵbyӵ twoӵs|ideӵproŤectors.ӵ Theyӵ seemedӵ
toӵbeckonӵtheӵvìewerӵtoӵ standӵ upӵforӵsomeӵ kindӵ ofӵenvironmenta|ӵchoice.ӵĨӵthirdӵ
pro¡ectorӵf|ashedӵ abstractӵforms.ӵ lnӵanӵanteroomӵonӵtheӵmainӵf|oorӵwereӵpinba||ӵ
machinesӵandӵaӵshootin¿ӵran¿eӵwithӵtheӵprimeӵministerӵofӵDenmarkӵandӵRìchardӵ
Nixonӵamon¿ӵtheӵbu||'sӵeyes.ӵlnӵtheӵ¿randӵexhibitionӵha||ӵwereӵdrawin¿ӵtab|esӵandӵ
twoӵ offsetӵ printin¿ӵ presses.ӵ Materia|sӵ andӵ paperӵ wereӵ |ibera||yӵ providedӵ andӵ
anyoneӵcou|dӵ desi¿nӵandӵ printӵhisjherӵ͗wnӵposterӵwithӵexpertӵhe|p.ӵĨtӵtheӵbackӵ
wasӵ aӵ prìmìtiveӵ hut,ӵ |ikeӵ aӵ succah,Цӵ wìthӵ unevenӵ s|atsӵ ofӵwoodӵ forӵwaϭ|s,ӵ andӵ
brancȺesӵandӵ |eavesӵforӵaӵrooϑӵ lnsideӵ|ivedӵ aӵnudeӵ'fami|y',ӵwithӵ vaѾɧin¿ӵnumbersӵ
ofӵadu|tsӵandӵ chì|drenğӵTheyӵate,ӵdrank,ӵp|ayedӵandӵta|ked.ӵ ɂӵ. . . ӵšӵźccasiona||yӵoneӵ
manӵìnӵtheӵfami|yӵwou|dӵc|imbӵupӵaӵropeӵ |adderӵ fromӵtheӵhutӵɚȩʎ theӵhì¿hӵcei|in¿ӵ
ofӵtheӵha||ӵfromӵwhere,ӵperchedӵ nudeӵ onӵtheӵ ropeŘ|adder,ӵ heӵwou|dӵfi|mӵa||ӵtheӵ
spectatorsӵwhoseӵeyesӵwereӵonӵhimČӵ Šӵ. ğ ū ӵŷӵĨnotherӵroomӵ hadӵaӵDanishӵartistʌsӵ|oveӵ
|ettersӵstrewnӵ onӵ theӵf|oorӵ- peop|eӵstoodӵ aroundӵ readin¿ӵthem.ӵ Šӵ. ğ ū ӵŷӵ lnӵ anotherӵ
¿randӵeɦhìbitìonӵha||ӵwereӵaӵpìn¿˥pon¿ӵtab|eӵandӵaӵfunctionin¿ӵsaunaӵandӵshower.ӵ
Ĩrtìstsӵandӵvìsìtorsӵ- andӵtheӵ¿enìusӵofӵtheӵfestìva|ӵwasӵthatӵtheӵtwoӵwereӵnotӵveryӵ
dìsҩin¿uìshab|eӵ- p|ayedӵ pin¿-pon¿,ӵ saunaed,ӵ andӵ showeredӵ ìnӵ theӵ opennessӵ ofӵ
theӵha||ūӵŠӵƊ . Č ӵŷӵźneӵespecìa||yӵtouchìn¿ӵroomӵhadӵaӵsin¿|eӵroseӵ ìnӵwaterӵonӵeachӵ ofӵ
ei¿htӵ pedesta|s.ӵ ́achӵ dayӵ oneӵ roseӵ wasӵ removedӵ andӵ aӵnewӵ oneӵ added,ӵ soӵ tȺeӵ
rosesӵwereӵìnӵaӵ¿radua||yӵwìtherìn¿ӵawayӵofӵ|ìfeӵandӵdeathİӵ
l
¯ßJĸ /CR¡T¡CALĸADĸCURATOR¡ALĸPO5¡T¡ON5ĸ
TheӵpublicӵbathӵandӵsaunaӵwereӵinstalledӵbyӵtheӵartistӵPaulӵCernes.ӵHeӵwantedӵtheӵ
artworkӵtoӵbeӵinsertedӵinӵsituationsӵwhereӵthin¿sӵareӵusedӵandӵthusӵhisӵpracticeӵ
becameӵstron¿lyӵorientedӵ inӵtheӵdirectionӵofӵpublicӵart.ӵTheӵeverydayӵfunctionӵisӵ
takenӵliterallyӵinӵhisӵpublicӵbathӵforӵFcstival 200,Ŕandӵ'transposedӵtoӵaӵlevelӵwhereӵ
itӵaffectsӵourӵsensesӵandӵourӵthinkin¿ӵanew'.ǴӵTroelsӵAndersenӵcontinues̡ӵ
ltӵwasӵ¿ivenӵinӵtheӵideasӵofӵMorris,ӵRuskinӵandӵ̈́ropiusӵthatӵpeople'sӵbehaviourӵinӵ
aӵsurroundin¿ӵworldӵwhichӵinӵsuchӵhi¿hӵde¿reeӵasӵoursӵisӵdeterminedӵbyӵ thin¿s,ӵ
couldӵbeӵ chan¿edӵbyӵaӵrevaluationӵ ofӵtheӵsurroundin¿ӵobДects,ӵaestȻeticallyӵandӵ
functionally.ӵLjutӵtheseӵfashionedӵob¡ectsӵletӵthemselvesӵbecomeӵeasilyӵinte¿ratedӵ
inӵ theӵ eĀistin¿ӵ situationӵ withoutӵ anyӵ si¿nɃficantӵchan¿esӵ Ƀnӵnormsӵofӵbehaviour.ӵ
źurӵ societyӵ isӵ stillӵ builtӵ onӵ theӵ nuclearӵ family,ӵ andӵ ourӵ wholeӵ productionӵ ofӵ
consumerӵ itemsӵ ¦alsoӵ c͜untin¿ӵ aӵ numberӵ ofӵ dzartӵ obŤects')ӵ isӵ basedӵ onӵ thisӵ
structure.ӵ Whatӵ theӵ conceptionӵ ofӵ theӵ happenin¿ӵ amon¿ӵ manyӵ otherӵ thin¿sӵ
containedӵ wasӵ theӵ su¿¿estionӵ ofӵ aӵ newӵtypeӵ ofӵsocialӵ form.ӵ ͹ӵ. ˺ . ӵŷ ltӵimpliedӵ theӵ
establishin¿ӵ ofӵ aӵ newӵ situation,ӵ theӵ constructionӵ ofӵ anӵ offerӵ - butӵ didn'tӵ
necessarilyӵforceӵpeopleӵinӵaӵcertainӵdirection.ʍӵ
Troelsӵ Andersen'sӵ revaluationӵ ofӵ theӵ obЕectӵ alsoӵ appliesӵ toӵ N55ӵ andӵ theirӵ
catalo¿ueӵ ofӵ functionalӵ artӵ ob¡ects,ӵ withӵ whichӵ theyӵȅaimӵ toӵ createӵ aӵ socialӵ
surplus.ӵ Soӵ far,ӵ N55'sӵ productionӵ ofӵ functionalӵ artӵ ob¡ectsӵ withӵ ethicalӵ andӵ
aestheticӵ consequencesӵ includeӵ aӵ homeӵ hydroponicsӵ unitӵ ¦aӵ deviceӵ forӵ theӵ
domesticӵ¿rowɚhӵ ofӵve¿etablesӵ )§ aӵ clean-airӵmachine,ӵ aӵ hy¿ieneӵ systemӵ ¦low-
costӵbathroom),ӵ newӵdesi¿nsӵ forӵ chairs,ӵandӵaӵ table.ӵ Fverythin¿ӵisӵofӵN55ӵ ownӵ
desi¿n,ӵ inӵ someӵ casesӵ withӵ theӵ helpӵ ofӵeĀpertsӵ toӵ solveӵ technicalӵ problems.ӵ
ComparedӵtoӵanӵordinaЧĿ,ӵutilitarianӵlo¿ic,ӵtheirӵob¡ectsӵhaveӵaӵtwistӵinӵrelationӵ
ƨoӵformalisticӵdesi¿n:ӵN55'sӵattitudeӵtoӵtheӵob¡ectӵisӵcharacterizedӵbyӵaӵsensitivityӵ
towardsӵitsӵroleӵasӵaӵsocialӵdeterminant,ӵasӵaӵroleӵmalŊeҪ.ӵTheӵob¡ectӵanswersӵbackӵ
Iʎ theӵ activiƨyӵ thatӵ surroundsӵ it,ӵ insteadӵ ofӵ bein¿ӵ aӵ desi¿n-likeӵ hypostasisӵ ofӵ
itself.ӵDr,ӵinӵotherӵwords,ӵtheӵhumanӵactivityӵandӵtheӵob¡ectӵfactorӵmeldӵintoӵoneӵ
anotherӵ Ū er¿o,ӵ sociallyӵ ¿enerousӵ andӵ disarmin¿ӵ ¿esturesӵ likeӵ aӵ collectiveӵ
installationӵofӵtheӵhy¿ieneӵsystemӵi nӵmirthfulӵcolours,ӵorӵtheӵpro¡ectionӵofӵaӵbedӵ
serviceableӵforӵsiĀӵpersonsӵinsteadӵofӵtheӵcustomaryӵone- orӵtwoĜpersonӵmodel.ӵ
1D0 Ü5Í0 1TÌ¿and 1Tdv0Í Ó@0HQ
lnӵ Mayӵ l970ӵ theӵ artistsӵ FinnӵThyboӵ andӵ Perӵ Ljilleӵ wereӵ invitedӵ asӵ partӵ ofӵ theӵ
Danishӵ representationӵ inӵ theӵ Youn¿ӵ Nordicӵ Ljiennialӵ atӵ Kunstnernesӵ Husӵ ¦Theӵ
Artists'ӵ House)ӵ inӵ Dslo.ӵ Theyӵ decidedӵ toӵ spendӵ theirӵ ¿rantӵ ofӵ DKKӵ 8,000ӵ onӵ
buyin¿ӵ50ӵreturnӵticketsӵforӵtheӵDsloӵferryӵandӵ distributin¿ӵthemӵtoӵ50ӵyouths,ӵ
mostlyӵ artists,ӵ musiciansӵ andӵ architects.ӵ Theӵ ¿roupӵ wasӵ toӵ beӵ installed,ӵ
LorSen/ĸ/5ocíoIĸAeS!he!icS//ĸ¡¯ºĸ
co||ective|y,ӵinӵtheӵexhibitionӵasӵanӵartworkӵonӵtheӵopenin¿ӵni¿ht,ӵto¿etherӵwithӵ
musiciansӵ fromӵ Ds|oӵ invitedӵ toӵ participateӵ inӵ aӵ pickupӵ concertӵ withӵ theӵ
Copenha¿enӵbandӵFurek΀ben.ӵThusӵ theӵ¿roupӵitse|fӵcomprisedӵtheӵworkӵofӵartӵ
andӵ noӵoneӵwasӵa|| owedӵtoӵ|eaveӵitӵatӵanyӵpoint.ӵ
Arrivin¿ӵ inӵ Ds|oӵ inӵ¿oodӵ spiritsӵ theӵ ¿roup,ӵ despiteӵ itsӵ hippieӵ appearance,ӵ
madeӵ itӵ successfu||yӵ throu¿hӵ customsӵ ¦withӵ B|ackӵ Af¿hanӵ dis¿uisedӵ asӵ Tom'sӵ
Carame|s),ӵ andӵ movedӵ inӵ oneӵ |on¿ӵ co|umnӵ upӵ throu¿hӵ theӵ streetsӵ ofӵ theӵ
ľorwe¿ianӵ capita|.ӵ Then,ӵ toӵ theӵ amusementӵ ofӵ|oca|ӵ businessmen,ӵ theӵ ¿roupӵ
occupiedӵ whatӵ |aterӵ turnedӵ outӵ toӵ beӵ theӵ rearӵ entranceӵ ofӵ theӵ Ds|oӵ bourse.ӵ
Wearin¿ӵredӵbannersӵandӵredӵribbonsӵroundӵtheӵ head,ӵorӵdressedӵupӵasӵnativeӵ
Americans,ӵtheӵ¿roupӵdocumentedӵ itse|fӵinӵfrontӵofӵbanksӵandӵtheӵ si¿htsӵofӵtheӵ
cityӵ withӵ aӵ bannerӵ ŕeadin¿ӵ 'PFDPLFӵ DFӵTHFӵWDRLDӵ UľlTF'.ӵTheӵ arriva|ӵ ofӵtheӵ
artworkӵatӵ Kunstnernesӵ Husӵ occasionedӵ ¿reatӵcommotionӵ ǖnӵtheӵ mana¿ement,ӵ
andӵ theӵentireӵboardӵ wasӵ ca||edӵfor,ӵ butӵinӵtheӵendӵacceptedӵtoӵ hostӵtheӵ¿roup.ӵ
ľextƉӵf|yersӵforӵtheӵ openin¿ӵ partyӵwereӵ distributedӵ inӵ Ds|o,ӵandӵ snapshotsӵ andӵ
fi|mӵwereӵ quick|yӵdeve|oped,ӵ theӵ sameӵ evenin¿ӵ theӵ doorsӵ ofӵKunstnernesӵ Husӵ
wereӵ openedӵ forӵaӵ presentationӵ ofӵdocumentationӵofӵtheӵtripӵandӵtheӵconcertˉӵ
whereӵ theӵ directorӵ wasӵ seenӵ inӵ theӵ rhythmӵ sectionӵ p|ayin¿ӵ theӵ bon¿os.ӵ Theӵ
¿roupӵreturnedӵinӵ¿oodӵorderӵtoӵCopenha¿enӵonӵtheӵferryӵtheӵnextӵmornin¿.ӵ
lnӵ |ensӵ Haanin¿'sӵ worőӵ !rovc|ŦA¿cnIJŦ ( 1997),Ŧ air|ineӵ ticketsӵ wereӵ so|dӵ atӵ
competitiveӵpricesӵasӵartworksӵatӵCa|erieӵMehdiӵChouakriӵinӵBer|in,ӵcapita|izin¿ӵ
onӵ Cermanӵ taxӵ |awsӵ whichӵ exemptӵ artӵ fromӵ anӵ ei¿htӵ perӵ centӵ VAT.ӵ
Accompanyin¿ӵ certiȹcatesӵ statedӵ thatӵ ifӵusedӵ forӵ theirӵori¿ina|ӵ purpose,ӵ theseӵ
tiȳ|Ȓetsӵceasedӵtoӵexistӵasӵart.ӵlfӵartӵisӵtaxedӵ|essӵthanӵotherӵ¿oods,ӵwhyӵnotӵ|abe|ӵ
thoseӵotherӵ¿oodsӵ 'art'?ӵThatӵis,ӵtheӵair|ineӵticketӵhadӵaӵdoub|eӵcapaciĸ,ӵeachӵofӵ
whichӵcou|dӵbeӵ respectiveӵ toӵ artӵ|o¿icӵandӵeconomicӵ|o¿ic,ӵ butӵifӵyouӵwantӵtoӵ
¿raspӵtheӵideaӵofӵtheӵ workӵandӵtheӵ conceptua|ӵitineraŕyӵofӵeachӵ'artwork'ӵyouӵcanӵ
notӵdoӵ withoutӵ theӵsupp|ementӵofӵtheӵotherӵ|o¿ic.ӵ Byӵ refusin¿ӵtɏӵ va|orizeӵ hi¿hӵ
cu|tuěe,ӵandӵinsteadӵconcentratin¿ӵonӵ theӵexchan¿eӵ ofӵartisticӵideasӵwithӵrea|Ӧ
wor|dӵeconomicsƉӵ Haanin¿ӵcreatedӵtheӵpossibi|ityӵforӵrea|izin¿ӵcertainӵfǕnancia|ӵ
¿ainsӵ whi|eӵupsettin¿ӵtheӵmarketӵatӵaӵmicro-|eve|.ӵ
lnӵ theӵ 0s|oŦ !rľ¡Ŧ andӵ !rovc|Ŧ A¿cnc¡,Ŧ subversiveӵ sensibi|itiesӵ andӵ artӵ
institutiona|ӵ a||e¿iancesӵ to¿etherӵ insti¿ateӵ aӵ setӵ ofӵ mutua|ӵ deformationsӵ ofӵ
incompatib|eӵcu|tura|ӵ|o¿ics.ӵldea||y,ӵcu|tura|ӵandӵeconomicӵsi¿nificanceӵareӵputӵ
onӵ equa|ӵ footin¿,ӵ eachӵ investedӵ inӵ theӵ mu|tifo|dӵ processesӵ ofӵideo|o¿ica|ӵ andӵ
¿eo¿raphicӵexchan¿e.ӵForӵ0s|oŦ!ri¡Ŧparticipantsӵ FinnӵThyboӵ andӵ Kirstenӵ Dufour,ӵ
however˻ӵtheӵworkӵitse|fӵdescribedӵaӵbreakӵwithӵ theӵartӵwor|dӵforӵfifteenӵyears.ӵ
ĽĞ IOgsIOrandLIc ¡s5wccI¡U5wc0cU
Afterӵtheӵ 0s|oŦ!ri¡Ŧ theӵ workӵ ofӵDufourӵandӵThyboӵ movedӵ furtherӵinӵ theӵ directionӵ
I80/ʎ JCRIT¡CALĸANDĸCURATORIALĸPO5¡T¡ON5ĸ
ofӵactivism.ӵTheyӵworkedӵwithӵsquattersӵinӵCopenha¿en,ӵandӵexperimentedӵwithӵ
alternativeӵ socialӵ structuresӵ inӵ small,ӵ closedӵ communitiesӵ inӵ |utlandƵӵ lnӵ theӵ
'aestheticӵ andӵ politicalӵ void'ӵ ofӵ theӵ earlyӵ seventies,ӵ Dufourӵ andӵ Thyboӵ wereӵ
lookin¿ӵ forӵ aӵ positionӵfromӵ whichӵ theӵ localӵ populationӵ i nӵaӵ ¿ivenӵ placeӵ couldӵ
participateӵactivelyӵinӵaӵsocial,ӵ humanisticӵandӵpoliticalӵactionĕӵBasedӵinӵз¿st̒rӵ
inӵNorthernӵ|utlandӵtheyӵstartedӵ aӵ ra¿pickerӵ¿roupӵ inӵ 1975,ӵ forӵtheӵ beneIitӵ ofӵ
liberationӵ movementsӵ inӵ theӵ thirdӵ world,ӵ amon¿ӵ themӵ Ōimbabweӵ Africanӵ
NationalӵUnionӵandӵ ijritreanӵ Peoplesӵ LiberationӵFronǣӵ Durin¿ӵ theӵ 12ӵ yearsӵ theӵ
¿roupͦͧAӵLŭ¿stŭrӵ¦ClothesӵforӵAfrica)ӵmana¿edӵDʎ collectӵtheӵfollowin¿ӵandӵsendӵ
itӵoffӵtoӵ Africaļӵ 112ӵ tonsӵ ofӵclothesӵ andӵ shoes;ӵ 80ӵsewin¿ӵ machines;ӵ 1ӵ dentalӵ
clinicƎӵ8ӵoperatin¿ӵtablesƎӵ 15ӵhospitalӵbedsƎӵ 17ӵwheelchairs;ӵ27ӵpacka¿esӵofӵotherӵ
hospitalӵ equipment;ӵ 89ӵ packa¿esӵ ofӵtoys;ӵ 80ӵ packa¿esӵ ofӵeducationalӵmaterial;ӵ
andӵtheӵsumӵofӵDKl̶ӵ447,911.ӵ
Theseӵ¿oɐdsӵwereӵ obtainedӵ mainlyӵ byӵ meansӵ ofӵhouseholdӵ collectin¿,ӵ fleaӵ
markets,ӵenquiriesӵatӵhospitalsӵetcɶӵandӵclearin¿ӵupӵofӵestatesƵӵȢȗAӵ workersӵwereӵ
voluntaryӵandӵpaidӵaӵmembershipӵfeeˊӵThyboӵ describesӵtheӵaimsӵofӵȢȗAӵŸŭ¿stŭȶ:ӵ
¡nlcracliviÇwilhin lhcra¿¡ickin¿¿r0u¡'
Byӵcollectin¿ӵtheӵ surplusӵȦofӵconsumerӵsocietyšӵ andӵrecyclin¿ӵitӵforӵhumanitarianӵ
purposes,ӵweӵsolvedӵ severalӵproblemsӵatӵtheӵsameӵtime:ӵweӵcouldӵ maЙeӵpeopleӵ
awareӵ ofӵtheӵ conditionsӵ inӵotherӵpartsӵofӵtheӵworldӵandӵ¿etӵ themӵinvolvedӵinӵanӵ
action,ӵ inӵtheӵproЖect.ӵŸeaτШetsӵaboutӵtheӵcollectionӵofӵclothesӵwereӵhandedӵ outӵtoӵ
newӵ households,ӵandӵ pressӵ releasesӵ aboutӵ theӵ annualӵ Ileaӵ marketӵ wereӵ sentӵ toӵ
newspapersӵ andӵ localӵ radioӵ stationsӵ thatӵ coveredӵ theӵwholeӵ province.ӵ ȕereӵ weӵ
informedӵ othersӵ aboutӵ theӵ localӵ conditionsӵ inӵ thoseӵ countriesӵ Ɨhereӵ weӵ
supportedӵ theӵ liberationӵ movements.ӵ Weӵ alsoӵ spokeӵ aboutӵ theӵ factӵ thatӵ theӵ
clothesӵ wereӵ ¿ivenӵ toӵ theӵ liberationӵ movementsӵ whoӵ distributedӵ themӵ inӵ theӵ
refu¿eeӵcampsӵoverӵwhichӵtheyӵhadӵtakenӵresponsibiliɛy.ӵ
Ÿastӵbutӵ notӵ least,ӵessentialӵbecauseӵ ofӵ theirӵtremendousӵcontribution,ӵtheӵ
coreӵ ofӵtheӵ¿roup,ӵ Ćtheӵ activists',ӵ whoӵactivelyӵtookӵpartӵ inӵ theӵ dailyӵw
ork,ӵwereӵ
recruitedӵfromӵtheӵlocalӵcommunity.ӵltӵwasӵourӵbasisӵthatӵClothesӵforӵAfricaӵshouldӵ
beӵbothӵaӵlocal̎socialӵandӵaӵpolitical̏¿lobalӵproŤectӵȦӵČ . Ğ ӵšʎӵ
Theӵlastӵfleaӵmarketӵwasӵheldӵinӵ1986.ӵThereӵwasӵaӵsteadyӵreductionӵofӵactivism,ӵ
membershipӵ flowӵ ebbedӵ out,ӵthereӵwasӵ aӵsplitӵinӵ theӵ¿roup,ӵ andӵtheӵeventualӵ
conclusionӵwasӵthatӵitӵlookedӵlikeӵsolidariɛyӵworkӵbelon¿edӵtoӵaӵcertainӵ¿eneration.ӵ
lnӵ Au¿ustӵ 1995,ӵ Cothenbur¿ӵ wasӵ turnedӵ upsideӵ down.ӵ ĩweden'sӵ secondӧ
lar¿estӵ cityӵ wasӵ aboutӵ toӵ hostӵ theӵ Worldӵ Championshipsӵ inӵ athletics.ӵ lnӵ anӵ
atmosphereӵofӵself-consciousӵactivity,ӵ theӵurbanӵenvironmentӵwasӵtransformedӵ
throu¿hӵ aӵ seriesӵ ofӵ 'beautification'ӵ pro¡ects,ӵ ran¿in¿ӵ froģ̿ӵ theӵ architecturalӵ
LotSenJJ5ocioIĸAeS\he\icSJJ¡ß¡ĸ
remodellin¿ӵofӵtheӵinnerӵcityӵtoӵtheӵin¡ectionӵofӵaӵhostӵofӵnewӵcommercialӵvenuesӵ
- ¿reenery,ӵ colourfulӵ advertisìn¿ӵ andӵ 'freshӵ paintƆӵ si¿nsӵ wereӵ sproutin¿ӵ upӵ
everywhere.ӵ Aӵ newӵ blackӵ marketӵ forӵ apartmentӵ subletsӵ appearedӵ andӵ
restaurantsӵwereӵopenlyӵadvertisin¿ӵforӵ'youn¿ӵblondeӵfemale'ӵstaff.ӵTheӵvisitorsӵ
arrivedӵatӵaӵsparklin¿ӵnewӵCothenbur¿,ӵstartin¿ӵtheӵfor-all-touristsӵsearchӵforӵtheӵ
authenticӵfolkӵandӵlocalӵspirit.ӵWithӵ¿or¿eousӵweather,ӵtheӵprideӵofӵtheӵcitizensӵ
wasӵonlyӵsli¿htlyӵstainedӵ byӵ theӵ embarrassmentӵofӵhavin¿ӵinventedӵtheӵ placeӵ
andӵ themselvesӵ specificallyӵforӵtheӵ tourists,ӵ andӵ embarrassedӵ thatӵthisӵ actӵ ofӵ
deceptionӵwasӵlar¿erӵthanӵtheirӵownӵnaϮvetǏ.ӵMoreӵthanӵthat,ӵtheӵdebateӵoverӵtheӵ
dayřto-dayӵad¡ustmentsӵtoӵallӵtheӵ newnessӵ madeӵclearӵthat,ӵforӵbetterӵorӵworse,ӵ
theӵ Cothenbur¿ersӵwereӵ losin¿ӵtheirӵ senseӵ ofӵbelon¿in¿ӵtoӵtheӵplaceӵtheyӵwereӵ
proudӵ toӵ represent.ӵ Theӵ sta¿in¿ӵ ofӵ theӵ host'sӵ roleӵ turnedӵ fromӵ bein¿ӵ anӵ
abstraction,ӵ 'theӵ cityƆ,ӵ towardsӵ involvin¿ӵ everyӵ sin¿leӵ citizen.ӵ Theӵ distinctionӵ
betweenӵ Ć¿uestsƆӵ andӵ 'hosts'ӵ be¿anӵ toӵ dissolve.ӵ Notӵ evenӵ aӵ ¿uide'sӵ uniformӵ
¿uaranteedӵdiscretion.ӵeverybodyӵwasӵ newӵtoӵtheӵplaceӵtheyӵfoundӵthemselvesӵ
in,ӵandӵtoӵeachӵother.ӵ
lnӵ theӵ middleӵ ofӵ thisӵ turbulenceӵ Aleksandraӵ Mirӵ openedӵ L(jcŦ isŦ 5wcc|Ŧ inŦ
5wcJcn.ŦCucs!Ŧ8urcuu,ŦanӵalternativeӵtouristӵofficeӵinӵdowntownӵCothenbur¿.ӵlď0ӵ
squareӵ metresӵwereӵ madeӵ availableӵ fromӵ theӵ publicӵ sector,ӵ andӵMirӵrenovatedӵ
andӵ decoratedӵ theӵ premisesӵinӵaӵhalfřofficial,ӵhalf-privateӵcosyӵatmosphereӵthatӵ
shouldӵmakeӵeverybodyӵfeelӵwelcome.ӵ Fquippedӵwithӵcomfortableӵsofas,ӵplasticӵ
¿reenery,ӵanӵaquarium,ӵdimӵli¿htsӵandӵsoftӵmuzak,ӵelectricӵfootbaths,ӵaӵtelevisionӵ
withӵ shoppin¿ӵ channelsӵ andӵevenӵaӵfreshӵsmellin¿ӵlavatory,ӵ theӵtouristӵbureauӵ
wasӵ freelyӵ availableӵ forӵ useӵ byӵ anyӵ andӵ everybody.ӵ Theӵ host'sӵ roleӵ wasӵ
personifiedӵ byӵ anybodyӵ whoӵ woreӵ theӵ hostessӵ uniformӵ forӵ L(jcŦ isŦ 5wcc!Ŧ inŦ
5wcJcnĕŦ aӵ blue-yellowӵ dress-suitӵ inӵ aӵ stewardess-cum-cashierӵ cut,ӵ withӵ theӵ
companyƆsӵlo¿oӵembroideredӵ inӵsilverӵonӵtheӵbreastӵpocket.ӵFromӵtheӵbe¿innìn¿,ӵ
twelveӵuniformsӵwereӵavailableӵandӵdurin¿ӵtheӵpro¡ect,ӵ46ӵpersonsӵassumedӵtheӵ
roleӵasӵhostess,ӵre¿ardlessӵofӵwhetherӵtheyӵhadӵanyӵconnectionӵwithӵCothenbur¿ӵ
orӵ not.ӵ Withӵ severalӵ hundredӵ ¿uestsӵ everyӵ dayӵ durin¿ӵ theӵ tenӵ daysӵ thatӵ theӵ
Worldӵ Championshipsӵ tookӵ place,ӵ theӵ touristӵ bureauӵ becameӵ aӵ socialӵ limboėӵ
takin¿ӵ shapeӵ accordin¿ӵ toӵ theӵ constellationsӵ ofӵ peopleӵ interactin¿ӵ withӵ oneӵ
anotherӵonӵtheӵspotĞӵTheӵentireӵ processӵ ofӵtheӵsituationӵ establishedӵ itselfӵasӵ aӵ
publicӵcoefficientӵwhereӵtheӵparticipants,ӵ¿uestsӵasӵweĚlӵasӵhosts,ӵwereӵinvolvedӵ
iёӵaӵmutualӵ endeavourӵintrinsicӵtoӵsociability.ӵ
͆ͨAӵ Ÿƿ¿stƿrӵwasӵ evaluatedӵ criticallyӵasӵ artӵafterӵtheӵ fact,ӵ DufourӵandӵThyboӵ
presentedӵ documentationӵ ofӵ theӵ pro¡ectӵ forӵ theirӵ exhibitionӵ inӵ theӵ Nďďӵ
spaceframe,ӵopenin¿ӵitӵupӵtoӵaӵnewӵnarrativeӵremovedӵ fromӵ theӵ terminolo¿yӵofӵ
itsӵ time.ӵ ͇ͩAӵ Ÿƿ¿stрӵ andӵ L(jcŦ isŦ 5wcc!. . . Ŧ canӵ bothӵ beӵ containedӵ inӵ theӵ sameӵ
sphereӵasӵtheӵ aimsӵandӵcharacteristicsӵofӵtheӵ'happenin¿'ӵ- asӵ outlinedӵaboveӵbyӵ
löġ{ěCR¡TICALĸANDĸCURATOR¡ALĸPO5¡T¡ON5ĸ
TrcelsӵAndersenӵ- andӵtc¿etherӵtheyӵhaveӵrescnanceӵfcrӵmcreӵrecentӵncticnsӵcfӵ
identìtyӵ pclϯtics.ӵ |ustӵ asӵ ͈ͪAӵ L΁¿stŭr'sӵ wcrkin¿ӵ premiseӵ wasӵ thatӵ theӵ lccalӵ
belcn¿sӵinӵaӵ¿lcbalӵsccietyӵandӵthatӵidentitiesӵareӵcreatedӵacrcssӵ¿ec¿raphyӵandӵ
naticnality,ӵ scӵ LńcŦ ísŦ 5wcc|ą . . Ŧ wasӵ ccncernedӵ withӵ theӵ lcssӵ cfӵ whatӵ mi¿htӵ
ncrmallyӵbeӵccnsideredӵsclidӵidentities.ӵltӵalscӵrefersӵtcӵthcseӵwhcӵalwaysӵccmeӵ
backӵ asӵ sub¡ectsӵ inӵ theӵ pcstmcdernӵ debateӵ cfӵ identityӵ Ĥ ncmadsŅӵ hybridsŅӵ
immi¿rantsŅӵ tcurists.ӵTheӵlimbcӵcfӵtheӵCcthenbur¿ersӵ- asӵthatӵcfӵtheӵprivile¿edӵ
Westernӵ citizenӵ wasӵ theӵ whcleӵ pcintӵ here,ӵ aӵ ccllectiveӵ interventicnӵ andӵ
mcbìlizaticnӵinӵtheӵfaceӵcfӵanӵambivalentӵcffìcialӵeccncmy.ӵ
Bcthӵprc¡ects,ӵlikeӵtheӵctherӵexamplesŅӵtakeӵplaceӵinӵrealӵtimeӵandӵdependӵcnӵ
theӵpresenceӵcfӵtheӵcther,ӵwhetherӵitӵbeӵtheӵculturalӵctherӵcrӵtheӵpecpleӵinӵlccalӵ
surrcundin¿sӵ waitin¿ӵtcӵ beӵ activated.ӵ Nctӵ leastӵcfӵall,ӵ theӵ prc¡ectsӵ dependӵ cnӵ
eachӵctherӵinӵcrderӵtcӵliveӵcnӵasӵccllectiveӵmemcriesӵwithӵtheӵpecpleӵwhcӵtcckӵ
partŅӵandӵtheӵcnesӵtcӵwhcmӵtheӵstcriesӵareӵtcld.ӵ
[Aͥsuccahͥ|sͥaͥIypcͥoIͥhuIͥIIkcͥIhcͥoncͥ dcscrIbcd,ͥ bu|IIͥdur|n¿ͥIhcͥ]cw|shͥIcsI|valͥ oIͥSuccoI,ͥandͥ
bascdͥonͥIhcͥporIabIcͥ nomad|cͥdwcIƓ|n¿sͥoIͥMoscsͥandͥh|sͥIoIIowcrsͥdur|n¿ͥIhc|rͥdcscrIͥcx|Ic.DŽͥ
?Ǫ [IooInoIcͥ 1 |nͥsoułcc͐ͥTrocIsͥAndcrscn:ͥPo¤l Ccncs. I9GG, 1970.
J ĩ?Ʀ Ibid.Ǫ
1 [3ʃͥ DuIour,ͥThybo,ͥSȂrcnscn.ͥ!A Lc¿>m 1 97J-1988.
Lrsͥ 6an¿ͥ Larscn,ͥ 'Soc|aIͥ AcsIhcI|csȡͥ 11 cxampIcsͥ Ioͥ bc¿|nͥ w|Ih,ͥ |nͥ Ihcͥ I|¿hIͥ oIͥ paraIIcIͥ h|sIory',ͥ
A]reroll. no.ͥ 1 (L̐ndonūͥCcnIraʄͥ Sa|nIͥMarI|nsͥSchooIͥoIͥArIͥandͥDcs|¿n,ͥ1999) 77-87.
ćrSen//5ocíOIĸAeS!he\ícS/ĸ /¡ßöĸ
No!!y NCsbit, HOns-U!tiCh Obzist, Ritktn TitOvOni]O
WhO¡ is O 5¡O¡ion? JJ2003
UtopiaӵStation,ӵprcscn!cJŦo!Ŧ!ncŦ vcníccŦ8ícnno|cŦínŦ200J,Ŧ con!oíncJŦworkŦc¡Ŧ ovcrŦ
l50Ŧor!ís!s.ŦLíkcŦDocumcn!oŦ llŦ (2002),Ŧí!ŦwĬsŦprcccJcJŦc¡ŦoŦnumccrŦo]ŦscmínorsŦonJŦ
cxnící!íonsŦ!nrou¿nŦwnícnŦ!ncŦcxnící!íon'sŦ !ncorc!íco|Ŧposí!íonŦwoŜŦ]ormu|o!cJ.Ŧ !ncŦ
]o||owín¿Ŧ!cx!,Ŧ wrí!!cnŦ c¡Ŧ í!sŦ !nrccŦ curo!ors,Ŧ ou!|íncsŦ !ncírŦ po|í!íco|Ŧ onJŦ ocs!nc!ícŦ
ospír0!íonsŦ]orŦ oŦrc-cxomíno!íonŦo]Ŧu!opío.Ŧ
Durin¿ӵ aӵdebateӵ withӵTheodorӵAdornoӵiǚӵ l964,ӵFrnstӵиloch,ӵ pushedӵtoӵtheӵwallӵ
toӵ defendӵ hisӵ positionӵ onӵ utopia,ӵ stoodӵ firm.ӵ Adornoӵ hadӵ be¿unӵ thin¿sӵ byӵ
remindin¿ӵ everyoneӵ presentӵ thatӵ certaϰnӵ utopianӵ dreamsӵ hadӵ actuallyӵ beenӵ
fulfilled,ӵ thatӵ thereӵ wasӵ nowӵ televisionˋӵ theӵ possibilityӵ ofӵ travellin¿ӵ toӵ otherӵ
planetsӵ andӵ movin¿ӵ fasterӵ thanӵ sound.ӵ Andӵ yetӵ theseӵ dreamsӵ hadӵ comeӵ
shrouded,ӵ mindsӵ setӵ inӵ tractionӵ byӵ aӵ relǐntlessӵ positivismӵ andӵ thenӵ theirӵownӵ
boredom.ӵ 'Dneӵ couldӵ perhapsӵ sayӵ inӵ ¿eђeral',ӵ heӵnoted,ӵ 'thatӵtheӵ fulfilmentӵ ofӵ
utopiaӵconsistsӵlar¿elyӵonlyӵinӵaӵrepetitionӵofӵtheӵcontinuallyӵsameӵƭtodayǪʼnӵ
Blochӵ countered.ӵTheӵwordӵutopiaӵhadӵindeedӵbeenӵdiscredited,ӵheӵnoted,ӵbutӵ
utopianӵ thinkin¿ӵhadӵ not.ӵ Heӵ pointedӵtoӵ otherӵlevelsӵ ofӵmind,ӵtoӵ removesӵthatӵ
wereӵ lessӵ structuredӵ byӵWesternӵ capital.ӵ Utopiaӵ wasӵ passin¿ӵlessӵ auspiciouslyӵ
underӵ otherӵ namesӵ now,ӵ heӵ remarked,ӵ forӵ example,ӵ 'scienceӵ fiction'ӵ andӵ theӵ
be¿innin¿sӵ ofӵsentencesӵstartin¿ӵwithӵ'lfӵonlyӵitӵwereӵsoӵ. . . ӵ 'ӵ
Adornoӵa¿reedӵwithӵ himӵ thereӵ andӵ wentӵ on.ӵ 'Ͳȼateverӵ utopiaӵ is',ӵ heӵsaid,ӵ
'w
hateverӵc΂nӵ beӵima¿inedӵasӵutopia,ӵthϱsӵisӵtheӵtransformationӵofӵtheӵtotality.ӵ
Andӵ theӵ ima¿inationӵ ofӵsuchӵ aӵ transformationӵ ofӵtheӵ totalityӵ isӵ basicallyӵ veҫyӵ
differentӵinӵallӵtheӵso-calledӵutopianӵaccomplishmentsӵ- which,ӵincidentally,ӵareӵ
allӵŦeallyӵlikeӵyouӵsayĐӵveryӵmodest,ӵveryӵnarrow.ӵltӵseemsӵtoӵmeӵthatӵwhatӵpeopleӵ
haveӵlostӵsub¡ectivelyӵinӵre¿ardӵtoӵconsciɑusnessӵisӵveryӵsimplyӵtheӵcapabilityӵtoӵ
ima¿ineӵ theӵ totalityӵ asӵ somethin¿ӵ thatӵcouldӵ beӵ completelyӵ differentħӵ Howӵ toӵ
thinkӵutopiaӵthenŜӵAdornoӵsawӵtheӵonlyӵpossibilityӵtoӵresideӵinӵtheӵnotionӵofӵanӵ
unfetteredӵ lifeӵ]rccJŦ]roŦmŦJco!n.ŦAllӵ atӵonceӵtheӵdiscussionӵofӵutopiaӵexpanded,ӵitӵ
becameӵnotӵmerelyӵold,ӵbutӵancient.ӵltӵseemedӵtoӵshedӵideolo¿iesӵasӵifӵtheyӵwereӵ
sőins.ӵAdoǟoӵ declaredӵ thatӵthereӵcouldӵbeӵnoӵpictureӵofӵutopiaӵcastӵinӵaӵpositiveӵ
manner,ӵthereӵcouldӵbeӵnoӵpositiveӵpictuŦeӵofӵitӵatӵ all,ӵ norӵcouldӵ anyӵpictureӵbeӵ
complete.ӵHeӵwentӵveryӵfaŦ.ӵBlochӵonlyӵfollowedӵhimӵpartӵway.ӵ Heӵsummonedӵupӵ
aӵsentenceӵfromӵBrecht.ӵHeӵletӵitӵstandӵasӵ theӵnutshellӵthatӵheldӵtheӵincentiveӵforӵ
utoѱiaĞӵ BreΗhtӵhadӵwrittenӵ'Somethϲn¿'sӵmissin¿.'ӵ
ʏWhatӵisӵ thisӵ ɷsomethin¿ǫŜ'ӵBlochӵasked.ӵʐlfӵitӵ isӵnotӵallowedӵtoӵbeӵ castӵ inӵaӵ
lß4/ĸ /CRIT¡CAĆĸADĸCURATORĄLĸPO5¡T¡ON5ĸ
picture,ӵthenӵlӵshallӵportrayӵitӵasӵinӵtheӵprocessӵofӵbein¿.ӵBuƨӵoneӵshouldӵ notӵbeӵ
allowedӵ toӵ eliminateӵ itӵasӵ ifӵ itӵreallyӵ didӵ notӵ eĀistӵ soӵ thatӵ oneӵ couldӵ sayӵ theӵ
followin¿ӵaboutӵit.ӵǬlt'sӵaboutӵtheӵsausa¿eƮ.ӵlӵbelieveӵutopiaӵcannotӵbeӵremovedӵ
fromӵtheӵworldӵ inӵ spiteӵofӵeverythin¿,ӵandӵevenӵ theӵ technolo¿ical,ӵ whichӵ mustӵ
deƛinitelyӵ emer¿eӵ andӵwillӵbeӵinӵ theӵ¿reatӵrealmӵofӵtƝeӵutopian,ӵ willӵformӵonlyӵ
smallӵsectors.ӵThatӵisӵaӵ¿eometricalӵpicture,ӵwhichӵdoesӵnotӵhaveӵanyӵplaceӵhere,ӵ
butӵ anotherӵ pictureӵ canӵbeӵ foundӵ inӵtheӵ oldӵpeasantӵsayin¿,ӵ thereӵ isӵ noӵ danceӵ
beforeӵtheӵmeal.ӵPeopleӵmustӵƛirstӵfillӵ theirӵstomachs,ӵandӵthenӵtheyӵcanӵdanceȈӵ
'Somethin¿ӵisӵMissin¿',ӵtheӵstatementӵfromӵBrecht.ӵTypicallyӵwhenӵsearchin¿ӵ
forӵ utopia,ӵ oneӵ reliesӵ onӵ theӵ stepsӵ takenӵ byӵ others,ӵ forӵ everӵ sinceӵ itsӵ firstӵ
formulationӵinӵ1516ӵinӵtheӵbookӵbyӵSirӵThomasӵMore,ӵeverӵsinceӵitsӵinventionӵasӵ
theӵ islandӵ ofӵ¿oodӵ socialӵ order,ӵ utopiaӵ hasӵ beenӵ aӵ propositionӵ toӵ beӵ debated,ӵ
severalӵspeakersӵoftenӵpitchin¿ӵinӵatӵonce.ӵTheyӵbrin¿ӵthou¿hts,ӵeĀperience,ӵtheӵ
fruitsӵofӵtheӵpast.ӵForӵutopiaӵisӵinӵmanyӵwaysӵanӵancientӵsearchӵforӵhappiness,ӵforӵ
freedom,ӵforӵparadise.ӵSirӵThomasӵ Moreӵ hadӵ hadӵ Plato'sӵ kcpuD|icŦinӵ mindӵ asӵ heӵ
wrote.ӵByӵnowӵhoweverӵutopiaӵitselfӵhasӵlostӵitsӵmuchӵofӵitsӵfire.ӵTheӵworkӵdoneӵ
inӵ theӵ nameӵ ofӵ utopiaӵ hasӵ souredӵ theӵ concept,ӵ leftӵ itӵ stran¿ledӵ byӵ internal,ӵ
seemin¿lyӵ fiĀedӵ perspectives,ӵ theӵ skeletonsӵ ofӵ oldӵ effortsӵ whichӵ leaveӵ theirӵ
bonesӵ onӵ theӵ surfaceӵ ofӵtheӵ bodyӵ asӵ ifӵtheyӵbelon¿edӵthere.ӵ Hasӵ utopiaӵ beenӵ
strun¿ӵup?ӵ Drӵobscuredӵbyӵbadӵeyesi¿ht?ӵCertainlyӵí!Ŧhasӵ¿oneӵmissin¿.ӵătopiaӵ
itselfӵhasӵbecomeӵaӵconceptӑalӵnoĜplace,ӵemptyӵrhetoricӵatӵbest,ӵmoreӵoftenӵthanӵ
notӵanӵ eĀoticӵvacation,ӵ theӵdesertӵpleasureӵislandӵ ofӵcliché.ӵ Abbasӵ Kiarostami,ӵ
whenӵ askedӵ recentlyӵɀfӵheӵhadӵanyӵ unrealizedӵ orӵutopianӵ pro¡ects,ӵ refusedӵ theӵ
lon¿ӵperspectivesӵofӵutopiaӵalto¿ether.ӵHeӵpreferredӵtoӵfǔĀӵmattersӵinӵtheӵpresent,ӵ
takin¿ӵeachӵdayӵoneӵhillӵatӵaӵtime.ӵWeӵinӵturnӵhaveӵsetӵourӵsi¿htsӵonӵtheӵmiddleӵ
¿roundӵbetweenӵtheӵislandӵandӵtheӵhill.ӵWeӵwillӵbuildӵaӵStationӵthereӵandӵnameӵ
itӵătopiaӵStation.ӵ
Theӵătopiaӵ StationӵisӵaӵwayĜstation.ӵAsӵ aӵconceptualӵstructureӵ itӵisӵƛĚeĀiblḛӵ
theӵparticularӵStationӵplannedӵforӵtheӵVeniceӵ͟iennaleӵisӵphysicalӵtoo.ӵltӵwillӵriseӵ
asӵ aӵsetӵofӵcontributionsӵbyӵmoreӵthanӵsiĀtyӵartistsӵandӵ architects,ӵwritersӵ andӵ
performers,ӵ theӵ ensembleӵ bein¿ӵ coordinatedӵ intoӵ aӵ fleĀibleӵ planӵ byӵ Rirkritӵ
Tiravani¡aӵandӵLiamӵCillick.ӵlɚӵhasӵbeenӵimportantӵtoӵallӵconcernedӵthatӵtheӵplanӵ
notӵpresentӵitselfӵasӵaӵfinishedӵpicture.ӵLetӵusӵthereforeӵcon¡ureӵupӵtheӵStationӵbyӵ
meansӵofӵaӵfewӵfi¿ures.ӵltӵbe¿insӵwithӵaӵlon¿ӵlowӵplatform,ӵpartӵdanceĜƛloor,ӵpartӵ
sta¿e,ӵpartӵquay.ӵAlon¿ӵoneӵsideӵofӵthisӵplatformӵisӵaӵrowӵofӵlar¿eӵcircularӵbenchesӵ
soӵthatӵyouӵcanӵwatchӵtheӵmovementӵonӵtheӵplatformӵorӵsilentlyӵturnӵyourӵbackӵ
orӵ treatӵ theӵ circleӵ asӵ aӵ ¿enerousӵ conversationӵ pit.ӵ Fachӵ seatsӵ tenӵ peopleğӵTheӵ
circularӵbenchesӵareӵportable,ӵasӵanӵoptionӵoneӵcouldӵlineӵthemӵupӵlikeӵaӵrowӵofӵ
bi¿ӵwheels.ӵAlon¿ӵtheӵotheĬӵsideӵ ofӵtheӵplatformӵaӵlon¿ӵwallӵwithӵmanyӵdoorsӵ
risesӵup.ӵSomeӵofӵtheӵdoorsӵtakeӵyouӵtoӵtheӵotherӵsideӵofӵtheӵwall.ӵSomeӵopenӵintoӵ
NeSUí\/OUtiS!/TitOVOnijO/ĸ/WO!ĸiSĸOĸ5\O!ion?//lßõĸ
smallӵrccmsӵinӵwhichӵycuӵwillӵseeӵinstallaticnsӵandӵprc¡ecticns.ӵTheӵwallӵwrapsӵ
arcundӵtheӵrccmsӵandӵbìndsӵtheӵensembleӵintcӵaӵlcn¿ӵirre¿ularӵstructure.ӵDverӵitӵ
flcatsӵaӵrccfӵsuspendedӵ cnӵcablesӵfrcmӵtheӵceilìn¿ӵcfӵtheӵcaverncusӵrccmӵinӵtheӵ
cldӵ warehcuseӵatӵtheӵfarӵendӵcfӵtheӵArsenaleӵwhereӵtheӵStatìcnӵ sìts.ӵ Dutsideӵtheӵ
warehcuseӵliesӵaӵrcu¿hӵ¿ardθn.ӵWcrkӵfrcmӵtheӵStaticnӵwillӵspillӵintcӵit.ӵ
TheӵStaticnӵitselfӵwillӵbeӵfilledӵwithӵcb¡ects,ӵpart-cb¡ects,ӵpaintin¿s,ӵima¿es,ӵ
screens.ӵAŕcundӵthemӵaӵvarietyӵcfӵbenches,ӵtablesӵandӵsmallӵstructuresӵtakeӵtheirӵ
place.ӵ ltӵwìllӵ beӵ pcssìbleӵ tcӵ batheӵ inӵ theӵStaticnӵandӵ pcwderӵcne'sӵ ncse.ӵ Theӵ
Staticnӵinӵctherӵwcrdsӵbeccmesӵaӵplaceӵtcӵstcp,ӵtcӵccntemplate,ӵtcӵlistenӵandӵsee,ӵ
tcӵrestӵandӵrefresh,ӵtcӵtalkӵandӵexchan¿e.ӵFcrӵìtӵwillӵbeӵccmpletedӵbyӵtheӵpresenceӵ
cfӵ pecpleӵ andӵ aӵ prc¿rammeӵ cfӵ events.ӵ Żerfcrmances,ӵ ccncerts,ӵ lectures,ӵ
readin¿s,ӵ filmӵ prc¿rammes,ӵ parties,ӵ theӵ eventsӵ willӵ multiply.ӵTheyӵdefineӵ theӵ
Staticnӵasӵmuchӵasӵitsӵsclidӵcb¡ectsӵdc.ӵ Butӵallӵkindsӵcfӵthin¿sӵ willӵccntinueӵtcӵbeӵ
addedӵtcӵtheӵ Statìcnӵoƕerӵtheӵccurseӵ cfӵtheӵ summerӵandӵ fall.ӵ Żecpleӵwillӵ leaveӵ
thin¿sӵ behìnd,ӵtalȒeӵ scmeӵ thin¿sӵ wìthӵ them,ӵ ccmeӵ backӵcrӵ neverӵ returnӵ a¿ain.ӵ
Thereӵ willӵalwaysӵbeӵpecpleӵ whcӵwantӵtcӵ leaveӵtccӵ muchӵandӵcthersӵwhcӵdcn'tӵ
kncwӵwhatӵtcӵleaveӵbehindӵcrӵwhatӵtcӵsay.ӵTheseӵareӵtheӵchallen¿esӵfcrӵaӵUtcpìaӵ
Statìcnӵbein¿ӵsetӵupӵinӵtheӵ heartӵcfӵanӵartӵexhibiticn.ӵ Butӵinӵadditicn,ӵthereӵareӵ
theӵunpredicƧableӵeffects,ӵwhϳchӵCarstenӵȕƣllerӵhasӵbeenӵanticipatin¿,ӵtheӵpcintsӵ
whereӵscmethin¿ӵmissin¿ӵturnsӵtcӵscmethin¿ӵthatӵbeccmesӵtccӵmuch.ӵTheӵdcubtӵ
prcducedӵ betweenӵ theseӵtwcӵscmethin¿sӵ isӵ¡ustӵasӵ meanin¿fulӵ asӵ anyӵideaӵ cfӵ
utcpia,ӵheӵbelieves.ӵTheseӵtensìcnsӵwillӵbeӵwelccmedӵlikeӵaӵ¿uest.ӵ
WhatӵdcesӵaӵStaticnӵprcduce?ӵWhatӵmi¿htӵaӵStaticnӵprcduceӵinŦrco|Ŧ|imcĚŦlnӵ
thisӵproJuccŦ liesӵ anӵ activityӵratherӵ mcreӵ ccmplexӵ thanӵ pureӵ exhibiticn,ӵ fcrӵ ìtӵ
ccntainsӵmanyӵcyclesӵ cfӵuse,ӵaӵmixin¿ӵcfӵuse.ӵltӵinccrpcratesӵaestheticӵmaterìal,ӵ
aesthetìcӵmattersӵtcc,ӵintcӵanctherӵeccncmyӵwhichӵdcesӵnctӵre¿ardӵartӵasӵfatallyӵ
separate.ӵ
Butӵwhatӵisӵitsӵplace?ӵTheӵdiscussìcnӵcfӵthìsӵquestìcnӵhasӵbeenӵcpenedӵa¿ainӵ
byӵ|acquesӵ Ranciȴre,ӵinӵhisӵ bcckӵLcŦpuŏ|o¿cŦ JuŦscnsíclc,Ŧ whichӵ inӵFrenchӵ hasӵtheӵ
advanta¿eӵcfӵhavin¿ӵaӵpartiticnӵ andӵ aӵ sharin¿ӵ cccupyӵ theӵ sameӵ wcrd.ӵ Whatӵ ìsӵ
ғecticnedӵ cffӵ andӵ excƝan¿ed̹ӵ ltӵ isӵ mcreӵ thanӵ anӵ idea.ӵ Ranciȴreӵ takesӵ hisӵ
Χepartureӵfrcmӵ Żlatc,ӵpcintedly,ӵinӵcrderӵtcӵremindӵusӵcfӵtheӵinevitableӵrelaticnӵ
betweenӵtheӵartsӵandӵtheӵrestӵcfӵsccialӵactiviǡƫ,ӵtheӵinevitableӵrelaticns,ӵitӵshculdӵ
beӵsaìd,ӵthatӵtc¿etherӵdìstrìbuteӵvalueӵandӵ¿ìveӵhìerarchy,ӵthatӵ¿cvern,ӵthatӵbcthӵ
materiallyӵ andӵ ccnceptuallyӵ establishӵ theɁrӵ pclitics.ӵ Thisӵ theatreӵ cfӵ relaticnsӵ
wrapsӵìtselfӵarcundӵvisicnsӵcfӵwcrlds,ӵeachӵcfӵthemӵislandsˌӵeachӵcfӵthemӵfcrms,ӵ
butӵ allӵ cfӵ themӵ ccncreteӵ realitiesӵ repleteӵ withӵ matterӵ andӵ fcrce.ӵ Thisӵ isӵ aӵ
philcscphìcalӵ understandìn¿ӵ cfӵ aestheticӵ activity,ӵ itӵ extendsӵ materialistӵ
aesthetìcsӵìntcӵtheӵccnditicnsӵcfӵcurӵpresenṯӵ itӵisӵaӵbccőӵtcӵbrin¿ӵtcӵaӵStaticn.ӵAsӵ
weӵ
have˼ӵBut,ӵcnceӵreleased,ӵaӵbcckӵtccӵleavesӵitsӵìsland.ӵ
löó/ĸ /CRIT¡CALĸANDĸCURATORIALĸPO5ITION5ĸ
Theӵ UtcpiaӵStaticnӵ inӵVenice,ӵtheӵ cityӵcfӵislands,ӵ isӵ partӵcfӵaӵlar¿erӵprc¡ect.ӵ
Utcpiaӵ Staticnsӵ dcӵnctӵrequireӵarchitectureӵfcrӵtheirӵ existence,ӵcnlyӵaӵmeetin¿,ӵaӵ
¿atherin¿.ӵ Weӵ haveӵ alreadyӵ hadӵ severalӵ inӵ Paris,ӵ inӵ Venice,ӵ inӵ Franl̷furt,ӵ inӵ
Pcu¿hkeepsie,ӵinӵBerlin.ӵ Asӵ suchӵtheӵStaticnsӵcanӵbeӵlaĬ¿eӵ crӵsmall.ӵThereӵisӵncӵ
hierarchyӵ cfӵ impcrtanceӵ betweenӵ theӵ ¿atherin¿s,ӵ meetin¿s,ӵ seminars,ӵ
exhibiticnsӵandӵbccks,ӵallӵcfӵthemӵbeccmeӵequallyӵ¿ccdӵwaysӵcfӵwcrkin¿.ӵThereӵ
isӵ ncӵdesireӵtcӵfcrmalizeӵtheӵStaticnsӵintcӵanӵinstituticnӵcfӵanyӵkind.ӵFcrӵncwӵweӵ
meet.ӵ Manyӵ ideasӵ abcutӵ utcpiaӵ circulate.ӵ Dnceӵ whenӵ weӵ metӵ withӵ ŏacquesӵ
Rancięre,ӵitӵwasӵinӵParisӵlastӵŏune,ӵheӵspckeӵtcӵtheӵdifIĊcultiesӵϴnvclvedӵinӵputtin¿ӵ
theӵ ideaӵ cfӵutcpiaӵ fcrward.ӵ Heӵ pcintedӵ tcӵ theӵ lineӵ thatӵ saysӵ 'TheĬeӵ mustӵ beӵ
utcpia',ӵ meanin¿ӵ thatӵ thereӵ mustӵ nctӵ cnlyӵ beӵ calculaticnsӵ butӵ anӵelevaticn,ӵ aӵ
supplementӵ risin¿ӵ inӵ theӵ soul,ӵ andӵ saidӵ thatӵ thisӵ lineӵ cfӵ thcu¿htӵ hasӵ neverӵ
interestedӵ him.ӵlndeedӵ heӵ hasӵ alwaysӵ fcundӵ itӵunnervin¿,ӵ evenӵ iģͫitatin¿.ӵ Thatӵ
whichӵ dcesӵ interestӵhim,ӵheӵexplained,ӵ isӵtheӵ Jisscnsus,Ŧ theӵ mannerӵ inӵwhichӵ
rupturesӵ areӵ ccncretelyӵ createdӵ - rupturesӵ inӵ speech,ӵ inӵ percepticn,ӵ inӵ
sensibility.ӵ Heӵturnedӵtcӵccntemplateӵtheӵmeansӵbyӵwhichӵutcpiasӵcanӵbeӵusedӵ
tcӵprcduceӵtheseӵruѲtures.ӵWillӵitӵbe¿inӵandӵendӵinӵtalkŜӵ
Dnӵ anctherӵ cccasicn,ӵ inӵ Pcu¿hkeepsieӵ lastӵ winter,ӵ¡ustӵ asӵ aӵ blizzardӵ wasӵ
abcutӵtcӵblcwӵin,ӵLawrenceӵWeinerӵremindedӵeverycneӵpresentӵthatӵtheӵartist'sӵ
realityӵisӵncʑӵdifferentӵfrcmӵanyӵ ctherӵreality.ӵ ͮamӵ Cillickӵ askedӵ thatӵweӵ avcidӵ
utcpianӵ mira¿e,ӵ insteadӵ askin¿ӵfcrӵutcpiaӵ tcӵ beccmeӵ aӵ functicnalӵstepӵ mcvin¿ӵ
beycndӵ itself.ӵMarthaӵ Rcslerӵtcldӵtheӵstcryӵ cfӵ¿cin¿ӵtcӵ seeӵtheӵspaceӵ inӵVenice,ӵ
arrivin¿ӵhcweverӵasӵni¿htӵfellӵtcӵseeӵcnlyӵanӵ intericrӵcfӵdarkness,ӵthereӵbein¿ӵncӵ
li¿hts.ӵ Butӵutcpia,ӵ sheӵ said,ӵ isӵwhatӵmcves.ӵŏcnasӵ Mekasӵ warnedӵcfӵcbsessicnsӵ
withӵideas,ӵsinceӵtheӵdream,ӵƝeӵsaid,ӵcculdӵcnlyӵsucceedӵifӵweӵfcr¿etӵthem.ӵLecnӵ
Cclubӵwasӵapccalyptic.ӵAllanӵSekula,ӵatӵcurӵur¿in¿,ӵshcwedӵtheӵfirstӵfiveӵminutesӵ
cfӵtheӵtapeӵheӵhadӵmadeӵtheӵdayӵbefcreӵdurin¿ӵtheӵpeaceӵdemcnstraticnӵinӵNewӵ
Ycrk.ӵ Aсiӵ Salaӵ shcwedӵ usӵ aӵ tapeӵ cfӵTirana,ӵ whereӵ theӵ maycrӵ hadӵ paintedӵ
apartmentӵblccőӵwallsӵintcӵaӵ¿ecmetricӵvisicn,ӵaӵccncreteӵhcpe.ӵ
Ŵ
dcuardӵClissantӵ
came.ӵ Heӵspckeӵ cfӵtheӵ desireӵ fcrӵ theӵ perfectӵ shape,ӵ heӵspckeӵ hisӵ lan¿ua¿eӵ cfӵ
landscapes.ӵDnlyӵbyӵpassin¿ӵthrcu¿hӵtheӵincţ!ricoclcŦcfӵtheӵwcrld,ӵheӵtcldӵus,ӵcanӵ
weӵsaveӵ curӵimo¿inoirc.Ŧ lnӵthatӵpassin¿ӵthereӵwculdӵccmeӵtheӵ !rcmc|cmcn!,Ŧ theӵ
tremcrӵbein¿ӵfundamentalӵtcӵtheӵpassa¿e.ӵ
Nancyӵ Spercӵ sentӵaӵ mcrphineӵ dream.ӵ A¿nęsӵ Vardaӵsentӵusӵ theӵ scn¿ӵ cfӵtheӵ
Cadetӵ Rcusselle.ӵ Tc¿etherӵ weӵ readӵ anӵ articleӵ
Ŵ
tienneӵ ȡalibarӵ hadӵ writtenӵ sixӵ
yearsӵa¿cӵfcrӵLcŦMonJcŦwhichӵprcpcsedӵtcӵtakeӵccmpleteӵleaveӵcfӵutcpiaӵncw,ӵinӵ
crderӵtcӵĬeturnӵtcӵtheӵheartӵcfӵtheӵmatterӵ- tcӵletӵtheӵima¿inaticnӵfreeӵtcӵacceptӵ
theӵsuddenӵemer¿enceӵcfӵsub¡ectivityӵ inӵtheӵsccialӵfield.ӵ Letӵusӵ makeӵ aӵsuddenӵ
rush,ӵaӵplaceӵfcrӵtheӵima¿inaticnӵtcӵexpand,ӵaӵplaceӵcfӵficticn,ӵficticnӵinӵitsӵfullestӵ
sense.ӵ ȡalibarӵseesӵficticnӵtcӵbeӵtheӵprcducticnӵcfӵtheӵreal,ӵscmethin¿ӵstemmin¿ӵ
NeSUi!/OUtiS!/TirOVOnijO/ĸ/WhO!ĸiSĸOĸ5!O!ion?J/lö7ĸ
fromӵ experienceӵ itself,ӵ lƢowled¿eӵ andӵ actionӵ brou¿htӵ to¿etherӵ soӵ thatӵ theyӵ
becomeӵ indistin¿uishable,ӵ insurrectionӵ emptyɄn¿ӵ intoӵ constitution.ӵ Heӵ usedӵ
theseӵthou¿htsӵtoӵprefaceӵ hisӵDroí!ŦJcŦcí!c.ŦAnotherӵbookӵforӵtheӵStation.ӵ
ltӵisӵsimple.ӵWeӵuseӵutopiaӵasӵ aӵcatalyst,ӵ aӵconceptӵmostӵusefulӵasӵ fuel.ӵ Weӵ
leaveӵ theӵcompleteӵdefinitionӵ ofӵ utopiaӵtoӵ others.ӵWeӵ meetӵtoӵ poolӵ ourӵefforts,ӵ
motivatedӵbyӵaӵneedӵtoӵchan¿eӵtheӵlandscapeӵoutsideӵandӵinside,ӵaӵneedӵtoӵthink,ӵ
aӵneedӵtoӵinte¿rateӵtheӵworkӵofӵtheӵartist,ӵtheӵintellectualӵandӵmanualӵlabourersӵ
thatӵweӵareӵintoӵaӵlar¿erӵkindӵofӵcommunity,ӵanotherӵkindӵofӵeconomy,ӵaӵbi¿¿erӵ
conversation,ӵanotherӵstateӵofӵbein¿.ӵYouӵcouldӵcallӵthisӵneedӵaӵhun¿er.ӵ
Dareӵ oneӵrewriteӵ aӵsentenceӵ byӵ Brecht?ӵ Somethin¿ӵwcŦ nccJŦ isӵ missin¿.ӵTheӵ
manӵ who,ӵseventyӵyearsӵa¿o,ӵwroteӵdzArtӵfollowsӵreality'ӵwouldӵ surelyӵ notӵmind.ӵ
Letӵ usӵthenӵtakeӵtheseӵwordsӵandӵpressӵon.ӵWeӵneedӵtheӵwords,ӵoldӵwordsӵandӵ
newӵwords,ӵweӵneedӵtheӵdance,ӵweӵneedӵtheӵsausa¿e,ӵandӵstillӵweӵneedӵmore.ӵWeӵ
haveӵ started,ӵ weӵ meetӵ inӵ theӵ Utopiaӵ Station,ӵ weӵ startӵ outӵ a¿ain.ӵ Theӵ Stationӵ
becomesӵaӵplaceӵtoӵ¿atherӵourӵstartin¿ӵpointsӵtemporarily.ӵ ltӵisӵprimarilyӵforӵthisӵ
reasonӵ itӵ resistsӵ captureӵandӵsummaryӵasӵaӵ sin¿leӵima¿e.ӵDrӵisӵitӵ theӵima¿eӵofӵ
openӵpossibility?ӵTheӵima¿eӵofӵmixedӵuse?ӵManyӵthin¿sӵwillӵhappenӵthere.ӵAndӵ
theyӵwillӵsparkӵothers.ӵ
ThinkӵofӵtheӵStationӵasӵaӵfieldӵofӵstartin¿ӵpoints,ӵmanyӵstartin¿ӵpointsӵbein¿ӵ
brou¿htӵ andӵ offeredӵ byӵ ma
nyӵ differentӵ people.ӵ Someӵ willӵ brin¿ӵ ob¡ectsӵ now,ӵ
othersӵlater.ӵFachӵpresentӵandӵ futureӵcontributorӵtoӵtheӵStationӵisӵbein¿ӵaskedӵtoӵ
doӵ aӵposterӵforӵ useӵ inӵ theӵStationӵandӵ beyond:ӵwhereverӵitӵ canӵ han¿,ӵ itӵ canӵ¿o.ӵAӵ
paperӵtrailӵforӵonceӵ¿oesӵforward.ӵľewӵpostersӵcontinueӵtoӵbeӵadded.ӵlnӵthisӵwayӵ
theӵ UtopiaӵStationӵproducesӵ ima¿es,ӵ evenӵ asӵ itӵ doesӵ notӵstartӵwithӵ one.ӵAndӵaӵ
looseӵcommunityӵ assembles.ӵ ltӵdevelopsӵ itsӵ ownӵ internalӵ pointsӵ ofӵcoherence,ӵ
whichӵshiftӵwithӵtheӵtimes,ӵasӵconversationsӵandӵdebatesӵdo.ӵ
Fachӵpersonӵmakin¿ӵaӵposterӵhasӵbeenӵaskedӵtoӵmakeӵaӵstatementӵofӵatӵleastӵ
oneӵandӵupӵtoӵtwoӵhundredӵwords.ӵlndependentӵofӵoneӵanotherӵtheӵstatementsӵ
collect.ӵStuartӵ Hallӵandӵ͸ei¿amӵAzizovӵelaborateӵ uponӵaӵproposition.ӵ theӵworldӵ
hasӵ toӵ beӵmoJcŦ !oŦ mcon.Ŧ Theӵ bittersweetӵbakedӵ intoӵ hope,ӵ writesӵľancyӵSpero.ӵ
͛ashӵ Buzariӵ sentӵaӵ poemӵwhereӵ darknessӵ isӵ dialled.ӵTheӵ Raqsӵ Mediaӵ Collectiveӵ
callsӵutopiaӵaӵhearin¿ӵaid.ӵThisӵprobablyӵwillӵnotӵwork.ӵ|immieӵDurhamӵcitesӵtheӵ
Cherokeećӵ andӵ addsӵ thatӵ theӵ Ćprobably'ӵ keepsӵ peopleӵ active.ӵ Thereӵ willӵ beӵ
hundredsӵofӵstatementsӵlikeӵtheseӵinӵtheӵend.ӵTheyӵӕillӵbranchӵout.ӵAsӵtheyӵdoӵ
certainӵ fi¿uresӵ be¿inӵ toӵ repeat.ӵShipsӵ andӵ son¿sӵ andӵ fla¿s,ӵtwoӵ timesӵ potatoesćӵ
twoӵtimesӵ Sisyphus,ӵ fi¿uresӵ familiarӵfromӵ theӵ discussionӵ ofӵutopiaӵ fortyӵ yearsӵ
a¿oćӵbuҬӵtheyӵhaveӵbeenӵassimilatedӵratherӵthanӵ cited.ӵUtopiaӵbecomesӵtheӵsecretӵ
¿ardenӵ whoseӵ doorsӵ canӵ beӵ openedӵ a¿ain.ӵ Utopiaӵ becomesӵ theӵ catalystӵ thatӵ
burnsӵ andӵ retuǟsƺӵ ľoneӵ ofӵusӵcanӵsayӵweӵ be¿inӵ fromӵscratch.ӵ
Theseӵactitivitiesӵ implyӵanӵ activism.ӵ Forӵ manyӵ whoӵ comeӵ toӵtheӵ Stationćӵ itsӵ
löö//CRITICALANDĸCURATORIALĸPO5ITION5ĸ
invitationӵtoӵ self-or¿anizeӵ speaksӵ aӵ politicalӵ lan¿ua¿eӵ alreadyӵКnownӵtoӵ themӵ
andӵ alreadyӵ bein¿ӵ practised.ӵ Theӵ proposalӵ toӵ buildӵ non-profitӵ de-centralizedӵ
unitsӵ andӵ makeӵ themӵ becomeӵ theӵ underlyin¿ӵ modeӵ ofӵ productionȆӵ fittin¿ӵ
to¿etherӵ throu¿hӵ theӵ realӵ marketӵ ¦notӵ theӵ monopolisticallyӵ controlledӵ worldӵ
marketӵofӵtheӵpresentӵsystem),ӵhasӵ beenӵ madeӵbyӵlmmanuelӵWallersteinӵinӵhisӵ
bookӵ U!o¡is!ics.Ŧ ltӵ wouldӵ eliminateӵ theӵ priorityӵ ¿ivenӵ toӵ theӵ endlessӵ
accumulationӵofӵcapital.ӵStillӵanotherӵbookӵforӵtheӵStation.ӵ
Asӵtheӵcatalystӵburns,ӵ itӵ fumes.ӵ Forӵoursӵ isӵ notӵaӵtimeӵofӵcontinuallyӵ sameӵ
todays.ӵWhenӵweӵ metӵinӵPou¿hkeepsieӵ inӵmidĦFebruary,ӵaroundӵtheӵworldӵvastӵ
crowdsӵ marchedӵforӵpeace.ӵ Sevenӵweeksӵ later,ӵwhenӵweӵ metӵ inӵ Frankfurt,ӵ theӵ
Coalitionӵforcesӵwereӵ enterin¿ӵ Ba¿hdad.ӵTheӵdaysӵ comeӵ likeӵKiarostami'sӵhills.ӵltӵ
isӵ notӵtheӵcontinuallyӵsameӵutopia.ӵ lnӵ theӵspeechӵtoӵ theӵ ¿raduatin¿ӵWestӵ Pointӵ
cadetsӵinӵ͑uneӵ2002,ӵPresidentӵCeor¿eӵBushӵannouncedӵhisӵpoliΨӵofӵpre-emptiveӵ
strikesӵandӵwarsӵwithӵtheӵreassuranceӵthatӵ'Americaӵhasӵnoӵempireӵtoӵextendӵorӵ
utopiaӵtoӵestablishħӵTheӵideaӵofӵempireӵhasӵbeenӵ receivin¿ӵmuchӵ scrutiny.ӵ Butӵ
whatӵaboutӵtheӵotherӵideaӵhere,ӵtheӵrefusalӵofӵutopia,ӵtheӵconceptӵthatӵpresumesӵ
forwardӵsocialӵvision?ӵlsӵitӵnotӵthisӵrefusalӵthatӵ¿ivesӵusӵreasonӵenou¿hӵtoӵreviveӵ
theӵ questionӵ ofӵutopiaӵ now?ӵ Whetherӵ itӵcomesӵ asӵ catalystӵorӵ fume,ӵ theӵ wordӵ
shouldӵbeӵpronounced.ӵAndӵ soӵweӵstaѓ.ӵ
MoIIyͥ NcsD|I,ͥ HansŗUƓrichͥ ODr|sI,ͥ kirkr|Iͥ T|ravan˝a,ͥ Ūɞȫȷ¡Ƃʎ Ťlƃt¡ȬȖʎ (VcnIccŬͥ 50IhͥVcnIccͥ 6IcnnaIc,ͥ
?003).ĸ
NeSUi!/OUtiS!/TiĪOVOniĞO/ĸ /WO!ĸiSĸOĸ5\O!ion?{ĸ /lߺĸ
HOI FostCt
Cho¡ RoomsJ J2004
!ncŦ An¿|opnoncŦ rcccp|ionŦ oĵŦāŐc|o|iono|Ŧ or|Ŧ nosŦ cccnŦ rc|o|ivc|¡Ŧ cc|o|cJ.Ŧ lnŦ |ncŦ
]o||owin¿Ŧ |cx|,Ŧ ori¿ino||¡Ŧ wri||cnŦ Ɗʎ oŦ įookŦ rcvicwŦ o]Ŧ 8ourriouJ'sŦ Relationalӵ
Aestheticsӵ onJŦ Postproduction,ӵ onJŦ HonsŦ U|ricnŦ 0cris|'sŦ lnterviews,ӵ Ho|Ŧ Fos|crŦ
cxprcsscsŦ rcscrvo|ionsŦ ocou|Ŧ |ncŦ op|imis|icŦ rnc|oricŦ occompon¡in¿Ŧ co||ocoro|ionŦ
onJŦpor|icipo|ionĀŦ
lnӵ anӵ artӵ¿alleryӵoverӵtheӵ lastӵdecadeӵyouӵ mi¿htӵhaveӵhappenedӵonӵoneӵ ofӵtheӵ
followin¿.ӵAӵroomӵemptyӵexceptӵforӵaӵstackӵofӵidenticalӵsheetsӵofӵpaperӵĤ white,ӵ
sky-blue,ӵorӵprintedӵɤithӵaӵsimpleӵima¿eӵofӵanӵunmadeӵbedӵorӵbirdsӵinӵfli¿htӵĤ orӵ
aӵ moundӵ ofӵidenticalӵ sweetsӵ wrappedӵ inӵ brilliantӵcolouredӵfoil,ӵtheӵsweets,ӵlikeӵ
theӵpaper,ӵfreeӵforӵtheӵtakin¿.ӵDrӵaӵspaceӵwhereӵofficeӵcontentsӵwereӵdumpedӵinӵ
theӵ exhibitionӵarea,ӵandӵaӵ coupleӵofӵpotsӵofӵThaiӵfoodӵ wereӵ onӵofferӵtoӵvisitorsӵ
puzzledӵenou¿hӵtoӵlin¿er,ӵeatӵandӵtalk.ӵDrӵaӵscatterin¿ӵofӵbulletinӵboards,ӵdrawin¿ӵ
tablesӵandӵdiscussionӵplatforms,ӵsomeӵdɑttedӵwithӵinformationӵaboutӵaӵfamousӵ
personӵ fromӵ theӵ pastӵ ¦Frasmusӵ Darwinӵ orӵ Robertӵ McNamara),ӵ asӵ thou¿hӵ aӵ
documentaryӵscriptӵwereӵinӵtheӵmakin¿ӵorӵaӵhistoryӵseminarӵhadӵ¡ustӵfinished.ӵ
Dr,ӵ finally,ӵaӵkioskӵcobbledӵto¿etherӵfromӵ plasticӵandӵ plywood,ӵandӵfilled,ӵlikeӵaӵ
homemadeӵ study˦shrine,ӵ withӵ ima¿esӵ andӵ textsӵ devotedӵ toӵ aӵ particularӵartist,ӵ
writerӵorӵphilosopherӵ¦Fernandӵ Lé¿er,ӵ RaymondӵCarverӵorӵCillesӵ Deleuze).ӵSuchӵ
works,ӵ whichӵ fallӵ somewhereӵ betweιnӵ aӵ publicӵ installation,ӵ anӵ obscureӵ
performanceӵ andӵ aӵ pƤivateӵ archive,ӵ canӵ alsoӵ beӵ foundӵ outsideӵ artӵ ¿alleries,ӵ
renderin¿ӵ themӵ evenӵ moreӵ difficultӵ toӵ άecipherӵ inӵ aestheticӵ terms.ӵTheyӵ canӵ
nonethelessӵbeӵtakenӵtoӵ indicateӵaӵdistincǠiveӵ turnӵ inӵrecentӵart.ӵ lnӵ playӵ inӵ theӵ
firstӵtwoӵexamplesӵ- worksӵbyӵ FelixӵConzalez-Torresӵ andӵ byӵ RirkritӵTiravani¡aӵ -
isӵ aӵnotionӵofӵartӵasӵ anӵephemeralӵofferin¿,ӵaӵprecariousӵ¿iftӵ¦asӵ opposedӵ toӵ anӵ
accreditedӵ paintin¿ӵ orӵ sculpture),ӵ andӵ inӵ theӵ secondӵ twoӵ instancesӵ ¦byӵ Liamӵ
CillickӵandӵbyӵThomasӵHirschhorn),ӵaӵnotϵonӵofӵartӵasӵanӵinformalӵprobin¿ӵintoӵaӵ
specifìcӵfì¿ureӵorӵeventӵinӵhistoryӵorӵpolitics,ӵfictionӵorӵphilosophy.ӵAlthou¿hӵeachӵ
typeӵofӵworąӵcanӵbeӵta¿¿edӵwìthӵaӵtheoreticalӵ pedì¿reeӵ¦ìnӵtheӵfìrstӵcase,ӵ'theӵ¿ìft'ӵ
asӵseenӵbyӵ MarcelӵMauss,ӵsay,ӵ orӵ inӵ theӵ secondӵ'discursiveӵpractice'ӵaccordin¿ӵtoӵ
Michelӵ Foucault),ӵ theӵ abstractӵ conceptӵ isӵ transformedӵ intoӵ aӵ literalӵ spaceӵ ofӵ
operations,ӵaӵpra¿maticӵwayӵofӵmakin¿ӵandӵshowin¿,ӵtalkin¿ӵ andӵ bein¿.ӵ
Theӵprominentӵpractitionersӵofӵthisӵartӵdrawӵonӵaӵwideӵran¿eӵofӵprecedents:ӵ
theӵeverydayӵob¡ectsӵofӵNouveauӵRéalisme,ӵtheӵhumbleӵmaterialsӵofӵArteӵPovera,ӵ
theӵparticipatoryӵstrate¿iesӵof Ly¿iaӵClarkӵ andӵ HélioӵDiticicaӵandӵtheӵĆinstitution-
l90//CRăTICALĸANDĸCčRATORIALĸPO5ITION5ĸ
critical'ӵdevi̼esӵofӵMarcelӵBroodthaersӵandӵ Hansӵ Haacke.ӵButӵtheseӵartistsӵhaveӵ
alsoӵtransformedӵtheӵfamiliarӵdevicesӵofӵtheӵreadymadeӵob¡ect,ӵ theӵcollaborativeӵ
proŏectӵ andӵ theӵ installationӵ format.ӵ Forӵ example,ӵ someӵ nowӵ treatӵ entireӵ TVӵ
showsӵandӵHollywoodӵ filmsӵ asӵfoundӵ ima¿es.ӵ Pieěreӵ Huy¿heӵhasӵreshotӵpartsӵ ofӵ
theӵAlӵPacinoӵmovieӵDo¿ŦDo¡Ŧěj!cŚoonŦwithӵtheӵreal-lifeӵprota¿onistӵ¦aӵreluctantӵ
bankӵrobber)ӵreturnedӵtoӵtheӵleadӵrole,ӵandӵDou¿lasӵCordonӵhasӵadaptedӵaӵcoupleӵ
ofӵHitchcockӵfilmsӵinӵdrasticӵwaysӵ¦hisӵ24ŔHourŦPs¡cnoŦslowsӵdownӵtheӵori¿inalӵtoӵ
aӵnear-catatonicӵrunnin¿ӵtime).ӵForӵCordon,ӵsuchӵpiecesӵareӵ'timeӵreadymades'Ө
thatӵis,ӵ ¿ivenӵ narrativesӵtoӵ beӵsampledӵ inӵ lar¿eӵima¿e-proŏectionsӵ ¦aӵ pervasiveӵ
mediumӵ inӵ artӵ today)ӵ- whileӵ Nicolasӵ Bourriaud,ӵ aӵ co-directorӵofӵtheӵPalaisӵdeӵ
Tokyo,ӵ aӵ Parisӵ museumӵ devotedӵ toӵ contemporaryӵ art,ӵ championsӵ suchӵ workӵ
underӵ theӵ rubricӵ ofӵ 'postproduction'.ӵ Thisӵ termӵ underscoresӵ secondaryӵ
manipulationsӵ¦editin¿,ӵeffectsӵ andӵtheӵlĪke)ӵthatӵareӵalmostӵasӵ pтnouncedӵĪnӵ
suchӵartӵasӵinӵfilm,ӵitӵalsoӵsu¿¿estsӵaӵchan¿edӵstatusӵofӵtheӵ'work'ӵofӵartӵinӵtheӵa¿eӵ
ofӵinformationӵwhichӵhasӵsucceededӵtheӵa¿eӵofӵproduction.ӵThatӵweӵareӵnowӵinӵ
suchӵ aӵ newӵ eraӵ isӵ anӵ ideolo¿icalӵ assumption,ӵ nonetheless,ӵ inӵ aӵ worldӵ ofӵ
shareware,ӵ informationӵ canӵappearӵ asӵ theӵ ultimateӵ readymade,ӵ asӵdataӵ toӵbeӵ
reprocessedӵandӵsentӵon,ӵandӵsomeӵofӵtheseӵartistsӵdoӵworlӲӵ asӵBourriaudӵsays,ӵ
'toӵ inventoryӵandӵselect,ӵtoӵuseӵandӵ download',ӵtoӵreviseӵnotӵonlyӵfoundӵima¿esӵ
andӵtextsӵbutӵalsoӵ¿ivenӵformsӵofӵexhibitionӵandӵdistribution.ӵ
Dneӵ upshotӵ ofӵ thisӵ wayӵ ofӵ workin¿ӵ isӵ aӵ 'promiscuityӵ ofӵ collaborations'ӵ
¦Cordon),ӵ inӵ whichӵ theӵ Postmodernistӵ complicationsӵ ofӵ ori¿inalityӵ andӵ
authorshipӵareӵ pushedӵbeyondӵ theӵ pale.ӵTakeӵ aӵ collaborativeӵwork-in-pro¿ressӵ
suchӵasӵNoŦCnos!ťus!ŦoŦ5ncll_ ledӵbyӵHuy¿heӵandӵPhilippeӵParreno.ӵAӵfewӵyearsӵa¿oӵ
theyӵ foundӵ outӵthatӵaӵ|apaneseӵanimationӵcompanyӵwantedӵ toӵ sellӵ someӵ ofӵitsӵ
minorӵcharactersDžӵtheyӵbou¿htӵoneӵ suchӵ person-si¿n,ӵaӵ¿irlӵ namedӵAnnlee,ӵandӵ
϶nvϷtedӵotherӵartĪsɜҔӵtoӵuseӵherӵĪnӵtheirӵworЛӵ Hereӵtheӵartworkӵbecomesӵaӵ'chain'ӵ
ofӵpieces.ӵforӵHuy¿heӵandӵParreno,ӵNoŦ Cnos!]us!ŦoŦ5nc|lŦisӵ'aӵdynamicӵstructureӵ
thatӵproducesӵformsӵthatӵareӵpartӵofӵit'Džӵ itӵisӵalsoӵ'theӵstoryӵofӵaӵcommunityӵthatӵ
findsӵitselfӵinӵanӵima¿e'.ӵlfӵthisӵcollaborationӵdoesn'tӵmakeӵyouӵaӵlittleӵnervousӵ¦isӵ
theӵ buyin¿ӵ ofӵAnnleeӵ aӵ ¿estureӵ ofӵliberationӵ orӵ ofӵserialӵ bonda¿e?),ӵ considerӵ
anotherӵ¿roupӵproŏectӵthatӵadaptsӵaӵreadymadeӵproductӵtoӵunusualӵends.ӵ inӵthisӵ
work,ӵ|oeӵ Scanlan,ӵ Dominiqueӵ Conzalez-Foerster,ӵ Cillick,ӵTiravaniŏaӵ andӵ othersӵ
showӵyouӵ howӵtoӵcustomizeӵyourӵownӵcoffinӵfromӵlkeaӵfurnitureȉӵ itsӵtitleӵisӵDlĨŦ
orŦHowŦUʎģillŦYoursc|]ŦAnŤwncrcŦinŦ !ncŦWorlJŦ]orŦunJcrŦ5Jºº.Ŧ
Theӵtraditionӵofӵreadymadeӵ ob¡ects,ӵfromӵDuchampӵtoӵDamienӵHirst,ӵisӵoftenӵ
mockin¿ӵofӵhi¿hӵ andIJorӵmassӵ cultureӵorӵboth,ӵ i nӵtheseӵ examplesӵ itӵ isӵ mordantӵ
aboutӵ¿lobalӵ capitalismӵ asӵ well.ӵYetӵ theӵ prevalentӵ sensibilityӵ ofӵtheӵ newӵworkӵ
tendsӵ toӵ beӵ innocentӵ andӵ expansive,ӵ evenӵ ludicӵ - a¿ainӵ anӵ offerin¿ӵ toӵ otherӵ
peopleӵ andjorӵ anӵ openin¿ӵ toӵ otherӵ discourses.ӵ Atӵ timesӵ aӵ beni¿nӵ ima¿eӵ ofӵ
ċoS\et{/ChO\ĸRoomS{ĸ /l9lĸ
¿lcbalizaticnӵisӵadvancedӵ¦itӵisӵaӵpreccnditicnӵfcrӵthisӵveryӵinternaticnalӵ ¿rcupӵ
cfӵartists),ӵ andӵ thereӵ areӵ utcpianӵ mcments,ӵ tcc.ӵ Tiravanϸīa,ӵ fcrӵ example,ӵ hasӵ
cr¿anizedӵ aӵʒmassiveƸscaleӵ artist-runӵspace'ӵ calledӵ'Theӵ Land'ӵinӵruralӵThailand,ӵ
desi¿nedӵasӵaӵccllectiveӵ'fcrӵsccialӵen¿a¿ement'ĺӵMcreӵmcdestly,ӵtheseӵartistsӵaimӵ
tcӵturnӵ passiveӵviewersӵ intcӵaӵtempcraryӵccmmunityӵcfӵactiveӵ interlccutcrs.ӵ lnӵ
thisӵre¿ardӵ Hirschhcrn,ӵwhcӵcnceӵwcrkedӵ inӵaӵCcmmunistӵccllectiveӵcfӵ¿raphicӵ
desi¿ners,ӵ seesӵ hisӵ malśeshiftӵ mcnumentsӵ tcӵ artistsӵ andӵ philcscphersӵ asӵ aӵ
speciesӵcfӵpassicnateӵpeda¿c¿yӵ- theyӵevckeӵtheӵa¿itƸprcpӵkicsksӵcfӵtheӵRussianӵ
CcnstǝӒctivistsӵ asӵ wellӵ asӵ theӵ cbsκssiveӵ ccnstructicnsӵ cfӵ Ňȅəʎ Schwitters.ӵ
Hirschhcǟӵseeksӵtcӵ'distributeӵideas',ӵ'radiateӵener¿y'ӵandӵ'liberateӵactivity'ӵallӵatӵ
cnceȊӵ heӵwantsӵ nctӵcnlyӵtcӵfamiliarizeӵ hisӵ audienceӵwithӵ anӵalternativeӵ publicӵ
cultureӵbutӵtcӵ libidinizeӵ thisӵrelaticnshipӵasӵwell.ӵDtherӵartists,ӵscmeӵcfӵwhcmӵ
wereӵtrainedӵasӵ scientistsӵ¦suchӵasӵ CarstenӵHƣller)ӵcrӵarchitectsӵ¦StefancӵBceri),ӵ
adaptӵaӵmcdelӵcfӵccllabcrativeӵresearchӵandӵexperimentӵclcserӵtcӵtheӵlabcratcryӵ
crӵ theӵ desi¿nӵ firmӵ thanӵ theӵ studicƵӵ 'lӵ takeӵ theӵ wcrdӵ ǭstudicƮӵ literally',ӵ Cabrielӵ
Drczccӵremarks,ӵ 'nctӵasӵaӵspaceӵcfӵprcducticnӵbutӵasӵaӵtimeӵcfӵkncwled¿e.'ӵ
'Aӵ prcmiscuityӵ cfӵ ccllabcraticns'ӵ hasӵ alscӵ meantӵ aӵ prcmiscuityӵ cfӵ
installaticnsƍӵ installaticnӵ isӵ theӵ defaultӵ fcrmat,ӵ andӵ exhibiticnӵ theӵ ccmmcnӵ
medium,ӵ cfӵmuchӵartӵtcday.ӵ ¦lnӵ partӵ thisӵ tendencyӵ isӵ drivenӵbyӵtheӵ increasedӵ
impcrtanceӵ cfӵhu¿eӵ shcws:ӵ thereӵ areӵ biennialsӵ nctӵ cnlyӵ inӵ Veniceӵ butӵ inӵ SȨcӵ
Paulc,ӵ lstanbul,ӵ|channesbur¿ӵandӵ Cwan¿īu.)ӵFntireӵ exhibiticnsӵareӵcftenӵ¿ivenӵ
cverӵtcӵmessyӵ¡uxtapcsiticnsӵcfӵprc¡ectsӵĝ phctcsӵandӵtexts,ӵima¿esӵandӵcb¡ects,ӵ
videcsӵ andӵ screenȠӵ - andӵ cccasicnallyӵ theӵ effectsӵ areӵ mcreӵ chacticӵ thanӵ
ccmmunicative.ӵNcnetheless,ӵdiscursivityӵandӵscciabilityӵareӵcentralӵccncernsӵcfӵ
theӵnewӵwcrk,ӵbcthӵinӵitsӵmakin¿ӵandӵ inӵitsӵviewin¿ĺӵ'Discussicnӵhasӵbeccmeӵanӵ
impcrtantӵ mcmentӵ inӵ theӵ ccnstituticnӵ cfӵaӵ prc¡ect',ӵ Huy¿heӵ ccmments,ӵ andӵ
TiravanɅīaӵ ali¿nsӵ hisӵart,ӵasӵ 'aӵ placeӵ cfӵsccializaticn',ӵ withӵaӵvilla¿eӵ marketӵ crӵaӵ
danceӵflccrğӵ'lӵ makeӵartċ,ӵ Ccrdcnӵsays,ӵ'scӵthatӵlӵ canӵ¿cӵtcӵtheӵbarӵandӵtalkӵabcutӵ
itƯ.ӵ Apparently,ӵ ifӵcneӵ mcdelӵ cfӵtheӵ cldӵ avant-¿ardeӵ
Ӗ
asӵ theӵ Partyӵ a laӵ Lenin,ӵ
tcdayӵtĠeӵequivalentӵisӵaӵpartyӵalaӵLenncn.ӵ
lnӵthisӵtimeӵcfӵme¿a-exhibiticnsӵtheӵartistӵcftenӵdcublesӵasӵcuratcr.ӵ'lӵamӵtheӵ
headӵcfӵaӵteam,ӵaӵccaΘh,ӵaӵprcducer,ӵanӵcr¿anizer,ӵaӵrepresentative,ӵaӵcheerleader,ӵ
aӵ hcstӵ cfӵtheӵ party,ӵaӵ captainӵ cfӵtheӵ bcatċ,ӵ Drczccӵsays,ӵ 'inӵshcrt,ӵ anӵactivist,ӵ anӵ
activatcr,ӵanӵincubatcr'.ӵTheӵriseӵcfӵtheӵartistӵ -as-curatcrӵhasӵbeenӵccmplementedӵ
byӵ thatӵ cfӵ theӵ cuƀatcrƸasȀartist,ӵ maestrcsӵ cfӵ lar¿eӵ shcwsӵ haveӵ beccmeӵ veryӵ
prcminentӵcverӵ theӵ lastӵdecade.ӵDftenӵ ɝheӵ twcӵ ¿rcupsӵshareӵmcdelsӵcfӵwcƀkin¿ӵ
asӵwellӵasӵtermsӵcfӵdescripticn.ӵSeveralӵyearsӵa¿c,ӵfcrӵexample,ӵTiravani¡a,ӵDrczccӵ
andӵ ctherӵ arɝistsӵ be¿anӵ tcӵ speakӵ cfӵ prc¡ectsӵ asӵ 'platfcrms'ӵ andӵ 'staticns',ӵ asӵ
ʓplacesӵ thatӵ ¿atherӵ andӵ thenӵ disperseċ,ӵ inӵ crderӵ tcӵ undersccreӵ theӵ casualӵ
ccmmunitiesӵ theyӵ scu¿htӵ tcӵ create˽ӵ Lastӵ yearӵ Dccumentaӵ llˏӵ cуatedӵ byӵ anӵ
Iº2//CRIČICALANDĸCURATORIALĸPO5ITĢON5ĸ
internationaIӵ teamӵ Iedӵ ΍yӵ Dkwuiӵ ijnwezor,ӵ wasӵ aIsoӵ conceivedӵ inӵ termsӵ ofӵ
'pIatformsĮӵ ofӵ discussion,ӵ scatteredӵ aroundӵ theӵ worId,ӵ onӵ suchӵ topicsӵ asӵ
'Democracyӵ UnreaIizedĮ,ӵ 'Processesӵ ofӵTruthӵ andӵ ReconciIiationā,ӵ 'CreoIitéӵ andӵ
CreoIizationĮӵandӵ 'Fourӵ AfricanӵCitiesĮdžӵ theӵexhibitionӵheIdӵinӵ KasseI,ӵ Cermany,ӵ
wasӵonIyӵtheӵfinaIӵ suchӵ'pIatformĮ.ӵAndӵthisӵyearӵtheӵVeniceӵBiennaIe,ӵcuratedӵbyӵ
aєotherӵ internationaIӵ ¿roupӵ ϟeadedӵ byӵ Francescoӵ Bonami,ӵ featuredӵ sectionsӵ
caIIedӵ 'Utopiaӵ Stationāӵ andӵ 'Ōoneӵ ofӵUr¿encyā,ӵ bothӵ ofӵwhichӵ exempIifiedӵ theӵ
informaIӵ discursivityӵ ofӵ muchӵ artĦmakin¿ӵ andӵ curatin¿ӵ today.ӵ IϹkeӵ 'kioskā,ӵ
'pIatformāӵandӵ'stationāӵcaIIӵ upӵtheӵ Modernistӵ ambitionӵ toӵ moderniseӵcuItureӵ inӵ
accordanceӵ withӵ industriaIӵ societyӵ (ijIӵ Lissitzkyӵ spokeӵ ofӵ hisӵ Constructivistӵ
desiϜnsӵ asӵ 'way-stationsӵbetweenӵartӵandӵarchitectureā).ӵͱetӵtodayӵtheseӵtermsӵ
evokeӵtheӵeIectronicӵnetwork,ӵandӵmanyӵartistsӵandӵcuratorsӵfaIIӵforӵtheӵlnternetӵ
rhetoricӵofӵ'interactivityā,ӵthou¿hӵ theӵ meansӵ appIiedӵtoӵ thisӵendӵareӵ usuaIIyӵfarӵ
ɍoreӵfunkyӵandӵface-to-faceӵthanӵanyӵchatӵroomӵonӵtheӵWeb.ӵ
TheӵformsӵofӵtheseӵbooksӵbyӵBourriau

jkclo!ionolŦAcs!nc!icsĘŦ Pos!proJuc!ionņŦ
andӵDbrist,ӵtheӵchiefӵcuratorӵatӵtheӵMuséeӵdāartӵmoderneӵdeӵIaӵViIIeӵdeӵParis,ӵareӵ
asӵ teIIin¿ӵasӵ theӵ contents.ӵ Theӵ Bourriaudӵ textsӵ areӵ sIʾetchyӵ Ĥ briefӵ¿Iossesӵ ofӵ
proɋectsӵthatӵuseӵ'postproductionāӵtechniquesӵandӵseekӵ'reIationaIāӵeffects,ӵwhiIeӵ
theӵ Dbristӵtomeӵ isӵ diffuse,ӵwithӵnearIyӵaӵ thousandӵpa¿esӵ ofӵconversationӵwithӵ
fi¿uresӵsuchӵasӵ|eanӵRouchӵandӵ|.C.ӵBaIIardӵasӵweIIӵasӵtheӵartistsӵinӵquestionӵ- andӵ
thisӵisӵonIyӵvoIumeӵl.ӵ(BaIIardӵIetsӵfIyӵwithӵaӵsharpӵaperˍuĈӵ'TheӵpsychoIo¿icaIӵtestӵ
isӵtheӵonIyӵfunctionӵofӵtodayĮsӵartӵshowsĮ,ӵheӵsays,ӵ withӵtheӵƖoun¿ӵBritishӵArtistsӵ
inӵ mind,ӵ 'andӵ theӵ aestheticӵ eIementsӵ haveӵ beenӵ reducedӵ aImostӵ toӵ zero̢ӵ Heӵ
meansӵ itӵ asӵ aӵ compIiment.)ӵ Theӵ conceptuaIӵ artistӵ Dou¿Iasӵ HuebIerӵ onceӵ
proposedӵtoӵphoto¿raphӵeveryoneӵinӵtheӵworIddžӵtheӵperipateticӵDbristӵseemsӵtoӵ
wantӵtoӵtaIkӵtoӵeveryoneӵ(manyӵofӵhisӵinterviewsӵtakeӵpIaceӵonӵ pIanes).ӵAsӵ withӵ
someӵ ofӵ theӵ artӵ discussedӵ inӵ theӵ book,ӵ theӵ resuItӵ osciIIatesӵ betweenӵ anӵ
exempIaŒĿӵ workӵofӵinterdiscipIinarityӵandӵaӵ BabeIesqueӵ confusionӵ ofӵton¿ues.ӵ
AIon¿ӵwithӵtheӵempha͠isӵonӵ discursivityӵandӵsociabiIity,ӵthereӵisӵaӵconcernӵwithӵ
theӵ ethicaIӵ andӵ theӵ everyday.ӵ artӵ isӵ 'aӵ wayӵ toӵ expIoreӵ otherӵ possibiIitiesӵ ofӵ
exchan¿eāӵ (Huy¿he),ӵ aӵ modeIӵ ofӵ 'Iivin¿ӵ weIIĮӵ (Tiravani¡a),ӵ aӵ meansӵ ofӵ bein¿ӵ
'to¿etherӵinӵtheӵeverydayāӵ(Drozco).ӵ'Henceforth',ӵBourriaudӵdecIares,ӵ'theӵ¿roupӵ
isӵpittedӵa¿ainstӵtheӵmass,ӵnei¿hbourIinessӵa¿ainstӵpropa¿anda,ӵIowӵtechӵa¿ainstӵ
hi¿hӵ tech,ӵ andӵ theӵ tactiIeӵ a¿ainstӵtheӵvisuaI.ӵAndӵ aboveӵ aII,ӵ theӵ everydayӵ nowӵ
turnsӵoutӵtoӵbeӵaӵmuchӵmoreӵfertiIeӵterrainӵ thanӵ popӵcuIturẹӵ
TheseӵpossibiIitiesӵofӵ'reIationaIӵaestheticsĮӵseemӵcIearӵenou¿h,ӵbutӵthereӵareӵ
probIems,ӵtoo.ӵSometimesӵpoIiticsӵareӵascribedӵtoӵsuchӵartӵonӵtheӵbasisӵofӵaӵshakyӵ
anaIo¿yӵbetweenӵanӵopenӵworkӵandӵ anӵincIusiveӵsociety,ӵasӵifӵaӵdesuItoȘɧӵformӵ
mi¿htӵevokeӵaӵdemocraticӵcommunity,ӵorӵaӵnon-hierarchicaIӵinstaIIationӵpredictӵ
anӵe¿aIitarianӵworId.ӵHirschhornӵseesӵhisӵproɋectsӵasӵ'never-endin¿ӵconstructionӵ
FOS\er/ĸ/ChO\ĸROOmSJĸ Jlºöĸ
sites',ӵwhileӵTiravanɅīaӵ re¡ectsӵ 'theӵ needӵ tcӵ fixӵ aӵ mcmentӵwhereӵ everythin¿ӵ isӵ
ccmplete'.ӵButӵsurelyӵcneӵthin¿ӵartӵcanӵstillӵdcӵisӵtcӵtakeӵaӵstand,ӵ̸ndӵtcӵdcӵthisӵ
inӵaӵ ccncreteӵre¿isterӵthatӵbrin¿sӵtc¿etherӵtheӵ aesthetic,ӵ theӵ cc¿nitiveӵandӵ theӵ
critical.ӵAndӵ fcrmlessnessӵinӵ sccietyӵmi¿htӵbeӵaӵccnditicnӵtcӵccntestӵratherӵthanӵ
tcӵ celebrateӵ inӵ aѿtӵ - aӵ ccnditicnӵ tcӵ makeӵ cverӵ intcӵ fcrmӵ fcrӵ theӵ purpcsesӵ cfӵ
reflecticnӵ andӵ resistanceӵ ¦asӵ scmeӵ mcdernistӵ paintersӵ attemptedӵ tcӵdc).ӵTheӵ
artistsӵ inӵ questicnӵ frequentlyӵ citeӵ theӵ Situaticnistsӵ butӵ they,ӵ asӵ T.ͼ.ӵ Clarkӵ hasӵ
stressed,ӵvaluedӵpreciseӵinterventicnӵandӵri¿crcusӵcr¿anizaticnӵabcveӵ allӵthin¿s.ӵ
'Theӵquesticn',ӵHuy¿heӵar¿ues,ӵ 'isӵ lessӵ ƭwhat?ɸӵthanӵǭtcӵwhcm?Ʈӵltӵbeccmesӵ
aӵ questicnӵ cfӵaddress'.ӵ Bcurriaudӵ alscӵ seesӵ artӵ asӵ 'anӵ ensembleӵ cfӵunitsӵ tcӵ beӵ
reactivatedӵbyӵtheӵbehclderřmanipulatcr'.ӵlnӵmanyӵwaysӵthisӵapprcachӵisӵanctherӵ
le¿acyӵcfӵtheӵDuchampianӵprcvccaticn,ӵbutӵwhenӵisӵsuchӵ'reactivaticn'ӵtccӵ¿reatӵ
aӵ burdenӵ tcӵ placeӵ cnӵ theӵ viewer,ӵ tccӵ ambi¿ucusӵ
aӵ test?ӵ Asӵ withӵ previcusӵ
attemptsӵtcӵ invclveӵ theӵ audienceӵdirectlyӵ (inӵ scmeӵ abstractӵ paintin¿ӵ crӵ scmeӵ
ccnceptualӵart),ӵthereӵisӵaӵ riskӵcfӵille¿ibilityӵhere,ӵwhichӵmi¿htӵreintrcduceӵtheӵ
artistӵasӵtheӵprincipalӵfi¿ureӵandӵtheӵ primaryӵexe¿eteӵcfӵtheӵwcrk.ӵAtӵtimes,ӵ'theӵ
deathӵcfӵtheӵ authcr'ӵ hasӵmλantӵnctӵ'theӵbirthӵ cfӵtheӵreader',ӵ asӵRclandӵ Barthesӵ
speculated,ӵscӵmuchӵasӵtheӵbefuddlementӵcfӵtheӵviewer.ӵ
Furthermcre,ӵ whenӵ hasӵ art,ӵ atӵ leastӵ sinceӵ theӵ Renaissance,ӵ nctӵ invclvedӵ
discursivityӵandӵ scciability?ӵ ltӵ isӵ aӵ matterӵ cfӵde¿ree,ӵ cfӵccurse,ӵ butӵ mi¿htӵ thisӵ
emphasisӵbeӵredundant?ӵ ltӵalscӵseemsӵtcӵ riskӵaӵweirdӵfcrmalismӵcfӵdiscursivityӵ
andӵscciabilityӵpursuedӵfcrӵtheirӵcwnӵsakes.ӵCcllabcraticn,ӵtcc,ӵisӵcftenӵre¿ardedӵ
asӵaӵ¿ccdӵinӵitself.ӵ 'Ccllabcraticnӵisӵtheӵanswer',ӵDbristӵremarksӵatӵcneӵpcint,ӵ'butӵ
whatӵ isӵ theӵ questicn?'ӵ Artӵ ccllectivesӵ inӵ theӵ recentӵ past,ӵ suchӵ asӵ thcseӵfcrmedӵ
arcundӵ AlDSӵ activism,ӵ wereӵ pcliticalӵ prc¡ects,ӵ tcdayӵ simplyӵ ¿ettin¿ӵ tc¿etherӵ
scmetimesӵseemsӵ tcӵbeӵencu¿h.ӵHereӵweӵ mi¿htӵnctӵbeӵtccӵfarӵfrcmӵanӵ artwcrldӵ
versicnӵcfӵ'Ķlashӵmcbs'ӵ- cfӵ'pecpleӵmeetin¿ӵpecple',ӵinӵTiravanǗa'sӵ wcrds,ӵ asӵanӵ
endӵinӵitselĶ˾ӵThisӵisӵwhereӵlӵsideӵwithӵSartreӵcnӵaӵbadӵday.ӵcftenӵinӵ¿alleriesӵandӵ
museumsˎӵhellӵisӵctherӵpecple.ӵ
Perhapsӵdiscursiviɜƫӵandӵscciabilityӵareӵinӵtheӵfcre¿rcundӵcfӵartӵtcdayӵbecauseӵ
theyӵareӵscarceӵelsewhere.ӵTheӵsameӵ¿cesӵfcrӵtheӵethicalӵandӵtheӵeveryday,ӵasӵtheӵ
briefestӵ ¿lanceӵ atӵ curӵcravenӵ pcliticiansӵandӵ hecticӵ livesӵ mi¿htӵsu¿¿est.ӵ ltӵ isӵ asӵ
thcu¿hӵ theӵ veryӵ ideaӵ cfӵccmmuniĸӵhasӵtakenӵ cnӵ aӵ utcpianӵ tin¿e.ӵFvenӵ anӵ artӵ
audienceӵcannctӵbeӵtakenӵfcrӵ¿rantedӵ butӵmustӵbeӵccn¡uredӵupӵeveryӵtime,ӵwhichӵ
mi¿htӵ beӵ whyӵ ccntempcraryӵ exhɄbiticnsӵ cftenӵ feelӵ likeӵ remedialӵ wcrkӵ inӵ
sccializaticn.ӵ ccmeӵ andӵ play,ӵ talk,ӵ learnӵ withӵ me.ӵ lfӵ participaticnӵ appearsӵ
threatenedӵinӵctherӵspheres,ӵitsӵprivile¿in¿ӵinӵartӵmi¿htӵbeӵccmpensatcryӵŪ aӵpale,ӵ
part-timeӵsubstitute.ӵBcurriaudӵalmcstӵsu¿¿estsӵasӵmuch̤ӵ'Thrcu¿hӵlittleӵseŒƪicesӵ
rendered,ӵtheӵartistsӵȹllӵinӵ theӵcracksӵinӵtheӵsccialӵbcndȋӵAndӵ cnlyӵwhenӵ heӵisӵatӵ
hisӵmcstӵ¿rimӵdcesӵheӵhitӵhcme.ӵ'Theӵsccietyӵcfӵspectacleӵisӵthusӵfcllcwedӵbyӵtheӵ
l94/ĸ /CR¡T¡CALĸANDĸCURATOR¡ALĸPO5¡T¡ON5ĸ
societyӵofӵextras,ӵwhereӵeveryoneӵfindsӵtheӵ illusionӵ ofӵanӵinteractiveӵ democracyӵ
inӵmoreӵorӵlessӵtruncatedӵchannelsӵofӵcommunicationȈӵ
Forӵtheӵmostӵpartӵtheseӵartistsӵandӵcuratorsӵseeӵdiscursivityӵandӵsociabilityӵinӵ
rosyӵterms.ӵAsӵtheӵcriticӵClaireӵBishopӵsu¿¿ests,ӵthisӵtendsӵtoӵdropӵcontradictionӵ
outӵofӵdialo¿ue,ӵandӵconIlictӵoutӵofӵdemocracy,ӵitӵisӵalsoӵҭoӵadvanceӵaӵversionӵofӵ
theӵsub¡ectӵfreeӵofӵtheӵunconsciousӵ¦evenӵtheӵ¿iftӵisӵchar¿edӵwithӵambivalence,ӵ
accordin¿ӵ toӵ Mauss).ӵ Atӵ timesӵ everythin¿ӵ seemsӵ toӵ beӵ happyӵ interactivityĐӵ
amon¿ӵ 'aestheticӵ ob¡ectsƱӵ Bourriaudӵ countsӵ 'meetin¿s,ӵ encounters,ӵ events,ӵ
variousӵ typesӵ ofӵ collaborationӵ betweenӵ people,ӵ ¿ames,ӵ festivalsӵ andӵ placesӵ ofӵ
conviviality,ӵ inӵ aӵ wordӵ allӵ mannerӵ ofӵ encounterӵ andӵ relationalӵ invention'.ӵ Toӵ
someӵreadersӵsuchӵ'relationalӵaestheticsƱӵwillӵsoundӵlikeӵaӵtrulyӵfinalӵendӵ ofӵart,ӵ
toӵ beӵ celebratedӵ orӵ decried.ӵ Forӵ othersӵ itӵ willӵ seemӵ toӵ aestheticizeӵ theӵ nicerӵ
proceduresӵ ofӵ ourӵ serviceӵ economyӵ ('invitations,ӵ castin¿ӵ sessions,ӵ meetin¿s,ӵ
convivialӵandӵuser-friendlyӵareas,ӵappointmentsƱ).ӵThereӵisӵtheӵfurtherӵsuspicionӵ
that,ӵ forӵ allӵ itsӵ discursivity,ӵ 'relationalӵ aesthetics'ӵ mi¿htӵ beӵsuckedӵ upӵ inӵ theӵ
¿eneralӵmovementӵforӵ aӵ'post-critical'ӵcultureӵĤ anӵartӵandӵarchitecture,ӵcinemaӵ
andӵliteratureӵ'afterӵtheory'.ӵ
Halͥ FosIcr,ͥ 'ChaIͥ kooms'ͥ (?004Ō,ͥ publ|shcdͥ asͥ 'ArIyͥ FarIy',ͥ LondonǪ kcvicwǪ oŖ 8ooơǪ (London,ͥ 4ͥ
Dcccmbcrͥ?004Ōͥ?1-?ǐͥ
FoS\etJĸ/ChO\ĸRoomSJĸJlºõĸ
bío§ðþhí£ðl NotP5
Kolðu0 bðtlHP5 ( 1915-80),ͥ Ihcͥ Frcnchͥ IiIcraryͥ IhcorisI,ͥ criIicͥ andͥ innovaIivcͥ cxponcnIͥ oIͥ
sIrucIuraIismͥ andͥ scmioIo¿y,ͥ inIIucnccdͥ visuaIͥ Ihcoryͥ Ȗndͥ pracIiccͥ Ihrou¿hͥ hisͥ£IémenrsǪ deǪ
sémią ƄieǪ(19b4;ͥ £IemenrsǪo)ǪSemioIo¿,Ǫ 19b7);ͥ hisͥ anaIyscsͥ oIͥsi¿niʺin¿ͥ sysIcmsͥ inͥ popuIarͥ
cuIIurc,ͥcoIIccIcdͥ inͥ M,rhoIo¿iesǪ (1957;ͥ Irans.ͥ 197?)ͥ andͥLoǪ TourǪ£i))eIǪ(19b4ŭͥ TheǪ £Ƨž)eIǪ Tower,Ǫ
1979)ŭͥandͥhisͥwriIin¿sͥonͥIhcͥvisuaIͥima¿cͥinͥlmo¿eĐMusic-TexrǪ(1977),ͥLoǪchombreǪcIoƒreǪ(1980ȩͥ
ComeroǪLucido,Ǫ1981)ͥandͥTheǪkesponsibiIi|,Ǫo)ǪFonnsǪ(1985).ͥ
]o5Pþh bPg5 (19?1 -8b)ͥ wasͥ aͥCcrmanͥarIisI,ͥ iniIiaIIyͥ aͥ scuIpIor,ͥ whoͥ aIIcrͥ cųIIaDoraIin¿ͥ inͥIhcͥ
FIuxusͥ movcmcnIͥ (19b?Ŗb3)ͥ dcvcIopcdͥ hisͥ sysIcmͥ oIͥ synIhcsizin¿ͥ arIisIicͥ pracIiccͥ wiIhͥ
poIiIicaIͥ idcaIsͥandͥ Iivcdͥcxpcricncc.ͥ lnͥ IhcͥcarIyͥ1970sͥhcͥIoundcdͥor¿anizaIionsͥsuchͥasͥIhcͥ
FrccͥlnIcrnaIionaIͥSchooĒͥoIͥCrcaIivityͥandͥ lnIcrdiscipIinaryͥkcscarch.ͥThcͥIar¿csIͥhoIdin¿sͥoIͥhisͥ
workͥarcͥaIͥ Ihcͥ|oscphͥ 6cuysͥArchivͥ(hIIpĨĂĂwwwǰmoyIandǑdcƍpa¿csʱ˥oscphDcuysarchivĂ),ͥ Ihcͥ
Hcssischcsͥ landcsmusumͥ inͥ DarmsIadI,ͥ Ihcͥ 6usch-kcisin¿crͥ Muscumͥ aIͥHarvardͥ UnivcrsiIy,ͥ
andͥIhcͥKunsImuscumͥ 6onn.ͥ
Nì£olð5 bouttìðu0 isͥ aͥ Frcnchͥ arIͥ IhcorisIͥ andͥ curaIorͥ whoͥ inIroduccdͥ Ihcͥ Icrmͥ 'rcIaIionaIͥ
acsIhcIics'ͥ inͥ IcxIsͥ suchͥ asͥ hisͥ caIaIo¿ucͥ inIroducIionͥ Ioͥ Ihcͥ ŧɁžȄƴʎ ¿roupͥ cxhiDiIionͥ aIͥ
capʜusŻcͥd'arIͥconIcmporain,ͥ 6ordcauxͥ(1995).ͥFromͥ 1999ͥIoͥ?005ͥhcͥwasͥcoǟdirccIor,ͥwiIhͥ
|cromcͥ Sans,ͥ oIͥIhcͥFaIaisͥ dcͥTokyo,ͥ Faris.ͥ Fro¡ccIsͥ hcͥhasͥ curaIcdͥ incIudcͥAƺerrƸ,Ǫ IhcͥVcniccͥ
6icnnaIcͥ (1993)ͥ andͥ Ihcͥ Moscowͥ 6icnnaIcͥ (co͟curaIor,ͥ ?005).ͥ Hisͥ cssaysͥ arcͥ coIIccIcdͥ inͥ
£srŚriçueǪrelorioneIIeǪ(1998;ͥkeIorionoIǪAesrherics,Ǫ?00?)ͥandͥPoslpr¬ducrionǪ(?00?).ͥ
¡PlPt butgPt isͥ FroIcssorͥ oIͥFrcnchͥ andͥ ComparaIivcͥ liIcraIurcͥ aIͥ Ihcͥ UnivcrsiIyͥ oIͥ6rcmcnDZͥ Hisͥ
dcIaiIcdͥanaIysisͥoIͥIhcͥinsIiIuIionsͥoIͥarIͥhasͥprovidcdͥaͥIhcorcIicaIͥIramcworkͥIorͥsIudyin¿ͥIhcͥ
sociaIͥ conIcxIͥoIͥarI'sͥproducIionͥandͥ rcccpIion.ͥHisͥ worksͥincIudcͥTheorieǪderǪAvonr¿ordeǪ( 1974;ͥ
Theor]Ǫo)ǪrheǪAvonr-Corde,Ǫ1984)ͥandͥ TheǪDecIineǪo)ǪModemismǪ(199?).ͥ
Ltð£íPlð LðtnPVðlP isͥanͥAr¿cnIinianͥarIisIͥwhoͥwasͥinsIrumcnIaIͥinͥIormin¿ͥIhcͥCrupoͥdcͥArIisIasͥ
dcͥ Van¿uardaͥ inͥ Ihcͥ IaIcͥ 19b0s,ͥ aͥ coaIiIionͥ oIͥ arIisIs,ͥ ¡oincdͥ Dyͥ socioIo¿isIs,ͥ ĸˊImmakcrs,ͥ
IhcorisIs,ͥ phoIo¿raphcrsͥ andͥ oIhcrsͥ whoͥ sIa¿cdͥ parIicipaIoryͥ poIiIicizcdͥ acIions.ͥ 6ascdͥ inͥ
kosario,ͥ Ar¿cnIina,ͥ Ihcirͥ projccIsͥ incIudcdͥ TucumdnǪ ArdeǪ (TucumdnǪ 8urns)Ǫ inͥ 19b8,ͥ aͥ
coIIaDoraIionͥwiIhͥsu¿arͥpIanIͥworkcrsͥproIcsIin¿ͥa¿ainsIͥ¿ovcrnmcnIͥopprcssion.ͥ
Qgìð Llðtk (19?0Ř88)ͥwasͥaͥ 6raziIianͥarIisIͥwhoͥworkcdͥ inͥ kioͥdcͥ|anciroͥandͥFarisĤͥOuIͥ oIͥaͥ ncoͥ͠
concrcIisIͥ scuIpIuraIͥ pracIiccͥ hcrͥworkͥcvoIvcdͥ inͥ Ihcͥ IaIcͥ 19b0sͥ Ioͥ cncompassͥ parIicipaIoryͥ
worksͥ invoIvin¿ͥ ĘscnsoriaIęͥ cxpcricnccsͥoIͥoD¡ccIsͥandͥ cncounIcrs,ͥ inIormcdͥ Dyͥ hcrͥconcurrcnIͥ
pracIiccͥasͥ aͥpsychoanaIysI.ͥ HcrͥidcasͥwcrcͥaIsoͥcIoscIyͥaIʶIiaIcdͥwiIhͥIhoscͥ oIͥIhcͥarIisIͥHžIioͥ
OiIicicaͥ(sccͥDcIow)ͥandͥ Ihcͥ 6raziIianͥTropicŸ|iaͥ movcmcnI,ͥ inͥwhichͥIhcyͥhadͥ aͥ ccnIraIͥ roIc.ͥ
kcIrospccIivcsͥincIudcͥFundaciȓͥ Antoniͥ Tʐpics,ͥ 6arccIonaͥ (1997)řͥ
Lo¡¡P£líVP A£tíon5 (KoIIelrivn,eǪ deisrvi,o)ǪwasͥIoundcdͥinͥMoscowͥinͥ197bͥDyͥ AndrciͥMonasIyrsky,ͥ
NikoIaiͥ FaniIkov,ͥ Ccor¿iŅͥ KizcvaIIcrͥ andͥ NikiIaͥ AIcksccv.ͥ EIcnaͥ EIa¿ina,ͥ l¿orͥ Makarcvichͥ anʠͥ
Scr¿ciͥ komashkoͥ¡oincdͥIhcͥ ¿roupͥ IaIcr,ͥ andͥ iIsͥcomposiIionͥIrcqucnIIyͥ chan¿cd.ͥThcyͥarcͥ DcsIͥ
knownͥ Iorͥ Ihcirͥ coIIaDoraIivc,ͥconccpIuaIIyͥDascdͥ acIionsͥ inͥ ƪraIͥ spaccsͥ ouIsidcͥIhcͥciIy.ͥThcˉrͥ
l9ó/ĸ /ß¡OGRAPH¡CALĸNOTE5ĸ
workͥwasͥincIudcdͥinͥÕÌOU8Ì LODC0]!u8Í|SD' ÍOÌD!S oʲͥOIi¿|D,ͥ ì9ô0ö-ì980s,ʎɡuccnsͥMuscumͥoIͥ
ArI,ͥ NcwͥYorkͥ(2000) andͥ LOǿccr|vc 8D0 ÌD!0I8C!|v0 WOIKS |D KuSSÌ8D ArrǪ ì9b0-2000,ʎ SIaIcͥ
TrcIyakovͥCaIIcry,ͥMoscowͥ(200J).
L0ð Lu¡Pt isͥaͥSIovcnianͥarIisI,ͥIhcorisIͥandͥIhcaIrcͥdirccIorͥwhoͥsinccͥI981 hasͥworkcdͥwiIhͥIhcͥarIsͥ
coIIccIivcͥNSKͥ(NcucͥSĺowcnischcͥKunsI),ͥandͥsinccͥI989 hasͥbccnͥaͥIcmaIcͥcoIIaboraIorͥwiIhͥiIsͥ
sub¿roupͥ oIͥ Iivcͥ maIcͥ arIisIs,ͥ IkWINͥ (Dusanͥ Mandic,ͥ Miranͥ Mohar,ͥ Andrc¡ͥ Savski,ͥ komanͥ
Uran¡ck,ͥ6oƚuIͥVo¿cInik).ͥInͥI992 Ihcyͥ¡oincdͥwiIhͥoIhcrͥ¿roupsͥIromͥEasIcrnͥEuropcͥandͥkussiaͥ
inͥIhcͥpro¡ccIͥŝSƂǪ£mboss,Ǫ MoscowǪ(aIͥanͥaparImcnI,ͥLcninskyͥFrospckIͥI2, Moscow),ͥaͥmonIhͥ
oIͥcvcnIsͥinvcsIi¿aIin¿ͥ'howͥIhcͥEasIͥsccsͥIhcͥEasI'ͥŘ aIsoͥIhcͥIiIIcͥoIͥIhcirͥbookͥdocumcnIin¿ͥIhcͥ
pro¡ccI.ͥ
Luy UPbut0 (I98I-91), Ihcͥ Frcnchͥ wriIcr,ͥ IhcorisIͥ andͥ IˏImmakcr,ͥ Iormcdͥ Ihcͥ SiIuaIionisIͥ
InIcrnaIionaIͥ wiIhͥ Ihcͥ arIisIͥ As¿crͥĊōͥ andͥ oIhcrsͥ inͥ I9J7. Hisͥ booksͥ incIudcͥ LoǪSociéréǪ duǪ
specrocIeǪ (I9G7; Socie|,Ǫ o)Ǫ rheǪ SpecrocIe,Ǫ I970). hIsͥ ˋnIIucnIIaIͥ criIiqucͥ oIͥIhcͥsociaIͥaIicnaIionͥ
cn¿cndcrcdͥ byͥ Ihcͥ primacyͥ oIͥ Ihcͥ ima¿cͥ asͥ mcdiaIorͥ andͥ rc¿uIaIorͥ oIͥ capiIaIisIͥ socicIy;ͥ
CommenroiresǪsurǪIoǪsociéǕǪduǪspecrocIeǪ(I988; Commen|sǪonǪrheǪSocie|]Ǫo)ǪrƓieǪSpecrocIe,Ǫ I990),
andͥIhcͥcdiIcdͥcoIIccIionsͥCu,ǪDebordǪondǪrheǪSiƨĆuorionisrǪInrerno|ionoIǪ(cd.ͥTomͥMcDonou¿h,ͥ
2002) andͥCompIereǪCinemo|icǪWorksǪ(cdĤͥandͥIrans.ͥKcnͥKnabb,ͥ2008).
]PtPmy UP¡¡Pt isͥ aͥ 6riIishͥ arIisIͥ whoscͥ pracIiccͥ hasͥ somcͥ paraIIcIsͥ wiIhͥ cIhno¿raphicͥ andͥ
socioIo¿icaIͥrcscarch,ͥIcadin¿ͥIoͥparIicipaIoryͥworksͥbascdͥonͥsharcdͥcuIIuraIͥcxpcricnccs.ͥHisͥ
pro¡ccIsͥincIudcͥUnconvenrionǪ(wIIhͥ6ˎɰccͥHaincs,ͥ I999), ŇoIkǪArchiveǪ(wiIhͥAIanͥKanc,ͥI999 Ioͥ
IhcͥprcscnI),ͥTheǪ8orrIeǪo)Ǫ0rǪ ¿reoveǪ(200I) andͥSocioIǪPorodeǪ(2001).
UmbPttu L£u isͥaͥ scmioIician,ͥmcdicvaIisIͥandͥnovcIisIͥwhoͥ sinccͥ I999 hasͥ bccnͥ FrcsidcnIͥoIͥIhcͥ
S̅oIaͥ Supcriorcͥ diͥ SIudiͥ UmanisIici,ͥ Univcrsi̻Ɵͥ oIͥ 6oIo¿na.ͥ Hisͥ booksͥ incIudcͥ 0peroǪ AperroǪ
(I9G2; TheǪ0penǪ Work,Ǫ I989). LoǪS|ǀurruroǪ ossenreǪ(I9G8; AǪTheonjǪo)ǪSemio|ics,Ǫ I977), TheǪkoIeǪ o)Ǫ
rheǪkeoderǪ(IransIaIcdͥcoIIccIionͥoIͥkcyͥcssaysͥ I9G2-7G, I979) andͥInconrro-£ncounrer-kenconrreǪ
(I99G).
Hð¡ Îu5tPt IsͥTownscndͥ MarIinͥ FroIcssorͥoIͥArIͥandͥArchacoIoʽyͥaIͥFrinccIonͥUnivcrsity,ͥanͥcdiIorͥoIͥ
0croberǪ andͥ aͥ conIribuIorͥ Ioͥ Arr)orumǪ andͥ Ihcͥ LondonǪ keviŶwǪ o)Ǫ 8ooksĖǪ Hisͥ booksͥ incIudcͥ
kecodin¿s:ǪArr,ǪSpecrocIe,ǪCuI|uroIǪPoIiricsǪ(I98J), CompuIsiveǪ8eou|]Ǫ(I998), TheǪkerumǪo)ǪrheǪkeoIǪ
(I99G) andͥProsrheŊcǪCodsǪ(2001).
L0uuðt0 L¡Î5$ðut isͥ DisIin¿uishcdͥ FroIcssorͥ oIͥ Frcnchͥ aIͥ IhcͥCiIyͥ UnivcrsˌIyͥ oIͥNcwͥ Yorkͥandͥ aͥ
MarIiniquanͥwriIcr,ͥ
̕
ocIͥ andͥ cssayisIͥ whoscͥworkͥ onͥ FranIïͥ Fanonͥ andͥ aroundͥ Ihcͥ idcasͥ oIͥ
'crcoIisaIion'ͥ andͥ Caribbcanͥ idcnIityͥhasͥbccnͥwidcIyͥinIIucnIIaI.ͥHisͥbooƎsͥinŮIudcͥ ǩʎ DiscourǎǪ
onriIloisǪ(I98I), Poé|içueǪ deǪ IoǪkeIorionǪ(I990; PoericsǪ o)ǪkeIorionĕǪ I997) andͥTroiréǪduǪTour-MondeǪ
(I997).
Ltuuþ MðtPtÎð¡ wasͥIoundcdͥinͥI979 asͥanͥarIisIs'ͥcoIIaboraIivcͥ¿roupͥinͥNcwͥYorkͥwh
ichͥsi¿niʷcanIIyͥ
brokcͥ downͥ Ihcͥ barricrsͥ bcIwccnͥ arIͥ andͥ socialͥ andͥ poIƉ̼ˍcaIͥ pracIƉcc.ͥ AItracIin¿ͥ Icmporaryͥ
mcmbcrs,ͥiIsͥcorcͥarIisIsͥbccamcͥ]uIicͥAuIIͥandͥTimͥkoIIinsͥ(Ioundcrs),ͥDou¿ͥAshIordͥ(ʳ̞omͥ I982),
FcIixͥConïaIcïğTorrcsͥ(I9J7-9G, IromͥI987) andͥKaIʩnͥkamspachcrͥ(IromͥI989) Fro¡ccIsͥ incIudcͥ
TheǪPeopIe'sǪChoiceǪ(I980), AmericonoǪ(I98J), Democro
ÇǪ
(I988), andͥAidsǪTimeIineǪ(I989-92).
ß¡OGRAH¡CAĸĈOTE5/ĸ/ĸIĸº7ĸ
Îélu Luðttðtì (i930-9?)ͥwasͥaͥFrcnchͥ psychoanaIystͥ andͥpoI|t|caIͥact|v|stͥwhoͥwasͥaͥccntraIͥƀ|¿urcͥ
|nͥ thcͥ cvcntsͥ oIͥ Mayͥ i958.ͥ 6cstͥ knownͥ Iorͥ h|sͥ coIIaborat|onsͥ w|thͥ thcͥ ph|Iosophcrͥ C|IIcsͥ
DcIcuzc,ͥ Co¡irolismcǪ crǪ schizo¡hrénic.Ǫ i.ͥ L'onri-0cdi¡cǪ (i97?,ͥ Anriđ0cdi¡us,Ǫ i983),ͥ I|.ͥ MillcǪ
¡lŬrcouxǪ (i980,ͥAǪ !ƫiŞusondǪ Plorcous,Ǫ i987),ͥ andͥ (u'cst-cc çucǪ IoǪ ¡hiloso¡hicŀ,Ǫ i99iȪͥ Whatͥ |sͥ
Fh|Iosophyȱ,ͥi995),ͥhcͥdcvcIopcdͥh|sͥownͥsoc|aI,ͥpsychoanaIyt|cͥandͥccoIo¿|caIIyͥbascdͥthcor|csͥ
pubI|shcdͥ|nͥCĬioosmoscǪ(i99?,ͥChoosmosis,Ǫ i995),ͥChooso¡h,Ǫ(i995)ͥandͥSo)rǪɥ͇ʔ͉ķ̠sƊƖ̌sͥ(i995).ͥ
11umð5 HÎt5£hhutu |sͥ aͥ Sw|ssŗbornͥ art|s̽ͥ bascdͥ |nͥ Far|s,ͥ whoscͥ ant|-acsthct|cͥ asscmbIa¿cs,ͥ
monumcnts,ͥ aItarsͥandͥIʡosks,ͥ us|n¿ͥ Iow-¿radcͥcvcrydayͥ matcr|aIs,ͥ |nv|tcͥaͥqucst|on|n¿ͥoIͥthcͥ
pIaccͥ oIͥartͥ |nͥ commun|tyͥ andͥ thcͥ contcmporaryͥ statusͥ oIͥ thcͥ monumcnt.ͥ Ma¡orͥ projcctsͥ
|ncIudcͥ 8oroillcǪ Monumcnr.Ǫ Documcntaͥ ii,ͥ KasscIͥ (?00?),ͥMusécǪPrécoircǪłIbincr,Ǫ ċ?borato|rcsͥ
d'Aubcrv|II|crsͥ(?004),ͥandͥUro¡io,Ǫ Uro¡io,Ǫ Inst|tutcͥoIͥContcmporaryͥArt,ͥ 6ostonͥ(?005).ͥ
Lðt5tPu Ho¡¡Pt |sͥaͥ6cI¿|an-boĐͥart|stͥbascdͥ|nͥSwcdcnĥͥW|thͥaͥdoctoratcͥ|nͥphytopathoIo¿y,ͥhcͥuscsͥ
h|sͥ sc|cnt|ƀːcͥ tra|n|n¿ͥ toͥ makcͥ |nvcst|¿atoryͥ |nstaIIat|onsͥ andͥ artworksͥ thatͥ act|vcIyͥ cn¿a¿cͥ
v|cŷcrs'ͥ pcrccpt|onsͥ andͥ phys|oIo¿|caIͥ rcact|onsͥ toͥ cnv|ronmcntsͥ andͥ st|muI|.ͥ Ma¡orͥ soIoͥ
cxh|b|t|onsͥ |ncIudcͥ Sanatoríum, Kunst-Wcrkc,ͥ 6crI|nͥ (i999),ͥ Ncw WorId, Modcrnaͥ Muscct,ͥ
StockhoImͥ (i999),ͥ Fondaz|oncͥ Frada,ͥ M|Ianͥ (?000)ͥ andͥ Onc Da] Onc Da], Far¿Iabr|kcn,ͥ
StockhoImͥ(?003).ͥ
A¡¡ðu KðµtuW (i9?7Ŕ?005)ͥwasͥanͥAmcr|canͥart|stͥbcstͥknownͥasͥthcͥ|nvcntorͥoIͥthcͥHappcn|n¿ͥ|nͥ
i959,ͥ aͥ tcrmͥ hcͥabandoncdͥ |nͥ i957,ͥ aItcrͥ wh|chͥhcͥcxpIorcdͥ othcrͥpart|c|patoĎɷͥ modcIs.ͥThcͥ
ran¿cͥoIͥh|sͥcarIyͥi950sͥworksͥ|sͥdocumcntcdͥ |nͥ h|sͥAsscmblo¿csčǪ£nvironmcnrsǪondǪBo¡¡cnin¿sǪ
(i955),ͥ h|sͥ wr|t|n¿sͥarcͥ coŰcctcdͥ |nͥ £sso,sǪ onǪ rhcǪ8lun1n¿Ǫo)ǪArrǪondǪ Li)cǪ (i993).ͥAnͥ |mportantͥ
carIyͥ¿roupͥ showͥ wasͥ £nvíronmcnts, Situatíons, Spaccs, Marthaͥ |acksonͥ CaIIcry,ͥ Ncwͥ Yorkͥ
(i95i).ͥkctrospcct|vcsͥ |ncIudcͥHausͥdcrͥ Kunst,ͥ Mun|chͥ(?005).ͥ
Lðt5 ßðug Lðt5Pu |sͥ aͥ Dan|shͥ cr|t|cͥ andͥ curatorͥ bascdͥ |nͥ FrankIurtͥ amͥ Ma|nͥ andͥ Copcnha¿cn.ͥ Aͥ
contr|butorͥtoͥ¡ournaIsͥsuchͥasͥ0ocumcnrsǪsurǪI'orręƀDŽiczcǪandͥArr)orum,Ǫhcͥco-curatcdͥMomcnt0m
- Nordic lcstívaI oI Contcmporar] Ar (i998),ͥ lundamcntaIisms oI thc Ncw Ordcr
(CharIottcnbcr¿,ͥ?00?),ͥIhc lnvìsìbIc Insurrcctìon oIa MìIIon Min0s(6|Ibao,ͥ?005)ͥandͥPopuIísm
(V|In|us,ͥOsIo,ͥAmstcrdam.ͥFrankIurt,ͥ?005).ͥ
JPðu~Lu£ Nðu£j |sͥ aͥ Frcnchͥ ph|Iosophcrͥ amon¿ͥ whoscͥ ccntraIͥ rcIcrcnccͥ po|ntsͥ arcͥ thcͥ |dcasͥ oIͥ
Ccor¿csͥ 6ata|IƦc,ͥ Maur|ccͥ 6Ianchot,ͥ |acqucsͥ Dcrr|daͥ andͥ Fr|cdr|chͥ N|ctïschc.ͥ H|sͥ kcyͥ worksͥ
|ncIudcͥLcǪ!ŎrrcǪdcǪloǪLcrrrcǪ(w|thͥ Fh˷I|ppcͥ ċ?couc-ċ?barthc,ͥ i973,ͥ Tiic TirlcǪo)ǪrhcǪLcrrcrĺǪAǪkcodin¿Ǫ
o)ǪLocon,Ǫ i99?),ͥLcǪcommunouréǪdésocuvrécǪ(i985;ͥ!ƉcǪlno¡crorivcǪCommunir,ĎǪi99i )őͥLcǪrcrroirǪduǪ
¡olƗriçucǪ(w|thͥ Fh|I|ppcͥċ?couc-ɖbarthc,ͥi997,ͥRctrcatin¿ thc PoIiticaI, i997)ͥandͥ
ǥ
rrcǪsin¿ttlicrǪ
¡lǡ1clǪ(?000ȫͥ8cin¿ǪSin¿ulorǪPlurol,Ǫ?000).ͥ
Mo¡¡j NP5bìl |sͥF̟oIcssorͥ oIͥArtͥatͥ VassarͥCoIIc¿c,ͥ Fou¿hkccps|c,ͥNcwͥYorkǒͥandͥ hasͥaIsoͥtau¿htͥatͥ
thcͥUn|vcrs|̾yͥoIͥCaIŀIo̩|a,ͥ6crkcIcy,ͥandͥ 6arnardͥCoI|c¿c,ͥCoIumb|aͥ Un|vcrs|ty.ͥAͥcontr|but|n¿ͥ
cd|torͥ oIͥArr]oǃum,Ǫ shcͥ ǟɑʎ thcͥ authorͥoIͥAr¿ct'sǪ ScǞcnǪAlbumsǪ(i99?)ͥ andͥ ThcirǪCommonǪScnscǪ
(?000).ͥShcͥwasͥaͥco-curatorͥoIͥutopia Stat!on, Vcn|ccͥ6|cnnaIcͥ(?003).ͥ
Hðu5 U¡tí£h ÜDtì5l |sͥaͥ Sw|ssͥ curatorͥwhoͥ |sͥCo-D|rcctorͥoIͥĈxh|b|t|onsͥ andͥ Fro¿rammcsͥ atͥ thcͥ
Scrpcnt|ncͥɃaIIcryǓͥloƕdon.ͥ Fromͥi993ͥtoͥ?005ͥhcͥranͥthcͥĘM|¿ratcurs'ͥpro¿rammcͥatͥthcͥMusccͥ
l9ß/ĸ /ßIOGRAāICAĸNOTE5ĸ
d'arIͥmodcrncͥdcͥlaͥVIllcͥdcͥFarIsŚͥAmon¿ͥIhcͥmanyͥcxhIbIIIonsͥandͥcvcnIsͥhcͥhasͥcoƢcuraIcdͥarcͥ
ManIIcsIaͥ I,ͥ koIIcrdamͥ (199b),ͥ ńiriesǪ onǪ rheǪMoǛe,ǪScccssIon,ͥVIcnnaͥ( 1997,ͥ andͥIourIn¿),ͥIhcͥ
6crlInͥ6Icnnalcͥ(1998),ͥU|opioǪSrorion,ǪVcnIccͥ6Icnnalcͥ(?003),ͥandͥIhcͥMoscowͥ6Icnnalcͥ(?005).ͥ
Volumcͥ 1ͥ oIͥhIsͥcollccIcdͥInIcrvIcwsͥwasͥ publIshcdͥInͥ?003.ͥ
HclÎu UltΣΣð (1937-80)ͥwasͥ aͥ6razIlIanͥarIIsIͥwhoͥworkcdͥ InͥkIoͥ dcͥ|ancIroͥandͥNcwͥYor˪ͥ LIkcͥ
Ly¿IaͥClark,ͥhcͥmovcdͥIromͥnco-concrcIIsmͥInͥIhcͥ1950sͥIoͥparIIcIpaIoryͥworksͥInͥIhcͥlaIcͥ19b0sͥ
InvolvIn¿ͥ'scnso˸ˑal'ͥobĿccIsͥandͥInsIallaIIonͥsIłucIurcs,ͥporon¿oléǪcapcsͥwornͥbyͥsambaͥdanccrs,ͥ
andͥcnvIronmcnIsͥwhIchͥ placcdͥ¿allcryͥvIsIIorsͥInͥmaIcrIalͥ condIIIonsͥcvokIn¿ͥɕaIInͥAmcrIcanͥ
shanIyͥIownͥcxIsIcncc.ͥkcIrospccIIvcsͥIncludcͥWIIIcͥdcͥWIIh,ͥkoIIcrdamͥ( 199?,ͥandͥIourIn¿).ͥ
mtÎðu ¡ÎþPt Isͥ aͥNcwͥYork-bascdͥ arIIsIͥandͥ phIlosophcr.ͥAIIcrͥparIIcIpaIIn¿ͥInͥIhcͥ bc¿InnIn¿sͥ oIͥ
NcwͥYorkͥconccpIualIsmͥInͥIhcͥ19b0s,ͥIromͥ1970ͥshcͥdcvclopcdͥaͥ'caIalyIIc'ͥIormͥoIͥInIcrvcnIIonͥ
Inͥ publIcͥ orͥ¿roupͥ sIIuaIIonsͥ Ioͥ Involvcͥ oIhcrsͥ Inͥ Ihcͥ qucsIIonIn¿ͥ oIͥpcrccpIIonsͥdcrIvcdͥ Iromͥ
unchallcn¿cdͥ noIIonsͥ oIͥ racc,ͥ ¿cndcrͥ orͥ classͥ kcIrospccIIvcsͥ Includcͥ Ihcͥ Ncwͥ Muscumͥ oIͥ
ConIcmporaryͥArI,ͥNcwͥYorkͥ(?000).ͥ
]ð£quP5 Kðu£lrtP Isͥaͥ Frcnchͥ phIlosophcrͥwhoͥIIrsIͥcamcͥIoͥpromIncnccͥasͥaͥcoƣauIhor,ͥwIIhͥLouIsͥ
AlIhusscrͥ andͥ oIhcrs,ͥ oIͥLircǪ Őʎ ʚapIIalͥ ( 19b5Ȭͥ kcodin¿ǪCapIIaI,ͥ 1979džDzͥ lnͥ Ihcͥ carlyͥ 1970sͥ hcͥ
abandoncdͥ AlIhusscr'sͥ Iormͥ oIͥMarxIsmͥ andͥ bc¿anͥ Ioͥ rcʹccIͥ uponͥ Ihcͥ socIalͥ andͥ hIsIorIcalͥ
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Fditor's ackno
Manyӵthanksӵtʿӵ
Francescoӵ Marӵ
fundedӵbyӵtheӵĺʎ
ofӵŋrt,ӵLondon˿ӵ
Pblishcr's ac ææææ ¬ wmm ¬, ¸
̥ʔuente,ӵ
͉nӵ wasӵ
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Whitechapelӵ isӵ ¿ratefulӵ toӵ allӵ thoseӵ whoӵ ¿aveӵ theirӵ ¿enerousӵ permissionӵ toӵ
reproduceӵ theӵ listedӵ material.ӵ Fveryӵ effortӵ hasӵ beenӵ madeӵ toӵ secureӵ allӵ
permissionsӵ andӵ weӵ apolo¿izeӵ forӵ anyӵ inadvertentӵ errorsӵ orӵ omҐissions.ӵ lfӵ
notiυied,ӵweӵwillӵendeavourӵtoӵcorrectӵtheseӵatӵtheӵearliestӵopportunity.ӵ
Weӵ wouldӵlikeӵtoӵexpressӵourӵthanksӵtoӵallӵwhoӵcontributedӵtoӵtheӵmakin¿ӵofӵ
thisӵ volume,ӵ especiallyĻӵ ēulieӵ ŋult,ӵ Nicolasӵ Bourriaud,ӵ Cracielaӵ Carnevale,ӵ Fdaӵ
Cufer,ӵ ēeremyӵ Deller,ӵ Umbertoӵ Fco,ӵ Halӵ Foster,ӵ Thomasӵ Hirschhorn,ӵ Carstenӵ
Hѡller,ӵLarsӵ Ban¿ӵLarsen,ӵDavidӵMacey,ӵ Mollyӵ Nesbit,ӵ Hansӵ Ulrichӵ Dbrist,ӵŋdrianӵ
Piper,ӵēacquesӵ RanciѢre,ӵ RirkritӵTiravani¡a.ӵ Weӵalsoӵ¿ratefullyӵacknowled¿eӵtheӵ
cooperationӵ of.ӵ AfrcraJ LondonĈӵ ŋrtan¿el,ӵ LondonĈӵ
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ditionsӵ Calilée,ӵ ParisĈӵ
Farrar,ӵ Strausӵ Óʎ Ciroux,ӵ Newӵ YorkĈӵ lndianaӵ Universityӵ Press,ӵ Bloomin¿ton,ӵ
lndianaĈӵ KaprowӵStudio,ӵFncinitas,ӵCaliforniaĈӵUniversityӵofӵMichi¿anӵPress,ӵŋnnӵ
ŋrborĈӵ UniversityӵofӵMinnesotaӵPress,ӵMinneapolisĈӵTheӵMlTӵPress,ӵCambrid¿e,ӵ
MassachusettsĈӵ Pro¡etoӵ Hélioӵ Diticica,ӵ RioӵdeӵēaneiroĈӵ TheӵWorldӵofӵLy¿iaӵClarkӵ
Culturalӵŋssociation,ӵRioӵdeӵēaneiro.ӵ
VhiIcchapcIͥVcnIurcsͥ¿raIcIuIIyͥacknowIcd¿csͥIhcͥsupporIͥoIͥ
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