NATIONAL RURAL LIVELIHOODS MISSION

Mission Document
Ministry of Rural Development
Government of India
New Delhi
Ministry of Rural Development
Government of India
NATIONAL RURAL LIVELIHOODS MISSION
Mission Document
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Introduction
T
he mandate of the Ministry of Rural
Development (MoRD), GoI is rural poverty
alleviation through programmes directly
targeted at the rural poor households. Within the
‘directly targeted’ category, there are programmes
focused on wage employment and programmes
focused on self-employment. The Swarnajayanti
Grameen Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) is the Ministry
programme which focuses on self-employment.
This programme was launched in the year 1999,
by restructuring the Integrated Rural Development
Programme (IRDP).
The cornerstone of the SGSY strategy was that the
poor need to be organised and their capacities
built up systematically so that they can access
self-employment opportunities. In the 10 years
of implementing SGSY, there has developed a
widespread acceptance in the country of the need
for poor to be organised into SHGs as a pre-
requisite for their poverty reduction.
Comprehensive reviews of SGSY have brought
into focus several shortcomings like vast regional
variations in mobilisation of rural poor; insufficient
capacity building of beneficiaries; insufficient
investments for building community institutions;
and weak linkages with banks leading to low credit
mobilization and repeat financing. Several states
have not been able to fully utilise the funds received
under SGSY due to lack of dedicated human
resources and appropriate delivery systems. In
the absence of aggregate institutions of the poor,
such as the SHG federations, the poor households
could not access higher order support services for
productivity enhancement, marketing linkage, risk
management, etc. SGSY has been found to be
more successful wherever systematic mobilisation
of the poor into SHGs and their capacity building
and skill development has been taken up in a
systematic manner. In other places, the impact has
not been significant.
The magnitude of the task of rural poverty alleviation
through direct interventions in self-employment is
enormous. Out of the estimated 7.0 crore rural BPL
households, 4.5 crore households still need to be
organised into SHGs. A significant number of these
households are extremely vulnerable. Even the
existing SHGs need further strengthening. It was in
this background that Government have approved
the restructuring of SGSY as the National Rural
Livelihoods Mission (NRLM), to be implemented in
a mission mode across the country. NRLM builds
on the core strengths of the SGSY and incorporates
the important lessons from large scale experiences
in the country.
Introduction |
National Rural Livelihoods Mission | Mission Document
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NRLM has an ambitious mandate. It aims
to reach out to all the rural poor families (BPL
families) and link them to sustainable livelihoods
opportunities. It will nurture them till they come
out of poverty and enjoy a decent quality of life.
To achieve this, NRLM will put in place dedicated
and sensitive support structures at various levels.
These structures will work towards organising the
poor, building their capacities and the capacities
of their organisations, enabling them access to
finance and other livelihoods resources. The
support institutions will play the roles of initiating
the processes of organising them in the beginning,
providing the livelihoods services and sustaining
the livelihoods outcomes subsequently. The support
structures will also work with the unemployed
rural poor youth for skilling them and providing
employment either in jobs, mostly in high growth
sectors, or in remunerative self-employment and
micro-enterprises.
The Institutions of the poor – SHGs, their federations
and livelihoods collectives - provide the poor
the platforms for collective action based on self-
help and mutual cooperation. They become a
strong demand system. They build linkages with
mainstream institutions, including banks, and
Government departments to address their core
livelihoods issues and other dimensions of poverty.
These institutions provide savings, credit and other
financial services to meet their priority needs. These
include consumption needs, debt redemption, food
and health security and livelihoods. They augment
knowledge, skills, tools, assets, infrastructure, own
funds and other resources for the members. They
increase incomes, reduce expenditures, increase
gainful employment and reduce risks for their
members. They also increase their voice, space and
bargaining power in dealing with service providers.
Mobilising the poor into their institutions needs to be
induced by an external sensitive support structure.
Government agencies, NGOs and civil society
organisations, Local self governments, banks and
corporate sector can play this role. With time, as
the institutions of poor grow and mature, they
themselves become sensitive support structures
and institutions for the poor. The dependence
on external support structures should decline over
time. Their successful and empowered members
and leaders take charge of and accelerate many
of these processes. Thus, the programme for the
poor becomes the programme by the poor.
These two transitions are critical for the success of
NRLM. Poverty is a complex and multidimensional
phenomenon. The institutions of poor therefore
need to engage in many sectors and with several
service providers. Their ability and effectiveness
improves with time and experience. However, after
the initial learning curve, the progress picks up
speed with quality.
Based on MoRD’s extensive consultations
with various stakeholders including the State
Governments, Civil Society Organisations,
Bankers and academicians, the NRLM ‘Framework
for Implementation’ has been developed. NRLM
is a learning mission and learns from all the best
practices of poverty eradication and also from
failures. Like the Mission, its ‘Framework for
Implementation’ is a learning, live and dynamic
framework. This framework offers space for local
plans based on local context and offers space
for learning from the experiences in the field
as the implementation progresses. Each state
would develop its own Operational Guidelines
for implementation of NRLM within the broad
contours of the framework. Thematic and issue-
based National Operational Manuals would
also be made available as the implementation
progresses.
NRLM endeavours, through its dedicated sensitive
support structures and organisations at various
levels, to reach out to all the BPL households in
the country, and take them out of poverty through
building their capacities, financial muscle and
access, and self-managed self-reliant institutions;
through placement in jobs, and nurturing them into
remunerative self-employment and enterprises.
The institutions of the poor gradually take charge
of supporting their members being in control of
their livelihoods, lives and destiny.
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Mission, Principles, Values
The core belief of National Rural Livelihoods
Mission (NRLM) is that the poor have innate
capabilities and a strong desire to come out
of poverty. They are entrepreneurial, an essential
coping mechanism to survive under conditions
of poverty. The challenge is to unleash their
capabilities to generate meaningful livelihoods
and enable them to come out of poverty. The first
step in this process is motivating them to form
their own institutions. They and their institutions
are provided sufficient capacities to manage the
external environment, enabled to access finance,
and to expand their skills and assets and convert
them into meaningful livelihoods. This requires
continuous handholding support. An external
dedicated, sensitive support structure, from the
national level to the sub-district level, is required to
induce such social mobilisation, institution building
and livelihoods promotion.
Strong institutional platforms of the poor, enable
them to build-up their own human, social, financial
and other resources. These capabilities enable them
to access their rights, entitlements and livelihoods
opportunities and services, both from the public
and private sector. The social mobilisation process
enhances solidarity, voice and bargaining power of
the poor. These processes enable them to pursue
viable livelihoods based on leveraging their own
resources, skills and preferences. Thus, they come
out of abject poverty and do not fall back into
poverty. NRLM also believes that the programme
can be up scaled in a time bound manner, only if
it is driven by the poor.
NRLM Mission
“To reduce poverty by enabling the poor
households to access gainful self-employment and
skilled wage employment opportunities resulting
in appreciable improvement in their livelihoods
on a sustainable basis, through building strong
and sustainable grassroots institutions of the
poor.”
NRLM Guiding Principles
Poor have a strong desire to come out of
poverty, and they have innate capabilities.
Social mobilisation and building strong
institutions of the poor is critical for
unleashing the innate capabilities of the
poor.
An external dedicated and sensitive support
structure is required to induce the social
mobilisation, institution building and
empowerment process.



Mission, Principles, Values |
National Rural Livelihoods Mission | Mission Document
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NRLM
Financial & Capital
Services
Human and
Social Capital
(Leaders, CRPs,
Community Para-
Professionals)
Dedicated Support
Institutions
(Professionals,
Learning Platform
M & E Systems)
Institutional
Platforms of Poor
(SHGs, Federations and
Livelihoods Collectives:
Aggregating and Federating
Poor, Women, Small &
Marginal Farmers, SCs, STs
and other marginalized and
vulnerable)
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Livelihood Services
Building Enabling Environment
Partnerships and Convergence
Facilitating knowledge dissemination,
skill building, access to credit, access to
marketing, and access to other livelihoods
services enables them to enjoy a portfolio of
sustainable livelihoods.
NRLM Values
The core values which guide all the activities under
NRLM are as follows:
Inclusion of the poorest, and meaningful role
to the poorest in all the processes.
Transparency and accountability of all
processes and institutions.
Ownership and key role of the poor and
their institutions in all stages – planning,
implementation and monitoring.
Community self-reliance and self-
dependence.





Approach
Towards building, supporting and sustaining
livelihoods of the poor, NRLM harnesses the innate
capabilities of the poor, complements them with
capacities (information, knowledge, skills, tools,
finance and collectivisation) to deal with the rapidly
changing external world. Being conscious of the
livelihoods activities being varied, NRLM works
on three pillars – enhancing and expanding
existing livelihoods options of the poor;
building skills for the job market outside; and
nurturing self-employed and entrepreneurs.
Dedicated support structures build and strengthen
the institutional platforms of the poor. These
platforms, with the support of their built-up human
and social capital, offer a variety of livelihoods
services to their members across the value-chains of
key products and services of the poor. These services
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include financial and capital services, production
and productivity enhancement services that include
technology, knowledge, skills and inputs, market
linkages etc. The interested rural BPL youth would
be offered skill development after counselling and
matching the aptitude with the job requirements,
and placed in jobs that are remunerative. Self-
employed and entrepreneurial oriented poor
would be provided skills and financial linkages
and nurtured to establish and grow with micro-
enterprises for products and services in demand.
These platforms also offer space for convergence
and partnerships with a variety of stakeholders,
by building an enabling environment for poor to
access their rights and entitlements, public services
and innovations. The aggregation of the poor,
through their institutions, reduces transaction costs
to the individual members, makes their livelihoods
more viable and accelerates their journey out of
poverty.
NRLM implementation is in a Mission Mode.
This enables: (a) shift from the present allocation
based strategy to a demand driven strategy,
enabling the states to formulate their own
livelihoods-based poverty reduction action
plans, (b) focus on targets, outcomes and time
bound delivery, (c) continuous capacity building,
imparting requisite skills and creating linkages
with livelihoods opportunities for the poor,
including those emerging in the organised sector,
and (d) monitoring against targets of poverty
outcomes. As NRLM follows a demand driven
strategy, the States have the flexibility to develop
their livelihoods-based perspective plans and
annual action plans for poverty reduction.
The overall plans would be within the allocation
for the state based on inter-se poverty ratios.
The second dimension of demand driven strategy
implies that the ultimate objective is that the poor
will drive the agenda, through participatory
planning at grassroots level, implementation of
their own plans, reviewing and generating further
plans based on their experiences. The plans will not
only be demand driven, they will also be dynamic.
NRLM recognises and values the iterative nature of
the processes.
Mission, Principles, Values |
National Rural Livelihoods Mission | Mission Document
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Key Features of NRLM
Social Inclusion and Institutions
of the Poor
Universal Social Mobilisation: To begin
with, NRLM would ensure that at least one
member from each identified rural poor
household, preferably a woman, is brought
under the Self Help Group (SHG) network
in a time bound manner. Subsequently, both
women and men would be organised for
addressing livelihoods issues i.e. farmers
organisations, milk producers’ cooperatives,
weavers associations, etc. All these institutions
are inclusive and no poor would be left out of
them. NRLM would ensure adequate coverage
of vulnerable sections of the society such that
50% of the beneficiaries are SC/STs, 15% are
minorities and 3% are persons with disability,
while keeping in view the ultimate target of
100% coverage of BPL families.
Promotion of Institutions of the poor: Strong
institutions of the poor such as SHGs and
their village level and higher level federations
are necessary to provide space, voice and
resources for the poor, and for reducing
their dependence on external agencies. They
empower them. They also act as instruments
of knowledge and technology dissemination,
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and hubs of production, collectivisation and
commerce. NRLM, therefore, would focus on
setting up these institutions at various levels.
In addition, NRLM would promote specialised
institutions like Livelihoods collectives,
producers’ cooperatives/companies for
livelihoods promotion through deriving
economies of scale, backward and forward
linkages, and access to information, credit,
technology, markets etc. The Livelihoods
collectives would enable the poor to optimise
their limited resources.
There are existing institutions of the poor
women formed by Government efforts and
efforts of NGOs. NRLM would strengthen all
existing institutions of the poor in a partnership
mode. The self-help promoting institutions
both in the Government and in the NGO
sector would be supported. Further, existing
institutions and their leaders and staff would
be used as spearhead teams to support the
processes of forming and nurturing new
institutions.
Training, Capacity building and skill
building: NRLM would ensure that the poor are
provided with the requisite skills for: managing
their institutions, linking up with markets,
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managing their existing livelihoods, enhancing
their credit absorption capacity and credit
worthiness, etc. A multi-pronged approach is,
envisaged, for continuous capacity building of
the targeted families, SHGs, their federations,
government functionaries, bankers, NGOs
and other key stakeholders. Particular focus
would be on developing and engaging
community professionals and community
resource persons for capacity building
of SHGs and their federations and other
collectives. NRLM would make extensive use
of ICT to make knowledge dissemination and
capacity building more effective.
Revolving Fund and Capital Subsidy:
Subsidy would be available in the form of
revolving fund and capital subsidy. The
Revolving Fund would be provided to the SHGs
(where more than 70% members are from
BPL households) as an incentive to inculcate
the habit of thrift and accumulate their own
funds towards meeting their credit needs in
the long-run and immediate consumption
needs in the short-run. Subsidy would be a
corpus and used for meeting the members’
credit needs directly and as catalytic capital
for leveraging repeat bank finance. The key
to coming out of poverty is continuous and
easy access to finance, at reasonable rates,
till they accumulate their own funds in large
measure.
Universal Financial Inclusion: NRLM would
work towards achieving universal financial
inclusion, beyond basic banking services
to all the poor households, SHGs and their
federations. NRLM would work on both demand
and supply side of Financial Inclusion. On
the demand side, it would promote financial
literacy among the poor and provides catalytic
capital to the SHGs and their federations.
On the supply side, it would coordinate with
the financial sector and encourage use of
Information, Communication & Technology
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(ICT) based financial technologies, business
correspondents and community facilitators
like ‘Bank Mitras’. It would also work towards
universal coverage of rural poor against loss
of life, health and assets. Further, it would
work on remittances, especially in areas where
migration is endemic.
Provision of Interest Subsidy: The rural
poor need credit at low rate of interest and
in multiple doses to make their ventures
economically viable. In order to ensure
affordable credit, NRLM has a provision for
subsidy on interest rate above 7% per annum
for all eligible SHGs, who have availed loans
from mainstream financial institutions, based
on prompt loan repayment. This subsidy would
be available to SHGs, where at least 70% of
the members are from BPL households, till
a member accesses credit, through repeat
cumulative loaning, up to Rs 1.00 lakh per
household. The interest subsidy would not be
applicable when a SHG avails capital subsidy.
However, interest subsidy would be provided
to this SHG, when they avail a fresh loan after
repaying the capital subsidy linked loan.
Livelihoods
Poor have multiple livelihoods as a coping
mechanism for survival. Their existing major
livelihoods are: wage labour, small and
marginal holding cultivation, cattle rearing,
forest produce, fishing, and traditional non-
farm occupations. The net incomes and
employment days from the current livelihoods
are not adequate to meet their expenditures.
NRLM would look at the entire portfolio of
livelihoods of each poor household, and work
towards stabilising and enhancing the existing
livelihoods and subsequently diversifying their
livelihoods.
Infrastructure creation and Marketing
support: NRLM would seek to ensure that
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Key Features of NRLM |
National Rural Livelihoods Mission | Mission Document
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the infrastructure needs for key livelihoods
activities of the poor are fully met. It would
also provide support for marketing to the
institutions of the poor. The range of activities,
in marketing support, includes market
research, market intelligence, technology,
extension, developing backward and forward
linkages and building livelihoods collectives
and supporting their business plans. NRLM
would encourage and support partnerships
with public and private organisations and
their networks/associations for these activities,
particularly for market linkages. Rural Haats
would also be encouraged to directly link
producer groups (SHGs) and individual
producers with urban and peri-urban markets
through a well developed system of continuous
identification and rotation of beneficiaries.
20% of the state’s programme outlay is
reserved for this purpose.
Skills and Placement Projects: NRLM
would pursue skill upgradation and placement
projects through partnership mode as it is one
of the best investments in youth, and provides
impetus to livelihoods opportunities in emerging
markets. For strengthening this, various models
of partnerships with public, private, non-
government and community organisations
would be developed. A strong relationship would
also be developed with industry associations
and sector specific employers’ associations.
National Skill Development Corporation
(NSDC) would be one of the leading partners
in this effort. 15% of the central allocation
under NRLM is earmarked for this purpose.
Rural Self Employment Training Institutes
(RSETIs): NRLM encourages public sector
banks to set up RSETIs in all districts of the
country. RSETIs transform unemployed
rural youth in the district into confident self-
employed entrepreneurs through need-based
experiential learning programme followed by
systematic handholding support. Banks are
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completely involved in selection, training and
post training follow-up stages. RSETIs partner
with others, including the institutions of the
poor, to realise their mandate and agenda.
Innovations: NRLM believes that successful
innovations can reduce the learning curve
for poverty eradication by showing a better
pathway or a different pathway out of poverty.
5% of the Central allocation is earmarked
for innovations. They should be end-to-
end solutions and have a clear mandate of
transferring knowledge and capabilities to
the livelihoods organisations of the poor.
Those innovations which have the potential
for reaching out specifically to the poorest;
or for reaching out to the largest number
of poor; and having maximum impact with
limited resources would be preferred and
supported.
Convergence and partnerships
Convergence: NRLM would place a
very high emphasis on convergence with
other programmes of the Ministry of Rural
Development and other Central Ministries,
and programmes of state governments for
developing synergies directly and through
the institutions of the poor.
Partnerships with NGOs and other CSOs:
NRLM would proactively seek partnerships
with Non-Government Organisations (NGOs)
and other Civil Society Organisations (CSOs),
at two levels -strategic and implementation.
The partnerships would be guided by
NRLM’s core beliefs and values, and mutual
agreement on processes and outcomes.
NRLM would develop a national framework
for partnerships with NGOs and other CSOs.
Further, NRLM would seek partnerships with
various other stakeholders at various levels
directly, or through the institutions of the
poor.
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Linkages with PRIs: In view of the eminent
roles of Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs) that
include governance, agency, commercial
and political, it is necessary to consciously
structure and facilitate a mutually beneficial
working relationship between Panchayats and
institutions of the poor, particularly at the level
of Village Panchayats. Formal mechanisms
would need to be established for regular
consultations between the institutions of the
poor and the PRIs for exchange of mutual
advice, support and sharing of resources.
However, care would be taken to protect
their autonomy. Where there are no PRIs, the
linkages would be with traditional local village
institutions.
Sensitive Support
External Sensitive Support Structures:
NRLM’s process-intensive effort would
require dedicated human resources.
Realising this, NRLM would be setting up
sensitive and dedicated support structures
at the National, State, district and sub-
district levels. NRLM Advisory, Coordination
and Empowered Committees and National
Mission Management Unit at the national
level, State Rural Livelihoods Missions
(SRLMs) as autonomous bodies and State
Mission Management Units at state level,
District Mission Management Units at district
level, and sub-district units at block and/or
cluster levels would constitute these support
structures. These structures would have
suitable linkages with Government(s), District
Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs), and
PRIs. The governance of DRDAs would be
revitalized with representatives of institutions
of the poor and professionalised so that
they respond better to meeting the needs
of the poor. These support structures would
be staffed with professionally competent
and dedicated human resources through
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appropriate arrangements including
partnerships and outsourcing of services.
A clear objective of this support structure is
to incubate an internal sensitive support
structure, consisting of the institutions of the
poor, their staff and other social capital. Over
time, the role of the internal support structure
should increase and replace the external
structure in many of these processes.
Technical Support: NRLM would provide
technical assistance to the States and all
other partners for creating and strengthening
their institutional capacities for its effective
implementation. It would build national
knowledge management and learning forums/
systems. It would facilitate partnerships
between institutions of the poor and banking
sectors, public and private sectors, for
ensuring last mile service delivery to reach the
poor. It would build a national pool of experts,
practitioners and advisers in all the relevant
disciplines including social mobilisation,
institution building, microfinance, livelihoods,
skill development, entrepreneurship etc. They
would provide handholding support to SRLMs
for developing and executing state poverty
reduction strategies.
Monitoring and Learning: NRLM would
monitor its results, processes and activities
through web-enabled comprehensive MIS,
regular meetings of the Performance Review
Committee, visits by senior colleagues, Local,
District, State and National Monitoring Groups
and the mechanisms of Review and Planning
Missions. Process monitoring studies, thematic
studies and impact evaluations would provide
inputs to the above. It would also promote
social accountability practices to introduce
greater transparency. This would be in addition
to the mechanisms that would be evolved by
SRLMs and state governments. The learning
from one another underpins the key processes
of learning in NRLM.
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Funding Pattern: NRLM is a Centrally
Sponsored Scheme and the financing of the
programme would be shared between the
Centre and the States in the ratio of 75:25
(90:10 in case of North Eastern States including
Sikkim; completely from the Centre in case of
UTs). The Central allocation earmarked for the
States would broadly be distributed in relation
to the incidence of poverty in the States.
Phased Implementation: Social capital
of the poor consists of the institutions of the
poor, their leaders, community professionals
and more importantly community resource
persons (poor women whose lives have been
transformed through the support of their
institutions). Building up social capital takes
some time in the initial years, but it multiplies
rapidly after some time. If the social capital of
the poor does not play the lead role in NRLM,
then it would not be a people’s programme.
Further, it is important to ensure that the quality
and effectiveness of the interventions is not
diluted. Therefore, a phased implementation
approach is adopted in NRLM. NRLM would
reach all districts and blocks by the end of
12
th
Five-year Plan.
The blocks that are taken up for intensive
implementation of NRLM, would have access
to a full complement of trained professional
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staff and cover a whole range of activities
of universal and intense social and financial
inclusion, livelihoods, partnerships etc.
However, in the remaining blocks or non-
intensive blocks, the activities may be limited
in scope and intensity. The outlays in these
blocks would be limited to the State average
allotment for these blocks under the present
SGSY.
Transition to NRLM: All States/UTs would
have to transit to NRLM within a period of
one year from the date of formal launch of
NRLM. Further funding under SGSY ceases
thereafter.
Agenda before NRLM: NRLM has set out
with an agenda to reach out, mobilise and
support 7.0 crore BPL households across
600 districts, 6000 blocks, 2.5 lakh Gram
Panchayats, in 6.0 lakh villages in the
country into their self-managed SHGs and
their federal institutions and livelihoods
collectives. NRLM’s long-term dedicated
sensitive support would be with them and
extend facilitation support in all their efforts
to get out of poverty. In addition, the poor
would be facilitated to achieve increased
access to their rights, entitlements and public
services, diversified risk and better social
indicators of empowerment.
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Economic Assistance/Financial Norms/Ceilings
Formation of SHGs: Rs. 10,000 per SHG
to be given to NGOs/CBOs/Community
Coordinators/Facilitators/Animators towards
group formation and development.
Revolving Fund (RF): As a corpus to SHG
with a minimum of Rs. 10,000 to a maximum
of Rs. 15,000 per SHG. This is given to all
SHGs that have not received RF earlier. Only
those SHGs with more than 70% BPL members
are eligible for RF.
Capital Subsidy (CS): Capital subsidy ceiling
is applicable, both for members of SHGs and
individual beneficiaries @Rs. 15,000 per
general category and Rs. 20,000 per SC/ST
category. The maximum amount of subsidy that
an SHG is eligible for is Rs. 2.50 lakh. Only
BPL members are eligible for individual subsidy,
and only those SHGs with more than 70% BPL
members are eligible for the subsidy to SHGs.
Capacity building and skills training -
Rs. 7,500 per beneficiary: The amount
available under this component is used
for training and capacity building not only
of the beneficiaries but also of all other
stakeholders, including programme officers
and staff, community professionals, concerned
government officials, NGOs, PRI functionaries
etc. Expenditure on exposure visits and
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immersion visits is also to be covered under
this component. The skills training here refer
to member level training for self-employment
and are distinct from the Placement-linked
Skills training.
Interest subsidy: Subsidy on interest rate
above 7% per annum for all SHG loans
availed from banks, based on prompt
repayment. Interest subsidy would be
provided to an individual beneficiary or
SHG member till he/she has availed a bank
loan up to an amount of Rs 1.00 lakh. It is
expected that there will be repeat doses of
financing to members in SHGs and this limit
of 1.0 Lakh is the cumulative loan availed by
a member (household). This subsidy is not
available on such occasions when the SHG
is availing capital subsidy.
One time grant for corpus fund for sustain-
ability and effectiveness of federations:
Rs 10,000 for Village/Panchayat level
federation
Rs 20,000 for Block level federation
Rs 100,000 for District level federation
Administrative expenses: 5% of the
allocation, net of the component relating to
skill development & placement and net of
the component of RSETIs. This amounts to
5.
6.



7.
Economic Assistance/Financial Norms/Ceilings |
National Rural Livelihoods Mission | Mission Document
l2
5% of Central release to the State and the
corresponding State share.
Infrastructure and Marketing: Up to
20% (25% in case of north eastern states
and Sikkim) of the Central share and State
share of allocation i.e. state’s programme
outlay.
Skills and Placement Projects and
Innovations (20% of the Central
allocation): Expenditure on innovative
8.
9.
projects should not exceed 5%; and the
remaining 15% is for placement linked skill
development projects. 50% of the allocation
for placement linked skill development
projects (7.5% of total allocation) is retained
at the centre for multi-state skill development
projects and the balance is allocated to states
to implement state specific skill development
and placement projects. The States have to
add the corresponding state share to the
amount released to them.
ºi·-|¤ ni-|ºi ¬i¬|l·¬i l-ºi·
l-ºi· ·-ni·¬
ni-|ºi l·¬i¬ -¤i¬¤
·iiºn ¬º¬iº
·; l·~¬|
l5
National Rural Livelihoods Mission | Framework of Implementation
ºi·-|¤ ni-|ºi ¬i¬|l·¬i l-ºi·
ni-|ºi l·¬i¬ -¤i¬¤
·iiºn ¬º¬iº
·; l·~¬|
l-ºi· ·-ni·¬
National Rural Livelihoods Mission | Mission Document
l6
ºi·- ¬| ¬-¸ln ¬ini ¬ ¬i--i ¬iº l·¬ - ºrn| r|
-ir· ·i¬ ¬º- ¤· ni·i|
l7
ni-|ºi l·¬i¬ -¤i¬¤ ¬i ¬i¤ ¬|·i ni-|ºi l··i·
¤lº·iºi ¬i ¬·¤ - ºªi· ·i¬ ¬i¤¬-i ¬ ¬lº¤ ni-|ºi
nº|«| ¬i ·¸º ¬º·i r| ¤-¤·i ª¤ ¬ ¬l·in ¬ºi| -
¤¬ ¬i¤¬- r, l¬·- -¬·¸º| ºi¬niº ¬iº -·÷ºi¬niº
¤º l·”i’i ª¤ ¬ ·¤i· ¬l·¤n l¬¤i ¬ini r| -·ºi¬¤n|
ni- -·÷ºi¬niº ¤i¬·i (¤¬¬|¤¬·i;) ;¬ -¤i¬¤ ¬i
-r-·¤¸ºi ¬i¤¬- r, l¬¬- -·÷ºi¬niº ¤º «¬ l·¤i
¬ini r| ¬-l¬n ni-|ºi l·¬i¬ ¬i¤¬- (¬i;¬iº·|¤|)
¬i ¤·nl-n ¬ºn r¤ ·’i ·sss - ¤r ¬i¤¬- “iª
l¬¤i n¤i ·ii|
l··i·i ¬i ¬nl-n l¬¤ ¬i· ¬| n·ii ¬·¬| ·i-ni¬i ¬i
·¤·l-·in ª¤ ¬ ««i¤ ¬i· ¬| ¬ªºn ¤¬¬|¤¬·i; ¬|
¬i¤·|ln ¬| -ª¤ l·”i’ini ·i| nil¬ ¬·r -·÷ºi¬niº
¬ ¬·¬º l-¬ ¬¬| ¤¬¬|¤¬·i; ¬ ¬i¤i··¤· ¬
·a ·’ii - ·”i - l··i·i ¬i -·÷¬ri¤ni ¬-¸ri -
¬nl-n ¬º· ¬| ¬ªºn ¬i, ¬i l¬ ¬·¬| nº|«| ¬i
·¸º ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ¤¸· ¬¤l·in r, ·¤i¤¬ ª¤ ¬ -·|¬iº
l¬¤i n¤i r|
¤¬¬|¤¬·i; ¬| nr· ¬-|·ii¬i ¬ n i-|ºi l··i ·i
¬i ¤¬¬ - ¬º· - ¬i¤| ¬l·i¬ ·i ¤|¤ l·l··ini¤ ,
¬i·iil·i ¤i - ¬¤¤i ·n ·i-ni l·-i ºi, ¬i- ·il¤¬
¬ -·ii· «·i· ¬ l¬¤ ¬¤¤i ·n l·· ”i, ¬i º « ¬i ¬
¬i·i ¬- ¬ ¤¬ l¬¬¬| ·¬r ¬ ~ºi ¬| ¬¤¬··ini
¬- ri ¬in| r n·ii «iº «iº l·Ÿi ¤i ’iºi ¬ ¬| ¬· ¬
·i¸l-¬i
¬l-¤i ¬i ¤ni ¤¬i r | ¬· ¬ ºi·¤ ¬-l¤ n -i··
¬ ¬i·i·i ¤· ¬¤¤ - ¬ ¤ · n| ¤ºiil¬¤i ¬| ¬-| ¬|
·¬r ¬ ¤¬¬|¤¬·i; ¬ ¬ nn n l-¬| l·l·i¤i ¬i
¤¸ º| nºr ¬¤¤i n ·r| ¬º ¤i¤ r | ¤¬¤¤¬| ¤lº¬ ¤i
¬ ¬| ¬-¸ r ¬ -·ii¬i ¬| ¬· ¤l-·iln - l··i · ¤lº·iº
¬-¤i·¬ni ¬ ··i ·, l·¤ºi· ¬ ¤¬ , ¬i lªi- ¤« ·i· ¬il·
¬ l¬¤ ¬·¤ ¬ ºi| ¬| ¬ri¤¬ ¬ ·i¤ ·r| ¤i·n ¬º
¤in r | ¬ri ¬r| ·i| l··i ·i ¬i -·÷¬ri¤ni ¬-¸ ri -
·¤·l-·in ª¤ ¬ ¤¬¬ - l¬¤i n¤i r ¬i º ·¤·l-·in
nº|¬ ¬ ¬·¬| ·i-ni ¬i l·-i ºi ¤· ¬i ”i¬ l·¬i¬
l¬¤i n¤i r ·ri ¤¬¬|¤¬·i; ¬i ¬i¤| ¬l·i¬
¬¤¬ ¤i¤i n¤i r | ¬·¤ -·ii·i - ¤¤i ·n ¤·ii· ·r|
¤· i r |
-·÷ºi¬niº - ¤-¤·i ¤r¬i ¬ ¬lº¤ ni-|ºi l··i·ni
¬i ·¸º ¬º· ·i¬i ¬i¤ ¬i ·i¤ ¬i¤| l·”ii¬ r|
¬·-il·n / ¬ºi· ni-|ºi «|¤|¤¬ ¤lº·iºi - ¬
«.r ¬ºi· ¤lº·iºi ¬i ¬·i| ·i| -·÷¬ri¤ni ¬-¸ri -
¬nl-n l¬¤ ¬i· ¬| ¬ªºn r| ;· ¤lº·iºi - ¬
¬i¤| ¬l·i¬ ¤lº·iº ¬-¤n ¬¤l·in r| ¤ri n¬ l¬
-i¬¸·i ¤¬¤¤¬| ¬i ·i| ¬iº ¬l·i¬ ¬–« «·i¤ ¬i·
¬| ¬ªºn r| ;¬| ¤’-·i¸l- - ¬º¬iº · ¤¬¬|¤¬·i;
¬i ºi’-|¤ ni-|ºi ¬i¬|l·¬i l-”i· ¬ ª¤ - ¤·nl-n
¬º· ¬| -¬¸º| · ·| r l¬¬ ·”i ·iº - l-”i· -i· -
¬i¤il··n l¬¤i ¬i¤ni| ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- - ¤¬¬|¤¬·i;
¬ -r-·¤¸ºi ¤r¬¸¬i ¤º ·¤i· l·¤i n¤i r ¬iº ;¬-
·i¸l-¬i |
ºi·-|¤ ni-|ºi ¬i¬|l·¬i l-ºi· | l-ºi· ·-ni·¬
l8
·”i - «· ¤-i· ¤º ¤i·n r¤ ¬··i·i ¬| ¤-ªi ¬|ªii
¬i ¬-il·’- l¬¤i n¤i r|
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬i ¬i¤ ¬i¤| ¬l·i¬ -r-·i¬i ·i| r |
;¬¬i ¬ª ”¤ ¬·i| n i-|ºi l··i · ¤lº·iºi («|¤|¤¬
¤lº·iºi ) n¬ ¤r ¤·i ¬i º ¬·r ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬ -·ii¤|
¬·¬º - r ¤i ¬ºi·i r | ¤r ¬¬ ¬-¤ n¬ ¬·¬i
¤i¬·÷¤i ’iºi ¬ºni ºr ni ¬« n¬ · nº|«| ¬ ¬·iº¬º
¬--i·¤¸ ºi ¬|·· ·¤n|n · ¬º· ¬n | ;¬ ¬ª º¤ ¬i
¤¸ ºi ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- - l·l·i¤ -nºi ¤º
¬-l¤ n ¤· ¬ · ··”i|¬ ¬ri¤¬ ¬ º¤·i¤ «·i; n;
r | ¤ ¬ º¤·i¤ l··i ·i ¬i ¬ nl-n ¬º· , ¬·¬| n·ii
¬·¬ ¬ n-·i ¬| ·i-ni¬i ¬i l·-i ºi ¬º· , l·l·i¤i
¬i º ¬·¤ ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬ « ·i| ¬ ¬i·i· ¤i·n ¬º· -
¬·r ¬-·i «·i· ¬| l·”ii - ¬i¤ ¬ºn| r | ¬ri¤¬
¬ -·ii¤ ¤iº ·i - ¬·r ¬ nl-n ¬º· ¬| ¤l¬¤i “i ª
¬º· , ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬ « ·i| ¬ ·i¤ - r ¤i ¬ºi· ¬i º «i·
- ¬i¬|l·¬i ¤lººii-i ¬i «º¬ºiº ºªi· ¬| ·i¸ l-¬i
l··iin| r | ¬ri¤¬ ¬ º¤·i¤ r ·º l·¬i¬ ¬ l¬¤
n i-|ºi « ºi ¬niº l··i · ¤ ·¬i ¬ ¬i·i l-¬¬º ¬i¤
¬º n| ¬i º ¬·r ¤i ni ¬l·i¬ l·¬i¬ ·i¬ ·i ¤i - ¤i
¬i·i¤· -·÷ºi ¬niº ¬i º -i;¬i ;·-º¤i;¬ ¬ - ¬i-
l·¬·i¤n||
l··i·i ¬| ¬-·ii¤÷¤¬¤¤¬|, ¬·¬ ¤lº¬¤ ¬iº
¬i¬|l·¬i ¬-¸r÷ni-|ºi nº|«i ¬i -·÷¬ri¤ni ¬iº
¤º-¤º ¬r¤in ¤º ¬i·iilºn ¬i-¸lr¬ ¬i¤·ir| ¬ l¬¤
¤¬ -¤ -r¤i ¬ºin| r| · -in ¬| ¤¬ ¬”i- ¤ºii¬|
«· ¬in| r| · «¬i ¬iº ¬º¬iº| l··iini ¬lrn ¤-ªi
¬-·ii¬i ¬ ¬i·i ¬¤¬ ««in| r nil¬ ¬·¬ ¬i¬|l·¬i
¬«·i| ¤-ªi -ªi n·ii nº|«| ¬ ¬·¤ ¬i¤i-i ¬i
¬-i·ii· l¬¤i ¬i ¬¬| ¤ ¬-·ii¤ ¬·¬| ¤i·il-¬ni
¬i·iilºn ¬ªºni ¬i ¤¸ºi ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ «¤n ¬-i
¬iº ¬·¤ l·Ÿi|¤ ¬·i¤ -r¤i ¬ºin| r| ;·- ¬¤·iin
¬«·i| ¬ªºn, ~ºi ¬ ºirn, ªiin ¬iº -·i-·¤ ¬º·ii
n·ii ¬i¬|l·¬i “iil-¬ r| ¤ ¬i”i¬, ni·, ¬i·i·i,
¬i·iiº·i¸n ¬l··ii, -·¤ ¬| l·l·i¤i ¬iº ¬·-¤i ¬ l¬¤
¬·¤ ¬¬i·i·i ¬i ¬··i· ¬ºn| r| ¤ ¬i¤ ¬i ««in|
r, ªi¤ ¬i ¬- ¬ºn| r, ¬i·i¤· ºi¬niº ¬i ««in| r
n·ii ¬¤· ¬·-¤i ¬ l¬¤ ¬ilªi-i ¬i ¬- ¬ºn| r|
¤ ¬l··ii¤·ini¬i ¬ ¬iºi«iº ¬ ·iºi· ¬·¬| ni¬-i¬
¬| “il- ¬i ««in| r|
l··i·i ¬i ¬·¬| ¬-·ii¬i - «ir ¬···”i|¬ ¬ri¤¬
¬º¤·i ¬ ¬lº¤ ¤¬¬- ¬º· ¬| ¬ªºn r| ¬º¬iº|
¤¬l¬¤i, nº÷¬º¬iº| ¬n-· ¬iº l¬l·¬ ¬i¬i;-|
¬n-·, -·ii·|¤ -·”ii¬| ¬º¬iº, «¬ ¬iº ¬iº¤iº-
·i¤ ¤r ·i¸l-¬i l··ii ¬¬n r| ¬-¤ ¬ ¬i·i÷¬i·i
¤¸l¬ l··i·i ¬| ¬-·ii¤ ·i| l·¬l¬n ¬iº ¤lº¤·· ri
¬in| r ;¬l¬¤ · -·¤ ¬···”i|¬ ¬ri¤¬ ¬º¤·i
¬iº l··i· ¬| ¬-·ii¤ «· ¬in| r| ¬-¤ «|n· ¬
¬i·i÷¬i·i «ir ¬ri¤¬ ¬º¤·i¬i ¤º l··iºni ¬-
rin|| ¬·¬ ¬¤¬ ¬iº ¬”i- ¬·-¤ n·ii -lªi¤i
;¬ ¬i¤ ¬i l¬--i ¬ ¬¬n r ¬iº ;·- ¬ ¬·¬
¤l¬¤i¬i - n¬| ¬i ¬¬n r| ;¬ ¤¬iº l··i·i ¬
l¬¤ ¬i¤¬- l··i·i ,iºi ¤¬i¤i ¬i· ·i¬i ¬i¤¬-
«· ¬ini r| ¤ ·i ¤r¬¸ ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬| ¬¤¬ni
¬ l¬¤ -r-·¤¸ºi r| nº|«| ¤¬ ¬l-¬ ¬iº «r¬i¤i-|
¤-·i r| ;¬l¬¤ l··i· ¬| ¬-·ii¬i ¬i ¬·¬ ·i¤i
- n·ii ¬·¬ ¬l··ii¤·ini¬i ¬ ¬i·i ¬i- ¤º ¬ni¤
¬i· ¬| ¬ªºn r| ¬-¤ ¬iº ¬··i· ¬ ¬i·i÷¬i·i
¬·¬| ¤i·¤ni¤ ¬iº ¤·iil·¬ni ·i| ««n| r n·iil¤
“iª¬in| l”i·iºi ¤l¬¤i ¬ ¬i·i nºi·Ÿii ¬ ¬i·i ¤nln
- ·i| n¬| ¬i; r|
ºi·¤ ¬º¬iºi , l¬l·¬ ¬i ¬i;-| ¬ n-·i , « ¬i ¬i º
l”i·iil··i ¬lrn l·l·i··i -- ¬ ri ~·ºi ¬ ¬i·i n i-|ºi
l·¬i¬ - ¤i¬¤ ¬ l·-n n ¤ºi-”i ¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º
¬i¤i ··¤· ¬ l¬¤ ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬i ¤ -·¬ n ¤iº
l¬¤i n¤i r | ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¤¬ ¬|ªi· ·i¬i l-”i·
r ¬i º ¤r nº|«| ¬·-¸ ¬· ¬ ¬·i| ¬-—’- ¬i¤i
¬i º ¬i·i÷¬i·i ¬¤·| ¬¬¤¬ni¬i ¬ ·i| ¬|ªi ¬ ni
r | ¤r ¤ -·¬ -·ii·|¤ l·’i¤ ¤º ¬i·iilºn -·ii·|¤
¤i ¬·i¬i ¬ l¬¤ -·i¬ - r ¤i ¬ºini r ¬i º ¬ ¬ ÷¬ ¬
¬i¤i ··¤· ¬in ««n i r ¤r ·i ¤ - ¬· ·i·i ¬ ¬|ªi·
¬ l¬¤ -·ii· - r ¤i ¬ºini r | ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬
¬i¤i ··¤· ¬ l¬¤ ¤-¤ ¬ ºi·¤ ¬i ¬¤·i ¤lº¤i¬·
l·”iil·· ºi n ¤iº ¬º·i ¤ilr¤| ¬i¤i ··¤· - ¤nln
¬ ¬i·i÷¬i·i l·’i¤ ¬i º -i-¬i ¬i·iilºn ºi’- |¤
¤lº¤i¬· l·¤-i·¬| ·i| ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi; ¬i¤n||
l9
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- l·l·i··i -nºi ¤º ¬¤·| ¬-l¤ n ¬ · ··”i|¬
¬ri¤¬ ¬ º¤·i¬i ¬i º ¬ n-·i ¬ ¬lº¤ · ”i - ¬·i|
«|¤|¤¬ ¤lº·iºi n¬ ¤r ¤· ¬i ¬i º ¬·¬| ·i-ni¬i ,
¬il·i ¬ l-·iln ¤· -·¤« l·in ¬i--l·”·i¬| ¬ -·ii¬i
¬i l·-i ºi ¬º¬ , ·i ¬lº¤i - l·¤i ¬· ¬ ¬lº¤ n·ii
¬·r ¬i·i¤· -·ºi ¬niº n·ii ¬n-i - l·¤i l¬n ¬ºn
r ¤ ¬·r nº|«| ¬ ¬«iº· ¬i ¤¤-· ¬ºni r | l··i ·
¬| ¬ -·ii¤ ¬¤·| ¬i¬|l·¬i¬i , ¬|·· ¬i º ·ii·¤ ¬
¬·i|· ·i|º ÷·i|º ¬¤· ¬·-¤ ¬| ¬ri¤ni ¬i l¬--i
¬ ºr| r |
·i¸l-¬i |
ºi·-|¤ ni-|ºi ¬i¬|l·¬i l-ºi· | l-ºi· ·-ni·¬
20
l-ºi·, l¬,in ¬iº ·ln¬ -¸~¤
ºi’-|¤ ni-|ºi ¬i¬|l·¬i l-”i· (¤·¬iº¤¬¤-) ¬|
-ª¤ ·iiººii ¤r r l¬ l··i·i - nº|«| ¬ ¬«º· ¬|
¬r¬ ·i-ni ¬iº ¬”i- ;·si rin| r| · ¬n-”i|¬
rin r ¬iº ¬·- nº|«| ¬| l-·iln¤i - n¬º «¬º ¬º·
¬| ·i-ni rin| r| ¤·in| ;¬ «in ¬| r l¬ ¬i·i¬
¬i¬|l·¬i ¬l¬n ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ·i-ni¬i ¬i ¬«iºi ¬i¤
¬iº ¬·r nº|«| ¬ «irº l·¬¬ ¤i· - ¬-·i «·i¤i
¬i¤| ;¬ ¤l¬¤i ¬i ¤r¬i ¤ººi ¬·r ¬·¬| -·¤ ¬|
¬-·ii¤ «·i· ¬ l¬¤ ¤lºn ¬º·i r| «ir -iri¬ ¬
l·¤-·, l·Ÿi ¤i’iºi ¤i·n ¬º· - ¬-·i «·i· ¬iº ¬·¬
r·º ¬iº ¤lº¬¤lŸi¤i ¬i l·-niº ¬º· n·ii ¬·r ¬i·i¬
¬i¬|l·¬i - «·¬· ¬ l¬¤ ¬·r n·ii ¬·¬| ¬-·ii¬i
¤¤i·n ¬ri¤ni ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi; ¬in| r| ;¬¬ l¬¤
¬niniº -i¬ ¤º ¬ri¤ni ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi· ¬| ¬ªºn
r| ºi’- -nº ¬ ¬¤÷l¬¬i -nº n¬ «ir, ¬-l¤n,
¬···”i|¬ ¬ri¤¬ ¬º¤·i ¬ ¤r ¬¤·ii ¬| ¬in| r
l¬ ·r ¤¬| ¬i-il¬¬ ¤¬¬-ni ¬i¤, ¬-·iinn l·-iºi
¬º n·ii ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬i ««i¤|
l··i·i ¬i ¬”i- ¬-·iinn -¤ ¬·r ¬¤· -·¤ ¬
-i··, ¬i-il¬¬, l·Ÿi|¤ ¬iº ¬·¤ ¬¬i·i· n¤iº ¬º·
- ¬-·i «·ini r| ;· ·i-ni¬i ¬ · ¬i·¬l·¬ n·ii
l·¬| ·i·i ·i¤i ¬ ¬¤· ¬l·i¬iº, r¬ n·ii ¬i¬|l·¬i
¬·¬º ¬iº ¬·i¤ ¤i·n ¬º ¤in r| ¬i-il¬¬ ¤¬¬-ni
¬| ¤l¬¤i l··i·i - ·ii;¤iºi, ¬l·i·¤l- ¬iº ni¬-i¬
¬| “il- ¬i ««in| r| ;· ¤l¬¤i¬i ¬ · ¬¤· -·¤
¬ ¬¬i·i·i, r·º ¬iº ¤i·il-¬ni¬i ¬ -nº ¬i ««i·
¬ ¬i·i÷¬i·i ·¤·ri¤ ¬i¬|l·¬i - ¬n ºr ¬¬n r|
;¬ ¤¬iº · ¬-¤n l··i·ni ¬ «irº l·¬¬ ¬in r
¬iº ·«iºi nº|«| ¬ ¬i¬ - ·r| ¤¬n| ¤·¬iº¤¬¤-
¤r ·i| -i·ni r l¬ ¤l· ;¬ l··i·i ,iºi ¬¤il¬n
l¬¤i ¬i¤ ni ¬-¤«, «n ¬ ;¬ ¬i¤¬- - ¤nln
ri ¬¬n| r|
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- l-”i·
¬-|·| -nº ¤º l··i·i ¬| ¬”i- ¤· -·ii¤| ¬ -·ii
«·i¬º ni-|ºi ¤lº·iºi ¬i ¬i·i¤· ºi ¬niº ¤· r·º- ·
-¬·¸ º| ºi ¬niº ¬ ¬·¬º ¤i·n ¬º· - ¬-·i «·in r¤
nº|«| ¬i ¬- ¬º·i l¬¬¬ ¤¬-·ª¤ ¬·¬| ¬i¬|l·¬i
- l·º nº ¬i·iiº ¤º ¬~¬ ªi·|¤ ««i nº| ri n||
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- -in·”i| l¬,in
l··i·i - nº|«| ¬ l·¬¬· ¬| -¬«¸n ;·si rin|
r ¬iº ¬·- ¬r¬ ·i-ni¤ ·i| r|
l··i·i ¬| ¬r¬ ·i-ni¬i ¬i ¬«iº· ¬ l¬¤
¬·¬| ¬i-il¬¬ ¤¬¬-ni ¬iº ¬”i- ¬-·ii¬i
¬i l·-iºi ¬i¤| -r-·¤¸ºi r|
¬i-il¬¬ ¤¬¬ -ni ¬i· , ¬ -·iinn l·-i ºi n·ii
¬”il-¬ººi ¤l¬¤i ¬ l¬¤ ¤¬ «ir ¬-l¤ n



2l
¬i º ¬ · ··”i|¬ ¬ri¤¬ ¬ º¤·i ¬| ¬i·”¤¬ni
r |
¬i·¬iº| ¬i ¤¤iº÷¤¬iº, ¬i”i¬ l·¬i¬, ~ºi
¬| ¬¤¬··ini n·ii «i¬iº ¤r¤ ¤· ¬i¬|l·¬i
¬«·i| ¬·¤ ¬·i¤ ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi· - ¬ri¤ni ¬º·
¬ · -·ii¤| ¬i¬|l·¬i ¤i·n ¬º ¬¬n r|
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬i ·ln¬ -¸~¤
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬ ¬nnn ¬·i| l¬¤i¬¬i¤i ¬i -in·”i·
¬º· ·i¬ ·ln¬ -¸~¤ l·-·i·¬iº r
¬-¤n l··i·i ¬i “iil-¬ ¬º·i ¬iº ¬·i| ¤l¬¤i¬i
- ¬-¤n l··i·i ¬ l¬¤ ¬i·i¬ ·i¸l-¬i|
¬·i| ¤l¬¤i¬i ¬iº ¬-·ii¬i - ¤iº·l”ini ¤·
¬·i«·r||



¬·i| -nºi÷l·¤i¬·, ¬i¤i··¤· ¬iº l·nºi·| -
l··i·i ¬iº ¬·¬| ¬-·ii¬i ¬i -·il--· ¤· ¤-ªi
·i¸l-¬i|
¬i-·il¤¬ ¬i--l·”·i¬ ¬iº ¬i--l··iºni|
–l’-¬iºi
nº|«i ¬ ·i-ni l·-i ºi, ¬ri¤ni ¬i º ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬ –«
¬ º· ¬ l¬¤ ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- nº|«i ¬| ¬·nl· lrn ·i-ni
¬i ¬¤¤i n ¬º ni, ¬·¬ ·i-ni (¬i·¬iº|, ni·, ¬i ”i¬,
¬i·i·, l·Ÿi ¬i º ¬- ¬·) l·-i ºi - ¬r¤i n ¬º ni nil¬
n ¬| ¬ «·¬n| · l·¤i ¬ ¬i·i ¬i- ¬-¤ -·iil¤n l¬¤i
¬i ¬¬ | «·¬n ¬i¬|l·¬i l¬¤i¬¬i¤i ¬i ·¤i· -
ºªin r ¤ ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- n|· -i-¬i ¤º ¬i¤ ¬º ni÷
nº|«i ¬| ¬i¬|l·¬i -i ¬¸ ·i l·¬~¤i ¬| · l, ¤· l·-niº,


,uvkj,y,e
foÙkh; ,oa iwathxr lsok,a
ekuoh; ,oa
lkekftd iwath
usrk] lhvkjih,l]
leqnk; v)Z&is”ksoj
lefiZr lgk;d laLFkk
¼is”ksoj] f”k{k.k eap] ,e
,oa bZ ra=½
xjhcksa dk laLFkkxr eap
¼Lolgk;rk lewg] ifjla?k
,oa vkthfodk lewg]
xjhcksa] efgykvksa] y?kq ,oa
lhekar fdlkuksa]
v-tk-v-t-tk- ,oa
vU; misf{kr rFkk nqcZy oxks±½
vfHkuo dk;Z
g
d
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k
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m
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C
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k
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l
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m
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vkthfodk lsok,a
lgk;d okrkoj.k iSnk djuk
lk>snkjh ,oa rkyesy
l-ºi·, l¬,in ¬iº ·ln¬ -¸~¤ |
ºi·-|¤ ni-|ºi ¬i¬|l·¬i l-ºi· | l-ºi· ·-ni·¬
22
«i¬iº ¬ «irº ºi ¬niº «i¬iº ¬ l¬¤ ¬i ºi¬ l·¬i¬
¬i º -·l·¤i l¬n ·¤l-¤i ¬i º ¬nl-¤i ¬i ¬r¤i n|
¬-l¤ n ¬ri¤¬ ¬ º¤·i ¬ nº|«i ¬ ¬ -·iinn - ¤ ¬i
l·-i ºi ¤· ¬ –«| ¬ººi ri ni| ¤ - ¤ ÷ ¬¤·| -i··|¤
¤· ¬i-il¬¬ ¤¸ ¬| ¬ ¬r¤i n ¬ nº|«i ¬ - ª¤ ¬-¤i·i
¬i º ¬ ·i¬i ¬| -¸ ~¤ ¬ ªi¬i - ¬¤· ¬·-¤i ¬i l·l·i··i
¬i¬|l·¬i ¬ ·i¤ ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi¤ n | ;· ¬ ·i¬i - l·Ÿi|¤
¤· ¤¸ ¬|nn ¬ ·i¤ , ¬-¤i·· ¤· ¬-¤i·¬ni ¬ ·, · ¬ ·i¤
l¬·- ¤i ni ln¬|, ni·, ¬i ”i¬ ¤· ¬ ¬i·i· ¬i º l·¤ºi·
¬ ¤¬ l·lrn r , “iil-¬ r | ¤ºi-”i ¤· ºi ¬niº
¬i·”¤¬ni¬i ¬ ¬i·i ¤i ·¤ni ¬i ¬i- ¬-¤ ¬º· ¬
¤”¤in ;·s ¬ n i-|ºi «|¤|¤¬ ¤ ·i¬i ¬i ¬i ”i¬ l·¬i¬
l¬¤i ¬i¤ni ¬i º ¬·r ¤ilº¬l-¬ ·i¬ ºi ¬niº - ¬ni¤i
¬i¤ni| -·l·¤i l¬n ¬i º ¬n- ¬·- ªi nº|«i ¬i ¬i ”i¬
¬ « ·i| ¤· l·Ÿi|¤ ¬ ¤¬ ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi¤i ¬i¤ni ¬i º -i n
¬ ¬· ¬iº ¬-¤i·i ¤· ¬ ·i¬i ¬ l¬¤ ¬¤ ¬¤¬-i ¬
¬i·i -·iil¤n ¤· ¬ · , ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ¬r¤i n l·¤i
¬i¤ni| ¤ - ¤ nº|«i ¬ l¬¤ ¬ri¤¬ ·ini·ººi ¤ ·i ¬º
l·l·i··i -- ¬ ri ~·ºi ¬ ¬i·i ni¬- ¬ ¤· ·iin|·iº| ¬
l¬¤ ¬nr ¬¤¬··i ¬ºini r nil¬ · ¬¤· ¬l·i¬iº ¤·
r¬·iº|, ¬· ¬ ·i¤ ¤· ¬l·i·· ¬ l··ii¤ ¤i·n ¬º ¬¬ |
nº|«i ¬ ¬- ¬· ¬ ·¤l- ¬¤·|÷¬¤·| ¬ -·ii¬i ¬
¬lº¤ ¬¬n÷¬¬n ¬·-¤i ¬i ¬iºi «iº| ¬inn - ºirn
l-¬n| r , ¬¤·| ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬i ¬l·i¬ ·¤·ri¤ «·ini r
¬i º nº|«| ¬ “i|¤ «irº ¬i· - -·· ¬ºni r |
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬i ¬i¤i ··¤· l-”i· ¬ ª¤ - l¬¤i ¬i
ºri r | ¤r ¬-·i ¬iº| «·ini r (¬) ·n -i· ¬i« -·
¬i·iilºn ¬i¤ ·|ln ¬ -i n ¬i·iilºn ¬i¤ ·|ln¬ ¬|
¬i º «·¬i·, l¬¬¬ ºi·¤ ¬i ¬¤·| ¬i¬|l·¬i
¬i·iilºn nº|«| ¬¤”i-· ¬i¤ ¤i ¬·i¤ «·i· - ¬-·i
«·ini r (ªi) ¬·¤i , ¤lººii-i ¬i º ¬-¤«, ¬ ¤ · n|
¤º ·¤i· ¬ l·¤n ¬ºni r , (n) nº|«i ¬ ¬i·i÷¬i·i
¬ nl-n ·i ¤ - ¬·iº· ·i¬ ¬i ni ¬ l¬¤ ¬i¬|l·¬i
¬ ¬·¬ºi ¬ ¬i·i ¬nn ·i-ni l·-i ºi, ¤¤i ·n
¬i ”i¬ ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi·i ¬i º ¬ ¤¬ -·iil¤n ¬º·i ¬i º
(¤) nº|«| ·¸ º ¬º· ¬ ¬·¤ ¬| l·nºi·|| ¤¸ l¬
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- -i n ¬i·iilºn ¬i¤ ·|ln ¬i ¬· ¬ººi
¬ºni r ;¬l¬¤, ºi·¤i ¬i nº|«| ¬¤”i-· ¬ l¬¤
¬¤·| ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬i·iilºn ¬ ·”i ¤i ¬·i¤ ¤· ·il’i ¬
¬i¤ ¤i ¬·i¤ «·i· ¬ l¬¤ s¸ - ·| n; r | ¬-n
¤i ¬·i¤ ¬i nlº¬ nº|«| ¬· ¤in ¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º ºi·¤ ¬
l¬¤ ¬i« -· ¬ ·i|nº ri n|| -i n ¬i·iilºn ¬i¤ ·|ln
¬ l,n|¤ -·ª¤ ¬ ni-¤¤ r l¬ ¬ ln- ¬ª ”¤ r l¬
· l·¤¬ -nº ¤º ·iin|·iº|¤¸ ºi ¬i¤i ¬·i, ¬¤·| ¬i¤
¤i ¬·i¬i ¬ ¬i¤i ··¤·, ¬¤· ¬· ·i·i ¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º
·ii·| ¤i ¬·i¬i ¬| ¬-|·ii n·ii l·-i ºi ¬ ¬lº¤ nº|«
¬i¤ ¬¸ ¤| ¬i ¬ ¤i¬· ¬º n | ¤ ¤i ¬·i¤ ¬ ·¬ -i n
¬i·iilºn ·r| ri n| «l~¬ · l·º·nº ¤¬n| ºr n||
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¤l¬¤i¬i ¬| ¤ ·ºi· n|¤ -·ª¤ ¬|
¤r¤i· «·ini r |
23
¬i-il¬¬ ¬·n·”i· ¬iº ¬·¬ª¤i
¬··¤i¤| ¬i-il¬¬ ¬inººi ¬iº·i - ¤·¬iº¤¬¤-
¤r ¬l·l”¤n ¬ºni l¬ ¤-¤¬ l··iilºn ni-|ºi
nº|« ¤lº·iº ¬ ¬- ¬ ¬- ¤¬ ¬·-¤ l·”i’i¬º
-lr¬i ¬·-¤ ¬i ¬-¤«, «n ¬ -·¬ri¤ni ¬-¸r
·-·¬ - ¬i¤i n¤i r| ;¬¬ «i· -lr¬i ¬iº
¤ª’i ·i·i ¬i ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬«·i| -i-¬i ¬·iin
—’i¬ ¬n-·, ·¸·i ¬-¤i·¬ ¬r¬iº| ¬n-·, «·¬º
¬¤ ¬il·, ¬i ¬-i·ii· ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ¬nl-n l¬¤i
¬i¤ni| ¬·i| ¬-·ii¤ ¬-i·”i| r ¬iº ¬·- ¬
l¬¬| nº|« ¬i ·r| si·i ¬i¤ni| ¤·¬iº¤¬¤-
¬-i¬ ¬ ·«¬ ·ni ¬i ¤¤i·n ¬·º¬ ¬l·l”¤n
¬ºni l¬¬¬ l¬ «|¤|¤¬ ¤lº·iºi ¬ “in÷¤ln”in
¬·º¬ ¬ ¬ln- ¬·¤ ¬ -ª·¬º ra ¤lnºin
¬i·ii·i| -lr¬i¤, ·r ¤lnºin ¬i·ii·i| ¬~¤¬ª¤¬
¬iº s ¤lnºin ¬i·ii·i| ¬¤n ·¤l- - ¬ ri|
¬· ¬-·ii¬i ¬i ««i·i nº|«i ¬| ¬–« ¬-·ii
¤·ii ÷ -·¬ri¤ni ¬-¸r ¬iº ¬·¬ ni- -nº|¤ n·ii
¬·¤ -nº|¤ ¤lº¬¤ nº|«i ¬ l¬¤ -·ii·, ·i¸l-¬i
¬iº ¬¬i·i· ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi·i ¬iº «irº| ¤¬l¬¤i
¤º ¬·¬| l··iºni ¬- ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ¬i·”¤¬ r|
· ¬·r ¬l·i¬iº ¬¤¤ «·in r| · ni· ¬ ¬i·i·
n·ii ¤iniln¬| ¤¬iº ¬iº ¬-¤i··, ¬i-¸lr¬|¬ººi
¬iº ·ilºi·¤ ¬·¤ ¬ ª¤ - ·i| ¬i¤ ¬ºn r|
·.
z.
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬| -ª¤ l·ºi·ini¤
;¬¬ ¬lnlº-, ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬l·i¬ ¬-¤i··,
rº¬·i· ¬ri¤ni, ¬¸¤·i, ~ºi, ¤iniln¬|, «i¬iº
¬il· ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi¬º l·l”i’- ¬-·ii¬i ¤·ii ÷
¬i¬|l·¬i ¬-¸ri, ¬-¤i··, ¬r¬iº| ¬¤i ¬¤l·¤i
¬i ««i·i ·ni|
¬i¬|l·¬i ¬-¸r nº|«i ¬i ¬¤· ¬|l-n ¬¬i·i·i
¬i ¬·¬¸¬ ¬¤¤in ¬º· - ¬·i- «·i¤ni| ¬º¬iº|
¤· nº÷¬º¬iº| ¤¤i¬i ,iºi l·l-n nº|« -lr¬i¬i
¬ ¬n-· r| ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬·i| -i¬¸·i ¬-·ii¬i
¬i ¬in·iº| -·ª¤ - ¬–« «·i¤ni| ¬º¬iº|
¤· nº÷¬º¬iº| ·i·i - -·¬ri¤ni ¬·,· ¬-·ii
¬| ¬ri¤ni ¬| ¬i¤n|| ;¬¬ ¬lnlº-, -i¬¸·i
¬-·ii¬i ¬iº ¬·¬ ¤·ii· ¤· --i¤ ¬i ¬nºi|
¬-·ii¬i ¬ ª¤ - ¬¤¤in l¬¤i ¬i¤ni nil¬ ·;
¬-·ii¤ «·i· ¬iº ¬·¬i ¬¤i¬· ¬º· ¬| ¤l¬¤i
¬i ¬r¤in l·¤i ¬i ¬¬|
¤l”i·iºi, ·i-ni l·-iºi ¬iº ¬i”i¬ l·-iºi
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¤r ¬l·l”¤n ¬ºni l¬ nº|«i
¬i l·-·l¬lªin ¬ l¬¤ ¤¤i·n ¬i”i¬ ¬¤¬··i
¬ºi¤ni ¬¤·| ¬-·ii¬i ¬i ¤«·i· ¬º·i, «i¬iº
¬ ¬i·i ¬¤¬ -·iil¤n ¬º·i, -i¬¸·i ¬i¬|l·¬i
¬i ¤«·i· ¬º·i, ¬·¬| ~ºi ¬¤¤in ·i-ni n·ii
~ºi ¬iªi ««i·i| ¬l·in ¤lº·iºi, -·÷¬ri¤ni
¬-¸ri, ¬·¬ ¤lº¬¤i, ¬º¬iº| ¬l-¤i, «¬ºi,
s.
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬| -ª¤ l·ºi·ini¤ |
ºi·-|¤ ni-|ºi ¬i¬|l·¬i l-ºi· | l-ºi· ·-ni·¬
24
nº÷¬º¬iº| ¬n-·i ¬iº ¬·¤ -ª¤ --¬ri~·ºi
¬ l¬¤ «r÷¬¸¤|¤ –l’-¬iºi ¬| ¬¬~¤·i ¬| n;
r| -·÷¬ri¤ni ¬-¸ri ¬iº ¬·¬ ¤lº¬¤i n·ii
¬·¤ ¬-¸ri ¬ ·i-ni l·-iºi ¬ l¬¤ ¬i-·il¤¬
¤”i·ºi ¬iº ¬i-·il¤¬ ¬¬i·i· ·¤l-¤i ¬i ¬i¤
- ¬ni· ¤º l·”i’i ·¤i· ¬l·¤n l¬¤i ¬i¤ni|
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ni·÷¤¬iº ¬iº ·i-ni l·-iºi
¬i ¬iº ¬l·i¬ ¤·ii·| «·i· ¬ l¬¤ ¬i;¬|-| ¬i
·¤i¤¬ ¬¤¤in ¬ºni|
¤lº¬i-|l·l·i ¬iº ¤¸¬|nn ¬l·¬·| ¬l·¬·|
¤lº¬i-| l·l·i ¬iº ¤¸¬|nn ¬l·¬·| ¬ ª¤ -
¬¤¬··i rin|| -·¬ri¤ni ¬-¸ri (¬ri /a ¤lnºin
¬ ¬l·i¬ ¬·-¤ «|¤|¤¬ ¤lº·iºi - ¬ r) ¬i
¤i-¬ir· ºil”i ¬ ª¤ - ¤lº¬i-| l·l·i ¬¤¬··i
¬ºi¤| ¬i¤n| nil¬ · «¤n ¬| ¬i·n «·i ¬¬
n·ii ¬¤·| ·|¤¬i¬|· ~ºi ¬i·”¤¬ni¬i n·ii
¬¤·iin ¬«·i| ¬~¤¬i¬|· ¬i·”¤¬ni¬i ¬i ¤¸ºi
¬º· ¬ l¬¤ l·l·i¤i ¬l¤n ¬º ¬¬| ¬l·¬·|
¬-¸r ¬ ª¤ - rin| ¬iº ¬·-¤i ¬| ~ºi ¬«·i|
¬i·”¤¬ni¤ ¤¸º| ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ¬iº «¬ l·Ÿi¤i’iºi
¬i ¬i·i ¬· ¬ l¬¤ ¤º¬ ¤¸¬| ¬ ª¤ - rin||
nº|«| ¬ «irº ¬i· ¬ l¬¤ ¤l-¬nn ·ºi ¤º l·Ÿi
¬| ¬nn ¤· ¬r¬ ¬¤¬··ini ¬i·”¤¬ni r ¬«l¬
· «·| -i¤i - ¬¤·| l·l·i¤i ¬l¤n · ¬º ¬|
¬··¤i¤| l·Ÿi|¤ ¬-i·”i· ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬·i| nº|«
¤lº·iºi , -·¬ri¤ni ¬-¸ ri ¬ ¬lnlº- ¬· ·¤i¤|
l·Ÿi|¤ ¬-i· ”i· ril¬¬ ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ¬i¤ ¬º ni|
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- l·Ÿi|¤ ¬-i· ”i· ¬ -i n ¤· ¬i¤¸ ln
¤·i ¬ ¬ « l·in ¬i¤ ¬º ni| -i n ¤·i ¬| ¬i º ¤r
nº|«i ¬ «|¤ l·Ÿi|¤ ¬i·iºni ¬i ««i ·i · ni ¬i º
-·¬ri¤ni ¬-¸ ri ¤· ¬·¬ ¤lº¬ ¤i ¬i ¤ º¬ ¤¸ ¬|
¬¤¬··i ¬ºi¤ni| ¬i¤¸ ln ¤·i ¬| ¬i º ¤r l·Ÿi|¤
·i ¤ ¬ ¬i·i ¬-··¤ ¬º ni n·ii ¬¸ ¤·i, ¬ ¤iº ¤·
¤i ni ln¬| (¬i; ¬|-|) ¬i·iilºn l·Ÿi|¤ ¤i ni lnl¬¤i ,
l«¬· ¬ ¬i º¬¤i ·· - ¤· ¬i- ·il¤¬ ¬ l··ii·ini
¤·ii ÷ « ¬ l-¤ ¬ ¬¤¤i n ¬i ¤i -¬ilrn ¬º ni|
¤r - -¤ , -·i-·¤ ¤· ¤lº¬ ¤lŸi¤i ¬ ·’- ri · ¬|
l-·iln - n i-|ºi nº|« ¬ ¬· ·¤i¤| ¬·º ¬ ¬ l¬¤
«.
r.
¬i¤ ¬º ni| ¬i·i r|, ¤r l·”i ’i¬º ¬· ·i ¤i -
¬ri ¤¬i¤· -·iil·¬ r , ·i ¬| r ; º¬- ¬ ¬ « l·in
¬i¤ ¬º ni|
·¤i¬nn ¬l·¬·| ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi·i ni-|ºi nº|«i
¬i ¬- ·¤i¬ ·º ¤º n·ii l·l··i -i¤i - ~ºi
¬| ¬i·”¤¬ni rin| r nil¬ ¬·¬ ¤¤i¬i ¬i
¬il·i¬ ª¤ ¬ ·¤·ri¤ «·i¤i ¬i ¬¬| ¬-ni ~ºi
¬¤¬··i ¬ºi· ¬ l¬¤ ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬ ¬nnn
¬·i| ¤i¤ -·¬ri¤ni ¬-¸ri l¬·ri· n-¬i¬ ~ºi
¬·i¤n| ¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º -ª¤ l·Ÿi|¤ ¬-·ii¬i ¬
~ºi ¤i·n l¬¤i r, ¬ l¬¤ / ¤lnºin ¬ ¬l·i¬
·¤i¬ ·º ¤º ~ºi ¬i ¤i··ii· r| ¬« n¬ ¬i;
¬·-¤ ¤·ºi·n ¬¤¤| ~ºi ¬ ¬lº¤ ¤ln ¬·-¤
·.aa ¬iªi ª¤¤ n¬ ~ºi ¤i·n ¬ºni r, ¤r
¬l·¬·| -·¬ri¤ni ¬-¸ri ¬i ¬¤¬··i rin| ¬ri
¬- ¬ ¬- /a ¤lnºin ¬·-¤ «|¤|¤¬ ¤lº·iº
¬ r| ¬« -·¬ri¤ni ¬-¸r ¬i ¤¸¬|nn ¬l·¬·|
¤i·n rin| r, ·¤i¬nn ¬l·¬·| ¬in¸ ·r| rin||
n·iil¤, ·¤i¬nn ¬l·¬·| -·¬ri¤ni ¬-¸r ¬i n«
·| ¬i¤n| ¬« · ¤¸¬|nn ¬l·¬·| ¬«, ~ºi
¬·i¤n| ¬º· ¬ «i· ·¤i ~ºi ¤i·n ¬ºn r|
¬i¬|l·¬i
¬|··÷¤i¤· ¬ l¬¤ ¬i·i· n¤ ¬ ª¤ - nº|«i
¬| l·l··i ¬i¬|l·¬i rin| r| ¬·¬| -i¬¸·i ¤-ªi
¬i¬|l·¬i¤ r -¬·¸º| ¬-, ¬¤ ¤· ¬|-in —l’i,
¤”i¤i¬· ··i¤¬, ---¤¤i¬· ¬iº ¤iº¤lº¬ nº÷—l’i
·¤·¬i¤| ·n-i· ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬ l··¬ ¬i¤ ¬iº
ºi¬niº l··¬ ¬·¬ ·¤¤ ¬| ¤¸ln ¬º· ¬ l¬¤
¤¤i·n ·r| r| ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¤-¤¬ ni-|ºi ¤lº·iº
¬| ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬ -·ª¤ ¤º l·¤iº ¬ºni n·ii
-i¬¸·i ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬i -·ii¤| ¤· ¬-, ¬º· ¬
l¬¤ ¬i¤ ¬ºni ¤· n-¤”¤in ¬·¬| ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬i
l·l··ini ¤·i· ¬ºni|
¬·¬º¤·i ¬¬· ¬iº l·¤ºi· ¬ri¤ni ¤·¬iº¤¬¤-
¤r ¬l·l”¤n ¬ºni l¬ nº|«i ¬| ¬i¬|l·¬i
¬«·i| -ª¤ l¬¤i¬¬i¤i ¬ l¬¤ ¬·¬º¤·i--¬
c.
/.
s.
25
¬i·”¤¬ni¤ ¤¸ºin ¤¸º| ri| ¤r nº|« ¬| ¬-·ii¬i
¬i l·¤ºi· ¬ri¤ni ·i| ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi¤ni| l·¤ºi·
¬ri¤ni - ¬·¬ l¬¤i¬¬i¤i - «i¬iº ¬·¬·ii·,
«i¬iº ni· ¤iniln¬|, l·-niº, rº ¬·i· ¬ri¤ni
¬¤¬··i ¬ºi·i, ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬-¸r «·i·i n·ii
¬·¬| ¬i¤ ¤i¬·i¬i - ¬r¤in ··i “iil-¬ r|
;· l¬¤i¬¬i¤i÷l·”i’i¬º «i¬iº ¬¤¬ ¬ l¬¤
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬i·¬l·¬ ¬iº l·¬| ¬n-·i n·ii
¬·¬ ·-·¬,¬¤ ¬ ¬i·i ¬in·iº| ¬i ¤i-¬ir·
¤· ¬r¤in ·ni| ni-|ºi ri-i ¬i ·i| ¤i-¬ilrn
l¬¤i ¬i¤ni nil¬ · ¬i·iil·i¤i ¬ ¬nn l··iiºº
i ¤· ¬·¬- ¬| ¬l·¬l¬n n¤ ¬ ¬lº¤ ¬-¤i·¬
¬-¸ri “irº| ¤· “irº ¬ «irº ¬ «i¬iºi ¬
¬¬n÷¬¬n ¬-¤i·¬i ¬ ¬i·i ¤-¤·i ¬¤¬ ¬i¤-
¬º ¬¬| ºi·¤ ¬i za ¤lnºin ¬i¤¬- ¤lº·¤¤
;¬ ¤¤i¬·i·i ¬iºl·in ºªii ¬ini r|
¬i”i¬ ¤· l·¤i¬· ¤lº¤i¬·i¤ ¤·¬iº¤¬¤-
¬in·iº| º|ln ¬ ¬lº¤ ¬i”i¬ ¬¤¤· ¤· l·¤i¬·
¤lº¤i¬·i¤ ¬iº| ºªini ·¤il¬ ¤r ¤·i¬i - ¬Ÿi-
l··”i - ¬ ¤¬ r ¬iº ¬·iºn «i¬iºi - ¬i¬|l·¬i
¬·¬ºi ¬i ¤i-¬ir· ·ni r| ;¬ ¬–« ¬º· ¬
l¬¤ ¬i·¬l·¬, l·¬|, nº÷¬º¬iº| ¬iº ¬i-·il¤¬
¬n-·i ¬ ¬i·i ¬in·iº| ¬ l·l·i··i -i·¬ «·i¤
¬i¤n| ¬iniln¬ ¤lº¬¤i n·ii ·i¤ l·l”i’- ¬-¤iº|
¬¤i ¬ ¬i·i ¬«·ii ¬i -¬«¸n l¬¤i ¬i¤ni| ;¬
¤¤i¬ - ºi’-|¤ ¬i”i¬ l·¬i¬ l·n- (¤·¤¬·|¬|)
¤-ªi ¬r·iin| rini| ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬ nrn ¬·¤|¤
¬i«-· ¬i ·r ¤lnºin ;¬ ¬ªº¤ ¬ l¬¤ l·¤n
l¬¤i n¤i r|
n i-|ºi -·÷ºi ¬niº ¤l”i·iºi ¬ -·ii· (¬iº¤¬; -|¬i; )
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬ ¬nnn ¬i·¬l·¬ ·i¤ ¬ «¬i ¬i
·”i ¬ ¬·i| l¬¬i - ni-|ºi -·÷ºi¬niº ¤l”i·iºi
¬-·ii· (¬iº¤¬;-|¬i;) -·iil¤n ¬º· ¬ l¬¤
¤i-¬ilrn l¬¤i ¬ini r| ¬iº¤¬;-| ¬-·ii·i ¬
-i·¤- ¬ l¬¬ ¬ «ºi¬niº ni-|ºi ¤·i¬i ¬i
¬i--l·”·i¬| -·÷ºi¬niº| ¬nl-¤i ¬ ª¤ -
¤lº·lnn l¬¤i ¬ini r, l¬¬¬ l¬¤ ¬i·”¤¬ni
¬i·iilºn ¬··i·¬·¤ ¤l”i·iºi ¬i¤¬- ¤· ·¤·l-·in
s.
·a.
r·ril~·n ¬¤i- ¬i ¬¤¤in l¬¤i ¬ini r| ¤¤·,
¤l”i·iºi n·ii ¤l”i·iºi ¤”¤in ¤ººii - «¬i ¬i
“iil-¬ l¬¤i ¬ini r| ¬¤· ¬ª”¤i ¬i ¤¸ºi ¬º·
¬ l¬¤ ¬iº¤¬;-|¬i; l··i·i ¬ ¬-·ii·i ¬lrn
¬·¤i ¬i ¬r¤in ¬n r|
·; ¤r¬ ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬ ¬·¬iº, ·; ¤r¬i ¬
l··i·ni ¬i ·¸º ¬º· ¬ ¬; -in ¤”i-n rin|
¬·¤|¤ ¬i«-· ¬i r ¤lnºin ·; ¤r¬i ¬ l¬¤
l·¤n l¬¤i ¬ini r| · ¤lº¤¸ºi ¬-i·ii· ri·
¤ilr¤ ¬iº ¬·- l··i·i ¬ ¬i¬|l·¬i ¬n-·i ¬i
¬i·¬iº| ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi· ¤· ¬·¬ ·i-ni l·-iºi
¬i -¤’- ¬l·i·”i l·lrn ri·i ¤ilr¤| ¤¬| ¤r¬
¬¤·i; ¬i·| ¤ilr¤ l¬·¬ l··i·n- ¬ini ¬·i·i
¬l·i¬ ¬ ¬l·i¬ nº|« ¬ini ¬i ¬i·i l-¬ ¬iº
¬|l-n ¬ini ¬ ¬l·i¬n- ¤·ii· ¤·|
ni¬-¬ ¤· ¬r·iilnni
ni¬-¬ ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬ ¬nnn ni-|ºi l·¬i¬
-¤i¬¤ n·ii ¬·¤ ¬·¤|¤ -¤i¬¤i ¤· ºi·¤
¬º¬iºi ¬ ¬i¤¬-i ¬ ¬i·i ni¬-¬ ¤º ¬l·i¬
«¬ l·¤i ¬i¤ni, nil¬ ¤-¤·i niº ¤º ¬iº l··i·i
¬| ¬-·ii¬i ¬ -i·¤- ¬ niºn-¤ -·iil¤n l¬¤i
¬i ¬¬|
n º÷¬º¬iº| ¬ -·ii¬i n·ii ¬·¤ l¬l·¬ ¬i ¬i¤-|
¬ n-·i (¬|¤¬¬i ) ¬ ¬i·i ¬r·iilnni ¤·¬iº¤¬¤-
¬ nrn n º÷¬º¬iº| ¬ -·ii¬i ¤· ¬·¤ l¬l·¬
¬i ¬i¤-| ¬ -·ii¬i (¬|¬¬i ) ¬ ¬i·i ·|ln l·-i ºi
¤· ¬i¤i ··¤· -nºi ¤º ¬r·iilnni ¬| ¬i¤n||
¤r ¬r·iilnni, ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- - l·lrn -r-·¤¸ ºi
-i·¤ni¬i n·ii -¸ ~¤i ¬i º ¤l¬¤i¬i ¤· ¤lººii-i
¬ ¬ « ·i - ¤iº-¤lº¬ ¬-ni n ¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º
ri n|| ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬ nrn ¤·¬|¬i ¤· ¬·¤
¬|¤¬¬i ¬ ¬i·i ¬r·iilnni ¬ l¬¤ ¤¬ ºi’- |¤
«i ¤i n ¤iº l¬¤i ¬i¤ni| ;¬¬ ¬¬i·i, l·l·i··i
-nºi ¤º ¬·¤ -- ¬ri ~·ºi ¬ ¬i·i ¤-¤·in ¬·i·i
l··i ·i ¬| ¬ -·ii¬i ¬ -i·¤- ¬ ¬r·iilnni ¬|
¬i¤n||
··.
·z.
·s.
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬| -ª¤ l·ºi·ini¤ |
ºi·-|¤ ni-|ºi ¬i¬|l·¬i l-ºi· | l-ºi· ·-ni·¬
26
¤¤i¤n| ºi¬ ¬-·ii¬i ¬ ¬i·i ¬¤¬ ¤¤i¤n| ºi¬
¬-·ii¬i (¤|¬iº¬i;) ¬| -r-·¤¸ºi ·i¸l-¬i l¬¬-
“ii¬·, ¤¬¬|, ·¤·¬il¤¬ ¤· ºi¬·|ln¬ ·i¸l-¬i
“iil-¬ r, ¬i ·ªin r¤ l·”i’i ª¤ ¬ ni- ¤¤i¤n
-nº ¤º ¤¤i¤ni n·ii l··i·i ¬| ¬-·ii¬i ¬ «|¤
¤¬ ¤iº-¤lº¬ ¬i·i¬iº| ¬i¤ ¬«·i| ¬«·i l·¬l¬n
l¬¤ ¬i· ¤lr¤| ¤iº-¤lº¬ ¬¬ir, ¬ri¤ni ¤·
¬¬i·i·i ¬| lr-¬·iº| rn l··i·i ¬| ¬-·ii¬i n·ii
¤¤i¤n| ºi¬ ¬-·ii¬i ¬ «|¤ l·¤l-n ¤ºi-”i ¬
l¬¤ ¤¬ ¬i¤¤ilº¬ n¤ -·iil¤n ¬º·i ¬i·”¤¬
rini| n·iil¤, ¬·¬| -·i¤Ÿini «·i¤ ºªi| ¬i¤n||
¬ri ¤¤i¤n| ºi¬ ¬-·ii¤ ·r| r, ·ri ¤iº¤lº¬
-·ii¤| ni- ¬-·ii¬i ¬ ¬i·i l¬¬¬ -·iil¤n l¬¤i
¬i¤ni|
¬···i--¬ ¬ri¤ni
«ir ¬···i--¬ ¬ri¤ni -·ª¤ ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬
¤l¬¤i·-ªi ¤¤i¬ ¬ l¬¤ ¬-l¤n -i·· ¬¬i·i·
¬¤l·in rin| ;¬ ·ªin r¤ ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬
nrn ºi’-|¤, ºi·¤, l¬¬i n·ii ¬¤÷l¬¬i -nºi
¤º ¬··| ¤· ¬-l¤n ¬ri¤ni ¬º¤·i¤ -·iil¤n
¬| ¬i¤n|| ;·- ºi’-|¤ -nº ¤º ¤·¬iº¤¬¤-
¬¬ir¬iº, ¬-··¤ ¤· ¬l·i¬iº÷¤i·n ¬l-ln¤i
n·ii ºi’-|¤ l-”i· ¤«·i· ¤¬¬, ºi·¤ -nº ¤º
-·i¤Ÿi l·¬i¤i ¬ ª¤ - ºi·¤ ni-|ºi ¬i¬|l·¬i
l-”i· (¤¬¬iº¤¬¤-) ¤· ºi·¤ l-”i· ¤«·i·
¤¬¬, l¬¬i -nº ¤º l¬¬i l-”i· ¤«·i· ¤¬¬
¬iº ·¬i¬ n·ii,¬·i·i «-n| -nº ¤º ¬¤÷l¬¬i
¤¬¬ “iil-¬ r| ¤ ¬º¬iº, l¬¬i ni-|ºi l·¬i¬
¤¬l¬¤i (·|¬iº·|¤) n·ii ¤¤i¤n| ºi¬ ¬-·ii¬i ¬
¬i·i ¬¤¤- ª¤ ¬ ¬¤¬ «·i¤ ºªin|| ·|¬iº·|
¤¬l¬¤i - l··i·i ¬| ¬-·ii¬i ¬ ¤lnl·l·i¤i ¬i
“iil-¬ ¬º¬ n·ii ;·r ·¤i·¬il¤¬ ª¤ ·¬º ;·¬
“ii¬· ¬i ¬–« l¬¤i ¬i¤ni, nil¬ · l··i·i ¬|
¬i·”¤¬ni¬i ¬i ¤¸ºi ¬º ¬¬| ;·- ¬r·iilnni
¤· ¬·i¬i ¬| ¬i¬-¬il¬n ¬lrn ¬¤¤- ·¤·-·ii
¬ -i·¤- ¬ ·¤i·¬il¤¬ ª¤ ¬ ··i ¤· ¬-l¤n
-i·· ¬¬i·i·i - ¬ --i¤ ¬| ·¤·-·ii ¬| ¬i¤n||
·«.
·r.
¬- ¬º¤·i ¬i ¬ª”¤ ¤¬ ¬inlº¬ ¬··i--¬
¬ri¤ni ¬º¤·i l·¬l¬n ¬º·i r, l¬¬- l··i·i
¬| ¬-·ii¬i, ¬·¬ --i¤ n·ii ¬·¤ ¬i-il¬¬
¤¸¬| ¬i “iil-¬ l¬¤i ¬i¤ni| ¬-¤ ¬ ¬i·i÷¬i·i
¬inlº¬ ¬ri¤ni ¬º¤·i ¬| ·i¸l-¬i ¬i l·-niº
l¬¤i ¬i¤ni ¬iº ¤¬| ¬; ¤l¬¤i¬i - «ir
¬º¤·i ¬ -·ii· ¤º ;·¬i ¤¤in l¬¤i ¬i¤ni|
n¬·|¬| ¬ri¤ni ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬ ¬nnn ;¬¬
¤·ii·| ¬i¤i··¤· rn ºi·¤i n·ii ¬·¤ -i·i|
¬r·iiln¤i ¬| ¬-·iinn ·i-ni¬i ¬ ¬¬· ¤·
¬·¬| ¬·«ni ¬ l¬¤ ¬·r n¬·|¬| ¬ri¤ni
¬¤¬··i rin|| ;¬¬ ºi’-|¤ ni· ¤«·i· ¤· l”i·iºi
-¤,¤ºiil¬¤i ¬| ¬¤¬··ni ¬l·l”¤n rin|| ;¬¬
l··i·i ¬| ¬-·ii¬i n·ii «l¬n ·i¤i ¬i·¬l·¬ ¤·
l·¬| ·i¤i ¬ «|¤ ¬r·iilnni ««n| l¬¬¬ l··i·i
¬i ¬i·i l-¬ ¬¬n| ;¬¬ ¬i-il¬¬ ¤¬¬-ni,
¬i-·iil·¬ l·-iºi, -i;¬i÷¤i;·¬, ¬i¬|l·¬i,
¬i”i¬ l·¬i”i, ¬n-”i|¬ni ¬il· ¬lrn ¤i¬ln¬
·i¤i - l·”i·ini, ¤l·-¬ ¬º· ·i¬i n·ii -i¬ir¬iºi
¬i ºi’-|¤ ¤¬ «·i· - ¬ri¤ni l-¬n|| · ºi·¤
-nº ¤º nº|«| ·¸º ¬º· ¬«·i| ººi·|ln¤i «·i·
n·ii ¬·r l¬¤il··n ¬º· - ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬i -i¬
¤º ¬ri¤ni ¬¤~i··i ¬ºi¤n|
l·nºi·| n·ii l”i·iºi ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ,iºi ··i
¬i·iilºn ¬-|·ii ¬l-ln (¬l-ln¤i) ¬| l·¤l-n
«-¬i, ·lº’- ¬r¬l-¤i, -·ii·|¤, l¬¬i, ºi·¤ ¤·
ºi’--nº|¤ l·nºi·| ¬-¸ri ,iºi ·iºi ¬iº -i-|·ii
¤· ¬i¤i¬·i l-”i·i ¬| ·¤·-·ii ¬ -i·¤- ¬ ¬¤·
¤lººii-i, ¤l¬¤i¬i n·ii ¬i¤¬¬i¤i ¬| -i·|-lºn
¬| ¬i¤n|| ·il¬¤i l·nºi·| ¬·¤¤·i, l·’i¤i--¬
¬·¤¤·i n·ii ¤·ii· ¬«·i| -¸~¤i¬·i ¬ ¬¤¤·n -
¬ri¤ni l-¬n|| ;¬¬ ¬iº ¬l·i¬ ¤iº·l”ini ¬i·
¬ l¬¤ ¬i-il¬¬ ·i·i«·r| ¤l¬¤i¬i ¬i ¤i-¬ir·
l-¬ni| ¤r ¤¬¬iº¤¬¤- n·ii ºi·¤ ¬º¬iºi ,iºi
l·¬l¬n n¤i ¬ ¬¬i·i rini|
l·-i¤i’iºi ¤,ln ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¤¬ ¬·|¤ ¤i¤il¬n
¤i¬·i r ¬iº ;¬ ¬i¤¬- ¬i l·-i¤i’iºi, ¬· ¬iº
ºi·¤i ¬ ·i|¤ ¬ /r zr ¬·¤in (l¬l·¬- ¬lrn
·c.
·/.
·s.
27
¤¸·i-iº ºi·¤i ¬ -i-¬ - sa ·a, -i·i ºi·¤ ·i¤i
¬ -i-¬ - ¤¸ºin ¬·· ¬) - rini| ºi·¤i ¬ l¬¤
l·¤- ¬·|¤ ¬i«-· ¬i l·nººi -i- niº ¤º ºi·¤i
- nº|«| ¬ ¬·¤in - rini|
¤ººi·i, ¬i¤i··¤· l··i·i ¬| ¬i-il¬¬ ¤¸¬| -
nº|«| ¬| ¬-·ii¤, ¬·¬ ·ni, ¬i-·il¤¬ ¤”i·º
n·ii ¬i-·il¤¬ ¬ri¤ni÷¤i·n ·¤l·n (nº|«
-lr¬i¤ l¬·¬i ¬|·· ¬·¬| ¬-·ii¬i ¬ ¬r¤in
¬ ¤lº·lnn r¬i r) “iil-¬ r| “iª ¬ ·’ii -
¬i-il¬¬ ¤¸¬| ¬ l·-iºi - ¬s ¬-¤ ¬nni
r, ¤º·n ¬s ¬-¤ «i· ;¬- n¬| ¬ ·l, rin|
r| ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- - nº|«i ¬| ¬i-il¬¬ ¤¸¬| ¬|
-r-·¤¸ºi ·i¸l-¬i r, ;¬¬ l«·i ¤r ¬·ni ¬i
¬i¤¬- ·r| «· ¬¬ni| -ii·i r|, ¤r ·i| ¬l·l”¤n
l¬¤i ¬i·i ¬i·”¤¬ r l¬ ¤r¬i ¬| nºi·-ii ¤·
¤·ii·”i|¬ni - ¬-| · ¬i¤| ;¬|l¬¤, ¤·¬iº¤¬¤-
¬ -i-¬ - ¤ººi«, ¬i¤i··¤· ¬«·i| ·l’-¬iºi
¬¤·i¤i ¬ini r| ·z·| ¤¤·’i|¤ ¤i¬·i ¬ ¬n -
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬| -i·i| l¬¬i -i·ii ·¬i¬i - ¤r¤
¬l·l”¤n ¬| ¬i¤n||
l¬· ·¬i ¬i - ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬i ·¤i¤¬ ª·i ¬
¬i¤i ··¤· l¬¤i ¬i¤ni, ·ri ¤ l”il·in ¤ ”i ·º
·s.
--i ¤ ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi¤i ¬i¤ni ¬i º ¬i· ·ii - ¤·
nr· ¬i-il¬¬ ¤· l·-i|¤ ¬-i· ”i·, ¬i¬|l·¬i,
·iin|·iº| ¬il· ¬ ¬| nlnl·l·i¤i l·’¤il·n
¬| ¬i¤ n|| n·iil¤, “i ’i ·¬i ¬i ¤i ¬- ¬·i·
·¬i ¬i - nlnl·l·i¤i ¬|l-n ª¤ ¬ ri n| ;·
·¬i ¬i - ¤lº·¤¤, ·n -i· ¤¬¬|¤¬·i; ¬ nrn
;·¬ l¬¤ ºi·¤ ¬i ¬n ¬i« -· n¬ ¬|l-n
ºr ni|
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬i ¬in¸ ¬º·i -i·i| ºi·¤i,¬·i
ºi·¤ ·i¤i ¬i ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬| ¬i¤¤ilº¬ “iª¬in
¬ ¤¬ ·’i - ;¬ ¬in¸ ¬º·i rini| ;¬¬ «i·
¤¬¬|¤¬·i; ¬ ¬nnn l·-i¤i’iºi ¬-i·n ri
¬i¤ni|
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬| ¬i¤¬¸¤| ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬ ¬nnn
ns”k ds 6‐0 yk[k xkaoksa dh 2‐5 yk[k iapk;rksa ds
6000 CykWdksa esa 7‐0 djksM+ chih,y ifjokjksa ds
-·÷¬¤il¬n ¤¬¤¤¬| ¤· ¬·¬ ¬·i|¤ ¬-·ii·i
¤· ¬i¬|l·¬i ¤¤i¬·i ¬ l¬¤ ¬ri¤ni ¤·i· ¬º·
¬i ¬·¤ ºªii n¤i r| ¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬ nrn ¬·r
·|·i¬il¬¬ n·ii nº|«| ·¸º ¬º· ¬ ¬·¬ ¤¤i¬i -
¬ri¤ni ·| ¬i¤n|| ;¬¬ ¬¬i·i, l··i·i ¬i ¬·¬
¬l·i¬ilºni ¬ «iº - ¬inª¬ l¬¤i ¬i¤ni|
za.
z·.
¤·¬iº¤¬¤- ¬| -ª¤ l·ºi·ini¤ |
ºi·-|¤ ni-|ºi ¬i¬|l·¬i l-ºi· | l-ºi· ·-ni·¬
28
¬il·i¬ ¬ri¤nil·-i|¤ -i·¬¬|-i
-·÷¬ri¤ni ¬-¸ri ¬i n-· ¬-¸ri ¬ n-·
¤· ¬·¬ l·¬i¬ ¬ l¬¤ ¤·¬|¬i¬|«|¬i
¬i-·il¤¬ ¬-··¤i¬i ¬l··ii·ini¬i ¤·|--ºi ¬i
·aaaa,÷ ªa ¤ln ¬-¸r l·¤ ¬i¤n|
¤lº¬i-| l·l·i (¬iº¤¤) ¤¬¤¤¬| ¬ ¬iº¤¬ ¬
ª¤ - ·¤¸·n- ·aaaa,÷ ªa ¬ ¬¬º ¬l·i¬n-
·raaa,÷ ªa ¤ln ¤¬¤¤¬| ¬ri¤ni ·| ¬i¤n||
¤r ¬· ¬·i| ¤¬¤¤¬| ¬i ·| ¬i¤n| l¬·ri·
¤r¬ ¬iº¤¤ ¤i·n ·r| l¬¤i r| /a ¤lnºin ¬
¬l·i¬ «|¤|¤¬ ¬·-¤i ·i¬ -·÷¬ri¤ni ¬-¸r r|
¬iº ¤¤ ¬ ¤i¤ r|
¤¸ ¬|nn ¬l·¬·| (¬|¤¬) ¤¬¤¤¬| ¬ ¬·-¤i n·ii
·¤l-¬ ¬i·iil·i¤i ·i ·i ¬ l¬¤ ¬i-i·¤ ¬ ºi| ¬
l¬¤ ·raaa,÷ ªa n·ii ¬·¬¸ l¤n ¬iln,¬·¬iln
¬ ºi| ¬ l¬¤ za,aaa,÷ ªa ¤ln ¬·¬¸ l¤n ¬·¬iln
¬ ºi| ¬| ¤¸ ¬|nn ¬l·¬·| ¬|-i ¬in¸ r| ¤-¤ ¬
¤¬¤¤¬| ¬l·i¬n- z.ra ¬iªi ªa ¬| ¬l·¬·| ¬
l¬¤ ¤i¤ r| ¬ ·¬ «|¤|¤¬ ¬·-¤ ·¤l-¬ ¬l·¬·|
¬ l¬¤ ¤i¤ r ¬iº /a ¤lnºin «|¤|¤¬ ¬·-¤i ·i¬
¤¬¤¤¬| ¬l·¬·| ¬ ¤i¤ r | ¬ri ·i| -·¬ri¤ni
¬-¸ r ¤ ¬| ·¤·-·ii ¤irn r , ¤¸ ¬|nn ¬l·¬·| ¬|·i
-·¬ri¤ni ¬-¸ ri ¬i ¬·i·i ¬·r ¬·¬ ¤lº¬ ·ii ¬
-i·¤- ¬ ·| ¬i¤n||
·i-ni l·-iºi n·ii ¬i”i¬ ¤l”i·iºi /raa ªa
¤ln ¬i·ii·i| ÷ ;¬ ¤-¬ ¬ nrn ¬¤¬··i ºil”i,
·.
z.
s.
«.
· ¬·¬ ¬i·iil·i¤i «l~¬ ¬i¤¬- ¬l·i¬ilº¤i
¤· --i¤, ¬i-·il¤¬ ¤”i·ºi, ¬«l·in ¬º¬iº|
¬-¤ilº¤i ¬il·, ¤·¬|¬i, ¤¤i¤n| ºi¬ ¬-·ii¬i
¬ ¬i¤¬Ÿii¬i ¬il· ¬lrn ¬·i| ¬·¤ --¬ri~·ºi
¬ ¤l”i·iºi ¤· ·i-ni l·-iºi¬ l¬¤ ¬¤¤in ¬|
¬in| r| ¤·¬¤i¬º ·iºi n·ii ;-”i· ·iºi ¤º ·¤¤
¬i ·i| ;¬ ¤-¬ ¬ nrn ¬·º l¬¤i ¬i·i r|
¬l~¬lªin ¬i”i¬ ¤l”i·iºi ¬ ni-¤¤ -·ºi¬niº ¬
l¬¤ ¬·-¤ -nº|¤ ¤l”i·iºi ¬ r n·ii ¤r ºi¬niº
÷¬-«, ¬i”i¬ ¤l”i·iºi ¬ ¬¬n r|
·¤i¬ ¬l·¬·| « ¬i ¬ ¤i·n ¬·i| ¤¬¤¤¬| ~ºii
¬ l¬¤ / ¤lnºin ·il’i ¬ ¬ ¬l·i¬ ·¤i¬ ·º ¤º
¬l·¬·|, ¬-¤ ¤º ¤ ··i nni· ¤º ¬i·iilºn r | l¬¬|
¬i·ii·i| ¤i ¤¬¤¤¬| ¬·-¤ ¬i ·¤i¬ ¤º ¬l·¬·|,
¬¬¬ ,iºi ·.aa ¬iªi ªa n¬ ¬ « ¬ ~ºi ¤º ·|
¬i¤n|| ¬· -i· r l¬ -·÷¬ri¤ni ¬-¸ ri - ¬·-¤i
¬i l·Ÿi¤i ·iºi - ·i rºi· ri ni ¬i º ¤r ·.aa ¬iªi ªa
¬| ¬|-i, l¬¬| ¬·-¤ (¤lº·iº) ,iºi ¤i·n l¬¤i n¤i
¬ ¤¤| ~ºi r | l¬¬| ¤¬¤¤¬| ,iºi ¤¸ ¬|nn ¬l·¬·|
¬ -i-¬ - ¬- ¬l·¬·| ¬¤¬··i ·r| ri n||
¤lº¬¤i ¬ -·iil¤-· n·ii ··ini ¬ l¬¤ ¬i¤¬ ¤·
rn ¤¬-”n ¬··i· ÷
ni-¤¤i¤n -nº|¤ ¤lº¬¤i ¬ l¬¤
·aaaa,÷ ªa
·¬i¬ -nº|¤ ¤lº¬¤ ¬ l¬¤ zaaaa,÷ ªa
l¬¬i -nº|¤ ¤lº¬¤ ¬ l¬¤ ·aaaaa,÷ ªa
r.
c.



29
¤”ii¬l·¬ ·¤¤ ¬i ”i¬ l·¬i¬ n·ii ºi ¬niº ¬i º
¬iº¤¬; -|¬i; ¤-¬ r n ¬i« -· ¬i r ¤lnºin ¤r
ºi·¤i ¬i ¬ ·¤|¤ lº¬|¬ n·ii ¬ nn ºi·¤ lr-¬ ¬i
r ¤lnºin r |
¬i·iiº·i¸n ¬l··ii¤ n·ii l·¤ºi· ¬·¤|¤ lr-¬ n·ii
ºi·¤ -nº|¤ lr-¬ ¬·iin ºi·¤ ¬ ¬i¤¬- ¤lº·¤¤
¬ za ¤lnºin n¬ (¤¸·iŸiº ºi·¤i n·ii l¬l+- ¬
-i-¬ - zr ¤lnºin)|
¬i ”i¬ n·ii ºi ¬niº ¤lº¤i ¬·i¤ ¤· ··|·|¬ººi
(¬ ·¤|¤ ¬i« -· ¬i za ¤lnºin) ··|·|¬ººi
/.
s.
s.
¤lº¤i ¬·i¬i ¤º ·¤¤ r ¤lnºin ¬ ¬l·i¬ ·r|
ri ·i ¤ilr¤ ¬i º “i ’i ·r ¤lnºin ºi ¬niº ¬-«,
¬i ”i¬ l·¬i¬ ¤lº¤i ¬·i¬i ¬ l¬¤ r | ºi ¬niº
¬-«, ¬i ”i¬ l·¬i¬ ¤lº¤i ¬·i¬i ¬ l¬¤
¬i« -· (/.r ¤lnºin ) ¬i ra ¤lnºin «r ÷ºi·¤|¤
¬i ”i¬ l·¬i¬ ¤lº¤i ¬·i¬i r n ¬ ·¤ ¬ ¤i¬
ºªii ¬ini r ¬i º “i ’i ºi·¤ l·l”i’- ¬i ”i¬
l·¬i¬ ¤· ºi ¬niº ¤lº¤i ¬·i¬i ¬ ¬i¤i ··¤·
r n ºi·¤i ¬i ¬i« l-n l¬¤i ¬ini r | ºi·¤i
,iºi ¬·r lº¬|¬ ¬| n; ºil”i ¬i ¬ nn ºi·¤
lr-¬i ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi·i ri ni r |
¬il·i¬ ¬ri¤nil·-i|¤ -i·¬¬|-i |

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