Casting (metalworking) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Casting (metalworking)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In metalworking, casting involves pouring liquid metal into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowing it to cool and solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.[1] The casting process is subdivided into two main categories: expendable and non-expendable casting. It is further broken down by the mold material, such as sand or metal, and pouring method, such as gravity, vacuum, or low pressure.[2]

Contents
Casting iron in a sand mold

1 Theory 1.1 Cooling curves 1.2 Chvorinov's rule 1.3 The gating system 1.4 Shrinkage 1.4.1 Solidification shrinkage 1.4.2 Risers and riser aids 1.4.3 Patternmaker's shrink 1.5 Mold cavity 1.6 Filling 1.6.1 Tilt filling 1.7 Macrostructure 1.8 Inspection 1.8.1 Defects 2 Expendable mold casting 2.1 Waste molding of plaster 2.2 Sand casting 2.3 Plaster mold casting 2.4 Shell molding 2.5 Investment casting 2.6 Evaporative-pattern casting 2.6.1 Lost-foam casting 2.6.2 Full-mold casting 3 Non-expendable mold casting 3.1 Permanent mold casting 3.2 Die casting 3.3 Semi-solid metal casting 3.4 Centrifugal casting 3.5 Continuous casting

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org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) 4 Casting Process Simulation 5 Terminology 6 See also 7 References 7. which is the process of adding impurities to induce nucleation. for the crystal growth stage.[4] All of the nucleations represent a crystal. this is the most ideal type of grain growth because it allows liquid material to compensate for shrinkage. The direction.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ .[4] Cooling curves Improve this page 2 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. This can be advantageous because fine-grained castings possess better properties than coarse-grained castings. Moreover. which creates an energy interface between the two. because of the extra energy required to form the interface surfaces.Wikipedia. It then recalescences. In the nucleation stage solid particles form within the liquid. that is it cools below its freezing temperature.2 Bibliography 8 External links Theory Casting is a solidification process. most of the casting defects occur during solidification. because not as much energy is required for a partial interface surface. rate.wikipedia. which means the solidification phenomenon controls most of the properties of the casting.[3] Solidification occurs in two steps: nucleation and crystal growth. When these particles form their internal energy is lower than the surrounded liquid.pdffactory.Casting (metalworking) . A fine grain structure can be induced by grain refinement or inoculation. and type of growth can be controlled to maximize the properties of the casting. Directional solidification is when the material solidifies at one end and proceeds to solidify to the other end. or heats back up to its freezing temperature. as is for a complete spherical interface surface. so as nucleation occurs the material actually undercools. the free encyclopedia http://en. such as gas porosity and solidification shrinkage. Note that nucleation occurs on a pre-existing solid surface. which grows as the heat of fusion is extracted from the liquid until there is no liquid left. The formation of the surface at this interface requires energy.1 Notes 7.

which have a cooling curve shaped as shown below.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ . note that the greater the superheat the more time there is for the liquid material to flow into intricate details.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) See also: Cooling curves Cooling curves are important in controlling the quality of a casting.[5] Intermediate cooling rates from melt result in a dendritic microstructure. during the thermal arrest the material is converting from a liquid to a solid. with defining terminology. the free encyclopedia http://en. Improve this page 3 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.[6] The above cooling curve depicts a basic situation with a pure alloy. Below is an example cooling curve of a pure metal or eutectic alloy. Also. The most important part of the cooling curve is the cooling rate which affects the microstructure and properties. an area of the casting which is cooled quickly will have a fine grain structure and an area which cools slowly will have a coarse grain structure.Wikipedia.Casting (metalworking) . most castings are of alloys.pdffactory.wikipedia. however. Note that before the thermal arrest the material is a liquid and after it the material is a solid. Primary and secondary dendrites can be seen in this image. Generally speaking.

wikipedia. because if the riser does solidify first then it is worthless. Chvorinov's rule Main article: Chvorinov's rule The local solidification time can be calculated using Chvorinov's rule. and B is the mold constant.pdffactory. the free encyclopedia http://en.Wikipedia. instead there is a freezing range. It is most useful in determining if a riser will solidify before the casting. The freezing range corresponds directly to the liquidus and solidus found on the phase diagram for the specific alloy.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) Note that there is no longer a thermal arrest. A is the surface area of the casting that contacts the mold.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ . V is the volume of the casting. n is a constant.Casting (metalworking) .[7] The gating system Improve this page 4 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. which is: Where t is the solidification time.

If the material is moving too fast then the liquid material can erode the mold and contaminate the final casting. for turbulent sensitive materials short sprues are used to minimize the distance the material must fall when entering the mold.[9] The gates are usually attached to the bottom of the casting to minimize turbulence and splashing.[10] Shrinkage 5 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ Improve this page PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. but induces extreme turbulence. the most important being conveying the liquid material to the mold. However. steel.Casting (metalworking) . One method is to take advantage of the fact that some dross has a lower density than the base material so it floats to the top of the gating system.pdffactory. The efficiency. but also controlling shrinkage.[9] It is important to keep the size of the gating system small. but aluminium and magnesium alloys are turbulent sensitive. therefore the runner is extended past the last gate(s) and the contaminates are contained in the wells. note that long flat runners will cool the material more rapidly than round or square runners. can be placed near the sprue well to slow down and smooth out the flow. The choke.[8] The gating system may also be designed to trap dross.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) See also: Sprue (manufacturing) The gating system serves many purposes. Rectangular pouring cups and tapered sprues are used to prevent the formation of a vortex as the material flows into the mold. For materials where the dross is a similar density to the base material. The speed of the material is important because if the material is traveling too slowly it can cool before completely filling. the higher the number the more efficient the gating system/risers. and trapping dross. A large sprue well is used to dissipate the kinetic energy of the liquid material as it falls down the sprue. Therefore. For example. shrinkage. The shape and length of the gating system can also control how quickly the material cools. The gates are usually attached to the thickest part of the casting to assist in controlling A simple gating system for a horizontal parting mold. such as aluminium. decreasing turbulence. Screens or filters may also be used to trap contaminates. cast iron. turbulence. The turbulent insensitive materials usually have a short and open gating system to fill the mold as quickly as possible. These take advantage of the fact that the dross is usually located at the beginning of the pour. or yield.[8] The gating system may be designed to minimize turbulence. the free encyclopedia http://en. short round or square channels minimize heat loss.Wikipedia. Note that on some molds the choke is still placed on the gates to make separation of the part easier. the speed of the liquid. which is the smallest crosssectional area in the gating system used to control flow. because it all must be cut from the casting and remelted to be reused. of a casting system can be calculated by dividing the weight of the casting by the weight of the metal poured. these vortices tend to suck gas and oxides into the mold.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ . runner extensions and runner wells can be advantageous.wikipedia. leading to misruns and cold shuts. Therefore long flat runners with gates that exit from the bottom of the runners can trap dross in the runners. and most copper alloys are turbulent insensitive. depending on the material being cast. In especially large castings multiple gates or runners may be required to introduce metal to more than one point in the mold cavity.

the free encyclopedia http://en.[12] Risers and riser aids Improve this page 6 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.0 greater than 110 °C (230 °F). therefore they are known as skin forming alloys. such as gray cast iron. Pure and eutectic metals Magnesium 4.0–5. then progressively solidifies towards the gate.7 These castings tend to have poor ductility. solidification shrinkage and patternmaker's shrinkage.6 pockets of liquid trapped throughout and ultimately porosity. so during solidification the metal density dramatically increases. as the table to the Solidification shrinkage of right shows.[14] much more of the casting occupies the mushy or slushy zone (the temperature range White cast iron 4. a few materials do not.Casting (metalworking) .Wikipedia.5 between the solidus and the liquidus).pdffactory.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ . The shrinkage of the liquid is rarely a problem because more material is flowing into the mold behind it. and fatigue resistance. less than Aluminium 6. which means the casting freezes first at the point farthest from the gate. known as a pipe. but if designed properly this will be in the gating system or riser. Low carbon steel 2. Moreover. toughness. which leads to small Gray cast iron −2. Note that there is still a shrinkage void where the final material solidifies.6 50 °C (122 °F).5–2.5–1. For various metals[12][13] the materials that do shrink upon solidification the type of shrinkage depends on how wide the freezing range is for the Metal Percentage material. Patternmaker's shrinkage refers to the shrinkage that occurs when the material is cooled from the solidification temperature to room temperature. For materials with a narrow freezing range.9 of the casting. Ductile cast iron −4.[14] a cavity.wikipedia.[12][15] For the materials that have narrow solidification ranges pipes can be overcome by designing the casting to promote directional solidification.0 High carbon steel 4.0 or 4.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) There are three types of shrinkage: shrinkage of the liquid.[11] Solidification shrinkage Most materials shrink as they solidify. forms in the center Copper 4. which occurs due to thermal contraction.5 to form a skin in open air molds. Solidification shrinkage occurs because metals are less dense as a liquid than a solid.5–3. These materials tend Zinc 3.7 or 6.2 usually have narrow solidification ranges. This allows a continuous feed of liquid material to be present at the point of solidification to compensate for the shrinkage. because the outer shell freezes first and progressively solidifies to the center. but. for these types of materials to be fluid-tight a secondary operation is required to impregnate the casting with a lower melting point metal or resin.[14] For materials with a wide freezing range.

wikipedia.pdffactory. Insulating sleeves and toppings may also be installed around the riser cavity to slow the solidification of the riser. if it is located on the casting then it is known as a top riser and if it is located next to the casting it is known as a side riser. otherwise it cannot supply liquid metal to shrinkage within the casting. The first is if the riser is open to the atmosphere.Casting (metalworking) . Another way to promote directional solidification is by adding chills to the mold. For a riser to work properly the riser must solidify after the casting. but if the riser fills with materials that's already flowed through the molding cavity it is known as a dead riser or cold riser. Heater coils may also be installed around or above the riser cavity to slow solidification. Finally. It supplies liquid metal to the solidifying casting to compensate for solidification shrinkage. The second criterion is where the riser is located. There are two types: external and internal chills.Wikipedia. A chill is any material which will conduct heat away from the casting more rapidly that the material used for molding. Internal chills are pieces of the same metal that is being poured.[17] Patternmaker's shrink Improve this page 7 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. External chills are masses of high-heat-capacity and high-thermal-conductivity material that are placed on an edge of the molding cavity. which are placed inside the mold cavity and become part of the casting. i. One of these items are chills which accelerate cooling in a certain part of the mold.[10] Riser aids are items used to assist risers in creating directional solidification or reducing the number of risers required. if riser is located on the gating system so that it fills after the molding cavity. Risers add cost to the Different types of risers casting because it lowers the yield of each casting. the free encyclopedia http://en. it is known as a live riser or hot riser. otherwise its known as a blind type.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) Main articles: Riser (casting) and chill (casting) Risers. if it is then its called an open riser. also known as feeders. are the most common way of providing directional solidification.e.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ . more metal is lost as scrap for each casting.[16] Risers are classified by three criteria.

ensuring that the casting would contract to 3 Steel 1. the 1 5 Magnesium 1. A pattern made Brass ⁄16 to match an existing part would be made as follows: First.[19] For surfaces of the casting that are perpendicular to the parting line of the mold a draft must be included.0 ⁄16–1⁄4 the correct size. and graphitization can cause expansions or contractions. so a distortion allowance may be required.wikipedia. Also. then 1 when constructing the pattern. which may not need any machining tolerance. The required draft angle depends on the size and shape of the feature. the mold material. In non-expendable processes. This can be overcome by designing the mold cavity to slope the leg inward to begin with. therefore need a greater machining allowance. draft. the pattern maker would use a Cast iron 0.[19] Cores may be used in expendable mold processes to produce internal features. 1 5 Aluminium 1. are used to make the patterns oversized to compensate for this type of Metal Percentage in/ft shrinkage.[18] These rulers are up to 2.[18] Note that for non-expendable molds an allowance is required for the dimensional change of the mold due to heating to operating temperatures. Usually the draft is not less than 1%. Improve this page 8 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. whereas die casting has a very fine surface finish.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) Shrinkage after solidification can be dealt with by using an Typical patternmaker's oversized pattern designed specifically for the alloy used. these allowances are imparted directly into the permanent mold.0–1. Sand castings generally have a rough surface finish.5% oversize. the pattern or part material. This is so that the casting can be released in non-expendable processes or the pattern can be released from the mold without destroying the mold in expendable processes.5–2.Casting (metalworking) . the free encyclopedia http://en. because the base of the shape can contract while the legs are constrained by the mold. long horizontal sections tend to sag in the middle if ribs are not incorporated. These modifications to the mold cavity are known as allowances and account for patternmaker's shrinkage. For example. the depth of the mold cavity.Wikipedia.[19] The distortion allowance is only necessary for certain geometries.5 mainly referred to by their percentage change.pdffactory.[18] Mold cavity The mold cavity of a casting does not reflect the exact dimensions of the finished part due to a number of reasons. machining.[17] These rulers are 3 1. martensitic reactions. U-shaped castings will tend to distort with the legs splaying outward. which later form the mold cavity.3 ⁄8– ⁄32 depending on the material being cast. shrinkage of various metals[18] Contraction rules.[18] The machining allowance varies drastically from one process to another. and the process type.0–1. or shrink rules. The core can be of metal but it is usually done in sand.3 ⁄8– ⁄32 existing part would be measured using a standard ruler.8–1. Note that patternmaker's shrinkage does not take phase change transformations into account. and distortion. how the part or pattern is being removed from the mold. Also. For instance. but in expendable mold processes they are imparted into the patterns. eutectic reactions.0 ⁄10–1⁄8 contraction rule. the draft may provide enough of a machining allowance to begin with.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ .

[22] Tilt filling Tilt filling. and equiaxed zone. and grain uniformity. which defeats the purpose. For most uses tilt filling is not feasible because the following inherent problem: if the system is rotated slow enough to not induce turbulence. also known as tilt casting. lower temperatures can be used.[23] Macrostructure The grain macrostructure in ingots and most castings have three distinct regions or zones: the chill zone. After the casting has solidified the pressure is released and any remaining liquid returns to the crucible.Casting (metalworking) . which results in mis-runs. Finally. columnar zone. tolerances. The pressure differential helps the metal flow into every intricacy of the mold. This eliminates turbulence found in gravity casting and increases density. so the gating system can be simplified since it does not have to control turbulence.[21] Schematic of the low-pressure permanent mold Low-pressure filling uses 5 to 15 psig (35 to casting process 100 kPag) of air pressure to force liquid metal up a feed tube into the mold cavity.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) Filling There are a few common methods for filling the mold cavity: gravity.[20] The first patented vacuum casting machine and process dates to 1879. low-pressure. repeatability. is more metal efficient than gravity pouring because less material solidifies in the gating system.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ . Durville of France was the first to try tilt casting. is an uncommon filling technique where the crucible is attached to the gating system and both are slowly rotated so that the metal enters the mold cavity with little turbulence.pdffactory. Improve this page 9 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.[20] Vacuum filling. The goal is to reduce porosity and inclusions by limiting turbulence. The image below depicts these zones. Gravity pouring only has a 15 to 50% metal yield as compared to 60 to 95% for vacuum pouring.wikipedia. the front of the metal stream begins to solidify. and vacuum. as these are lower density (lighter) and float to the top of the pool. also known as counter-gravity filling. which improves the grain structure. Plus. which increases yield.Wikipedia. high-pressure. If the system is rotated faster then it induces turbulence. in the 1800s. There is also less turbulence. He tried to use it to reduce surface defects when casting coinage from aluminum bronze. the free encyclopedia http://en. because the metal is drawn from below the top of the pool the metal is free from dross and slag.

and metallurgical defects. and investment (lost-wax technique) moldings. Expendable mold casting Expendable mold casting is a generic classification that includes sand. shell.[24] Common inspection methods for aluminum castings are radiography. long columns that are perpendicular to the casting surface. These are thin. ultrasonic testing. The creation of this zone can be promoted by using a low pouring temperature.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. which are undesirable because they have anisotropic properties.[7] Inspection Common inspection methods for steel castings are magnetic particle testing and liquid penetrant testing. or inoculants. plaster. Here is where the nucleation phase of the solidification process takes place. alloy inclusions.Casting (metalworking) . in the center the equiaxed zone contains spherical. As more heat is removed the grains grow towards the center of the casting. non-reusable molds. These are desirable because they have isotropic properties. Improve this page 10 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.[25] Defects Main article: Casting defects There are a number of problems that can be encountered during the casting process. randomly oriented crystals.Wikipedia. Finally. pouring metal defects. and liquid penetrant testing.pdffactory.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ .org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) The chill zone is named so because it occurs at the walls of the mold where the wall chills the material. shrinkage defects. plastic. This method of mold casting involves the use of temporary. The main types are: gas porosity. mold material defects.

With the completion of a plaster.1 kg (0.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ . or polymerized oils (such as motor oil).000 lb). the free encyclopedia http://en. The mold may then at any later time (but only once) be used to cast a plaster positive image.300–2. Sand casting Main article: Sand casting Sand casting is one of the most popular and simplest types of casting that has been used for centuries. Green (moist) sand has almost no part weight limit.Wikipedia. but which are now captured in the mold.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) Waste molding of plaster A durable plaster intermediate is often used as a stage toward the production of a bronze sculpture or as a pointing guide for the creation of a carved stone. With the low cost plaster at hand. Minimum part weight ranges from 0. whereas dry sand has a practical part mass limit of 2.Casting (metalworking) .wikipedia. Not only does this method allow manufacturers to create products at a low cost. such as very small size operations. In waste molding a simple and thin plaster mold. the work is more durable (if stored indoors) than a clay original which must be kept moist to avoid cracking. From castings that fit in the palm of your hand to train beds (one casting can create the entire bed for one rail car). Sand casting also allows most metals to be cast depending on the type of sand used for the molds.075–0. it can all be done with sand casting. Sand casting allows for smaller batches to be made compared to permanent mold casting and at a very reasonable cost.100–6. it may even be deferred beyond the lifetime of the artist. but there are other benefits to sand casting. is cast over the original clay mixture. The sand is bonded together using clays. identical to the original clay. the expensive work of bronze casting or stone carving may be deferred until a patron is found.700 kg (5. incidentally destroying the fine details in undercuts present in the clay. reinforced by sisal or burlap. chemical binders. and as such work is considered to be a technical.22 lb).pdffactory.17–0. rather than artistic process. it is then removed from the damp clay. When cured. The surface of this plaster may be further refined and may be painted and waxed to resemble a finished bronze casting. Sand can be recycled many Improve this page 11 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.[26] Sand casting requires a lead time of days for production at high output rates (1–20 pieces/hr-mold) and is unsurpassed for large-part production.

it gives a much finer surface finish. and zinc. aluminium. with the lost-wax process being one of the oldest known metal forming techniques. Common metals that are cast include cast iron.[28] Shell molding Main article: Shell molding Shell molding is similar to sand casting. Generally. such as aluminium. An investment-cast valve cover Investment casting derives its name from the fact that the pattern is invested. repeatability. after which a production rate of 1–10 units/hr·mold is achieved. and copper alloys. with steel castings of up to page 12 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.Wikipedia. Although generally used for small castings. Investment casting Main article: Investment casting See also: Lost-wax casting Investment casting (known as lost-wax casting in art) is a process that has been practised for thousands of years. The sand used is finer than sand casting sand and is mixed with a resin so that it can be heated by the pattern and hardened into a shell around the pattern. the form takes less than a week to prepare.Casting (metalworking) .com . the free encyclopedia http://en. this Improve this process has been used to produce complete aircraft door frames. with a refractory material. The process is easily automated and more precise than sand casting. refractory materials and specialist alloys. to today’s high technology waxes. with items as massive as 45 kg (99 lb) and as small as 30 g (1 oz) with very good surface finish and close tolerances. The biggest disadvantage is that it can only be used with low melting point non-ferrous materials. The wax patterns require extreme care for they are not strong enough to withstand forces encountered during the mold making.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) times in most operations and requires little maintenance. the castings ensure high-quality components are produced with the key benefits of accuracy.wikipedia. This process is ideal for complex items that are small to medium sized. but the molding cavity is formed by a hardened "shell" of sand instead of a flask filled with sand. Because of the resin and finer sand. when beeswax formed the pattern.[27] The process is suitable for repeatable production of net shape components from a variety of different metals and high performance alloys. Plaster mold casting Main article: Plaster mold casting Plaster casting is similar to sand casting except that plaster of paris is substituted for sand as a mold material. copper. versatility and integrity. magnesium. magnesium. From 5000 years ago.pdffactory.[27] Plaster casting is an inexpensive alternative to other molding processes for complex parts due to the low cost of the plaster and its ability to produce near net shape castings. One advantage of investment casting is that the wax can be reused. or surrounded.

the free encyclopedia http://en. This process takes advantage of the low boiling point of foam to simplify the investment casting process by removing the need to melt the wax out of the mold.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) 300 kg and aluminium castings of up to 30 kg.pdffactory. so require little or no rework once cast. Lost-foam casting Main article: Lost-foam casting Lost-foam casting is a type of evaporative-pattern casting process that is similar to investment casting except foam is used for the pattern instead of wax. however the components that can be produced using investment casting can incorporate intricate contours. much like sand casting.Wikipedia. The two main processes are lost-foam casting and full-mold casting.wikipedia. and in most cases the components are cast near net shape. it can be an expensive process.Casting (metalworking) . Full-mold casting Main article: Full-mold casting Full-mold casting is an evaporative-pattern casting process which is a combination of sand casting and lost-foam casting. It uses a expanded polystyrene foam pattern which is then surrounded by sand. which vaporizes the foam upon contact.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ . which means there is no need to remove the pattern material from the mold before casting. The metal is then poured directly into the mold. Evaporative-pattern casting Main article: Evaporative-pattern casting This is a class of casting processes that use pattern materials that evaporate during the pour. Compared to other casting processes such as die casting or sand casting. Non-expendable mold casting Improve this page 13 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

Die casting Main article: Die casting The die casting process forces molten metal under high pressure into mold cavities (which are machined into dies). Semi-solid metal casting Main article: Semi-solid metal casting The permanent molding process Semi-solid metal (SSM) casting is a modified die casting process that reduces or eliminates the residual porosity present in most die castings. and copper alloys. produces hollow castings. Rather than using liquid metal as the feed material. zinc. A modified die casting machine is used to inject the semi-solid slurry into re-usable hardened steel dies. Permanent molds. and continuous casting. and aluminium based alloys. SSM casting uses a higher viscosity feed material that is partially solid and partially liquid. This technique includes at least four different methods: permanent. called slush casting. while lasting more than one casting still have a limited life before wearing out. the free encyclopedia http://en. This form of casting also results in improved repeatability in parts produced and delivers Near Net Shape results. low-pressure permanent mold casting. along with the use of controlled die filling conditions. Permanent mold casting Main articles: Permanent mold casting. Most die castings are made from nonferrous metals. centrifugal. copper. A variation on the typical gravity casting process.pdffactory. and vacuum permanent mold casting Permanent mold casting is a metal casting process that employs reusable molds ("permanent molds").org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) Non-expendable mold casting differs from expendable processes in that the mold need not be reformed after each production cycle. Other materials include tin. magnesium. usually made from metal. The most common process uses gravity to fill the mold. however gas pressure or a vacuum are also used.Casting (metalworking) . specifically zinc. Improve this Used commercially mainly for aluminium and magnesium alloys.com . but ferrous metal die castings are possible.wikipedia.Wikipedia. die. a fine surface quality and dimensional consistency. ensures that the semi-solid metal fills the die in a non-turbulent manner so that harmful porosity can be essentially eliminated. Common casting metals are aluminum. The high viscosity of the semi-solid metal. SSM castings can be heat page 14 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. and lead alloys and iron and steel are also cast in graphite molds. The die casting method is especially suited for applications where many small to medium sized parts are needed with good detail.

the rollers support the thin skin of the strand while the sprays remove heat from the strand.25 m wide by 230 mm thick). This effect is similar to the benefits from vacuum casting. as it is now called. with steel being the metal with the greatest tonnages cast using this method. Lead time varies with the application. Molten metal is poured into an open-ended. or to a stockpile. tight dimensional tolerances and the ability to cast thin walls.3-4. Continuous casting Main article: Continuous casting Continuous casting is a refinement of the casting process for the continuous. is withdrawn from the mold and passed into a chamber of rollers and water sprays.[29] Centrifugal casting Main article: Centrifugal casting In this process molten metal is poured in the mold and allowed to solidify while the mold is rotating.5 kg. the strand may undergo an initial hot rolling process before being cut. fast cooling rates (from using un-coated steel dies) and minimal porosity provides excellent combinations of strength and ductility. predetermined lengths of the strand are cut off by either mechanical shears or traveling oxyacetylene torches and transferred to further forming processes.pdffactory.and pressure-independent since it creates its own force feed using a temporary sand mold held in a spinning chamber at up to 900 N. Improve this page 15 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. the free encyclopedia http://en. Centrifugal casting is both gravity. Metal is poured into the center of the mold at its axis of rotation. the centrifugal casting of railway wheels was an early application of the method developed by the German industrial company Krupp and this capability enabled the rapid growth of the enterprise.wikipedia. The strand. water-cooled copper mold. which allows a 'skin' of solid metal to form over the stillliquid centre. also applied to jewelry casting. high-volume production of metal sections with a constant cross-section. as the forces enable the rather viscous liquid metals to flow through very small passages and into fine details such as leaves and petals.Casting (metalworking) . copper and aluminum are continuously cast.and true-centrifugal processing permit 30-50 pieces/hr-mold to be produced. pressure tightness. After solidification. Cast sizes can range from strip (a few millimeters thick by about five meters wide) to billets (90 to 160 mm square) to slabs (1. Due to centrifugal force the liquid metal is thrown out towards the periphery. gradually solidifying the strand from the outside in. The combination of heat treatment.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) treated to the T4. Small art pieces such as jewelry are often cast by this method using the lost wax process. T5 or T6 tempers. Semi. Continuous casting is used due to the lower costs associated with continuous production of a standard product.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ .Wikipedia. Other advantages of SSM casting include the ability to produce complex shaped parts net shape. Metals such as steel. and also increased quality of the final product. Industrially. Sometimes. with a practical limit for batch processing of approximately 9000 kg total mass with a typical per-item limit of 2.

commercial programs are available which make it possible for foundries to gain new insight into what is happening inside the mold or die during the casting process. such as holes. as the precise layout of the complete casting system also leads to energy. Molding material: The material that is packed around the pattern and then the pattern is removed to leave the cavity where the casting material will be poured.wikipedia. solidification and cooling. The software supports the user in component design. Core print: The region added to the pattern. and provides a quantitative prediction of casting mechanical properties.Wikipedia. and is regarded as the most important innovation in casting technology over the last 50 years. Drag: The bottom half of the pattern. Since the late '80s. core. mold. mold. Picture: Componenta B. or mold used to locate and support the core. and finishing. mainly in Europe and in the U.. or core. there the metal is poured to produce the casting. A high-performance software for the simulation of casting processes provides opportunities for an interactive or automated evaluation of results (here. flask. Mold cavity: The combined open area of the molding material and core. This saves costs along the entire casting manufacturing route. The Netherlands) Terminology Metal casting processes uses the following terminology:[30] Pattern: An approximate duplicate of the final casting used to form the mold cavity. Cope: The top half of the pattern. Pouring cup or pouring basin: The part of the gating system that receives the molten material from the pouring vessel. the free encyclopedia http://en.. or core.pdffactory. which is the vertical partthisthe 16 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) Casting Process Simulation Casting process simulation uses numerical methods to calculate cast component quality considering mold filling. porosity and flow characteristics). flask. Improve of page Sprue: The pouring cup attaches to the sprue.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ . for example. Casting process simulation was initially developed at universities starting from the early '70s. Simulation accurately describes a cast component’s quality up-front before production starts. of mold filling and solidification. Riser: An extra void in the mold that fills with molten material to compensate for shrinkage during solidification. Flask: The rigid wood or metal frame that holds the molding material. and tooling savings. the determination of melting practice and casting methoding through to pattern and mold making.Casting (metalworking) . The casting rigging can be designed with respect to the required component properties.V. thermal stresses and distortion. material. This has benefits beyond a reduction in pre-production sampling. Gating system: The network of connected channels that deliver the molten material to the mold cavities. Core: An insert in the mold that produces internal features in the casting. heat treatment.S.

The other end of the sprue attaches to the runners. Iron and Steel Institute.com /books?id=MS-JFA04n0QC&pg=PA69) . p. ^ a b Degarmo. 18. 69–71. 39. p. use additional terminology. http://books. ^ Degarmo. 284. this page 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ 17 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.Casting (metalworking) . p.com /books?id=eYR5Re5tZisC) (2nd ed.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) gating system. pp. ^ Lesko. Black & Kohser 2003.). http://books.google.com /books?id=Bz8ZAQAAIAAJ&pg=RA2-PA547.google. ^ a b Degarmo. the free encyclopedia http://en. pp. p. Phase transformations in metals and alloys (http://books. 25. 67. ^ Degarmo. p.com/books?id=MSJFA04n0QC&pg=PA69. ^ Degarmo. p. ^ a b Degarmo. 287. ISBN 9780470055380. ^ Blair & Stevens 1995. 73. Improve 26. ^ a b c Stefanescu 2008. 24. pp. 66. 277.google. ^ a b c Degarmo. 7.pdffactory. 6. 19. ^ Stefanescu 2008. ^ a b Degarmo. p. Runners: The horizontal portion of the gating system that connects the sprues to the gates. p. Jim (2007). 236. Some specialized processes. 14. Butterworth-Heinemann. K. 17. 8. ^ Degarmo. 289. 3. Draft: The taper on the casting or pattern that allow it to be withdrawn from the mold Core box: The mold or die used to produce the cores. http://books. p. pp.google. p. 9. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute (http://books. flask. ^ Degarmo.google. Gates: The controlled entrances from the runners into the mold cavities. 290. p. Industrial design (http://books. 286–288. Vents: Additional channels that provide an escape for gases generated during the pour. 10. http://books. p.com /books?id=eYR5Re5tZisC. 288. ISBN 9780750647915.google. Easterling. p. ^ Iron and Steel Institute (1912). 2. 285. 22. John (2004). 13. 280. 21. See also Bronze sculpture Flexible mold Porosity sealing Spin casting Spray forming References Notes 1. ISBN 9780748757411.com /books?id=1_3snz7LgiMC&pg=PA39. ^ Porter. 279–280. ^ a b Degarmo. E. chapters 2–4.Wikipedia. ^ Schleg et al.. ^ Campbell. ^ Degarmo. or pattern. pp. David A.com . ^ a b c d e Degarmo. p.). p. 86. 282. 11.wikipedia.google. 12. 278. p. p. 280–281. pp. 547. 5. John Wiley and Sons. 4-6.com /books?id=Bz8ZAQAAIAAJ&pg=RA2-PA547) . 285–286.com /books?id=1_3snz7LgiMC&pg=PA39) (2nd ed. 281. ^ a b Degarmo. CRC Press. ^ a b c Degarmo. ^ a b Degarmo. 286. 4. p. 319–320. 2003. 20. Castings practice: the 10 rules of castings (http://books. p. Black & Kohser 2003. 15. 23. (2000). 16. ^ Kissell & Ferry 2002.google. Parting line or parting surface: The interface between the cope and drag halves of the mold. such as die casting. ^ Degarmo.

American Foundry Society.google. ISBN 9780387746098.doitpoms. Eds. Kissell. Ronald A.html) Umha Aois . ASM International. Frederick H.). ^ Degarmo. http://books. Kohloff.php?title=Casting_(metalworking)& oldid=479785683" Categories: Casting (manufacturing) Jewellery making History of metallurgy Metallurgy Sculpture techniques This page was last modified on 2 March 2012 at 07:55. Gerin. ^ Degarmo. Bibliography Blair. J. Aachen Germany & Liege.wikipedia. Science and Engineering of Casting Solidification (http://books.org/w/index. http://books. (1995).ameslab. Randolph. External links Interactive casting design/manufacturing examples (http://www. ISBN 81-203-2726-8.. Springer.org/wiki/Casting_(metalworking) 27. Steven (2006). Black. American Foundry Society (2003).metalcastingdesign. the free encyclopedia http://en. A. Robert L.com/books?id=QG3_QqmPZ_AC) (6th ed. G.google. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 18 19 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. Materials and Processes in Manufacturing (9th ed.google.). Rassili & A. Schmid.google.wmv) Viking Bronze .google.).google.). 278–279. Wiley. p. Serope.Casting (metalworking) . Paul. 315.comhem. Hirt. Steel castings handbook (http://books. Technology of Metalcasting. Sylvia.com/books?id=JVTJi30phCwC) (2nd ed.com/books?id=JVTJi30phCwC. Buhrig-Polaczek.pdffactory. additional Improve this page terms may apply.com/books?id=NJh8Y9bV-hEC) (2nd ed. ^ 10th International Conference Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites. Belgium.com 02/03/2012 06:02 ‫م‬ .Wikipedia.). Doru Michael (2008). Pearson. Aluminum structures: a guide to their specifications and design (http://books. Stevens.google.uk/tlplib /casting/index. ISBN 9780874332575.com/books?id=d_A2o4YXfUAC) (1st ed.org/tutorials/) Castings or Forgings? A look at the advantages of each manufacturing process (http://www. ^ a b Kalpakjian & Schmid 2006.php) Retrieved from "http://en. ISBN 9780871705563. 29. Degarmo. John Wiley and Sons. Kalpakjian.gov/mpc/video) Glossary of Metalcasting Terms (http://www.com/books?id=d_A2o4YXfUAC. Ravi.. Metal Casting: Computer-aided Design and Analysis (http://books.se/vikingbronze /umha_aois_06. ISBN 0-13-148965-8.google. Stefanescu.).sfsa.org/sfsa/pubs/cvf/ecs. pp. Kohser."Casting" (http://www. ISBN 0-471-65653-4. Frederick P. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology (5th ed. B (2010).se/vikingbronze/) Video clip of a 50 gram arc cast alloy solidifying (http://www. E. 28.com/content/view/107 /189/) DoITPoMS Teaching and Learning Package. See Terms of use for details.com /books?id=NJh8Y9bV-hEC.wikipedia.ac. http://books..Early Medieval metal casting (http://web.sfsa. Schleg. Thomas L.comhem.Bronze Age casting videoclip (http://web. (2003). http://books. J. (2002). Malcolm. Ferry. 2008 30. J T. ISBN 9780471019657.com/books?id=QG3_QqmPZ_AC. PHI.

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