You are on page 1of 12

CARBOHYDRATES

UTILIZATION Fuel for activity


Immediate fuel for activity Sustained energy for aerobic activity Major energy for high intense activity like weight training or sprinting

GLUCONEOGENESIS

Protein sparer - nervous system uses carbohydrates

Lack of carbohydrates causes protein to go through gluconeogenesis (conversion of protein to glucose) and be metabolized Contrary to popular belief, brain can metabolize lactate and ketones as well

FATS BURN IN THE CARBOHYDRATE FLAME


Carbohydrates are metabolic primers, they are needed to completely burn fat
Incomplete combustion of fat will result in ketone bodies Fat burns in the flame of carbohydrates.

CARBOHYDRATES AND THE CNS


Carbohydrates are the primary fuel for the CNS.
Acute carbohydrate depletion may cause tunnel vision, nausea, irritability Metabolism can adapt to prolonged low carbohydrate, high fat/protein diet. y , g /p

REQUIREMENTS Too little carbohydrates


More fat utilized as fuel source Endurance can be reduced up to 50% until metabolism adapts Glycogen stores become depleted (Costill and Miller, 1980)

KETOSIS
g) Ketosis: Break down of p protein ( (muscle wasting) and incomplete combustion of fats (ketone bodies)
Possible symptoms: weakness, dizziness, tunnel vision, fatigue, panting, abnormal EEG, strange breath Possible symptoms in diabetics: unconsciousness, coma and even possibly death in rare cases Blood acidosis may impair exercise tolarance and performance.

DEAMINATION
y p y protein to Body can adapt and convert dietary p carbohydrates via gluconeogenesis
If low carbohydrate diet is coupled with insufficent dietary protein or calories
risk of burning lean tissue (muscle) by gluconeogenesis

Too many carbohydrates


Converted to fat and stored Increases body fat by suppressing fat oxidation

RECOMENDATIONS FOR ATHLETES OR PHYSICALLY ACTIVE

y 50%-60% of calories should be carbohydrates


40%-50% from complex carbohydrates 10% from simple sugar p g

Carbohydrate feedings during long duration (> ) ( ) p 90 min.) submaximal (<70% VO2) can improve endurance performance (Coyle E & Montain S, 1992; Maughan R, 1991).

Carbohydrate ingestions of 30 to 60 grams per hour are required to improve performance

GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI)

y GI is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood glucose levels. A low GI food will release glucose more slowly g y and steadily. A high GI food causes a more rapid rise in g p blood glucose levels and is suitable for energy recovery after endurance exercise or for a person with diabetes experiencing hypoglycemia.

GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI)


Classification GI range Examples
most fruit and vegetables (except potatoes, watermelon), grainy breads, pasta, legumes/pulses, milk, products extremely low in carbohydrates (fish, eggs, meat, nuts,oils) whole wheat products, brown rice, basmati rice, orange sweet potato, table sugar corn flakes, baked potato, watermelon, some white rices (eg. jasmine), croissant, white bread, candy, cereal straight glucose

Low GI

55 or less

Medium GI

56 - 69

High GI

70 - 99 100

GLYCEMIC LOAD (GL)


g y y Ranking system for carbohydrate content in food portions based on their glycemic index (GI) and the portion size. Takes into account fiber content and portion size of food GL = GI x Carb (grams) / 100 Example: A food with 100g carbohydrate and a p g y GI of just 10 percent has a GL of 10 (100*0.1=10).