University of Engineering & Technology Peshawar (Mardan Campus

)

B.Sc Final Year Project REPORT
Project Title

Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS

Group Members
Naeem Ullah Syed Imran Muhammad Tayyab 07MDTLC0287 07MDTLC0277 07MDTLC0270

Project Advisor
Dr. Akhtar Hussain Khalil

Department of Telecommunication Engineering Session 2007 - 2011

Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS

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IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE MOST BENEFICIENT, THE MOST MERCIFUL

Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS

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Project Supervisor
Name: Dr. Akhtar H. Khalil Signature: …………………

Final Year Project Coordinator
Name: Engr; Imad Ali Signature: ……………………

Head of Department
Name: Dr. Shahbaz Khan Signature: ……………………

Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS

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Certificate of Originality

This is to certify that we are responsible for the work submitted in this project report, that the work is our own except as specified in acknowledgments, references or in footnotes, and that neither the thesis nor the original work contained therein has been submitted to this or any other institution for a final year project evaluation. Project member’s names and signatures

Naeem Ullah Muhammad Tayyab Syed Imran Hussain Shah

Signature: ………….. Signature: ………….. Signature: …………..

Date: ………..........................

Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS

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We would also like to thank to Dr. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 5 . We owe special thanks to our supervisor Dr. Then we would like to thank our parents for their support and prayers. Shahbaz Khan for his guidance.ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to thank Allah for making our effort into a reality. Akhtar Hussain Khalil for his guidance and support throughout the project.

Dedicated to Our parents and our family Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 6 .

0. Keywords: MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching). Due to lower network delay.ABSTRACT Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is an emerging technology which ensures the reliable delivery of the Internet services with high transmission speed and lower delays. scalability and predictable performance of the services provided by MPLS technology makes it more suitable for implementing real-time applications such as Voice and video. voice packet delay variation and voice packet end to end delay. We have also compared simple UMTS scenario and MPLS scenario in UMTS. In this work we have used the above approach is used for achieving the above performance in UMTS to reduce the jitter. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 7 . The key feature of MPLS is its Traffic Engineering (TE) which is used for effectively managing the networks for efficient utilization of network resources. first comparing the simple scenario of conventional IP network and other MPLS scenario in conventional networking. UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) and OPNET (Optimized Network Engineering Tool). TE (Traffic Engineering). In this thesis the simulation is done in OPNET simulator 14. efficient forwarding mechanism.

5G 3G AAL2 AAL5 ATM AUC CN CDMA CS PS DES EDGE EIR Multiprotocol Label Switching Traffic Engineering Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol Internet Protocol version 4 Label Edge Router Label Switching Router Label Switch Path Label Distribution Protocol Forward Equivalence Class Voice over Internet Protocol Quality of Service Internet Engineering Task Force Real Time Protocol Real Time Transport Protocol Constraint Based Label Distribution Protocol Constraint Based Label Switch Path Resource Reservation Protocol Open Shortest Path First Label Information Base Virtual Private Network Intermediate system to intermediate system Border Gateway Protocol 2.ACRONYMS MPLS TE TCP/IP IPv4 LER LSR LSP LDP FEC VoIP QoS IETF RTP RTTP CR-LDP CR-LSP RSVP OSPF LIB VPN IS-IS BGP 2.5 Generation 3rd Generation ATM Adaption Layer 2 ATM Adaption Layer 5 Asynchronous Transfer Mode Authentication Center Core Network Code Division Multiple Access Circuit Switch Packet Switch Discrete Event Simulation Enhanced Data Rate for GPRS Evolution Equipment Information Register Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 8 .

Email FACH FDD FSM FTP GERAN GGSN GLR GMM GPRS GSM VLSI GTP HLR HTTP ID ISDN IMSI IMEI IMT 2000 IP IPV4 IPV6 ITU Kbps LTE MSC MSISDN N/A OSI OPNET PDP PLMN TMSI PPP QoS RAM Electronic Mail Fast Associated Control Channel Frequency Division Duplex Finite State Machine File Transfer Protocol GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network Gateway GPRS Support Node Gateway Location Register Global Multimedia Mobility General Packet Radio Service Global System for Mobile Communication Very Large Scale Integration GPRS Tunneling Protocol Home Location Register Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Identity Integrated Service Digital Networks International Mobile Subscriber Identity International Mobile Station Equipment Identity International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 Internet Protocol Internet Protocol Version 4 Internet Protocol version 6 International Telecommunication Union Kilo Bits Per Second Long Term Evolution Main Switching Center Mobile Station Integrated Service Digital Network Not Applicable Open System Interaction Optimized Network Evaluation Tool Packet Data Protocol Public Line Mobile Network Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Point to Point Protocol Quality of Service Radio Access Mode Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 9 .

RAN RT SGSN TDD TE UE UMTS USIM VOIP WCDMA WLAN WWW Radio Network Controller Real Time Serving GPRS Support Node Time Division Duplex Terminal Equipment User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunication System User Subscriber Identity Module Voice Over Internet Protocol Wide Code Multiple Access Wireless Local Area Network World Wide Web Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 10 .

.. 22 Figure 2.............................................3 What is OPNET?......... 21 2................8 MPLS versus Frame Relay Performance............... 25 Figure 2...................... 34 Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 11 ..................................................................................1 Network Simulator Selection .............................. 33 Figure 3................................................................ 7 Chapter # 1 ...........................................4 HOW MPLS Paths are established? .....................................................1 OPNET Modeler ....................................................................................................................................... 18 1..............................................................................1 Software used: ............................4 3G (third generation of mobile telephony) ........ 20 2 ..................................................................... 28 2........................................................... 16 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 34 3............................................................... 32 OPNET Modeler 14............................. 21 2................... 20 Figure 2................................. 29 2..............................................10 MPLS Application .................................... 32 3..................................................................................................7 MPLS fast rerouting ....................................................................................................................................................................... 26 2...................................................... 23 2........................................................................................... 5 ABSTRACT ..........Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGMENT....................................1............6 OPNET ...........................................................5 Comparison of MPLS and IP ..................................1 Background .... 16 1...............................................2 Motivation .............2 Why OPNET? ............................................................................ 29 2..............3..... 17 1............................................................................................................1 Layer Formats of MPLS .... 17 1..................................... 30 Chapter # 3 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 25 2...... 22 Figure 2.......................5 Information about upcoming chapters ............................2 MPLS header ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18 Chapter # 2 .....................................................0 .............................................6 Signaling protocol of MPLS ..........4 MPLS table ............................................................................................................................................5 MPLS LSP ..................................................................................................3 MPLS ......................................... 25 2............................................................................................................................... 32 3..........................................................................................9 MPLS versus ATM performance ......................................................................... 16 1...........................................................................................................................................2 History......................... 16 1....................... 20 Multi Protocol Label Switching ..............3 HOW MPLS Work? ............................... 32 3............................................................................................................1 Introduction to MPLS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................

............................................................4......................................................1 Project Editor .................................. 35 Figure 3...........................3 3................................................... 45 3.......4................................................................................6 The packet format Editor ....................... 36 3............................................10 the project Editor Work Space ......................................................................................... 45 3......................8 The simulation Sequence Editor ........................................ 45 Figure 3...........12 project Editor ............... 41 Figure 3.....................................4 3.... 42 Figure 3.............................. 41 The Path Editor ......................3.............................................23 Buttons ..........................................2 The Node Editor .....1.................................................................16 Path Editor ......................................3........................................................................................................19 simulation sequence Editor...................................................................................4........4..................4............................................................................................................ 45 Figure 3.... 41 The Link Model Editor ........................20 Analysis Editor ..........................................1. 36 3...............................................................................4..................... 47 4..7 The Probe Editor ....................................4................................................................ 40 3.............2 OPNET implementation......................................... 47 Page 12 Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS .............................9 The Analysis Tool ............................................................... 39 Figure 3.....................................5 How to make a scenario in OPNET: .................................................................................................................3........................................................22 Menu bar .........................................................................4.............1 The Network Layer ......................7 MODELS ...........................................................................................................14 Process Model Editor ...................................8 Editor ................................................11 The Menu Bar ....... 42 3................................................................................... 37 3....................3 3................. 37 Figure 3.. 42 3..............5 The process Model Editor .................. 38 3........................ 41 Figure 3............................................................................ 46 Chapter # 4 ...............................15 link Model Editor ......................................................................................................................... 47 4.................................................................................. 38 Main features .............. 44 3.............................................................4........... 44 Figure 3.......................... 44 Figure 3................................ 37 Figure 3..4............................. 45 3.....................................1 Introduction ........................................................................4 The Process Layer .......................................................4.........12 Buttons ....................10 Node Layer ................................................................................. 43 Figure 3..................................................................... 40 3..........................................................................................................2 The Node Layer ..............................................21 Project Editor Work space ...................................... 43 3.........................Figure 3........................................................1.........................4....................... 44 3................................................................................................... 47 Performance Analysis of MPLS in conventional IP Network ....................................................................................11 Process Layer...............................................................................

...........................1..3.................1 UMTS QoS Classes ......................................................................2..................................................................................................... 48 4...............2..............................1 Conversational Class ....................................................................2...........................................................................................3.........25 New Project ............Figure 4.............................................1 Table ..............2 UMTS Architecture .......................9 FTP Download Response .........................................................................................................................................................................5 FTP Global statistic in MPLS ..........24 OPNET ..............................................................................................................27 IP architecture .......................30 UMTS Architecture ...............2............................................................................................................................... 60 5...............1...........................1 Voice jitter ...........28 MPLS Architecture . 52 Table 4....................................................... 64 5............................................................................................................ 52 Graph 4.....................................................................................................3............................3........................... 51 Table 4........................ 52 Table 4........................ 54 4.......................................................................................4 conclusions ....................................................................................................3 MPLS Global statistic ......2.................................3 User Equipment (UE) .2 IP Node statistic .................................................2...... 53 Graph 4. 52 4. 56 Graph 4....................... 48 Figure 4.................................................1 IP Global statistic .......................................................................... 59 5...................3........................................................................................................................................................................ 66 5...................1............................ 63 5.............................................................. 50 4................................................2............................................ 54 Figure 4.................... 51 4................................. 65 5....................... 58 4......................................................................... 50 Figure 4......1 Voice application Table ......................................................................................................................................1 IP Architecture ....... 60 Figure 5......................................... 64 5................ 62 5................... 61 5..................................................................................................................................2 MPLS architecture ......3 Voice packet end to end delay ...2 Graphs ..................... 55 Graph 4..........................................................................................2 Streaming class: ............................3........... 58 Chapter # 5 ......................................................................... 66 Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 13 ..................................................................................1 Core Network ......................................... 55 4...............................29 FTP scenario ............................................................... 59 Universal Mobile Telecommunication System ......................................................................3...................................................3 Interactive class .........3.5 FTP Traffic Received in bytes/second .................... 49 4............................... 54 Table 4.................... 49 Figure 4.................3 Quality of Service (QoS) ...................................................1 Background ....3 comparing Graphs and result .........................2 UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) ...................................................2 Graphs ......................... 59 5...........................................................................1.............................................................

..........................................................2.....10 Voice Jitter in UMTS ....................2............................................. 72 Graph 6............. 75 Table 6......................2 Comparing Graphs and result ...................................6 QoS classes table ....................................4 Background Class .................................1 Table ...........................................................................1 Conclusion ............................................................................. 67 Table 5........................................................ 69 Figure 6.......................1 OPNET implementation................ 70 6.............2.........................................9 Global Statistic of MPLS in UMTS ..................................... 71 Table 6...........................................................33 FTP scenario .......... 74 6...................................................... 72 Table 6..................................3 conclusions .................................................................................................................... 80 Figure 7.......................................................... 69 Performance Analysis of MPLS in 3G Network ............................................................................................12 FTP Download Response in UMTS .....................................................15 Traffic Received packets/second in UMTS ......... 74 6.......................................... 80 Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 14 ............................ 74 Table 6........2 Future work ............................1............................................................................2 Graphs ............................ 71 Table 6..................................... 75 Graph 6....... 79 Figure 7............................................................................................................... 79 7...... 69 6...... 71 6... 75 6............................. 78 Chapter #7 ............................................................................12 Packet End to End Delay in UMTS ...................................3.................................................................................................................................. 71 6...............................................................................................................................................................2 FTP application ................1 VOICE APPLICATION ...............................5............................................................... 73 Graph 6.................. 68 Chapter # 6 ...............................7 Global Statistic of IP in UMTS...........................11 IP FTP Global Statistic in UMTS ..............................................................35 convergence of different world Network .......................................................................................1 Convergence in NGN ................... 73 Graph 6............................................................... 79 Conclusion and Future Work ................................................................ 74 Figure6............1.....2...............2...................................................................32 UMTS Scenario ........ 79 7....................................................................................34 NGN Architecture ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 Traffic Send packets/second in UMTS ......................................................................................................................11 Voice Packet Delay Variation in UMTS ........... 79 7.......2............................2....................................................1 Table ............11 MPLS FTP Global Statistic in UMTS ..... 72 6.........1...................................... 77 Table 6.................................................2.......................................2....................................................................................................................................... 78 .......... 71 Table 6..............8 Node Statistic of IP in UMTS .....................................................................10 Node Statistic of MPLS in UMTS ....................................... 76 Table 6.......................2 Graphs ....

............................................................ 81 Figure 7.....................................................2........2 GMPLS (Generalized Multi Protocol Label Switching) ........... 81 References: ..................................................7............................................................37 Future GMPLS ............................................... 82 Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 15 ...........

The total forwarding and routing is based on this label in the core of network. Further above approach is applied to 3G (third Generation) or UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) 1. The main point here comes up.1. In QoS. first their performance is cheeked in simple conventional IP network. Network simulation allows students to examine problems with much less work and of much larger scope than are possible with experiments on real hardware. the customer‘s satisfaction decrease. the customers became unhappy with the available services of network. The main application of MPLS to IP network is to provide QoS for Real Time Communication such as voice over IP or video. to satisfy our customers and increase our network performance by taking the QoS (Quality of Service). But as the time pass.1 Software used: One way to laboratory components into an introductory networking course is with simulations. the main factor is the delay.1 Background Nowadays communication and communication technology changing every day. MPLS (Multi protocol Label Switching) is a new switching technology work on a short fixed label of 20 bits.Chapter # 1 Introduction 1. OPNET is the software that offers Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 16 . The theme of our project is to provide QoS to clients. That quality of service is provided that meet the customers satisfaction. In order to reduce the delay factor in real time communication. We will design and implement the MPLS and IP scenario. An invaluable tool in this case is the OPNET simulator.

From there our interest towards networking sites is developed and we decide to take FYP in IP site. [1] The OPNET‘s discrete event engine for network simulations is the fastest and most scalable commercially available solution. CCNA. This is the most effective solution for students to demonstrate the behavior of different networks and protocols. Label Edge Routers (LERs) give them a label (identifier). because QoS will be main issue in the future.g. The world is coming more toward IP. latency. or those who receive a lot of streaming media or high-bandwidth content can see minimal latency and packet loss.2 Motivation Our main motivation to our project arises from last summer. they guide us to do some like this ‗‘QoS in networking sites‘‘. and bottlenecks. 1. From a QoS standpoint. The advantage of this project is to know more about IP.3 MPLS Multiprotocol Label Switching. Secondly our project advisor guides us that it is not necessary to do whole new thing in FYP rather do rather research or study based project. design. When packets enter a MPLS-based network. That‘s why we select the MPLS approach to UMTS to provide QoS. MPLS. 1. For instance. Then we meet people who are the master in networking. These labels not only contain information Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 17 . simulation and analysis etc. history.tools for modeling. congestion. when we take course of networking e. background. those who subscribe to a premium service plan. MPLS gives network operators a great deal of flexibility to divert and route traffic around link failures. an IETF initiative that integrates Layer 2 information about network links (bandwidth. utilization) into Layer 3 (IP) within a particular autonomous system--or ISP--in order to simplify and improve IP-packet exchange. so it will be very helpful to us in the future. ISPs will better be able to manage different kinds of data streams based on priority and service plan. architecture and its future. OPNET can simulate a wide variety of different networks which are linked to each other.

OPNET also contains editors that are project editor.4 3G (third generation of mobile telephony) 3G refers to the third generation of mobile telephony (that is. link editor. layers that are nodes. GSM could deliver not only voice. bandwidth. at far greater speeds. process and network models and layers. and support more diverse applications. Layer 4 socket number information. With these LSPs. different packets are assigned to corresponding Labeled Switch Paths (LSPs).e. node editor. The third chapter of this book tells about OPNET. But to support mobile multimedia applications. destination. 1. increase bandwidth. packet Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 18 . [1] 1. This chapter also includes the summary of whole thesis. 1G 2G The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) defined the third generation (3G) of mobile telephony standards IMT-2000 to facilitate growth. 2. architecture and operation in IP network. [2] 1. 3G had to deliver packet-switched data with better spectral efficiency. and differentiated service. For example. The third generation. as the name suggests. where Label Switch Routers (LSRs) place outgoing labels on the packets. path editor. The second chapter includes information and details about MPLS background. cellular) technology. process editor.based on the routing table entry (i. but also circuit-switched data at speeds up to 14. its advantages and feature. and other metrics). Once this classification is complete and mapped. follows two earlier generations.4 Kbps. network operators can divert and route traffic based on data-stream type and Internet-access customer.. but also refer to the IP header field (source IP address). its models. delay.5 Information about upcoming chapters The first chapter in the book is about introduction to the project. its objective and the software used.

implementation of MPLS and IP is done in conventional IP Network. conclusion and future work. In the sixth chapter. designation. architecture. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 19 . and its core network. In the fourth chapter. Performance analysis is checked and takes the graphs. the designation and implementation of MPLS and IP in 3G is done. Taking their comparison and analysis graphs. probe editor and simulation sequence editor. Then we have discussed that why we used this software instead of others.format editor. practical implementation. The fifth chapter includes information and details about 3G background. The seventh chapter includes application.

MPLS belongs to the family of packet switched networks. MPLS operates at an OSI Model layer that is generally considered to lie between traditional definitions of layer 2 (Data link layer) and layer 3 (Network layer).1 Introduction to MPLS Multiprotocol label switching is a mechanism in high performance telecommunication networks which carries and direct from one network node to the next with the help of labels. Frame Relay. without the need to examine the packet itself. SONET. such as ATM. In an MPLS network. Many network engineers agree that ATM should be replaced with a protocol that requires less overhead. as well as native ATM. It was designed to provide a unified data carrying service for both circuit based clients and packet switching clients which provide a datagram service model. MPLS is highly scalable. including IP packets. MPLS technologies have evolved with the strengths and weaknesses of ATM in mind. while providing connection oriented Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 20 . data packet is assigned labels. MPLS make it easy to create ―Virtual Links‖ between distant nodes. A number of different technologies were previously deployed with essentially identical goals. The primary benefit is to eliminate dependence on a particular Data Link Layer technology. and Ethernet frames.Chapter # 2 Multi Protocol Label Switching 2 . SONET or Ethernet. Packet forwarding decisions are made solely on the contents of this label. such as Frame Relay and ATM. data carrying mechanism. and thus is often referred to as ―layer 2. It can encapsulate packet of various network protocols.5‖ protocol. and eliminate the need for multiple layer 2 networks to satisfy different types of traffic. protocol agnostic. This allows one to create end to end circuits across any type of transport. It can be used to carry many different kinds of traffic.

not restricted to ATM transmission. MPLS dispense with the cell switching and signaling protocol baggage of ATM. since for a significant length of time it was impossible to forward IP packets entirely in hardware. and was renamed ―Label Switching‖. MPLS recognizes that small ATM cells are not need in the core of modern networks. Cisco system. One original motivation was to allow the creation of simple high speed switches. advances in VLSI have made such devices possible.2 History MPLS was originally proposed by a group of Engineers from Ipsilon Networks. [3] Figure 2. did not achieve market dominance.service for variable length frames. MPLS also offers a robust recovery framework that goes beyond the simple protection rings of Synchronous optical Networking (SONET/SDH). called ―Tag Switching‖. introduced a related proposal. and development of a consensus protocol that combined features from several vendors‘ work. It was handed over the IETF for open standardization. The IETF work involved proposals from other vendors. It was a Cisco proprietary proposal. since optical networks are so fast that even full length 1500 byte packets don‘t incur significant real time queuing delays. thus aligning these technologies with current and future technology needs. which was defined only to work over ATM. In particular. However. Therefore the advantages of MPLS primarily revolve around the ability to support multiple service models and perform traffic management. but their ―IP switching‖ technology.1 Layer Formats of MPLS 2. MPLS is currently replacing some of these technologies in the future. [4] Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 21 .

A 1 bit bottom of stack flag. This is called a Label stack.2. A 3 bit Traffic Class for QoS(quality of service ) priority(experimental) and ECN(Explicit congestion Notification).3 MPLS Architecture Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 22 . it signifies that the current label is the last in the stack. Figure 2. label lookup and Label switching were faster than a Routing table or RIB (Routing Information Base) lookup. Figure 2. As mentioned above.2 MPLS header Each label stack entry contains four fields:     A 20 bit label value. If this is set.3 HOW MPLS Work? MPLS works by prefixing packets with an MPLS header. containing one or more ―Labels‖. An 8 it TTL (time to live) field. These MPLS labeled packets are switched after a label lookup/switch instead of a lookup into the IP table. when MPLS was conceived.

Label Switch Paths (LSPs) are established by the network Operator for a variety of purposes. push an MPLS label onto an incoming packet and POP it off the outgoing packet. LSPs are not different from PVCs in ATM or Frame Relay networks. In some applications. the packet presented to the LER already may have a label. Figure 2. Routers that perform routing based on the label are called Label Swapping (LSR). which respectively. except that they are not dependent on a particular Layer 2 technology. Label switch Router in an MPLS Network regularly exchange label and reach ability information with each other using standardized procedures in order to build a complete picture of the network they can then use to forward packets. In many respects. LSRs that function as ingress and/or egress routers to theVPN are often called PE (provider Edge) routers. the router first determines the Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 23 . Labels are distributed between LERs and LSRs using the‖ Label Distribution Protocol‖ (LDP). LSPs is as create network based IP virtual private networks or to route traffic along specified Paths through the network. Devices that function only as transit routers are similarly called P (provider) routers.The entry and exit points of an MPLS network are called Label edge routers (LER). When an unlabeled packet enters the ingress router and needs to be passed on to an MPLS tunnel.4 MPLS table In the specific context of an MPLS based virtual private network (VPN). so that the new LER pushes a second label onto the packet.

MPLS can make use Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 24 . If the popped label was the last on the label stack. 3. 1. The packet is then passed on to the next hop router for this tunnel. when the last label has been popped. When a labeled packet is received by an MPLS router. This allows hierarchical routing of MPLS packets. and then inserts one or more labels in the packet‘s newly created MPLS Header. the topmost label is examined. In a pop operation the label is removed from the packet. During these operations. This can be an IP packet. the contents of the packet below the MPLS Label stack are not examined. In a push operation a new label is pushed on top of the existing label. and the packet is forward along the associated with the new label. This is usually done by the egress router. the packet ―leaves‖ the MPLS tunnel. The forwarding of the packet is done based on the contents of the labels.Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC) the packet should be in. 2. This is notably used by MPLS VPNs. An MPLS transit router has no such requirement. At the egress router. The egress router must therefore have routing information for the packet‘s payload. Based on the contents of the label a swap. In a swap operation the label is swapped with a new label. or any of a number of other kinds of payload packet. only the payload remains. Indeed transit routers typically need only to examine the topmost label on the stack. since it must forward it without the help of label lookup tables. which may reveal an inner label below. Routers can have prebuilt lookup tables that tell them which kind of operation to do based on the topmost label of the incoming packet so they can process the packet very quickly. which allows ―Protocol independent packet forwarding‖ that does not need to look at a protocol dependent routing table and avoids the expensive IP Longest prefix match at each hop. push (Impose) or POP (dispose) operation can be performed on the packet‘s label stack. This process is called ―decapsulation‖. effectively ―encapsulating‖ the packet in another layer of MPLS.

5 Comparison of MPLS and IP MPLS cannot be compared to IP as a separate entity because it works in conjunction with IP and IP‘s IGP routing protocols. the ability to transport layer 3(IP) VPN with overlapping address spaces. with different treatment by the core routers for each type.4 HOW MPLS Paths are established? There are two standardized protocols for managing MPLS paths: 1. one has to establish a separate MPLS path for each type of traffic. and support for layer 2 pseudowire using pseudowire Emulation Edge to Edge (PWE3) that are capable of transporting a variety of transport Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 25 . If one wants to carry two different types of traffic between the same two routers. and vice versa. as its labeled flows can be mapped to ATM or Frame Relay virtual circuit identifiers. an extension version of RSVP An MPLS header does not identify the type of data carried inside the MPLS path. RSVP-TE (Resource Reservation Protocol). transparent virtual networks with support for traffic engineering. [5] 2.of existing ATM network or frame relay infrastructure.5 MPLS LSP 2. MPLS LSPs provide dynamic. LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) 2. [6] Figure 2.

LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) is a new protocol that defines a set of procedures and messages by which one LSR (Label Switched Router) informs another of the label bindings it has made.6 Signaling protocol of MPLS The following are the signaling protocol used in MPLS network as 1. MPLS Traffic Engineering relies upon the use of TE extensions to OSPF or IS-IS and RSVP. Besides the constraint of RSVP bandwidth. users can also define their own constraint by specifying link Attributes and special requirements for tunnels to route (or not to route) over links with certain attributes. ATM. [7] 2. RSVP –TE (Resource Reservation Protocol Traffic Engineering) 1. IPv6. in an IP network With MPLS Traffic engineering CSPF routing. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 26 . In a pure IP network. LDP (label Distribution Protocol) 2. LDP In the MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) 2 label switching routers (LSR) must agree on the meaning of the labels used to forward traffic between and through them. Meanwhile.etc). the shortest path to a destination is chosen even when it becomes more congested. such That the shortest path with available bandwidth will be chosen. constraints such as the RSVP bandwidth of the traversed links can be considered. LSR devices provide traffic engineering function can be defined using    Explicit hop by hop configuration Dynamically routed by constrained shortest path first (CSPF) algorithm or Configured as a loose route that avoid a particular IP or that is partly explicit and partly dynamic. MPLS capable devices are referred to as LSRs.payload (IPv4. Frame Relay. CR –LDP (Constraint Based LDP) 3.

or may have an endpoint at a network egress node. This hello message is transmitted as a UDP packet. There are 2 kinds of notification messages: 1. each peer is able to learn about the others label mappings. 2. the protocol is bi-directional. the LSRs announce their presence in the network by sending Hello messages periodically. all other messages are sent over TCP. Error notifications. Advisory notifications. these are used to pass on LSR information about the LDP session or the status of some previous message received from the peer. Using discovery messages. These LSPs may have an endpoint at a directly attached neighbor (like IP hop-by-hop forwarding). Notification messages. Advertisement messages 4. Two LSRs (Label Switched Routers) which use LDP to exchange label mapping information are known as LDP peers and they have an LDP session between them. When a new session must be established. The notification messages signal errors and other events of interest. In a single session. CR-LDP CR-LDP (constraint-based LDP) contains extensions for LDP to extend its capabilities. This FEC specifies which packets are mapped to that LSP. in other words. these signal fatal errors and cause termination of the session 2. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 27 . There are 4 sorts of LDP messages: 1. Discovery messages 2. enabling switching via all intermediary nodes.The LSR uses this protocol to establish label switched paths through a network by mapping network layer routing information directly to data-link layer switched paths. A FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class) is associated with each LSP created. the hello message is sent over TCP. Apart from the Discovery message. Session messages 3.

restoration may take several second Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS which may be acceptable for real time Page 28 . The ingress node of an LSP (Label Switched Path) uses a number of methods to determine which packets are assigned a particular label. the qualifier LSP Tunnel is used. The Session object uniquely defines a traffic engineered tunnel. New RSVP Session. When referring to these objects generically. The semantics of these objects. To enable the identification and association of such LSP tunnels. together with the Session object. The Sender and Filter Spec objects carry an LSP ID. when RSVP and MPLS are combined. In the traffic engineering application. the label effectively defines the flow through the LSP. called LSP Tunnel IPv4 and LSP Tunnel IPv6 have been defined to support the LSP tunnel feature. such sets are called traffic engineered tunnels (TE tunnels). Sender and Filter Specific objects. two identifiers are carried. We refer to such an LSP as an LSP tunnel because the traffic through it is opaque to intermediate nodes along the label switched path. a flow or session can be defined with greater flexibility and generality. In some applications it is useful to associate sets of LSP tunnels. A tunnel ID is part of the Session object.This allows extending the information used to setup paths beyond what is available for the routing protocol 3. In fact. the IPv4 (v6) that appears in the object name only denotes that the destination address is an IPv4 (v6) address. from the perspective of a node along the label switched path. is that traffic belonging to the LSP tunnel is identified solely on the basis of packets arriving from the "previous hop" (PHOP) with the particular label value(s) assigned by this node to upstream senders to the session. This can be useful during reroute operations or in spreading a traffic trunk over multiple paths. Once a label is assigned to a set of packets. RSVP-TE The RSVP protocol defines a session as a data flow with a particular destination and transport-layer protocol. However.7 MPLS fast rerouting In the event of a network element failure when recovery mechanisms are employed at the IP layer. The Sender (or Filter Spec) object. [8] 2. uniquely identifies an LSP tunnel.

its use in different geographic areas depended greatly on governmental and telecommunication companies‘ policies. connection state is maintained at each node in the path. In both technologies. The most significant difference is in the transport and encapsulation methods.[9] 2.9 MPLS versus ATM performance While the underlying protocols and technologies are different. connections are signaled between end points. MPLS. In contrast. Differences exist. Tecos often sell frame relay to businesses looking for a cheaper alternative to dedicated lines. and encapsulated techniques are used to carry data across the connection.application such as VOIP. adds significant complexity and overhead to the data stream. An MPLS connection (LSP) is unidirectional – allowing data flow in only one direction between two endpoints. in the nature of the connections. on the other hand. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 29 . In more recent years. as well. transported and re-assembled over an ATM network using an adaption layer. which allow for the under provisioning of data service by Telecommunications Companies( Telcos ) to their customers.[10] 2. MPLS local protection meets the requirements of real time application with recovery times comparable to those of SONET rings of than 50 ms. MPLS is able to work with variable length packets while ATM transports fixed length (byte) cells. frame relay has acquired a bad reputation in some markets because of excessive bandwidth overbooking by these Telcos.8 MPLS versus Frame Relay Performance Frame Relay aimed to make more efficient use of existing physical resources. Packets must be segmented. as clients were unlikely to be utilizing a data service 100 percent of the time. both MPLS and ATM provide a connection oriented service for transporting data across computer networks. simply adds a label to the head of each packet and transmits it on the network. Excluding difference in the signaling protocols (RSVP/LDP) for MPLS and PNNI (Private Network to Network Interface for ATM) these still remain significant differences in the behavior of the technologies.

making it comparatively less suitable for today‘s predominantly IP networks. Because 2 LSPs are required for connectivity. MPLS uses label stacking to accomplish this while ATM uses virtual paths. data flowing in the forward direction may use a different path from data flowing in the reverse direction. which allow easy implementation o MPLS increases network performance  Support QoS and CoS for service differentiation o MPLS uses traffic engineering path setup and achieve service level guarantees. o MPLS provide constraint based and explicit path setup. [] The biggest single advantage that MPLS has over ATM is that it was designed from that the start to be complementary to IP. The ATM virtual path indicator (VPI) and virtual indicator (VCI) are both carried together in the cell header. 2.10 MPLS Application MPLS addresses today‘s network backbone requirements effectively by providing a standard based solution that accomplishes the following: [11]  Improve packet forwarding performance in the network o MPLS enhance and simplifies packet forwarding through routers using layer 2 switching model o MPLS is simple.Establishing two way communications between end points require a pair of LSPs to be established. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 30 . limiting ATM to a single level of tunneling. Both ATM and MPLS support tunneling of connections inside connections. Modern routers are able to support both MPLS and IP natively across a common interface allowing network operators great flexibility in the network design and operation. ATM is incompatibilities with IP require complex adaption. MPLS can stack multiple labels to from tunnels within tunnels.

Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 31 .   Support network scalability Integrate IP and ATM in the network o MPLS provides a bridge between access IP and core ATM. Builds interoperable networks o MPLS facilitates IP.over synchronous optical network (SONET) integration in optical switching.

Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 32 .2 Why OPNET? There are various simulation experiment environments. from physical links up to application demands. The OPNET software is a modular suite able to simulate entire networks up to several dozen nodes. The main features for network simulator selection are:     Ability to simulate a wide range of networking technologies Ease of use Free or low cost Higher simulation performance 3. [12] 3.0 The Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET) is a commercial simulation product of the MIL3 Company of Arlington VA. Its primary function. We focus on allowing the same code to run in simulation and on live network. It employs a Discrete Event Simulation approach that allows large numbers of closely spaced events is a sizable network to be represented accurately and efficiently. according to OPNET‘s website is the support of network planning groups and application developers.Chapter # 3 OPNET Modeler 14. This includes all layers of the OSI reference mode.1 Network Simulator Selection Network simulator is used to effectively integrate laboratory components and to build different networks on laboratory level without significantly increasing the workload of man.

 OPNET can be used to model the entire network.  The OPNET‘s discrete event engine for network simulations is the fastest and most scalable commercially available solution. switches. and the individual application they support.works can be supported. protocols. servers. NS2 is an open source network simulator. Students can download and install IT Guru Academic Edition at home. For such scenario. It takes a significant amount of time to get OPNET Simulator familiar with NS2. However. A large range of communication systems from a single LAN to global inter. targeting a wider range of networks and protocols. OPNET is the best network simulator for the following reasons:  OPNET is much easier to use than NS2. It provides a very convenient Graphic User Interface (GUI). OPNET offers up to four simulation models:  Discrete Event Simulation (DES)  Flow analysis  ACE Quick predict  Hybrid Simulation Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 33 . NS2 is also free ware. including its routers.3 What is OPNET? OPNET project consist of easily created and compared scenarios. It usually take just a few minutes to complete simulations [] 3.  OPNET software (with model source code) is available for FREE to the academic research and teaching community. It requires the users to learn and use non standard scripting interfaces such as TCL. different data and network topologies can be analyzed.OPNET and NS2 are the two most popular network simulators. NS2 is more difficult o learns and lacks of user interface. NS2 is widely used for network research in academia.

only DES is examined. and Parameter Editors. the other simulation types were not available. These editors. DES is a packet based simulation. This leads to a highly flexible simulation environment where generic models can be developed and used in many different scenarios.6 OPNET 3. the Network. as seen in figure. are organized in a hierarchical fashion. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 34 .1 OPNET Modeler Opnet provides four editors to develop a representation of a system being modeled. due to the license restrictions. and therefore best suited for researching protocol behavior and application performance.3. Each level of the hierarchy describes different aspects of the complete model being simulated. Figure 3.In our project. Models developed at one level of the hierarchy are used by models at next higher level. Process. Node.

7 MODELS For network research and development used primarily to design and study network technologies. Features of OPNET Modeler include:   Integrate Debugger to validate simulation behavior or track problems. Tools to display simulation results.     Hybrid simulations improve performance by combining discrete events simulation with analytical modeling Runtime environment to deliver proprietary protocol and device models to end users. Modeler is the only package to supply the model library and library extensions with open source code. Windows 2000 and UNIX supported Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 35 . complex network topologies can be managed with unlimited sub network nesting Windows NT. histogram. running simulations and working at the network level only. parametric curves and confidence intervals. Support to export to spread sheets. ranging from communications protocols to network equipment and systems. plotting and analyzing time series. Hierarchical network models. probability functions.Figure 3.

1 The Network Layer The Network Editor graphically represents the topology of a communications network. equipments and protocols. with the physical characteristics reflected appropriately in the network simulation. configurable via dial boxes.The OPNET Modeler network view is arranged in hierarchical layers that directly depict the structure of networks.8 Editor 3. Network consists of Node and link objects.3.1. Figure 3. The Network Editor provides geographical context. Objects of node and link models can be created or selected from the OPNET library.9 Network Layer Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 36 . Each layer is edited and controlled with a dedicated editor. Figure 3.

resources. ports and buses. algorithms and physical resources. algorithms and queuing policies. protocol layers.3. send and receive packets from other modules to perform its function within the node.2 The Node Layer The Node Editor captures the architecture of a network device or system by depicting the flow of data between functional elements.3.3 The Process Layer The process Editor uses a finite state machine approach to support specification. such as buffers. State and transitions graphically define the progression of a process in response to events. applications.10 Node Layer 3. Each state of a process model contains C/C++ code.1. Modules typically represent applications. supported by a library of functions designed for protocol programming. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 37 . Figure 3.3. Each module can generate. called ―Modules‖.1. Modules are assigned process models to achieve any required behavior . at any level of detail of protocols.

Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 38 . it provides intuitive graphical environment to create all kinds of models of protocols. such as TCP or ATM. Dynamic FSMs simplify specification of protocols that manages a scalable number of resources or session.FSM can define private state variables and can make calls to code in user provided libraries.11 Process Layer 3. The user can developed entirely new process models or use the models in OPNET Technologies Model library as a starting point.4 Main features OPNET inherently has three main functions:    Modeling Simulation & Analysis For modeling. FSMs are dynamic and can be spawned during simulation in response to specific events. Figure 3.

Hybrid and Analytical simulation Grid computing support Integrated.1 Project Editor The staging area for creating a network simulation is the Project Editor. This is used to create a network model using models from standard library.4. OPNET‘s detailed features include:            Fast discrete event simulation engine Lot of component library with source code Object oriented modeling Hierarchical modeling environment Scalable wireless simulation support 32 bit and 64 bit graphical user interface Customizable wire modeling Discrete Event. User friendly graphs. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 39 . build packet formats and create filters and parameters. it uses 3 different advanced simulations technologies and can be used to address a wide range of studies. statistics and even animation can be generated by OPNET for user‘s convenience. the simulation result and data can be analyzed and displayed very easily. charts. run the simulation and view the results. GUI based debugging and analysis Open interface for integrating external component libraries 3. For Analysis. Using specialized editors accessible from the Project Editor via File >> New one can create node and process models. collect statistics about the network. According to the OPNET whitepaper.For simulation.

Each module placed in a node serves a specific purpose. OPNET node models have a modular structure.12 project Editor 3. processing packets. queuing packets.4. The connections between modules allow packets and status information to be exchange between modules. The node models are then used to create node instances within networks in the project Editor. or transmitting and receiving packets. You define a node by connecting various modules with packet streams and statistics wires. Internally.13 Node Editor Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 40 .2 The Node Editor The Node Editor is used to create models of nodes. Figure 3. such as generating packets.Figure 3.

15 link Model Editor Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 41 . Figure 3.14 Process Model Editor 3. Process models are represented by finite state machines (FSM) and are created with icons that represent states and line that representation transitions between states. Operations performed in each state or for a transition are described in embedded C/C++ code blocks. Each new type of link can have different attributes interfaces and representation. Figure 3.4 The Link Model Editor This editor enables for the possibility to create new types of link objects.4.3 The process Model Editor To create process models which control the underlying functionality of the node models created in the Node Editor one can use the process editor. Specific comments and keywords for easy recognition are also possible.3.4.

ATM. represented in the editor as colored rectangular boxes.4. Figure 3.17 packet format Editor Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 42 . The size of the box is proportional to the number of bits specified as the field‘s size. Figure 3.16 Path Editor 3. A packet format contains one or more fields.6 The packet format Editor By making of this editor it is possible to define the internal structure of packets as a set of fields. Any protocol model that uses logical connections or virtual circuits such as MPLS.3. Frame Relay etc can use paths to route traffic.5 The Path Editor The path Editor is used to create new path objects that define a traffic route.4.

18 probe Editor 3.4. Figure 3. link statistics. and several types of animation statistics. attribute statistics. It is mentioned that similar possibilities for collecting statistics are also available under the project Editor.3. which contain a set of attributes that control the simulation‘s run time characteristics.4. including global statistics. Simulation sequences are represented by simulation icons.8 The simulation Sequence Editor In the simulation Sequence Editor additional simulation constrains can be specified. By using different probes there are several different types of statistics that can be collected.7 The Probe Editor This editor is used to specify the statistics to be collected. node statistics. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 43 . These are however not as powerful as the probe Editor.

Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 44 . Figure 3.Figure 3. etc.10 the project Editor Work Space There are several areas in the project Editor Window that are important for building an executing a model. create analysis configurations to save and view later.4. define templates for statistical data.9 The Analysis Tool The Analysis Tool has several useful additional features like for instance one can create scalar graphics for parametric studies.4.19 simulation sequence Editor 3.20 Analysis Editor 3.

Figure 3.12 Buttons Several of the more commonly used menu bar can also be activated through buttons. The buttons shown below appear in the project Editor.22 Menu bar 3. Each editor has its own set of buttons.21 Project Editor Work space 3. The menu bar shown below appears in the project. Figure 3.23 Buttons Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 45 .Figure 3.11 The Menu Bar Each editor has its own menu bar.4.4.

Create a copy of the first scenario and modify the values of simulation parameters as needed. 4.3. A user working typical OPNET simulation proceeds to complete the following steps: 1. Execute the simulation for all scenarios. Follow the configuration Wizard instructions to create a new project and a first simulation scenario. Analyze the graphs and values of the collected simulation statistics. OPNET Modeler has additional functionality that allows the user to modify existing system components and create new ones. 3. and conduct simulations to study and analyze the system‘s performance. 2. 5. It allows user to use point to point and click to create and configure simple or sophisticated network systems. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 46 . Point and click to configure the first simulation scenario:   Create the network topology Select and configure the relevant applications o Create the user profiles to specify how the configured application are used by end systems o Deploy application by associating user profiles with the end system o Configure non default parameters of the relevant protocols o Specify the statistics to be collected during simulation o Configure scenario parameter such as simulation duration. Repeat step 2 through 5 until the result is valid.5 How to make a scenario in OPNET: OPNET is a network simulation package which is relatively easy to use and learn. 6. random number generator seed etc.

Chapter # 4
Performance Analysis of MPLS in conventional IP Network
4.1 Introduction To provide the QoS, to the conventional IP Network by reducing the delay factor in Interactive services. The one which are very delay sensitive and causes a lot of information to lost. To avoid such thing the new switching approach is used, called the MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) approach. In this part, we describe implementation of an IP and MPLS in conventional Network. Here we have implemented three different scenarios. The following applications compared in these scenarios are:  

FTP application Voice application

4.2

OPNET implementation To implement the above scenario in OPNET simulator, we have followed some steps which are given below: Step 1      

Open OPNET 14.0 modeler Go to file and select new project Give any name to it Then select ‗create empty scenario‘ Select the scenario whether OFFICE, CAMPUS, WORLD etc. we select campus scenario. You will get a workspace along with an object palette According to our project requirement we have done the above as:

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Figure 4.24 OPNET

Figure 4.25 New Project Step 2 

Go to object palette

Figure 4.26 Object Palette Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 48

 

Select the following equipments and drag them into the workspace one by one The equipments list is given below: 1. Profile configuration 2. Application configuration 3. IP router Ethernet2_slip8_gtwy 4. Workstation (ppp_wkstn) 5. Link (ppp DS3)

Step 3 We have assigned the following attributes to the nodes collected so far.  Jitter  Packet Delay Variation  Packet end to end Delay For IP Network  Connect all the nodes via DS3 links  Assign proper IP address  Assign proper interface to all nodes  Apply the routing protocol e.g. RIP, IGRP  Select application and profiles and service we are using  Select some statistics we want to analyze 4.2.1 IP Architecture

Figure 4.27 IP architecture

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For MPLS

Select the following components 1. LER (label Edge router ) 2. LSR (label switch router ) 3. Application Config 4. Profile Config 5. LINK (PPP DS3)

For MPLS network We have assigned the following attributes to the nodes collected so far.  Connect all the nodes via DS3 link  Apply MPLS signaling protocol  Select application and profile and services we are using  Select some statistics we want to analyze 4.2.2 MPLS architecture

Figure 4.28 MPLS Architecture Step 4 Then we simulate the scenario and viewed the result i.e. graphs

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3. The table show minimum. Negative jitter indicates that the time difference between the packets at the destination node less than at the source node.1. traffic received and sent etc. we are comparing these application in different scenarios.3.1 VOICE APPLICATION The following tables show voice application for seed values of 128. packet delay variation. 4. Network delay is the time at which the sender node gives the packet to RTP to the time the receiver got it from RTP. called ―analog to analog ‖ or ―mouth to ear ‖ delay = network delay + encoding delay +decoding delay+ compression delay + decompression delay.1 Tables These are the values of simulation of Voice application of IP and MPLS in conventional Network. jitter.e.3 comparing Graphs and result 4.(t2-t1). Voice packet delay variation: Variation among end to end delays for voice packets received by the node End to end delay for a voice: The total voice packets delay. maximum and average values for different application i. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 51 .4. Jitter: When two consecutive packets leave the source node with time simple t1 and t2 and are played back at the destination node at time t3 and t4 then jitter= (t4-t3) .

1 IP Global statistic Table 4.3.2 IP Node statistic Table 4.Table 4.3 MPLS Global statistic 4.2 Graphs: Comparing through graphs Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 52 .1.

750µs The max value of jitter in MPLS as. The max value of packet delay occur in IP is. The horizontal show the simulation time of the scenario while the vertical show the jitter for both scenarios The max value of jitter in IP as. as we already discussed.This graph show that the jitter. 15µs Graph 4.1 Voice jitter This graph shows the Voice packet Delay variation in IP and MPLS scenario. is the inter packet variation which is greater in IP graph as compared to MPLS graph below the IP graph. 17µs Graph 4.2 Voice packet delay variation Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 53 . 200ms The max value of packet delay occur in MPLS is.

As from the graph.2. it is clear that the end to end delay of the IP is more than MPLS Max end to end delay for IP is.3. compression.4s Max end to end delay for MPLS is.The graph shows the voice packet end to end delay in second. 70ms As it is clear that more processing. in IP than in MPLS Graph 4.1 FTP application This is same scenario like voice. but for FTP server is taken Figure 4.3 Voice packet end to end delay 4. 1. network delay etc.29 FTP scenario FTP tables This is the FTP application table after simulating the FTP scenario of IP and MPLS Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 54 .

4 FTP Download Response Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 55 . 8. 9.4 FTP Global statistic in IP Table 4.2.8ms The max download response for MPLS is.3.5ms Graph 4.5 FTP Global statistic in MPLS 4.Table 4.2 Comparing through graphs The graph shows the FTP download response for IP and MPLS scenario The download response for IP is less than MPLS The max download response for IP is.

2packet/ms The max amount packet received in MPLS is.The graph show the FTP traffic received in IP and MPLS in terms of bytes per second It is clear from the graph that there is greater amount of FTP traffic received in MPLS as compared to IP The max amount of traffic in IP is.5 FTP Traffic Received in bytes/second This is the same graph as above graph but here the unit of traffic received is packet per second The same case here greater amount of FTP packets receive in MPLS than IP The max amount packet received in IP is. 10. 300 bytes The max amount of traffic in MPLS is 350 bytes Graph 4. 12.6 FTP Traffic Received in packets/second Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 56 .5packet/ms Graph 4.

2packet/ms The max amount packet send in MPLS is.5packet/ms Graph 4.This graph show the same result like the traffic received in terms of bytes per second but here the traffic send Max amount of traffic send in IP is.8 FTP Traffic Send packets/second Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 57 .7 FTP Traffic Send in bytes/second This is the same graph as above graph but here the unit of traffic send is packet per second The same case here greater amount of FTP packets send in MPLS than IP The max amount packet send in IP is. 350bytes/s Graph 4. 300 bytes/s Max amount of traffic send in MPLS is. 12. 10.

Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 58 . And this way. 8. they provide fast communication and QoS.7s The max upload response for MPLS is. 9ms Graph 4.4 conclusions We observed from above graphs that by applying MPLS to the core of conventional IP Network the delay factor is reduced.9 FTP Download Response 4.The graph shows the upload response for both IP and MPLS As it is clear from the graph that the upload response of the MPLS is greater than the IP Network The max upload response for IP is.

Chapter # 5 Universal Mobile Telecommunication System 5. The air interface for the UMTS network is based on WCDMA (wideband code Division Multiple Access) and includes the HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) specification.1 Background UMTS stands for Universal Mobile Telecommunication System. A combination of terrestrial based wireless services and satellite transmissions were designed to provide this availability. and telephony. messaging. The internet protocol was based on GPRS (General Packet Radio Service). cellular systems were mainly circuit switched. which evolved into EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution). One way is that previously. The idea was to provide consistent service to roaming mobile customers anywhere in the world. which were considered 2. The 3G systems were created with the intention of allowing users to have global mobility with services including internet. The UMTS network is a wireless 3G (third generation) network that provides high bandwidth voice and data service to users of mobile devices. 3G is a category of digital cellular radio systems developed under the standard IMT -2000(International Mobile Telecommunication-2000) The UMTS network is also called 3GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) because it evolved from that system. while UMTS is packet switched. data. It also has higher bandwidth than previous systems. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 59 .5G standards. paging. There are several ways in which the UMTS network differs from prior systems.

video gaming. downloading.2 UMTS Architecture A UMTS network consists of three interacting domains    Core Network (CN) UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) User Equipment (UE) Figure 5. The streaming class includes multimedia. [13] 5. The conversational class includes voice services. These are 144 kbps (kilo bytes per second) for satellite use and outdoor rural use. There are four specified classes of service. and video telephony.The services provided by UMTS have different Quality of Service (QOS) target data rates. data bases. and video on demand. The interactive class includes web browsing. The basic Core Network architecture for UMTS is based on GSM network with GPRS. accessing. and SMS (Short Message Service) messaging.30 UMTS Architecture The main function of the core network is to provide switching. webcasting. routing and transit for user traffic. while the background class includes email. and 2048 kbps for indoor use and outdoor use that is low range. 384 kbps for use in outdoor in urban environments. Core Network also contains the data base and network management functions. The UTRAN provides the Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 60 . and network gaming. All equipment has to be modified for UMTS operation and services.

Packet switched elements are serving GPRS support Node (SGSN) And Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN).         UMTS systems(including satellite) Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) MSC/VLR or SGSN Location Area Routing Area (PS domain) UTRAN Registration Area( PS domain) Cell Sub cell 5.2. Visitor Location register (VLR) and Gateway MSC.air interface access for User Equipment.1 Core Network The core network is divided in circuit switched and packet switched domains. [] It is necessary for a network to know the approximate location in order to be able to page user equipment. Some network elements.31 3G architecture Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 61 . Figure 5. like EIR. Here is the list of system areas from largest to smallest. HLR. VLR and AUC are shared by both domains. Base Station is referred as Node B and control equipment for Node B‘s is called Radio Network Controller (RNC). Some of the circuit switched elements are Mobile services Switching Center (MSC).

[] 5. In UMTS. Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) 2. codes are used for synchronization scrambling. VLR and SGSN can merge to become a UMTS MSC. Number portability Database (NPDB) will be used to enable user to change the network while keeping their old phone number.The Architecture of the Core Network may change when new services and features are introduced. in addition to channelization. Time Division Duplex (TDD) The functions of Node B are:                 Air interface Transmission/Reception Modulation/Demodulation CDMA physical channel coding Micro Diversity Error Handling Closed loop power control The functions of RNC are: Radio Resource Control Admission Control Channel Allocation Power Control Settings Handover Control Macro Diversity Ciphering Segmentation/Reassembly Broadcast Signaling Open loop power control Page 62 Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS . Gateway Location Register (GLR) may be used to optimize the subscriber handling between network boundaries. UMTS WCDMA is a Direct Sequence CDMA system where user data is multiplied with quasi random bits derived from WCDMA Spreading codes.2. WCDMA has two basic modes of operation: 1.2 UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) Wide band CDMA technology was selected for UTRAN air interface. MSC.

5.  PS mode of operation: The UE is attached to the PS domain only and may only operate services of the PS domain. Update USIM specific information over the air Security functions User authentication Optional inclusion of payment methods Optional secure downloading of new applications Page 63 Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS . Most of these UMTS identity types are taken directly from GSM specification.  CS mode of operation: The UE is attached to the CS domain only and may only operate services of the CS domain. It has several functions:        Support of one User Service Identity Module (USIM) application Support of one or more profile on the USIM. Terminals work as an interface counterpart for Node B and have many different type identities.3 User Equipment (UE) The UMTS standard does not restrict functionality of the User Equipment in any way. []        International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Temporary Mobile subscriber identity (TMSI) Packet temporary Mobile subscriber Identity (P-TMSI) Temporary Logical Link Identity (TLLI) Mobile station ISDN (MSISDN) International Mobile station Equipment identity (IMEI) International Mobile Station Equipment Identity and Software Number (IMEISN) UMTS user equipment can operate in one of three modes of operation:  PS/CS mode of operation: The UE is attached to both the PS domain and CS domain and the UE is capable of simultaneously operating PS service and CS services.2. this does not prevent CS like services to be offered over the PS domain (like VOIP). However. UMTS IC card has same physical characteristics as GSM SIM card.

The main divider between them is how delay sensitive the traffic is conversational real time services. There are four different QoS classes:     Conversational class Streaming class Interactive class Background class The main distinguishing factor between these QoS classes is how delay sensitive the traffic is: conversational class is meant for traffic which is very delay sensitive while Background class is the most delay insensitive traffic class.3. Conversational and streaming classes are mainly intended to be used to carry real time traffic flows. this means from a Terminal Equipment (TE) to another TE.3 Quality of Service (QoS) Network Services are considered end to end. e. Interactive class and Background are mainly meant to be used by traditional internet applications like WWW. like video telephony. also referred to as traffic classes. It is the user that whether he is satisfied with the provided QoS or not. both provide better error rate by means of channel coding and retransmission. The main difference between interactive and Background class is that interactive class is mainly used by interactive applications. Due to looser delay requirements. An end to end service may have certain Quality of service (QoS) which is provided for the user of a network service. Email. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 64 . the restrictions and limitations of the air interface have to be taken into account.5. are the most delay sensitive applications and those data streams should be carried in conversational class. FTP and News. Telnet. compare to conversational and streaming classes.g. It is not reasonable to define complex mechanisms as have been in fixed networks due to different error characteristics of the air interface. 5.1 UMTS QoS Classes When defining the UMTS QoS Classes. The QoS mechanisms provided in the cellular networks have to be robust and capable of providing reasonable QoS resolution.

But with internet and multimedia a number of new applications will require this scheme.g. This is the only scheme where the required characteristics are strictly given by human perception.fundamental characteristics for QoS:    Preserve time relation(variation ) between information entities of the stream Conversational pattern (rigid and low delay).1 Conversational Class This class is used for the most delay sensitive traffic.g.1. GSM). This is very important in wireless environment where the bandwidth is low compared to fixed networks. for example voice over IP and video over conferencing tools. so background applications use transmission resources only when interactive applications do not need them. e. Speech (voice) is the most common example of conversational class.Interactive Email or interactive Web browsing. [] 5. Responsiveness of the interactive applications is ensured by separating interactive and background applications. The most well known use of this scheme is telephony speech (e. while Background class is meant for background traffic. background download of Emails or background file downloading.3. There will be no buffering and must require the guaranteed bit rate. Therefore the limit for acceptable transfer delay is very strict. as failure to provide low enough transfer delay will result in unacceptable lack of quality. Real time conversation scheme is characterized by that the transfer time shall be low because of the conversational nature and at the same time that the time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream shall be preserved in the same way as for real time streams. Real time conversation is always performed between groups of end users.[] Real time conversation. Video games and video telephony are other examples. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 65 . Traffic in the interactive class has higher priority in scheduling than Background class traffic. These services should be transmitted like that real time connections transmitted over the radio link. The transfer delay requirement is therefore both significantly lower and more rigorous than the round trip delay of the interactive traffic case. The maximum transfer delay is given by the human perception of audio and video conversation.

which is used as a rebuild technique that makes it to become visible as a steady and continuous stream. When the user is looking at (listening to) real time video (audio) the scheme of real time streams applies. that is either a machine or a human. The delay is little bit variable and buffering is allowed in this class. It is characterized by that the time relations (variation) between information entities (i. Interactive traffic is the other classical data communication scheme that on an overall level is characterized by the request response pattern of the end user. server access.3 Interactive class For data communication interactive class is used.3. The delay variation of the end to end flow shall be limited. is online requesting data from remote equipment (e.1. Streaming multimedia is an example application. 5. this scheme applies).5. Examples of human interaction with the remote equipment are: web browsing. The real time data flow is always aiming at a live (human) destination.1. packets) within a flow shall be preserved.g. samples. Bit rate is also guaranteed in this class. At the message there is an Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 66 . Acceptable delay variation is how much greater than the delay variation given by the limits of human perception. raising a number of new requirements in both telecommunications and data communication systems. a server. the delay is reasonably variable here. such as interactive network games and web browsing.[] Real time streams fundamental characteristics for QoS:  Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream. to preserve the time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream. It is a one way transport.e. data base. although it does not have any requirements on low transfer delay. There is no guaranteed of the bit rate for the services in this class when the end user.2 Streaming class: In this class service are also transmitted same as real time connection. But as the stream acceptable delay variation over the transmission media is given by the capability of the time alignment function of the application. Example of machine interaction with the remote equipment is: polling for measurement records and automatic data base enquiries (tele machine).3. This scheme is one of the newcomers in data communication.

[] Background traffic – fundamental characteristics for QoS:   The destination in not expecting the data within a certain time Preserve payload content Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 67 . Background traffic is one of the standard data communication schemes that are largely characterized by the fact that the destination will not expect the data within a certain amount of time. [] Interactive traffic – fundamental characteristics for QoS:   Request response pattern Preserve payload content 5.entity expecting the message within a certain time. Transmitted data must have to be received error free.4 Background Class This class tolerates the top delay and background. In this class downloading from internet is an example of service. SMS and download of data bases and reception of measurement records. There is another characteristic that the packet content does not need to be clearly transferred. Another characteristic is that the content of the packet shall be transparently transferred (with low bit error rate). When the end user. sends and receives data files in the background. Therefore it is more or less insensitive about the delivery time. Buffering is essential but there is no guarantee of the bit rate. this scheme applies. Examples are background delivery of Email. Background traffic is one of the classical data communication schemes that on an overall level is characterized by that the destination is not expecting the data within a certain time. Another characteristic is that the content of the packets shall be transparently transferred (with low bit rate).3. Round trip delay time is therefore one of the key attributes.1. The scheme is thus more or less delivery time insensitive. that typically is a computer.

Traffic class Conversational class Conversational RT Streaming class Streaming RT Interactive class Interactive best effort Background class Background best effort Fundamental characteristics Preserve time relation (variation ) between information entities of the stream Preserve time relation(variation ) between information entities of the stream Request response pattern Destination is not expecting the data within a Preserve payload content certain time Preserve payload content Conversational pattern (stringent and low delay ) Example of the application voice Streaming video Web browsing Background download of emails Table 5.6 QoS classes table Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 68 .

Application configuration Page 69 Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS . To avoid such thing the new switching approach is used. The one which are very delay sensitive and causes a lot of information to lost.1 OPNET implementation To implement the above scenario in OPNET simulator. This approach is applied to the core of UMTS Network. The following applications compared in these scenarios are:   Voice application FTP application 6. we select campus scenario.0 modeler Go to file and select new project Give any name to it Then select ‗create empty scenario‘ Select the scenario whether OFFICE. to the UMTS Network by reducing the delay factor in Interactive services. called the MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) approach. Here we have implemented three different scenarios. In this part. WORLD etc. Profile configuration 2. You will get a workspace along with an object palette Step 2    Go to object palette Select the following equipments and drag them into the workspace one by one The equipments list is given below: 1.Chapter # 6 Performance Analysis of MPLS in 3G Network To provide the QoS. we have followed some steps which are given below: Step 1       Open OPNET 14. CAMPUS. we describe implementation of an IP and MPLS in UMTS Network.

Link (ppp DS3) Step 3 We have assigned the following attributes to the nodes collected so far.3. Workstation (ppp_wkstn) 5. For simple UMTS Network  Connect all the nodes via DS3 links  Assign proper IP address  Assign proper interface to all nodes  Apply the routing protocol e.  Connect the core element through DS3 and side elements through ATM OC3  Apply MPLS signaling protocol  Select application and profile and services we are using  Select some statistics we want to analyze Step 4 Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 70 . RIP. IP router Ethernet2_slip8_gtwy 4.32 UMTS Scenario For MPLS network We have assigned the following attributes to the nodes collected so far. IGRP  Select application and profiles and service we are using  Select some statistics we want to analyze UMTS Architecture Figure 6.g.

1 This is the voice application table after simulation of simple UMTS and applied UMTS Network Table 6.8 Node Statistic of IP in UMTS Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 71 .2.1 VOICE APPLICATION Jitter: Voice packet delay variation: End to end delay for a voice: 6. graphs 6.7 Global Statistic of IP in UMTS Table 6.1.Then we simulate the scenario and viewed the result i.2 Comparing Graphs and result 6.2.e.

1.10 Node Statistic of MPLS in UMTS 6.2.Table 6.9 Global Statistic of MPLS in UMTS Table 6.2 Graphs: Comparing through graphs Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 72 .

17µs Graph 6. 52.5ms Graph 6.11 Voice Packet Delay Variation in UMTS Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 73 . 225ms The max value of packet delay variation in MPLS based Network is.10 Voice Jitter in UMTS The graph shows the voice packet delay variation in simple UMTS and MPLS based UMTS Network As it is clear from the graph that the packet delay variation is greater in simple UMTS than MPLS based UMTS Network The max value of packet delay variation in simple UMTS Network is. 400ms The max value of jitter in MPLS based UMTS is.The graph shows the voice jitter in UMTS scenario The voice jitter in simple UMTS Network is greater than in MPLS based UMTS scenario The max value of jitter in simple UMTS Network is.

1 FTP application FTP scenario Figure6.2. The max value of end to end delay for simple UMTS network is. 20s The max value of end to end delay for MPLS based network is.The graph shows the voice packet end to end delay for simple UMTS and MPLS based UMTS Network It is clear that the end to end delay for Simple UMTS network is greater than MPLS based UMTS Network. This is due to the encoding delay.33 FTP scenario Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 74 .12 Packet End to End Delay in UMTS 6. processing delay and Network delay etc. 3s Graph 6.2 6.2.2.

This is the FTP application table after the simulation of FTP scenario Table 6.11 IP FTP Global Statistic in UMTS Table 6.2.11 MPLS FTP Global Statistic in UMTS 6.2 Comparing through graphs Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 75 .2.

3400 bytes Graph 6.13 FTP Traffic Received in UMTS Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 76 .12 FTP Download Response in UMTS The graph shows the FTP traffic received in terms of bytes per second in simple and MPLS based Network It is clear from the graph that greater amount of traffic received in MPLS based network than in simple UMTS network The max value of traffic received for simple UMTS network is. 45s The max download response for MPLS UMTS network is.The graph shows the FTP download response for simple and MPLS based UMTS Network. 3000 bytes The max value of traffic received for MPLS based UMTS network is. 64s Graph 6. As it is clear from the graph that the download response for MPLS based UMTS is greater than for simple UMTS network The max download response for simple UMTS network is.

4000 bytes/s Table 6. 3400/s bytes The max value of traffic send for MPLS based UMTS network is.16 Traffic Received bytes/second in UMTS Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 77 .The graph shows that traffic received in terms of packet per second The max value for simple UMTS network is.15 Traffic Received packets/second in UMTS The graph shows the FTP traffic send in terms of bytes per second in simple and MPLS based Network It is clear from the graph that greater amount of traffic send in MPLS based network than in simple UMTS network The max value of traffic send for simple UMTS network is. 125packet/ms The max value for MPLS based UMTS network is. 140 packet/ms Table 6.

3 conclusions We observed from above graph that by applying MPLS to the core of 3G Networks. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 78 .The graph shows that traffic send in terms of packet per second The max value for simple UMTS network is. 500 packet/ms Table 6.17 Traffic Send packets/second in UMTS . 275/ms The max value for MPLS based UMTS network is. the delay factor is reduced. they provide fast communication and QoS. And this way.

1 Conclusion Thus it is concluded.2. 7. The main reasons here.Chapter #7 Conclusion and Future Work Our project is based on providing QoS by reducing the delay factor 7.   MPLS technology as innovative foundation to NGN Technology is evolving to facilitate convergence and service creation Page 79 Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS .2 Future work 7. while that of IP address is 32 bits which is greater value than MPLS header or frame. packet delay variation and packet end to end delay and increase the performance of traffic send and received.1 Convergence in NGN In the future. It is clear from the above graphs. The MPLS approach is best suitable in IP core of conventional Network. Due to this MPLS overhead is less as compared to IP address used by router for routing the data across packet data network. IP/MPLS will provide convergence between different types of networks. that they provide high performance by reducing jitter variation. that to provide QoS to customers and clients. This all because. so to apply MPLS to the core of UMTS Network gives us better result and reduce jitter variation. that MPLS works on a short fixed label of 20 bits. as already told that there is less overhead produced in MPLS and forwarding occur in MPLS domain at faster speed. The same approach when we applied to UMTS core network. packet delay variation and packet end to end delay. As the cores is running on IP.

Figure 7.35 convergence of different world Network Figure 7.36 view of different service with the core Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 80 .34 NGN Architecture Figure 7.

converge different network and provide different type of services with low cost and fast forwarding.2 GMPLS (Generalized Multi Protocol Label Switching) This is arising due to the application of MPLS to the Optical Network.2.37 Future GMPLS Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 81 . Figure 7.7.

Rosen (May 2001). IETF [6]  E. Routing bandwidth guaranteed paths with local restoration in label switched networks. http://ieeexplore.ietf. http://ieeexplore. Hellstrand (February 2003). IEEE Infocom. Berger. retrieved 2006-10-27.org/iel5/49/30289/01391048. RFC 3037: LDP Applicability. P. S. QoS-IP 2005 : quality of service in multiservice IP network. http://www. IETF.techtarget. Aggarwal. http://tools.ieee. RFC 4781: Graceful Restart Mechanism for BGP with MPLS. Y. Rekhter et al. http://ieeexplore. http://tools. 1997).html [4]  Y. L. Research and Markets.org/html/rfc4364  L. RFC 3985: Pseudo Wire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Architecture. Pate (March 2005). June 2007. Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 82 .protocols.. 2001. NPP: A Facility Based Computation Framework for Restoration Routing Using Aggregate Link Usage Information.ietf. R. retrieved 2006-10-27.pdf. Rekhter (February 2006).  Kodialam et al. IETF. 1973–1983. pp. Thomas.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16546516. Online routing of bandwidth guaranteed paths with local restoration using optimized aggregate usage information.com/pbook/mpls. Andersson.networkperformancedaily.htm [9] R. IETF [10] "AT&T — Frame Relay and IP-Enabled Frame Relay Service (Product Advisor)".ietf.ieee. Bryant.  V. (2005-02-02). Rosen. [8] http://www.html [2] http://searchtelecom.com/TERM/M/MPLS.pdf.org/iel5/9996/32109/01494347. RFC 4364: BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). http://tools.ietf. retrieved 2006-10-27. B. G. RFC 4875: Extensions to Resource Reservation Protocol .webopedia.com/2006/11/routers_hold_the_key_to_mpls_n_1. V. Papadimitriou.. D. IETF.  Li Li et al.org/html/rfc5036  D. Yasukawa (May 2007). Rekhter. Y. IETF  Aslam et al. E. IETF. retrieved 200610-27. http://tools. F.inist. IEEE-ICC 2005. RFC 3107: Carrying Label Information in BGP-4. http://cat. IETF.ieee. Awduche. E. RFC 5036: LDP Specification. Li. Sharma. Rosen.pdf?tp=&arnumber=1391048&isnumber=30289 . RFC 3469: Framework for Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)-based Recovery. Dynamic Routing of Locally Restorable Bandwidth Guaranteed Tunnels using Aggregated Link Usage Information. I. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications.ietf. Tag switching architecture overview. Aggarwal (January 2007).org/html/rfc3107  Y. T. RFC 4364: BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). Minei. IEEE 82 (December.txt  E... IETF [5]  B.com/definition/3G [3] http://www.Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) for Point-to-Multipoint TE Label Switched Paths (LSPs). Gray (January 2001). 376–385. Rekhter. Swallow (December 2001).org/iel5/7321/19793/00916720. Gan. Rekhter (February 2006). Srinivasan.  Raza et al.org/rfc/rfc3037. IETF [7] S. D.References: [1] http://www. RFC 3209: RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels. Thomas (October 2007).org/html/rfc3209  Y. Proc.

PDF&hl=en&gl=pk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShSs5Oz3cGmAiGYy rMDju4isw4l9n6xQNrmBeu_nWYnQWNRsi8VfCNBu9TBdElytNfMBhK7FaJEqMPGkE 41wkyRSZUaGNWCi57eu9F73FRAm1Rd2YGAY6DZcYJbv7hPjMZTUllG&sig=AHIEt bQhhhBn6xhsRP8DiWd0L0vor8xGpQ en../Universal_Mobile_Telecommunications_System www../DocumentStreamerServlet?.cs.alcatel-lucent..slideshare.org/wiki/Multiprotocol_Label_Switching www.html http://docs.edu/~randy/Courses/CS294.ac.mpls.pdf opnetsimulation..fr/MPLSoverview..cisco.. www.com/en/US/products/ps6557/prod_presentation_list.United States www.berkeley.google..net/Sarah17/ngn-and-mpls .eecs.pdf http://www..htm Performance Analysis of MPLS in UMTS Page 83 .wikipedia.pdf www..comp.org/xpl/freeabs_all./AdoptingAnEvolutionApproach-Mark%20Vanderhaege...ieee..ucy.ac.pdf http://ieeexplore..com/.com/pbook/mpls.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:0SBN47yhoAgJ:wallu.com/.wikipedia.p.org/..ja.seeren...org/wiki/Multiprotocol_Label_Switching bnrg.org/networking/mpls../An%20all-.pdf+MPLS+. .United States https://learningnetwork.org/.org/networking/mpls..MPLS.[11] [12] [13] blinky-lights.brad....cy/.telecomlab. http://www..ppt en.jsp?arnumber=1285947 www..protocols.uk/het-net/HET-NETs04/CameraPapers/P38.pagespersoorange.com › .pdf From thesis of ‗‗Performance analysis of IPv4 and IPv6‘‘ From thesis of ‗‘ Performance analysis of UMTS Handover using OPNET‘‘ [Related reference links below] en.oulu.umtsworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/. www...jp/2005/presentations/051122_01.wikipedia.ciscopress.htm http://www...S02/MPLS. › Network Technology › General Networking – blinky-lights.com/technology/overview../cdccont_0900aecd80419../OPNET-simulation-01../Opnet_esittely_07.cisco.fi/kurssit/521365A. www.

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