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GI tract - An open system/ hollow tube extending from the mouth to the anus - Includes accessory glands that assist in food digestion - Moves food along its tract Functions of the GI tract 1. Motility: moves food along its tract 2. Secretion: of digestive juices 3. Digestion: occurs mainly in the small intestine; minimal in the stomach and large intestine 4. Absorption : of water, electrolytes and digestive products 5. Circulation of blood through the gastrointestinal organs to carry away the absorbed substances Organs 1. Alimentary tract – hollow tube where food passes from the mouth going down to the anus. 2. Accessory organs – organs that assists in digestion and mechanically such as pancreas, liver. Anatomy of the GI wall: 4 layers 1. Mucosa innermost mucous membrane lines the lumen made up of simple columnar epithelium with mucous-secreting goblet cells consists of lamina propia, muscularis mucosa, and mucous membrane Lamina propia - underlying loose connective tissue that contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, sensory nerve endings, and scattered lymphatic tissues a. Muscularis mucosa - layer of smooth muscle mainly for peristalsis Functions of the Mucosa 1. Protects underlying tissue 2. Absorbs digested material 3. Secretes digestive juices 4. Increases surface area for absorption Presence of folds in the mucosa Presence of villi in the small intestine 2. Submucosa loose connective tissue contains blood vessels and lymphatics nerves from the ANS o Forms the submucosal plexus o o component of the intrinsic nervous system of the GI tract regulates glandular secretions
3. Muscularis externa - with an inner circular and outer longitudinal layers a. Inner circular layer Contraction: decreased lumen size Forms sphincter muscle that is tonically contracted to prevent backflow of material b. Outer longitudinal layer Contraction: peristalsis (propulsion of food) and mixing of food 4. Serosa outermost layer of the GI wall a. inner sublayer: fibrous connective tissue; for structural support b. outer sublayer: mesothelium; secretes lubricating fluid allowing organs to slide past one another *Meissner’s nerve plexus - located in between submucosa and muscularis externa which affects secretory function *Myenteric nerve plexus - located in between the inner circular and the outer longitudinal layers of the muscularis externa which affects motility function Peritoneal cavity - space between visceral peritoneum (covers organs) and parietal peritoneum -both visceral and parietal peritoneum secretes serous fluid into the peritoneal cavity
Hormonal control of GI functions Types of secretion 1. Endocrine
uses higher control a. increased glandular secretion (except gut sphincters) . small intestine.generally inhibits GI function Innervations of the GI tract Autonomic control a.are secreted by neurons into the circulating blood and inﬂuence the function of cells at another location in the body. ↑velocity of conduction of excitatory waves→rapid mov’t of peristaltic waves o Submucosal/ Meissner’s plexus.gastrin. spinal cord. Functions of GI Hormones 1.noreadrenaline as neurotransmitter. ↑ intensity of rhythmical contractions. Vagus nerve: innervates most of the GI tract including esophagus. Gastrin acts on the stomach and duodenum mucosa 3. Regulate secretion and motility of the GI tract eg. postganglionic Enteric/ Intrinsic nervous System Control: o Myenteric/ Auerbach’s plexus.regulates HCl secretion and gastric emptying 2. decreased glandular secretion . and the proximal half of the large intestine b. slightly ↑rate of rhythmical contraction. Gastrin Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) regulates release of insulin SS.acetylcholine as neurotransmitter. 3.secreted by “G” cells of the stomach antrum with primary actions of (1) stimulation of gastric acid secretion (2) stimulation of growth of the gastric mucosa 2.motility stimulation: increased tonic contraction. Sanchez Hormones are produced by endocrine cells and released into circulation to exert effect on remote target organs . pancreas. preganglionic *sympathetic stimulation: decreased motility.action on the surface eg. and brain stem . Pelvic/Sacral nerve: innervates the distal half of the large intestine and all the way to the anus *parasympathetic stimulation: increased motility.[THE GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM] Dr.largely a function of local enteric reflexes. Regulate release of other hormones eg. Sympathetic.secretion and local blood flow Sensory nerve endings originating from the epithelium send afferent fibers to both plexuses as well as to the prevertebral ganglia. Trophic action. Paracrine .generally stimulates GI function b. Extrinsic control. Gastrin.secreted by cells into the extracellular ﬂuid and affect neighboring cells of a different type. Neurocrine .regulates release of GH and gastrin Nervous Control of GI Function Two types of nervous system control in the GI tract 1.eg. Parasympathetic. making use of the meissner’s and myenteric plexuses 2. stomach. Intrinsic control . or “tone” of the gut wall.
3-12 cpm depending on the area of the GI tract: 3/min in the stomach. stimulation by parasympathetic nerves d. Tonic contraction 4. Autorhythmicity 5.occurs when RMP becomes more positive than -40 mV (RMP: -50 . Sanchez Gastrointestinal Reflexes . More sensitive to stretch.factors causing depolarization: a. stimulation by acetylcholine c.hyperpolarization is stimulated by norepinephrine and sympathetic. Higher extensibility 3. but not to electrical stimulation Electrical Activity of the GI Smooth Muscle body temperature and metabolic activity o extrinsic and intrinsic nerves o hormones 2.enteric nervous system and its connections with the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems support three types of gastrointestinal reﬂexes 1. Reﬂexes that are integrated entirely within the gut wall enteric nervous system 2. makes smooth muscle less excitable→ fewer or absent contraction Musculature of the GI Tract all smooth muscles except: o upper third of esophagus (striated) o middle third of esophagus (mixed) o external anal sphincter (striated) *areas of striated muscles are areas under conscious control Structure Function Interstitial cells of Cajal Production of slow waves Smooth muscle cells Depolarization and opening of Ca2+ channels leading to production of an action potential Autonomic axon Neural input to ICC and smooth muscles Gastrointestinal Blood Flow Splanchnic circulation o Types of electrical waves: slow waves. stretching of the muscle b.Slow wave frequency and height are modulated by: . spikes 1. Slow waves . Spike potentials .Produced by the interstitial cells of Cajal (electrical pacemakers) . Reﬂexes from the gut to the prevertebral sympathetic ganglia and then back to the gastrointestinal tract 3.generated due to entry mainly of calcium and smaller numbers of sodium .-60 mV) .12/min in the small intestine .Always present but do not always cause contraction . slower contraction and relaxation 2.Frequency of contraction is dictated by the frequency of slow waves .Basic electrical rhythm.true action potentials . Lower excitability. stimulation by GI hormones . Reﬂexes from the gut to the spinal cord or brain stem and then back to the gastrointestinal tract General Functional Characteristics 1. changes in resting membrane potential . chemicals. cold and warm stimulation.[THE GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM] Dr.
forward propelling motion produced by alternating slow waves of contraction and relaxation of muscularis externa layer . pancreas. Sanchez dual: it includes the blood flow through the gut itself plus blood flows through the spleen. chemical or physical irritation.Stimuli: distention of the gut.XI o Brainstem: medulla oblongata.Governed mainly by nervous control o Nerves: CN IX.Swallowing reflex is triggered by food movement into the pharynx .function of the contraction of the muscularis externa . Organs and associated structures: o Tongue – mixes food with saliva during chewing Initiates swallowing Contains taste buds o Teeth – tear and grind food Designed for chewing (mastication) b. strong parasympathetic nervous signals Segmentation.[THE GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM] Dr. and liver .forms a hard surface against which food is pushed during chewing Soft palate. spleen and pancreas flows into the liver via the portal vein GI Motility Patterns .food within lumen gets mixed up -occurs due to rhythmic.all blood from the gut.Includes mechanical fragmentation and …. PROPULSION Swallowing. anterior to ears Submandibular gland: inferior to the jaw Sublingual gland: beneath the tongue o .Begins in the mouth . Soft palate rises 2.. pons o Disorder: dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) aphagia (inability to swallow) Components of the swallowing reflex 1.closes nasopharynx during swallowing Salivary glands Parotid gland: largest.X. local contraction of the smooth muscles of muscularis externa -mechanically grinds food in the stomach and intestine mixing it with digestive juices Propulsion and Mixing of Food in the Alimentary Tract INGESTION . Peristalsis.keep food in the mouth Palate.occurs due to contraction of one part of the GI wall with simultaneous relaxation of the wall ahead -propels food along the tube o o Lips and cheeks.2 methods: a. Epiglottis covers opening of larynx .forms roof of the mouth Hard palate.reflex response where food is moved from pharynx to esophagus .
able to hold 1-1. Sanchez 3. blood vessels Fxn: secretes mucous. primary bronchus.Lost in vagotomy .[THE GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM] Dr.additional innermost layer Parts of the stomach o Fundus o Body o Antrum o Pylorus Reservoir part: fundus + upper third of the body Antral pump: plays major role in gastric emptying Receptive relaxation. rugae are present more on the greater curvature) Full stomach.triggered by chyme in the intestine .triggered by stretch receptors along stomach wall (vaso-vagal reflex) . lower sphincter (both are not anatomical sphincters) Abnormality: o Achalasia (enlarged esophagus.walls collapse forming folds (rugae. transports food No digestion nor absorption occurs. Relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter to allow food to enter stomach ESOPHAGUS Usually collapsed 3 Constrictions: aortic arch. diaphragm Surrounded by: SNS plexus. mainly secretion and motility Sphincters: upper sphincter.Threshold of fullness and pain Feedback relaxation. Peristaltic contraction along the pharyngeal and esophageal wall propels food to the GI 4.triggered by swallowing reflex Adaptive relaxation.5 L o Preparation of chyme: food mixes with gastric secretions forming a semifluid chyme o Stomach emptying Empty stomach.rugae smooth out Modifications are based on: o Greater churning/ mixing ability o Mechanical breakdown of food Layers: o Circular layer o Longitudinal layer o Oblique layer. mega esophagus) o Atresia o Hernia o Barret’s esophagus o Esophageal varices STOMACH Major digestive organ Main fxn: o Storage: can distend to accommodate food.
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