Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) A Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a network that interconnects devices using

radio waves. Wireless networking technologies allow devices to communicate to each other without using cables or wires. The most common wireless technologies are Bluetooth, Infrared Direct Access (IrDA), Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP) and Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA).

Bluetooth allows low bandwidth, short-range (up to 10 m) wireless communication using the 2.4GHz unlicensed ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medicine) band. This technology is used to connect two or more devices in a home network and can support data rate up to 1Mbps. An example of a Bluetooth application is a laptop making call over a cellular phone.

Infrared Direct Access (IrDA) technology allows devices to communicate using infrared light at a speed up to 4Mbps. Infrared light cannot pass through the walls or obstacles. So, devices can only communicate with each other, if they are in direct line of sight. A simple example of IrDA application is a laptop sending print documents to a printer using infrared port. Most of the new mobile phones and laptops have infrared port. You can also transfer data between a mobile phone and a laptop through infrared port, if both devices have infrared port.

Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP) is a standard developed by an alliance of businesses called Home RF Working Group. The Home RF Working Group allows data and voice transmission using 2.4GHz ISM band. It supports data rate up to 1.6Mbps within the range of 30m.

Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA). The IEEE specifications of the 802.11 standard for wireless LANs have provided a big boost to the WLAN industry.

These specifications allowed the creation of large scale commercial WLANs, but they do not certify WLANs’ equipment.

Overview of Networks A communication network is an interconnection of numerous network elements, which are required to transfer voice, data, and video traffic between users. It is the network that connects the end user to virtually anywhere in the world through the use of coaxial cable, copper twisted-pair cable, fiber-optic cable, and through wireless technology such as microwave or satellite. Examples of communication networks are telephone networks, telegraph networks, radio and television broadcast networks, computer networks, cellular telephone networks and the Internet.

Telecommunications and Information Technology have been converging for the past few years. However, there is a much closer interrelationship between both at present than at any time in the past. This convergence is changing the way carriers will carry voice, data and video signal.

Information Technology has provided new networked applications and made extensive changes to corporate needs, human life style and leisure. These networked applications are video conferencing, file transfer, world wide web browsing, electronic mail, financial transactions, database access and voice over the Internet protocol (VOIP).

This led to a massive growth of the Internet and huge bandwidth demand from customers. It resulted in the need to re-architect the traditional and oldest communication network called Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

Now days, communication networks enable organizations to build their networks on the basis of Local Area Networks (LANs) or/and Wide Area Networks (WANs), to satisfy their communication demands. It is arguable that the very terms

“Telecommunications” and “Information Technology” are losing their relevance as separate identities. It is expected that these fields will become virtually indistinguishable in the near future.

History of Computer Networking Earlier computers were Standalone devices i.e. each computer operated in isolation, independently from other computers. In an office, only a very small number of computers had printers attached to them. When employees who did not have printers attached locally and wanted to print documents, they had to copy their files on their floppy disks, carry them over to a co-worker’s computer to print. The only way to share or print files was to carry files on a floppy disk from office to office. This method of sharing and printing files became known as Sneaker Net. It soon realized that sneaker net was not a fast, efficient and economics way of sharing files or resources. That’s why businesses or organizations wanted a solution to the following problems: • Increased cost due to duplication of Hardware & Software. • Slow and inefficient communication. • No network management.

The first solution to fix these problems was the creation of Local Area Networks, LANs. LANs made it possible for businesses or organizations to efficiently share files and printers by interconnecting workstations, peripherals, terminals and other devices in a single building. As soon as the commercial use of computers grew, it was realized that in a LAN, it was not possible to transfer information from one office to another in a different building. A network to move information efficiently and quickly from one office to another was needed. This led to the creation of metropolitan area networks, MANs and wide area networks, WANs.

Client- Access Point Wireless Local Area Networks It is a Client-Server network and is commonly called Infrastructure network. In these networks, there is a need of a central device called Access Point. Each client on the network will communicate with other clients through this Access Point. It can provide services to 15-50 clients and extends the range of a peer-to-peer (ad hoc) network. An Access Point also connects wired and wireless networks together in a building. It enables the transfer of data between the clients of a wireless network and of a wired network.

As per requirement, multiple Access Points can be used to extend a Wireless Local Area Network. Users can walk (Roam) with their Laptops between these access points without losing their connection. It is similar to a mobile phone communication.

Wireless LAN technology allows you to wirelessly connect a wired LAN in one building to another wired LAN (or wireless LAN) in a different building as shown in figure 12.2. A device called bridge is required for this cross-building interconnection. Some Access Points can also act like bridges and can transmit data within a radius of 1.6 Km.

Personal Computer A personal computer (PC) is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator. In contrast, the batch processing or time-sharing models allowed large expensive mainframe systems to be used by many people, usually at the same time. Large data processing systems require a full-time staff to operate efficiently.

Software applications for personal computers include, but are not limited to, word processing, spreadsheets, databases, Web browsers and e-mail clients, digital media

playback, games, and myriad personal productivity and special-purpose software applications. Modern personal computers often have connections to the Internet, allowing access to the World Wide Web and a wide range of other resources. Personal computers may be connected to a local area network (LAN), either by a cable or a wireless connection. A personal computer may be a desktop computer or a laptop, tablet PC, or a handheld PC.

While early PC owners usually had to write their own programs to do anything useful with the machines, today's users have access to a wide range of commercial software and free software, which is provided in ready-to-run or ready-to-compile form. Since the early 1990s, Microsoft and Intel have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with the Wintel platform. Alternatives to Windows include Apple's Mac OS X and the open-source Linux OS. AMD is the major alternative to Intel. Applications and games for PCs are typically developed and distributed independently from the hardware or OS manufacturers, whereas software for many mobile phones and other portable systems is approved and distributed through a centralized online store.

In July and August 2011, marketing businesses and journalists began to talk about the 'Post-PC Era', in which the desktop form factor was being replaced with more portable computing such as netbooks, Tablet PCs, and smartphones.

Questions for Text 1

1. The first paragraph is mainly talk about? a. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) b. Networks c. Bluetooth d. Technology e. Radio waves 2. “…This technology is used to connect two or more devices…” (Paragraph 2 line 2). The underline word is refers to….. a. Bluetooth b. Bandwidth c. The 2.4GHz unlicensed ISM d. Laptop e. Cellular phone 3. Which of the following is TRUE about Infrared Direct Access (IrDA)? a. Can pass through the wall or obstacles b. Communicate using infrared light at a speed up to 4 Mbps c. Can support data rate up to 1Mbps d. Using the 2.4GHz unlicensed ISM e. Can also transfer data between a mobile phone and a calculator 4. Which WLAN are can’t we use in the separating places or rooms? a. Bluetooth b. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) c. Infrared Direct Access (IrDA) d. Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP) e. Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) 5. Which WLAN that has a licensed for ISM band? a. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)

b. Bluetooth c. Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) d. Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP) e. Infrared Direct Access (IrDA)

Question for Text 2

1. The first paragraph is mainly talk about? a. A communication network b. Radio c. Networks d. Internet e. Signal 2. According to the first paragraph, mention that is required to transfer by a communication network, except… a. Video traffic b. Data c. Voice d. Money e. a, b, c, dan d salah

3. “…It is the network that connects the end-user…” (Paragraph 1 line 2). The underline word is refers to… a. End-user b. Communication network c. Numerous network elements d. Interconnection e. Users 4. Which of the following is NOT TRUE about networked applications? a. Allowing access World Wide Web b. We can send or receive e-mail c. Video conference d. Game online e. Financial transactions between bank through the world 5. The purpose of the text… a. To describe the overview of networks b. To give a report about the use of networked application c. To inform how important communication network is d. To tell the reader about communication network e. To explain how the end-user connecting through the world

Questions for Text 3

1. What is the text about? a. Computers b. Printers c. Sneaker Net d. Computer networking e. Printing files 2. “…they had to copy their files on their floppy disks…” (Paragraph 1 line 3). The underline word is refers to… a. Employees b. Printer c. Documents d. Office e. Computers 3. The following problem that is businesses and organizations want a solution, except… a. No network management b. Slow communication c. Inefficient communication d. Increased cost due to duplication of Hardware & Software e. Low signal of communication network 4. Which of the following is NOT TRUE about Local Area Network (LAN)? a. Efficiently share files b. Interconnecting workstations c. Lead to the creation of Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) and Wide Area Network (LAN) d. Move information efficiently and quickly e. Only can transfer information from one office to another in a same building 5. The last paragraph is mainly talk about? a. Interconnecting workstations

b. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) c. Wide Area Network (WAN) d. Local Area Network (LAN) e. Transfer information

Questions for Text 4 1. The purpose of the text is… a. To describe the Client-Server and Access Point WLAN b. To give a report about the wireless LAN c. To inform how important access point is d. To tell the reader about LAN technology e. To explain how the access point provide services 2. The text is about… a. Client-Server network b. Client-Server and Access Point WLAN c. LAN technology d. Clients e. Wireless network transfer data between the building 3. “In these networks, there is a need of a central device called Access Point.” (Paragraph 1 line 1). The underline word is refers to… a. Access Point b. Client-Server c. Network

d. Central device e. a, b, c, dan d salah 4. The second paragraph is mainly talk about? a. Wireless Local Area Network b. Users c. Access Point d. Laptops e. Mobile phone 5. Which of the following is TRUE about the last paragraph? a. LAN technology can’t connect without cable b. Can transmit data within a radius 5.6 km c. Only connect in one building d. Bridge is use for cross-building interconnection e. a, b, c, dan d salah

Questions for Text 5 1. The text is about? a. Computer models b. Operating system c. Personal computer

d. Computer software e. Computer operator 2. “…make it useful for individuals…” (Paragraph 1 line 1). The underline word is refers to… a. Personal computer b. Size c. Capabilities d. Original sales price e. An end-user 3. According to the paragraph 2. Mention the software application for Personal Computer, except… a. Word processing b. Web browsers c. Games d. Linux e. E-mail clients 4. The third paragraph is mainly about the fact that… a. Microsoft and Intel have dominated much of the PC market b. The open-sources Linux OS c. PC owners d. AMD is the major alternative to Intel e. OS manufactures 5. Which of the following is NOT TRUE described in the third paragraph? a. AMD is the major alternative to Intel b. Apple’s Mac OS X and Linux is the major alternative to Windows c. Apple’s Mac OS X is the open-source OS d. Linux is the open-source OS e. Microsoft and Intel have dominated much of the PC market

Questions for Text 1 1. A network that interconnects devices using radio waves called…..(Wireless Local Area Network) 2. Wireless Local Area Network that allows low bandwidth is….. (Bluetooth) 3. “…cannot pass through the walls or obstacles…” That is means….. (Infrared can’t be used in the separating places or rooms) 4. Wireless that mostly use for business is…..(Shared Wireless Access Protocol) 5. The specification of WLAN that allow the creation of large scale commercial WLAN’s is…..(Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance)

Questions for Text 2

1. A communication network connected the end-user virtually anywhere through the world is using…..(the cable and wireless technology) 2. Networked applications are provided by…..(Information Technology) 3. What is the Information Technology has provided that make changes to human lifestyle? (networked applications) 4. What is the result from provided networked applications? (re-architect the traditional and oldest communication network) 5. Why Telecommunication and Information Technology losing their relevance as separate identities? Because…..(communication networks enable organizations to build their networks)

Questions for Text 3

1. “Earlier computers were Standalone devices…” That is means…..(computer operated in isolation and independently from the others) 2. Share or print files was to carry files on a floppy disk from office to office is called….. (Sneaker Net) 3. Why Sneaker Net is stopped to use? Because…..(Sneaker Net is not a fast, efficient and economics) 4. The solution for Sneaker Net is….. (Local Area Networks) 5. Local Area Networks is the solution for Sneaker Net. Because LANs is…..(efficiently and quickly to transfer or move information)

Questions for Text 4 1. A Client-Server network also known as….. (Infrastructure Network) 2. The central device that a Client-Server need is….. (Access Point) 3. Access Point is enables the transfer of data between the clients of a wireless network and of a wired network. That is why it used to connects…..(wired and wireless networks together in a building) 4. Multiple Access Point is similar with…..(a mobile phone connection) 5. A device that use for cross-building interconnection is called…..(bridge)

Questions for Text 5

1. “…make it useful for individuals….” That is means…..(operate by an end-user with no intervening computer operator) 2. To operate large data processing system efficiently require…..(a full-time staff) 3. Modern personal computers often have connection to the internet, Local Area Network (LAN), allowing access to the World Wide Web (WWW) by.....(a cable or wireless) 4. Microsoft and Intel have dominated much of the PC market in the early…..(1990s) 5. An era where the desktop form factor was being replace with more portable computing such as netbook and tablet PC called as…..(Post-PC Era)

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