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SUBMITTED TO: SIR KAMRAN ZAHOOR PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY: HENNA BHATTI ERUM BHATTI HASSAN AHMED DANYAAL JAVAID DAWAR ALI PEERZADA TANZEEL TAHIR
Origins of the term WAR An international relation dispute, characterized by organized violence between national military units is known as a war. There are three Types of war: 1) Hot War: The actual warfare.
2) Warm War: Where talks are still going on. 3) Cold War: Client States fight on the behalf on their supporting nations. COLD WAR A STATE OF PERMANENT HOSTILITY BETWEEN TWO POWERS WHICH NEVER ERUPTS INTO AN ARMED CONFRONTATION OR A ―HOT WAR‖ In current historiography the term ―Cold War‖ describes the conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States from 1945 until 1989. It was popularized by the American journalist Walter Lippmann in 1947 and widely used thereafter to describe US-Soviet relations. In the aftermath of the Second World War the Soviet Union and the United States were the most powerful states and they formed the two poles of the international state system (the bipolar system). Both nations were competing for position of dominance within the system and they wanted to stop each other filling the power vacuum created by the Second World War. The American policy in the Cold War was called ―containment‖ but it was a policy of confining communism in those areas where it already existed. At the end of World War II, English author and journalist George Orwell used the term Cold War in his essay ―You and the Atomic Bomb‖, published October 19, 1945, in the British newspaper Tribune. Contemplating a world living in the shadow of the threat of nuclear warfare, he warned of a ―peace that is no peace‖, which he called a permanent ―cold war‖, Orwell directly referred to that war as the ideological confrontation between the Soviet Union and the Western powers. Moreover, in The Observer of March 10, 1946, Orwell wrote that ―after the Moscow conference last December, Russia began to make a ‗cold war‘ on Britain and the British Empire.‖ The first use of the term to describe the post–World War II geopolitical tensions between the USSR and its satellites and the United States and its western European allies is attributed to Bernard Baruch, an American financier and presidential advisor. In South Carolina, on April 16, 1947, he delivered a speech (by journalist Herbert Bayard Swope) saying, ―Let us not be
deceived: we are today in the midst of a cold war.‖ Newspaper reporter-columnist Walter Lippmann gave the term wide currency, with the book Cold War (1947) Background
American troops in Vladivostok, August 1918, during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. There is disagreement among historians regarding the starting point of the Cold War. While most historians trace its origins to the period immediately following World War II, others argue that it began towards the end of World War I, although tensions between the Russian Empire, other European countries and the United States date back to the middle of the 19th century As a result of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (followed by its withdrawal from World War I), Soviet Russia found itself isolated in international diplomacy. Leader Vladimir Lenin stated that the Soviet Union was surrounded by a "hostile capitalist encirclement", and he viewed diplomacy as a weapon to keep Soviet enemies divided, beginning with the establishment of the Soviet Comintern, which called for revolutionary upheavals abroad. Subsequent leader Joseph Stalin, who viewed the Soviet Union as a "socialist island", stated that the Soviet Union must see that "the present capitalist encirclement is replaced by a socialist encirclement." As early as 1925, Stalin stated that he viewed international politics as a bipolar world in which the Soviet Union would attract countries gravitating to socialism and capitalist countries would attract states gravitating toward capitalism, while the world was in a period of "temporary stabilization of capitalism" preceding its eventual collapse. Various events before the Second World War had been demonstrative of mutual distrust and suspicion between the Western powers and the Soviet Union, including the Bolsheviks' challenge to capitalism; Western support of the anti-Bolshevik White movement in the Russian Civil War; the 1926 Soviet funding of a British general workers strike causing Britain to break relations with the Soviet Union; Stalin's 1927 declaration of peaceful coexistence with capitalist
Stalin remained highly suspicious and believed that the British and the Americans had conspired to allow the Soviets to bear the brunt of the fighting against Nazi Germany.ended in 1949 1949 : NATO established. 1953 : Korean War ended. . As a result of the German invasion in June 1941.and French-led coup d'état. Japanese and Nazi German espionage. the American refusal to recognize the Soviet Union until 1933. However. Stalin of USSR refused it for Eastern Europe. Britain signed a formal alliance and the United States made an informal agreement. the United States supplied both Britain and the Soviets through its Lend-Lease Program. CAPITALISM & COMMUNISM: IDEOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES • • • • • • Capitalism (USA) Limited government Multi party politics Individual rights Free enterprise economy Open society A command economy Closed society Communism (USSR) Strong central state One party government Cold War Chronology • • • • • • • 1945 : ‘A‘-Bomb dropped on Hiroshima+ Nagasaki. USSR exploded her first ‗A‘-bomb. Thus. the Western Allies had deliberately delayed opening a second anti-German front in order to step in at the last moment and shape the peace settlement. USA ahead in the arms race. 1952 : USA exploded her first hydrogen bomb. USSR exploded her first hydrogen bomb. 1947 : Marshall Aid to the west of Europe. French. Soviet perceptions of the West left a strong undercurrent of tension and hostility between the Allied powers. with allegations of British. the Allies decided to help the Soviet Union. According to this view. In wartime. 1948 : start of the Berlin Blockade . conspiratorial allegations during the 1928 Shakhty show trial of a planned British.countries "receding into the past". and the Stalinist Moscow Trials of the Great Purge. China becomes communist 1950 : Korean War started. Stalin died.
1987 : INF Treaty signed. Russia‘s fear of the American atomic bomb Russia‘s dislike of capitalism. 1959 : Cuba becomes a communist state. 1986 : Meeting in Iceland between USSR (Gorbachev) and USA (Reagan). Russia‘s fear of the American attack. 1965 : USA openly involved in Vietnam. 1968 : USSR invades Czechoslovakia.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1955 : Warsaw Pact created. 1973 : Yom Kippur War. Russia‘s action in the Soviet zone of Germany. Main causes of the Cold War • • • • • • • • • American fear of communist attack. Timeline of the Cold War 1940s . ‗Peaceful coexistence‘ called for. Berlin Wall built. 1956 : Hungary revolts against USSR. 1979 : USSR invaded Afghanistan. 1963 : Huge increase of American aid to Vietnam. 1967 : Six-Day War in Middle East. Russia‘s need for a secure western border. 1961 : Military aid sent to Vietnam by USA for the first time. 1957 : Sputnik launched. Russia's aim of spreading world communism. Suez Crisis. Truman‘s dislike of Stalin. America‘s refusal to share nuclear secrets. 1962 : Cuban Missile Crisis.
1950: June – Korean War begins. 1960: May – Soviet Union reveals that U. 1945: August 14– Japanese surrender End of World War II. 1961: August 13 – Berlin border closed. 1949: May 12 – Berlin Blockade ends. 1989: September – Hungary becomes independent. 1949: July – NATO ratified. 1948: June 24 – Berlin Blockade begins.• • • • • • • 1950s • • • • 1960s • • • • • 1970s • • • 1980s • • • 1945: February 4 – Yalta Conference Cold War Begins. 1954: March -. 1961: August 17 – Construction of Berlin Wall begins. .Kennedy elected President. 1945: August 8 – United States first used atomic bomb in war. 1953: July – Korean War ends. 1989: November – Berlin Wall falls. 1989: January – Soviet troops withdraw from Afghanistan. 1979: July – SALT II signed.S. 1948: February – Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia. 1963: July – Nuclear Test Ban Treaty ratified 1972: July – SALT I signed. spy plane was shot down over Soviet territory. 1960: November – John F . 1954: July – Vietnam split at 17th parallel. 1975: April 17 – North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam.KGB established.
Franklin D. Roosevelt andJoseph Stalin. Each side held dissimilar ideas regarding the establishment and maintenance of post-war security. and how borders would be drawn.1990s • • • 1990: May 29 – Boris Yeltsin elected to presidency of Russia. following the war. permitting countries to peacefully resolve differences through international organizations. The western Allies desired a security system in which democratic governments were established as widely as possible. 1991: August – End of Soviet Union Cold War Ends. . 1945. The Allies disagreed about how the European map should look. 1990: October 3 – Germany reunited. End of World War II and post-war (1945–47) Wartime conferences regarding post-war Europe The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference:Winston Churchill.
Post-war Allied occupation zones in Germany. whereas in the British approach Stalin appeared as the greatest threat to the fulfillment of their agenda. the Soviet-controlled rival to the Polish government-in-exile. albeit this conference also failed to reach a firm consensus on the framework for a post-war settlement in Europe. Stalin was at an advantage and the two western leaders vied for his favors. Churchill traveled to Moscow and agreed to divide the Balkans into respective spheres of influence. With the Soviets already occupying most of Eastern Europe. which were mainly centered on securing control over the Mediterranean. among other things. Truman opposed. Stalin seemed a potential ally in accomplishing their goals. . and the independence of Eastern European countries as a buffer between the Soviets and the United Kingdom. and the creation of a world peace organization – were more global than Churchill's. Further Allied negotiations concerning the post-war balance took place at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. both Churchill and new United States President Harry S. In the American view. Roosevelt's goals – military victory in both Europeand Asia. ensuring the survival of the British Empire. and at Yalta Roosevelt signed a separate deal with Stalin in regard of Asia and refused to support Churchill on the issues of Poland and the Reparations. the achievement of global American economic supremacy over the British Empire.Given the Russian historical experiences of frequent invasions and the immense death toll (estimated at 27 million) and the destruction the Soviet Union sustained during World War II. the Soviets' decision to prop up the Lublin government. the Soviet Union sought to increase security by dominating the internal affairs of countries that bordered it. In April 1945. The Western Allies were themselves deeply divided in their vision of the new post-war world. The differences between Roosevelt and Churchill led to several separate deals with the Soviets. In October 1944. whose relations with the Soviets were severed.
he reacted to the news calmly. One week after the end of the Potsdam Conference. In Allied-occupied Germany. Beginnings of the Eastern Bloc . At this conference Truman informed Stalin that the United States possessed a powerful new weapon. The 1945 Allied conference in San Francisco established the multi-national United Nations (UN) for the maintenance of world peace. the Soviets effectively occupied Eastern Europe. Shortly after the attacks. Harry S. At the Potsdam Conference. Moreover. Stalin protested to US officials when Truman offered the Soviets little real influence in occupied Japan. the US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. the UN was essentially converted into an inactive forum for exchanging polemical rhetoric. given that the Soviets' own rival program was in place. Britain and France established zones of occupation and a loose framework for four-power control. Potsdam Conference and defeat of Japan Winston Churchill. Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference. the participants' mounting antipathy and bellicose language served to confirm their suspicions about each others' hostile intentions and entrench their positions. serious differences emerged over the future development of Germany and eastern Europe. Accordingly. while strong US and Western allied forces remained in Western Europe. which started in late July after Germany's surrender. United States. The Soviet leader said he was pleased by the news and expressed the hope that the weapon would be used against Japan. the Soviet Union. 1945. and the Soviets regarded it almost exclusively as a propaganda tribune.Following the Allies' May 1945 victory. Stalin was aware that the Americans were working on the atomic bomb and. but the enforcement capacity of its Security Council was effectively paralyzed by individual members' ability to use veto power.
the People's Republic of Bulgaria. but also adopted the brutal methods employed by Joseph Stalin and Soviet secret police to suppress real and potential opposition. These included eastern Poland (incorporated into two different SSRs). Latvia (which became the Latvian SSR). the People's Republic of Poland. During the final stages of World War II. such as East Germany. The Soviet-style regimes that arose in the Bloc not only reproduced Soviet command economies. and went on to occupy the large swath of Korean territory located north of the 38th parallel. Estonia (which became the Estonian SSR). Lithuania (which became the Lithuanian SSR).Post-war territorial changes in Eastern Europe and the formation of the Eastern Bloc. the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. . the People's Republic of Hungary. the Soviet Union laid the foundation for the Eastern Bloc by directly annexing several countries as Soviet Socialist Republics that were initially (and effectively) ceded to it by Nazi Germany in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. part of eastern Finland (which became the Karelo-Finnish SSR) and eastern Romania (which became the Moldavian SSR). the People's Republic of Romania and the People's Republic of Albania. In Asia. the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war. The Eastern European territories liberated from the Nazis and occupied by the Soviet armed forces were added to the Eastern Bloc by converting them into satellite states.
As Byrnes admitted a month later. Stalin's strategy matched that of dealing with domestic pre-war rivals: they were removed from power. the British War Cabinet's Joint Planning Staff Committee developed Operation Unthinkable. was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible. a plan "to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire". George F. "The nub of our program was to win the German people [. and became the basis for US strategy toward the Soviet Union for the duration of the Cold War. and in several instances.. there existed a Soviet threat to Western Europe. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was concerned that. Tensions build In February 1946. former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill delivered his famous "Iron Curtain" speech in Fulton. James F.As part of consolidating Stalin's control over the Eastern Bloc. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow helped to articulate the US government's increasingly hard line against the Soviets. whom he accused of establishing an "iron curtain" from "Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic". Missouri. led by Lavrentiy Beria. the Soviet side produced the Novikov telegram.]" A few weeks after the release of this "Long Telegram". the NKVD.] it was a battle between us and Russia over minds [. Byrnes delivered a speech in Germany repudiating the Morgenthau Plan (a proposal to partition and de-industrialize post-war Germany) and warning the Soviets that the US intended to maintain a military presence in Europe indefinitely. it portrayed the US as being in the grip of monopoly capitalists who were building up military capability "to prepare the conditions for winning world supremacy in a new war". Containment through the Korean War (1947–53) Cominform and the Tito–Stalin split . imprisoned. 1946. given the enormous size of Soviet forces deployed in Europe at the end of the war. The plan.. sent by the Soviet ambassador to the US but commissioned and "co-authored" by Vyacheslav Molotov. however. In April–May 1945. On September 6.. That September. put on trial. The speech called for an Anglo-American alliance against the Soviets. When the slightest stirrings of independence emerged in the Bloc. supervised the establishment of Soviet-style secret police systems in the Bloc that were supposed to crush anti-communist resistance. and the perception that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was unreliable.. executed.
. Truman's advisers urged him to take immediate steps to counter the Soviet Union's influence. when the Tito–Stalin split obliged its members to expel Yugoslavia. but ultimately held steady. the goal of which was to stop the spread of communism.In September 1947. which remained Communist but adopted a non-aligned position. Enunciation of the Truman Doctrine marked the beginning of a US bipartisan defense and foreign policy consensus between Republicans and Democrats focused on containment and deterrence that weakened during and after the Vietnam War. In February 1947. Truman delivered a speech that called for the allocation of $400 million to intervene in the war and unveiled the Truman Doctrine. US president Harry S. Even though the insurgents were helped by Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavia. Cominform faced an embarrassing setback the following June. citing Stalin's efforts (amid post-war confusion and collapse) to undermine the US by encouraging rivalries among capitalists that could precipitate another war. Main articles: Containment and Truman Doctrine By 1947. The American government's response to this announcement was the adoption of containment. the British government announced that it could no longer afford to finance the Greek monarchical military regime inits civil war against communist-led insurgents. which framed the conflict as a contest between free peoples and totalitarian regimes. the purpose of which was to enforce orthodoxy within the international communist movement and tighten political control over Sovietsatellites through coordination of communist parties in the Eastern Bloc. Containment and the Truman Doctrine European military alliances. US policymakers accused the Soviet Union of conspiring against the Greek royalists in an effort to expand Soviet influence. the Soviets created Cominform.
Marshall Plan and Czechoslovak coup d'état Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that receivedMarshall Plan aid. The red columns show the relative amount of total aid per nation. Britain. paid by the KGB and involved in its intelligence operations. including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants. European economic alliances Main articles: Marshall Plan and Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948 In early 1947. adhered to Moscow's line. as well as social democrats. the CND and the nuclear freeze movement. France and the United States unsuccessfully attempted to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union for a plan envisioning an economically self-sufficient Germany. Other critiques of consensus politics came from anti-Vietnam War activists. while European and American Communists.Moderate and conservative parties in Europe. although dissent began to appear after 1956. gave virtually unconditional support to the Western alliance. goods and infrastructure .
a pledge of economic assistance for all European countries willing to participate. the Greek military won its civil war. The Soviet Union's alternative to the Marshall plan. One month later. Increases occurred in intelligence and espionage activities. the only Eastern Bloc state that the Soviets had permitted to retain democratic structures. Soviet operatives executed a coup d'état of 1948 in Czechoslovakia. Eastern Bloc defections and diplomatic expulsions . The public brutality of the coup shocked Western powers more than any event up to that point. In June 1947. Stalin was also fearful of a reconstituted Germany. In early 1948. set in a motion a brief scare that war would occur and swept away the last vestiges of opposition to the Marshall Plan in the United States Congress. creating a unified Department of Defense. Berlin Blockade and airlift . and that the US was trying to buy a pro-US re-alignment of Europe. and Turkey. The twin policies of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan led to billions in economic and military aid for Western Europe. The Italian Christian Democrats defeated the powerful CommunistSocialist alliance in the elections of 1948. and the National Security Council. following reports of strengthening "reactionary elements".already removed by the Soviets. These would become the main bureaucracies for US policy in the Cold War. in accordance with the Truman Doctrine. his vision of a post-war Germany did not include the ability to rearm or pose any kind of threat to the Soviet Union. such as communist parties seizing control through revolutions or elections. The plan also stated that European prosperity was contingent upon German economic recovery. became known as the Molotov Plan (later institutionalized in January 1949 as the Comecon). The plan's aim was to rebuild the democratic and economic systems of Europe and to counter perceived threats to Europe's balance of power. which was purported to involve Soviet subsidies and trade with eastern Europe. Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947. including the Soviet Union. the United States enacted the Marshall Plan. Stalin believed that economic integration with the West would allow Eastern Bloc countries to escape Soviet control. Stalin therefore prevented Eastern Bloc nations from receiving Marshall Plan aid. the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Greece. With US assistance.
The United States. one of the first major crises of the Cold War. Main article: Berlin Blockade The United States and Britain merged their western German occupation zones into "Bizonia" (1 January 1947. Britain. New Zealand and several other countries began the massive "Berlin airlift". In May 1949. The Soviets mounted a public relations campaign against the policy change. NATO beginnings and Radio Free Europe . Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949). 300. preventing food. supplying West Berlin with food and other provisions. 1948 and produced a turnout of 86. in early 1948. which were held on December 5. In addition. France. As part of the economic rebuilding of Germany. April 1949). in accordance with the Marshall Plan. which supplied candy to German children. Once again the East Berlin communists attempted to disrupt the Berlin municipal elections (as they have done in the 1946 elections).000 Berliners demonstrated and urged the international airlift to continue. Canada. including the introduction of a new Deutsche Mark currency to replace the old Reichsmark currency that the Soviets had debased. Shortly thereafter. materials and supplies from arriving in West Berlin. they began to re-industrialize and rebuild the German economy. Australia. Stalin backed down and lifted the blockade. and the US accidentally created "Operation Vittles". representatives of a number of Western European governments and the United States announced an agreement for a merger of western German areas into a federal governmental system.3% and an overwhelming victory for the non-Communist parties. The results effectively divided the city into East and West versions of its former self.C-47s unloading at Tempelhof Airport in Berlin during the Berlin Blockade. later "Trizonia" with the addition of France's zone.
especially those who believed that the Cold War would eventually be fought by political rather than military means. mostly by the local communist party. a major propaganda effort begun in 1949 was Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. the first Soviet atomic device was detonated in Semipalatinsk.President Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment of 1949 with guests in the Oval Office. acting through the CIA. That August. the United States. an alternative to the controlled and party-dominated domestic press. funded a long . Media in the Eastern Bloc was an organ of the state.The Soviet Union proclaimed its zone of occupation in Germany the German Democratic Republic that October. The United States. Along with the broadcasts of the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Voice of America to Eastern Europe. Radio Free Europe was a product of some of the most prominent architects of America's early Cold War strategy. American policymakers. dedicated to bringing about the peaceful demise of the Communist system in the Eastern Bloc. Kennan. while print media was usually owned by political organizations. claiming labor exploitation and warmongering imperialism were inherent in the system. with radio and television organizations being state-owned. such as George F. completely reliant on and subservient to the communist party. Canada and eight other western European countries signed the North Atlantic Treaty of April 1949. Radio Free Europe attempted to achieve these goals by serving as a surrogate home radio station. Soviet propaganda used Marxist philosophy to attack capitalism. establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). including Kennan and John Foster Dulles.Kazakh SSR. France. Britain. acknowledged that the Cold War was in its essence a war of ideas. Following Soviet refusals to participate in a German rebuilding effort set forth by western European countries in 1948. Britain and France spearheaded the establishment of West Germany from the three Western zones of occupation in April 1949.the US.
and the Soviet Union promptly created an alliance with the newly formed People's Republic of China.list of projects to counter the Communist appeal among intellectuals in Europe and the developing world. though the Soviets were then boycotting meetings in protest that Taiwan and not Communist China held a permanent seat on the Council. New Zealand and other countries joined to stop the invasion. thereby guaranteeing the United States a number of long-term military bases. in 1955. In NSC-68. the US worked for the rearmament of West Germany and. Canada. France. United States officials moved thereafter to expand containment into Asia. in order to counter revolutionary nationalist movements. the UN Security Council backed the defense of South Korea. South Africa. fighting against the restoration of Europe's colonial empires in South-East Asia and elsewhere. To Joseph Stalin's surprise. . and Latin America. Chinese Civil War and SEATO In 1949. the Netherlands. a secret 1950 document. New Zealand. the Philippines. Africa. the Truman administration quickly moved to escalate and expand the containment policy. Kim Il-Sung's North Korean People's Army invaded South Korea. In the early 1950s. Confronted with the communist revolution in China and the end of the American atomic monopoly in 1949. by then in a government post. often led by communist parties financed by the USSR. Australia. the US formalized a series of alliances with Japan. had made an unsuccessful proposal to allow the reunification of a neutral Germany to prevent West Germany's incorporation into NATO. the United Kingdom. In June 1950. Belgium. Thailand and the Philippines (notably ANZUS in 1951 and SEATO in 1954). Mao Zedong's People's Liberation Army defeated Chiang Kai-shek's United Statesbacked Kuomintang (KMT) Nationalist Government in China. secured its full membership of NATO. Beria. Australia. Chiang and his KMT government retreated to the island of Taiwan. A UN force of personnel from South Korea. Korean War One of the more significant impacts of containment was the outbreak of the Korean War. In May 1953. the National Security Council proposed to reinforce pro-Western alliance systems and quadruple spending on defense. In the early 1950s (a period sometimes known as the "Pactomania"). Turkey. the United States.
Among other effects. South Korea subsequently fell under a period of military rule that lasted until the re-establishment of a multi-party system in 1987.General Douglas MacArthur. Eisenhower and De-Stalinization In 1953. and the Armistice was approved only in July 1953. and Eisenhower moved to reduce military spending by a third while continuing to fight the Cold War effectively. such as Great Britain. thecorrupt American-backed strongman Syngman Rhee pursued a comparable system of totalitarian rule. Crisis and escalation (1953–62) Khrushchev. Albeit Rhee was overthrown after popular protests against his rigged re-election victory in 1960. North Korean leader Kim Il Sung created a highly centralized and brutal dictatorship. observes the naval shelling of Incheon from the USS Mt. . Eisenhower was inaugurated president that January. During the last 18 months of the Truman administration. UN Command CiC (seated). 15 September 1950. after Stalin's death. Dwight D. was divided for and against the war. according himself unlimited power and generating a formidable cult of personality. hoping to unite Korea under United Nations auspices and withdrawal of all foreign forces. The strong opposition to the war often strained Anglo-American relations. changes in political leadership on both sides shifted the dynamic of the Cold War. For these reasons British officials sought a speedy end to the conflict. Public opinion in countries involved. the American defense budget had quadrupled. and even nuclear war. In the South. Stalin insisted that they continue fighting. Many feared an escalation into a general war with Communist China. the Korean War galvanised NATO to develop a military structure. McKinley. Even though the Chinese and North Koreans were exhausted by the war and were prepared to end it by late 1952.
In response to a popular uprising. The Soviets. but rather about the historically determined victory of communism over capitalism. consumer goods would be abundant. On February 25. John Foster Dulles. shocking everyone present. 1956. in 1955. the "construction of a communist society" in the USSR would be completed "in the main". the situation in Europe remained an uneasy armed truce. history is on our side.After the death of Joseph Stalin. As part of a campaign of de-Stalinization. threatening a severe US response to any Soviet aggression. The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 occurred shortly after Khrushchev arranged the removal of Hungary's Stalinist leader Mátyás Rákosi. for example. allowed Eisenhower to face down Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East during the 1956 Suez Crisis. within a decade its housing shortage would disappear. who had already created a network of mutual assistance treaties in the Eastern Bloc by 1949. We will bury you" expression. while addressing Western ambassadors at a reception at the Polish embassy in Moscow. In 1961. Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution Map of the Warsaw Pact countries While Stalin's death in 1953 slightly relaxed tensions. established a formal alliance therein. he declared that the only way to reform and move away from Stalin's policies would be to acknowledge errors made in the past. Dulles also enunciated the doctrine of "massive retaliation". and within two decades. Possessing nuclear superiority. Khrushchev declared that even if the USSR was behind the West. the new regime . initiated a "New Look" for the containment strategy. Khrushchev shocked delegates to the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party by cataloguing and denouncing Stalin's crimes. the Warsaw Pact. Eisenhower's secretary of state. calling for a greater reliance on nuclear weapons against US enemies in wartime. Nikita Khrushchev became the Soviet leader following the deposition and execution of Lavrentiy Beria and the pushing aside of rivals Georgy Malenkovand Vyacheslav Molotov. He later claimed that he had not been talking about nuclear war. Khrushchev used his famous "Whether you like it or not. On November 18. 1956.
This formulation modified the Stalin-era Soviet stance. capable of wiping out any American or European city. with tensions henceforth based primarily on clashing geopolitical objectives rather than ideology. Hungarian leader Imre Nagy and others were executed following secret trials. Khrushchev rejected Stalin's belief in the inevitability of war. Thousands of Hungarians were arrested. and declared his new goal was to be "peaceful coexistence". declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free elections. the "battle for men's minds" between two systems of social organization that Kennedy spoke of in 1961 was largely over. where international class struggle meant the two opposing camps were on an inevitable collision course where Communism would triumph through global war. imprisoned and deported to the Soviet Union. particularly in Western Europe. The events in Hungary produced ideological fractures within the Communist parties of the world. However.formally disbanded the secret police. Berlin Ultimatum and European integration . Khrushchev openly and repeatedly threatened the West with nuclear annihilation. The communist parties in the west would never recover from the effect the Hungarian Revolution had on their membership.000 Hungarians fled Hungary in the chaos. From 1957 through 1961. such as the Yugoslavian politician Milovan Djilas who shortly after the revolution was crushed said that "The wound which the Hungarian Revolution inflicted on communism can never be completely healed" America's pronouncements concentrated on American strength abroad and the success of liberal capitalism. and approximately 200. He claimed that Soviet missile capabilities were far superior to those of the United States. a fact that was immediately recognized by some. by the late 1960s. now. The Soviet army invaded. However. peace would allow capitalism to collapse on its own. which remained for decades until Gorbachev's later "new thinking" envisioning peaceful coexistence as an end in itself rather than a form of class struggle. with great decline in membership as many in both western and communist countries felt disillusioned by the brutal Soviet response. as well as giving the Soviets time to boost their military capabilities.
demilitarized "free city". Khrushchev made an unsuccessful attempt to turn all of Berlin into an independent. or he would transfer control of Western access rights to the East Germans. More broadly. and militarily. one hallmark of the 1950s was the beginning of European integration—a fundamental by-product of the Cold War that Truman and Eisenhower promoted politically. Worldwide competition . giving the United States. Great Britain. fearful that an independent Europe would forge a separate détente with the Soviet Union. after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and before the official Sino-Soviet split of 1961 During November 1958." NATO formally rejected the ultimatum in mid-December and Khrushchev withdrew it in return for a Geneva conference on the German question. and France a sixmonth ultimatum to withdraw their troops from the sectors they still occupied in West Berlin. Every time I want to make the West scream. but which later administrations viewed ambivalently. Khrushchev earlier explained to Mao Zedong that "Berlin is the testicles of the West. I squeeze on Berlin. which would use this to exacerbate Western disunity.The maximum territorial extent of countries in the world under Soviet influence. economically.
notably Guatemala. Both sides were selling armaments to gain influence. a military junta headed by Carlos Castillo . The shah's policies included the banning of the communist Tudeh Party and general suppression of political dissent by SAVAK. In Guatemala. Churchill told the United States that Mosaddegh was "increasingly turning towards communism" and was moving Iran towards the Soviet sphere. In this context.1961 Soviet postage stampdemanding freedom for African nations. In 1953. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. The popularly-elected and non-aligned Mosaddegh had been a Middle Eastern nemesis of Britain since nationalizing the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1951. The United States made use of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to do away with a string of unfriendly Third World governments and to support allied ones. a covert operation aimed at the overthrow of the Iranian Prime Minister. the United States and the Soviet Union increasingly competed for influence by proxy in the Third World as decolonization gained momentum in the 1950s and early 1960s. Nationalist movements in some countries and regions. Indonesia and Indochina were often allied with communist groups. a CIA-backed military coup ousted the left-wing President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. additionally. the Soviets saw continuing losses by imperial powers as presaging the eventual victory of their ideology. President Eisenhower's Central Intelligence Agency implemented Operation Ajax. 1961 Soviet stamp commemorating Patrice Lumumba. prime minister of the Republic of the Congo. The pro-Western shah. assumed control as an autocratic monarch. or perceived in the West to be allied with communists. The post-Arbenz government. the shah's domestic security and intelligence agency. Mohammad Mosaddegh.
In the ensuing Congo Crisis. Worn down by the communist guerrilla war for Vietnamese independence and handed a watershed defeat by communist Vietminh rebels at the 1954 Battle of Điện Biên Phủ. Meanwhile. the CIA-backed Colonel Mobutu quickly mobilized his forces to seize power through a military coup d'état. the British imprisoned the PPP's leadership and maneuvered the organization into a divisive rupture in 1955. In the Republic of the Congo. Embarrassed by the landslide electoral victory of Jagan's allegedly Marxist party. Peace accords signed in Geneva left Vietnam divided between a pro-Soviet administration in North Vietnam and a proWestern administration in South Vietnam at the 17th parallel north. Independence movements in the Third World transformed the post-war order into a more pluralistic world of decolonized African and Middle Eastern nations and of rising nationalism in Asia and Latin America.Armas. set up a National Committee of Defense Against Communism. Eisenhower's United States sent economic aid and military advisers to strengthen South Vietnam's pro-Western regime against communist efforts to destabilize it. Africa. In British Guiana. Many emerging nations of Asia. engineering a split between Jagan and his PPP colleagues. the United States pressured the British to withhold Guyana's independence until an alternative to Jagan could be identified. Lumumba called for KasaVubu's dismissal instead. the leftist People's Progressive Party (PPP) candidate Cheddi Jagan won the position of chief minister in a colonially-administered election in 1953. and decreed a Preventive Penal Law Against Communism at the request of the United States. . and brought into office. and Latin America rejected the pressure to choose sides in the East-West competition. Jagan again won the colonial elections in 1957 and 1961. despite Britain's shift to a reconsideration of its view of the left-wing Jagan as a Soviet-style communist at this time. the CIAcultivated President Joseph Kasa-Vubu ordered the dismissal of the democratically-elected Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and the Lumumba cabinet in September. returned nationalized American property. at the Bandung Conference in Indonesia. The consensus reached at Bandung culminated with the creation of the Belgrade-headquartered Non-Aligned Movement in 1961. dozens of Third World governments resolved to stay out of the Cold War. the French accepted a negotiated abandonment of their colonial stake in Vietnam. Khrushchev broadened Moscow's policy to establish ties with India and other key neutral states. supported. In 1955. newly independent from Belgium since June 1960. but was quickly forced to resign from power after Britain's suspension of the still-dependent nation's constitution. Between 1954 and 1961.
Mao had defended Stalin when Khrushchev attacked him after his death in 1956. Khrushchev made many desperate attempts to reconstitute the Sino-Soviet alliance. the United States and the USSR pursued nuclear rearmament and developed long-range weapons with which they could strike the territory of the other. the Soviets successfully launched the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and in October. most notably the breakdown of the Sino-Soviet alliance. and treated the new Soviet leader as a superficial upstart. referred to the Chinese leader as a "lunatic on a throne". the Soviets focused on a bitter rivalry with Mao's China for leadership of the global communist movement. ICBMs Charting the progress of the Space Racein 1957-1975. The launch of Sputnik inaugurated the Space Race. accusing him of having lost his revolutionary edge. Further on." Cuban Revolution and the Bay of Pigs Invasion . The period after 1956 was marked by serious setbacks for the Soviet Union. Khrushchev. Sputnik. In August 1957. The Chinese-Soviet animosity spilled out in an intra-communist propaganda war. disturbed by Mao‘s glib attitude toward nuclear war. On the nuclear weapons front. After this. launched the first Earth satellite. space race. beginning the Sino-Soviet split. This culminated in the Apollo Moon landings. which astronaut Frank Borman later described as "just a battle in the Cold War. For his part. but Mao considered it useless and denied any proposal.Sino-Soviet split.
In January 1961. Castro responded by embracing Marxism-Leninism. but President Eisenhower deliberately left the capital to avoid meeting Cuba's young revolutionary leader Fidel Castro during the latter's trip to Washington in April. Eisenhower formally severed relations with the Cuban government. the 26th of July Movement seized power in January 1959. the administration of newly-elected American President John F. Diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States continued for some time after Batista's fall. just prior to leaving office. on October 27. toppling President Fulgencio Batista. Eisenhower's officials were not sure as to whether Castro was a communist. during the Berlin Crisis of 1961 . whose unpopular regime had been denied arms by the Eisenhower administration. Kennedy mounted an unsuccessful CIA-organized ship-borne invasion of the island at Playa Girón and Playa Larga in Las Villas Province — a failure that publicly humiliated the United States.Flag of the 26th July Movement. Berlin Crisis of 1961 Soviet tanks face US tanks at Checkpoint Charlie. In April 1961. In Cuba. and the Soviet Union pledged to provide support. but hostile toward the Cubans' efforts to decrease their economic reliance on the United States. leaving Vice President Richard Nixon to conduct the meeting in his place.
East Germany erected a barbed-wire barrier that would eventually be expanded through construction into the Berlin Wall. That June. the Soviet Union issued a new ultimatumdemanding the withdrawal of Allied forces from West Berlin. such that nearly 20% of East Germany's population had migrated to West Germany by 1961. and on August 13. devised under the Kennedy administration in 1961. Continuing to seek ways to oust Castro following the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Cuban Missile Crisis and Khrushchev ouster A U. effectively closing the loophole. Preparations to install Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba were undertaken in response. Kennedy and his administration experimented with various ways of covertly facilitating the overthrow of the Cuban government. .Main articles: Berlin Crisis of 1961. Navy P-2 of VP-18 flying over a Soviet freighter during the Cuban Missile Crisis. where the four occupying World War II powers governed movement. and Eastern Bloc emigration and defection The Berlin Crisis of 1961 was the last major incident in the Cold War regarding the status of Berlin and post–World War II Germany. In February 1962. the Soviet approach to restricting emigration movement was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. possibly involving the American military — and yet one more Kennedy-ordered operation to assassinate Castro. Berlin Wall. By the early 1950s. However.S. The emigration resulted in a massive "brain drain" from East Germany to West Germany of younger educated professionals. hundreds of thousands of East Germans annually emigrated to West Germany through a "loophole" in the system that existed between East and West Berlin. Khrushchev learned of the American plans regarding Cuba: a "Cuban project" — approved by the CIA and stipulating the overthrow of the Cuban government in October. Significant hopes were pinned on a covert program named the Cuban Project. The request was rebuffed.
and ultimately responded to the installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba with a naval blockade and presented an ultimatum to the Soviets. Kennedy considered various reactions. It further demonstrated the concept of mutually assured destruction that neither nuclear power was prepared to use nuclear weapons fearing total destruction via nuclear retaliation. the Antarctic Treaty. a public humiliation for Marxism-Leninism. but allowed him a peaceful retirement. The Cuban Missile Crisis (October–November 1962) brought the world closer to nuclear war than ever before. and the Soviet Union removed the missiles in return for an American pledge not to invade Cuba again. In 1964. Khrushchev backed down from a confrontation. he was also credited with ruining Soviet agriculture and bringing the world to the brink of nuclear war. Khrushchev's Kremlin colleagues managed to oust him. . although the Cold War's first arms control agreement. had come into force in 1961. Khrushchev had become an international embarrassment when he authorized construction of the Berlin Wall. The aftermath of the crisis led to the first efforts in the nuclear arms race at nuclear disarmament and improving relations.Alarmed. Accused of rudeness and incompetence. Confrontation through détente (1962–79) The United States reached the moon in 1969—a milestone in the space race.
with a crisis occurring during Charles de Gaulle's presidency of France from 1958 onwards. Soviet leaders such as Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin embraced the notion of détente. French NATO withdrawal The unity of NATO was breached early in its history. less-powerful countries had more room to assert their independence and often showed themselves resistant to pressure from either superpower. Cold War participants struggled to adjust to a new. Meanwhile. Western Europe and Japan rapidly recovered from the destruction of World War II and sustained strong economic growth through the 1950s and 1960s. more complicated pattern of international relations in which the world was no longer divided into two clearly opposed blocs. while Eastern Bloc economies stagnated. De Gaulle protested at the United States' strong role in the organization and what he perceived as a special relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom. . with per capita GDPs approaching those of the United States. In a memorandum sent to President Dwight D. From the beginning of the post-war period. During this period. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan on 17 September 1958. where France was waging a counter-insurgency and sought NATO assistance.United States Navy F-4 Phantom IIintercepts a Soviet Tupolev Tu-95 D aircraft in the early 1970s In the course of the 1960s and 1970s. most notably French Algeria. As a result of the 1973 oil crisis. Moscow was forced to turn its attention inward to deal with the Soviet Union's deep-seated domestic economic problems. and also for the expansion of NATO's coverage to include geographical areas of interest to France. he argued for the creation of a tripartite directorate that would put France on an equal footing with the United States and the United Kingdom. combined with the growing influence of Third World alignments such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the NonAligned Movement.
the possibility of a multiparty government. including an estimated 70. which described increasing freedom of the press. During the speech. . together with most of their Warsaw Pact allies. Brezhnev Doctrine Leonid Brezhnev and Richard Nixonduring Brezhnev's June 1973 visit to Washington. this was a high-water mark in détente between the United States and the Soviet Union. freedom of speech and freedom of movement. limiting the power of the secret police and potentially withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact. during a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers' Party one month after the invasion of Czechoslovakia. a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia called the Prague Spring took place that included "Action Program" of liberalizations. Brezhnev stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism. with the total eventually reaching 300. it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned. invaded Czechoslovakia.000. in which he claimed the right to violate the sovereignty of any country attempting to replace Marxism-Leninism with capitalism.Considering the response given to be unsatisfactory. Brezhnev outlined the Brezhnev Doctrine.000 Czechs initially fleeing. Czechoslovakia invasion In 1968. the Soviet army. In answer to the Prague Spring. along with an economic emphasis on consumer goods. but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries. Romania and China. and from Western European communist parties. In September 1968. The invasion sparked intense protests from Yugoslavia. The invasion was followed by a wave of emigration. de Gaulle began the development of an independent French nuclear deterrent and in 1966 withdrew from NATO's military structures and expelled NATO troops from French soil.
Escalating the scale of American intervention in the ongoing conflict between Ngô Đình Diệm's South Vietnamese government and the communist National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) insurgents opposing it.000 troops in Southeast Asia to defeat the NLF and their North Vietnamese allies in the Vietnam War. which were facing a declining standard of living contrasting with the prosperity of West Germany and the rest of Western Europe. The PRD's activists were violently harassed by the Dominican police and armed forces. Johnson stationed some 575. the hardline anti-communist General Suharto wrested control of the state from his predecessor Sukarno in an attempt to establish a "New Order". Johnson landed some 22. handed victory to the conservativeJoaquín Balaguer. the military orchestrated the mass killing of an estimated half-million members and sympathizers of the Indonesian Communist Party and other leftist organizations.The doctrine found its origins in the failures of Marxism-Leninism in states like Poland. during the occupation. by 1975.S. Hungary and East Germany. Johnson (right) during the Glassboro Summit Conference In late April 1965. did not actively campaign.000 troops in the Dominican Republic for a one-year occupation of the republic in an invasion codenamed Operation Power Pack. his formally runningDominican Revolutionary Party (PRD) opponent. President Lyndon B. President Lyndon B. Presidential elections held in 1966. In Indonesia. citing the threat of the emergence of a Cuban-style revolution in Latin America. Third World escalations Alexei Kosygin (left) next to U. From 1965 to 1966. but his costly policy weakened the US economy and. . ultimately culminated in what most of the world saw as a humiliating defeat of the world's most powerful superpower at the hands of one of the world's poorest nations. former President Juan Bosch. Although Balaguer enjoyed a real base of support from sectors of the elites as well as peasants.
which (sometimes accurately) perceived Soviet or Cuban support behind these opposition movements. creating the socialist Somali Democratic Republic. was a troublesome client. a radical group of Ethiopian army officers led by the proSoviet Mengistu Haile Mariam. Four years later. Jamaica began pursuing closer relations with the Cuban government as a result of Michael Manley's election in 1972. and Paraguay to suppress leftist dissent — was backed by the United States. Bolivia. the Socialist Party candidate Salvador Allende won the presidential election of 1970. General Augusto Pinochet carried out a violent coup against the government on September 11. 1973 and quickly consolidated all political power as a military dictator. Violence ensued.In Chile. the continent-wide South American Operation Condor — employed by dictators in Argentina. and the fitting out of a private mercernary army against the Manley government. rumors of imminent Soviet intervention on the Egyptians' behalf during the 1973 Yom Kippur War brought about a massive American mobilization that threatened to wreck détente. Although pre-Sadat Egypt had been the largest recipient of Soviet aid in the Middle East. with a reluctant Soviet Union feeling obliged to assist in both the 1967 Six-Day War (with advisers and technicians) and the War of Attrition (with pilots and aircraft) against pro-Western Israel. Backed by the CIA. Somali army officers led by Mohamed Siad Barre carried out a bloodless coup in 1969. Chile. Additionally. which received the bulk of its arms and economic assistance from the USSR. The United States' covert response included financing Manley's political opponents. Uruguay. The Soviet Union vowed to support Somalia. When fighting between the Somalis and Ethiopians broke out in the 1977-1978 Somali- . the Soviets were also successful in establishing close relations with communist South Yemen. the pro-American Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie was overthrown in a 1974 coup by the Derg. who built up relations with the Cubans and Soviets. Brazil. Egypt. as well as the nationalist governments of Algeria and Iraq. Allende's reforms of the economy were rolled back and leftist opponents were killed or detained in internment camps under the Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional(DINA). Displeasing the United States. Indirect Soviet assistance to the Palestinian side of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict included support for Yasser Arafat's Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). the Middle East continued to be a source of contention. Despite the beginning of an Egyptian shift from a pro-Soviet to a pro-American orientation in 1972 (under Egypt's new leader Anwar El Sadat). the instigation of mutiny in the Jamaican army. Moreover. In Africa. becoming the first democratically elected Marxist to become president of a country in the Americas.
Cuban troops took part in the war on the side of the Ethiopians. Suharto's Indonesia invaded in December — the beginning of an occupation that would last a quarter-century. where Angolan rebels had waged a multi-faction independence war against Portuguese rule since 1961. and several other African governments also supported a third faction. Barre lost his Soviet support and allied with the United States. the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). In Southeast Asia. bolstered by Cuban personnel and Soviet assistance. and the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA). the Cuban government sent its troops to fight alongside the MPLA. In Africa. As a result of the Sino–Soviet split. eventually gained the upper hand. The Chinese had sought improved relations with the Americans in order to gain advantage over the Soviets as well. . The United States. the People's Republic of China. the apartheid government of South Africa. and United States President Richard Nixon decided to use the conflict to shift the balance of power towards the West in the Cold War. the colony of East Timor unilaterally declared independence under the leftwing Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Fretilin) in November 1975. Apartheid South Africa sent troops to support the UNITA. backed by the United States. Without bothering to consult the Soviets in advance. Supported by Australia and the United States.EthiopianOgaden War. tensions along the Chinese–Soviet border reached their peak in 1969. backed by the Cubans and Soviets. and Mobutu's government in Zaire. but the MPLA. a two-decade civil war replaced the anticolonial struggle as fighting erupted between the communist People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). Sino-American re-approachment Richard Nixon meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. The 1974 Portuguese Carnation Revolution against the authoritarian Estado Novo returned Portugal to a multi-party system and facilitated the independence of the Portuguese colonies Angola and East Timor.
As a result of their meetings. Nixon announced a stunning rapprochement with Mao's China by traveling to Beijing and meeting with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai. in Vienna Main articles: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. Nixon met with Soviet leaders. tensions were beginning to ease. Meanwhile. Nixon and Brezhnev proclaimed a new era of "peaceful coexistence" and established the groundbreaking new policy of détente (or cooperation) between the two superpowers. which was declining in part because of heavy military expenditures. Brezhnev. including agreements for increased trade. the Vietnam War both weakened America's influence in the Third World and cooled relations with Western Europe. meanwhile. At this time. Helsinki Accords. détente would replace the hostility of the Cold War and the two countries would live mutually. Between 1972 and 1974. Other agreements were concluded to stabilize the situation in Europe. These aimed to limit the development of costly anti-ballistic missiles and nuclear missiles. 1979. Although indirect conflict between Cold War powers continued through the late 1960s and early 1970s. and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. . including Brezhnev in Moscow. Meanwhile. These Strategic Arms Limitation Talks resulted in two landmark arms control treaties: SALT I. and détente Leonid Brezhnev and Jimmy Carter sign SALT II treaty. the USSR achieved rough nuclear parity with the United States. the two sides also agreed to strengthen their economic ties. Nixon. the first comprehensive limitation pact signed by the two superpowers. Brezhnev attempted to revive the Soviet economy. June 18. which banned the development of systems designed to intercept incoming missiles. these developments coincided with the "Ostpolitik" of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt. and Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Following his China visit.In February 1972.
Second Cold War (1979–85) The term second Cold War has been used by some historians to refer to the period of intensive reawakening of Cold War tensions and conflicts in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Asked by the interviewer if he had regrets. Soviet war in Afghanistan During December 1979. Although President Jimmy Carter tried to place another limit on the arms race with a SALT II agreement in 1979. his efforts were undermined by the other events that year. including the Iranian Revolution and the Nicaraguan Revolution. which both ousted pro-US regimes. Chile. Indirect conflict between the superpowers continued through this period of détente in the Third World." Carter responded to the Soviet intervention by withdrawing the SALT II treaty from the Senate.000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in order to support the Marxist government formed by ex-Prime-minister Nur Muhammad Taraki. led by Yuri Andropov. and Angola. President Jimmy Carter's National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski stated that the president had already signed a directive to provide aid to the anticommunist mujahideen insurgency against the pro-Soviet PDPA government of Afghanistan in July. and demanding a significant increase in military spending. and further announced that the United . some six months prior to the Soviet military intervention. approximately 75. who were criticising the Soviet leadership in harsh terms. and his retaliation against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in December. Ethiopia.culminating in the Helsinki Accords signed at the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe in 1975. continued to persecute distinguished Soviet personalities such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov. the KGB. imposing embargoes on grain and technology shipments to the USSR. given that "the Soviets justified their intervention by asserting that they intended to fight against a secret involvement of the United States in Afghanistan" and that "people didn't believe them. Tensions greatly increased between the major powers with both sides becoming more militaristic. assassinated that September by one of his party rivals. In a post-Afghan War interview conducted by French weekly newsmagazine Le Nouvel Observateur. particularly during political crises in the Middle East. Late 1970s deterioration of relations In the 1970s.
What do you think of that?" In 1980. his basic expectation in relation to the Cold War. "It is this: We win and they lose. has almost no cards to play. formulated an additional right to subvert existing communist governments. Reagan's anti-communist position had developed into a stance known as the new Reagan Doctrine — which. vowing to increase military spending and confront the Soviets everywhere. four years prior to becoming president. the USSR has many.." By early 1985. Besides continuing Carters' policy of supporting the . Allen. in a conversation with Richard V. in addition to containment. Ronald Reagan bluntly stated." One mode of American support for the Iranians consisted of secret arms sales. 1981 In January 1977. "My idea of American policy toward the Soviet Union is simple. Despite anti-American sentiment in Iran as a result of the 1979 Iranian Revolution against the pro-American shah and an accompanying breakdown in relations with the new Ayatollah Khomeini government over the Iran hostage crisis. the Reagan administration reached out to the anti-communist Khomeini in an effort to recruit the theocracy into the American camp in the early 1980s. Then-CIA director William Casey described the Khomeini government as "faltering and [possibly] moving toward a moment of truth.States would boycott the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics. Both Reagan and new British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher denounced the Soviet Union and its ideology. Reagan and Thatcher Thatcher's Ministry meets with Reagan's Cabinet at the White House." he said.S. Reagan labeled the Soviet Union an "evil empire" and predicted that Communism would be left on the "ash heap of history". Ronald Reagan defeated Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election. the CIA passed an extensive list of Iranian communists and other leftists secretly working in the Iranian government to Khomeini's administration. and some would say simplistic.. A Tower Commission report later observed that the list was utilized to take "measures. The U. He described the Soviet incursion as "the most serious threat to the peace since the Second World War". including mass executions that virtually eliminated the pro-Soviet infrastructure in Iran. In 1983.
the CIA encouraged anti-communist Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency to train Muslims from around the world to participate in the jihad against the Soviet Union. In December 1981. Reagan imposed economic sanctions on Poland in response. 1945–2006 . Poland's Wojciech Jaruzelski reacted to the crisis by imposing a period of martial law.Islamic opponents of the Soviet Union and the Soviet-backed PDPA government in Afghanistan. Additionally. representing a catastrophe for the Soviet economy. the Kremlin's top ideologist. Polish Solidarity movement and martial law Pope John Paul II provided a moral focus for anti-communism. for fear it might lead to heavy economic sanctions. advised Soviet leaders not to intervene if Poland fell under the control of Solidarity. a visit to his native Poland in 1979 stimulated a religious and nationalist resurgence centered on the Solidarity movementthat galvanized opposition and may have led to his attempted assassination two years later. Mikhail Suslov. Soviet and US military and economic issues US and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles. the CIA also sought to weaken the Soviet Union itself by promoting political Islam in the majority-Muslim Central Asian Soviet Union.
. However. and in the sheer size of their military–industrial base. Moscow had built up a military that consumed as much as 25 percent of the Soviet Union's gross national product at the expense of consumer goods and investment in civilian sectors. which saw at least a decade of economic stagnation during the late Brezhnev years. carrying the Strategic Defense Initiative sensor experiment "Delta Star". the quantitative advantages held by the Soviet military often concealed areas where the Eastern Bloc dramatically lagged behind the West. Soviet investment in the defense sector was not driven by military necessity. The Soviet Armed Forces became the largest in the world in terms of the numbers and types of weapons they possessed.Delta 183 launch vehicle lifts off. in the number of troops in their ranks. Soviet spending on the arms race and other Cold War commitments both caused and exacerbated deepseated structural problems in the Soviet system. but in large part by the interests of massive party and state bureaucracies dependent on the sector for their own power and privileges.
dubbed "Star Wars" by the media. which affected the Soviet Union. the largest peacetime defense buildup in United States history. After Reagan's military buildup. and announced his experimental Strategic Defense Initiative. By the early 1980s. At the same time. were already a heavy burden for the Soviet economy. along with inefficient planned manufacturing and collectivized agriculture. Reagan persuaded Saudi Arabia to increase oil production. President Carter began massively building up the United States military. Soon after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. which increased the military spending from 5. NATO decided. This buildup was accelerated by the Reagan administration. Tensions continued intensifying in the early 1980s when Reagan revived the B-1 Lancer program that was canceled by the Carter administration. to deploy MGM-31 Pershing and cruise missiles in Europe.5 percent in 1986. This deployment would have placed missiles just 10 minutes' striking distance from Moscow. the USSR had built up a military arsenal and army surpassing that of the United States.After ten year old American Samantha Smith wrote a letter to Yuri Andropov expressing her fear of nuclear war. With the background of a buildup in tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States.3 percent of GNP in 1981 to 6. and the deployment of Soviet RSD-10 Pioneer ballistic missiles targeting Western Europe. under the impetus of the Carter presidency. as oil was the main source of Soviet export . the Soviet Union did not respond by further building its military because the enormous military expenses. installed US cruise missiles in Europe. produced LGM-118 Peacekeepers. primarily West Germany. even as other non-OPEC nations were increasing production. a defense program to shoot down missiles in mid-flight. Andropov invited Smith to the Soviet Union. These developments contributed to the 1980s oil glut.
revenues. Issues with command economics, oil prices decreases and large military expenditures gradually brought the Soviet economy to stagnation. On September 1, 1983, the Soviet Union shot down Korean Air Lines Flight 007, a Boeing 747 with 269 people aboard, including sitting Congressman Larry McDonald, when it violated Soviet airspace just past the west coast of Sakhalin Island near Moneron Island —an act which Reagan characterized as a "massacre". This act increased support for military deployment, overseen by Reagan, which stood in place until the later accords between Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev. The Able Archer 83 exercise in November 1983, a realistic simulation of a coordinated NATO nuclear release, has been called most dangerous moment since the Cuban Missile Crisis, as the Soviet leadership keeping a close watch on it considered a nuclear attack to be imminent. US domestic public concerns about intervening in foreign conflicts persisted from the end of the Vietnam War. The Reagan administration emphasized the use of quick, low-cost counterinsurgency tactics to intervene in foreign conflicts. In 1983, the Reagan administration intervened in the multisided Lebanese Civil War, invaded Grenada, bombed Libya and backed the Central American Contras, anti-communist paramilitaries seeking to overthrow the Sovietaligned Sandinista government in Nicaragua. While Reagan's interventions against Grenada and Libya were popular in the United States, his backing of the Contra rebels was mired in controversy. Meanwhile, the Soviets incurred high costs for their own foreign interventions. Although Brezhnev was convinced in 1979 that the Soviet war in Afghanistan would be brief, Muslim guerrillas, aided by the US and other countries, waged a fierce resistance against the invasion. The Kremlin sent nearly 100,000 troops to support its puppet regime in Afghanistan, leading many outside observers to dub the war "the Soviets' Vietnam".However, Moscow's quagmire in Afghanistan was far more disastrous for the Soviets than Vietnam had been for the Americans because the conflict coincided with a period of internal decay and domestic crisis in the Soviet system. A senior US State Department official predicted such an outcome as early as 1980, positing that the invasion resulted in part from a "domestic crisis within the Soviet system. ... It may be that the thermodynamic law of entropy has ... caught up with the Soviet system, which now seems to expend more energy on simply maintaining its equilibrium than on improving itself. We could be seeing a period of foreign movement at a time of internal decay". The Soviets were not helped by their aged and sclerotic leadership either: Brezhnev, virtually incapacitated in his last years, was succeeded by Andropov and Chernenko, neither of whom lasted long. After Chernenko's death,
Reagan was asked why he had not negotiated with Soviet leaders. Reagan quipped, "They keep dying on me".
Final years (1985–91)
Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House, 1987
Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1988. Gorbachev reforms By the time the comparatively youthful Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary in 1985, the Soviet economy was stagnant and faced a sharp fall in foreign currency earnings as a result of the downward slide in oil prices in the 1980s. These issues prompted Gorbachev to investigate measures to revive the ailing state. An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary and in June 1987 Gorbachev announced an agenda of economic reform called perestroika, or restructuring. Perestroika relaxed the production quota system, allowed private ownership of businesses and paved the way for foreign investment. These measures were intended to redirect the country's resources from costly Cold War military commitments to more productive areas in the civilian sector. Despite initial skepticism in the West, the new Soviet leader proved to be committed to reversing the Soviet Union's deteriorating economic condition instead of continuing the arms race with the
West. Partly as a way to fight off internal opposition from party cliques to his reforms, Gorbachev simultaneously introduced glasnost, or openness, which increased freedom of the press and the transparency of state institutions. Glasnost was intended to reduce the corruption at the top of the Communist Party and moderate the abuse of power in the Central Committee. Glasnost also enabled increased contact between Soviet citizens and the western world, particularly with the United States, contributing to the accelerating détente between the two nations. Thaw in relations In response to the Kremlin's military and political concessions, Reagan agreed to renew talks on economic issues and the scaling-back of the arms race. The first was held in November 1985 in Geneva, Switzerland. At one stage the two men, accompanied only by an interpreter, agreed in principle to reduce each country's nuclear arsenal by 50 percent. A second Reykjavík Summit was held in Iceland. Talks went well until the focus shifted to Reagan's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, which Gorbachev wanted eliminated: Reagan refused. The negotiations failed, but the third summit in 1987 led to a breakthrough with the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF). The INF treaty eliminated all nucleararmed, ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 kilometers (300 to 3,400 miles) and their infrastructure. East–West tensions rapidly subsided through the mid-to-late 1980s, culminating with the final summit in Moscow in 1989, when Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush signed the START Iarms control treaty. During the following year it became apparent to the Soviets that oil and gas subsidies, along with the cost of maintaining massive troops levels, represented a substantial economic drain. In addition, the security advantage of a buffer zone was recognised as irrelevant and the Soviets officially declared that they would no longer intervene in the affairs of allied states in Eastern Europe. In 1989, Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan and by 1990 Gorbachev consented to German reunification, the only alternative being a Tiananmen scenario. When the Berlin Wall came down, Gorbachev's "Common European Home" concept began to take shape. On December 3, 1989, Gorbachev and Reagan's successor, George H. W. Bush, declared the Cold War over at the Malta Summit; a year later, the two former rivals were partners in the Gulf War against Iraq.
Faltering Soviet system
Hungary. deprived of Soviet military support. The Commonwealth of Independent States. By 1989. who threatened to secede from the USSR. In the USSR itself. the Soviet alliance system was on the brink of collapse.The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. with the dissolution of the USSR looming. At the same time freedom of press and dissent allowed by glasnost and the festering "nationalities question" increasingly led the Union's component republics to declare their autonomy from Moscow. 1991. according to Russia's leaders. The USSR was fatally weakened by a failed coup and a growing number of Soviet republics. and. the Communist Party was forced to surrender its 73-year-old monopoly on state power. Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. such as Poland. particularly Russia. the Communist leaders of theWarsaw Pact states were losing power. even Bush. Romania being the only Eastern-bloc country to topple its communist regime violently and execute its head of state. condemned the January 1991 killings in Latvia and Lithuania. Soviet dissolution Commonwealth of Independent States. who strove to maintain friendly relations. created on December 21. the official end of the Soviet Union Gorbachev's permissive attitude toward Eastern Europe did not initially extend to Soviet territory. privately warning that economic ties would be frozen if the violence continued. glasnost weakened the bonds that held the Soviet Union together and by February 1990. with the Baltic states withdrawing from the Union entirely. The 1989 revolutionary wave that swept across Central and Eastern Europe overthrew the Soviet-style communist states. its purpose was to "allow . is viewed as a successor entity to the Soviet Union but.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union. it suffered a financial crisis and a recession more severe than the US and Germany had experienced during the Great Depression. the post–Cold War world is widely considered as unipolar. creating a wrenching adjustment as the military-industrial sector had previously employed one of every five Soviet adults. although the economy has resumed growth since 1999. The aftermath of the Cold War continues to influence world affairs. Following the Cold War. with the United States the sole remaining superpower.a civilized divorce" between the Soviet Republics and is comparable to loose confederation. The USSR was declared officially dissolved on December 25. Russian living standards have worsened overall in the post–Cold War years. meaning its dismantling left millions throughout the former Soviet Union unemployed. After Russia embarked on capitalist economic reforms in the 1990s. a Aftermath NATO/CSTO NATO has expanded eastwards into the former Warsaw Pact and parts of the former Soviet Union since the end of the Cold War. Russia cut military spending dramatically. 1991. The Cold War defined the political role of the United .
The aftermath of Cold War conflict.000 in Europe (two-thirds of which in west Germany) and about 130. though their origins may be found as early as the 19th century. These complexes. most notably in Southeast Asia. Military expenditures by the US during the Cold War years were estimated to have been $8 trillion.000 troops posted abroad in dozens of countries.000 Americans lost their lives in the Korean War and Vietnam War. millions died in the superpowers' proxy wars around the globe. particularly in the former Yugoslavia. and large-scale military funding of science.000 in Asia (mainly Japan and South Korea). The Cold War also marked the apex of peacetime military-industrial complexes. In addition to the loss of life by uniformed soldiers. policy and foreign relations.States in the post–World War II world: by 1989 the US held military alliances with 50 countries. ethnic wars. Although the loss of life among Soviet soldiers is difficult to estimate. The breakdown of state control in a number of areas formerly ruled by Communist governments has produced new civil and ethnic conflicts. revolutionary wars. however. The militaryindustrial complexes have great impact on their countries and help shape their society. as a share of their gross national product the financial cost for the Soviet Union was far higher than that incurred by the United States. In Eastern Europe. have grown considerably during the Cold War. as well as refugee and displaced persons crises have declined sharply in the post–Cold War years. the end of the Cold War has ushered in an era of economic growth and an increase in the number of liberal democracies. independence was accompanied by state failure. while nearly 100. as many of the economic and social tensions that were exploited to fuel Cold War competition in parts of the Third World remain acute. Most of the proxy wars and subsidies for local conflicts ended along with the Cold War. interstate wars. is not always easily erased. especially in the USA. while in other parts of the world. such as Afghanistan. . with 326. and had 526.
the so called red telephone. A series of meetings began in November 1969 and continued until May 1972 when agreement was reached between Richard Nixon (USA) and Leonid Brezhnev (Soviet Union) on the limitation of strategic ballistic missiles. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 effectively closed that chapter of the Cold War. and Soviet Union. The first Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) treaty. SLBMs (submarine launched Ballistic Missiles) 740 for both . agreed for both countries to halt the production of nuclear weapons and missiles. The 1970s witnessed détente why? 1) The horrors of Vietnam shocked people 2) There was a growing fear of a nuclear holocaust especially with the growth in those countries that had nuclear weapons. SALT 1 SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Agreement. also known as Strategic Arms limitation Treaty.S. The two superpowers also agreed to install a direct hotline between Washington DC and Moscow." a French word meaning "release of tensions. and the Helsinki Agreement. Also both USA and USSR had huge stock of weapons. One period of relaxation developed in the early 1970s and became known as "Détente. but differences in outlook led to an increasing number of conflicts. The Interim Treaty Limits were placed on the number of ICBMs (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles) 1618 for USSR and 1054 USA. The SALT II pact of the late 70s continued the work of the SALT I talks. in which the Soviets promised to grant free elections in Europe. The SALT 1 treaty outlined agreement in three areas: 1. The ABM Treaty (anti ballistic missile defenses). The Helsinki Accords. this period was characterized by the signing of treaties such as the SALT I. Nixon's visit to China in February 1972 seemed to exert pressure on the Soviet Union to reach an agreement and sign the treaty. has been seen as a major concession to ensure peace by the Soviets. 2. enabling both countries to quickly interact with each other in a time of urgency. one for their capital city and one to protect their nuclear missiles. tensions rose and fell many times. One of the key stumbling blocks to agreement was how arms should be limited and which types of weapons should be included in the arrangements. Each side was allowed to have only 100 ABMs on each of two sites." It was hoped that the new relationship would herald a permanent improvement in relations between the U. The differing weapon structure of each side made comparison difficult. ensuring further reduction in arms by the Soviets and by the US. It was the first step towards solving one of the most important issues that was disabling any kind of relationship between the USSR and the US.DÉTENTE 1970s During the course of the Cold War. SALT II.
Some critics complained that the Helsinki agreements legitimized the boundary changes imposed on Eastern Europe by the Soviets after the World War two. The first basket also includes a number of confidence-building measures. science. However this treaty did not cover developments such as MIRVs (Multiple Independently target able Re-entry Vehicle) which were capable of carrying a collection of nuclear weapons on a single missile. 3. An outline agreement was proposed in 1974 at the Vladivostok summit between Leonid Brezhnev (Soviet Union) and US President Gerald Ford. The Soviet Union was allowed more as America had greater capacity in other areas e.g. In reality the Russian MIRV and the American Cruise Missile were being built whilst SALT 1 was finalized. as well as trade. two years of negotiations under the auspices of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) led to the Helsinki Accord. the inviolability of frontiers. Basket Three dealt with humanitarian cooperation and contained provisions relating to the free flow of people. détente in Europe continued to make progress. designed to reduce tension. This agreement set equal limits for missile launchers and strategic bombs but left out Cruise . 2. 1975. the principle of non-intervention in internal affairs and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. environment. the non use of force. SALT 11 As SALT I had been an interim agreement the intention was to negotiate further. however SALT II ran into difficulties. In August 1975. The Basic Principles Agreement This laid down some important rules for the conduct of nuclear warfare. Nevertheless it played a positive role in breaking down barriers that divided Europe. a) declaration on the importance of sovereignty and self-determination. The SALT 1 agreement was to last for five years therefore SALT 2 talks began in November 1972. information. such as advance notification of large scale maneuvers. strategic bombers. The final act consisted of three sets or ―baskets‖ of agreement: 1. Basket Two outlined ways to increase East-West cooperation in fields of economics.Helsinki Agreement In contrast to relations in the Third World. and ideas. Basket One dealt with security issues and included. technology. 3.countries. The USA and the USSR pledged ' to do their utmost to avoid military confrontation ' and ' to exercise restraint' in international relations.
. the American Senate were growing very uneasy about the Soviet violation of previous agreements and in response refused to ratify the treaty in 1980. In 1977. in particular the right wing senators. the newly elected American President. Consisted of the ABM treaty. ACHIEVEMENTS OF DÉTENTE Treaties such as SALT (1972) and the Helsinki Agreements (1975) have been seen as the central achievements of Détente.missiles. Despite reassurance from President Carter. attempted to renegotiate the SALT II Treaty in order to reduce the number of Soviet Missiles. C) The Basic Principles Agreement extended the guidelines to be used by both sides to minimize the development of nuclear war. the interim A) The ABM treaty reduced the tension caused by the destabilizing impact of defensive systems. saw all arms control as a mechanism for allowing the USSR 'to catch up with America' and so the agreement stalled. The American Senate. At the conference the Warsaw Pact countries wished to secure US recognition of European borders established after the Second World War and the US saw this as an opportunity to gain concessions from the Soviet government in return. It took until 1979 for precise figures to be agreed and the SALT II treaty was signed by Brezhnev and Carter in June of that year. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963) and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968) are also important. SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty): agreement and the Basic Principle Agreement. Increasing conflict in the Third World led to the Senate‘s rejection of SALT II in 1980. The Helsinki Agreement: An agreement reached at a conference in Helsinki to discuss European security. Jimmy Carter. B) The Interim Treaty meant that limit were placed on the number of ICBMs and SLBM and it was an important step towards limiting nuclear arms. SALT II: It set equal limits for missile launchers and strategic bombers but left out cruise missiles where the US had a significant lead. US-China relations: By 1972 relations between China and the US were good enough to allow Nixon to visit China as a guest of the government. (With ABM systems in place the ability to retaliate if hit by a nuclear missile was uncertain and therefore encouraged each side to strike first).
Conflict continued and even intensified in the Third World. Europe was more stable. Yet on substantial matters little was achieved: armaments had increased during this period and many of the agreements signed were ignored. as in the Helsinki Agreement. This situation was to produce a lot of renewed suspicion and mistrust that led to the breakdown of Détente in 1979.European Détente (Ostpolitik): Ostpolitik played a major role in reducing tension in Europe and contributing to Détente. as in the case of SALT II. Both the superpowers tried to take advantage of Détente. but tension between the USSR and China remained high. In addition. It gave legal recognition and reinforcement to the division of Cold War Europe. Détente did not reduce tension in all areas of international relations. or withdrawn later. Détente was not the beginning to an end of the Cold War but rather its continuation through other means. Assessment The achievement of Détente was that the superpower relations had been stabilized and risks minimized. .
In the deadlocked negotiations on the issue of intermediate-range nuclear forces in Europe. SDI threatened to violate several US-Soviet agreements. It might give the United States the capacity and confidence to launch a preemptive first strike. The US military build-up was also part of an overall strategy of increasing US strength before engaging in arms control negotiations with the Soviet Union. the Reagan administration put forth what became known as the ―zero option‖. regain the initiative in the Cold War and use the arms race to place great strain on the Soviet economy. The Soviets rejected the US proposal and the talks remained deadlocked until the Soviets canceled them in November 1983.and sea-based US forward based systems and the national nuclear forces of Great Britain and France. The SDI would accelerate the arms race as the Soviets would increase the numbers of their missiles in order to overwhelm US defenses. The United States offered to cancel plans to deploy Pershing II IRBM and Tomahawk cruise missiles in exchange for the Soviets dismantling all their intermediate-range missiles in Europe and elsewhere. thus clearing the way for the deployment of the Pershing II and Tomahawk missiles. announced by Reagan in March 1983. His policies created a mushrooming US budget deficit. the Reagan administration decided in late 1981 to observe its provisions as long as the Soviets did likewise. Popularly known as Star Wars. In the meantime. Many analysts regarded SDI as a dangerous and destabilizing attack on mutual deterrence. renamed Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). which he believed had been lost during détente. which was based on each side‘s ability to retaliate against nuclear attack. the United States and the Soviet Union began new talks to reduce strategic weapons. In the fall of 1983. . while allowing the United States to proceed with the planned modernization of all parts of its strategic triad.THE NEW COLD WAR Reagan spent over 2 trillion dollars to build up US conventional and nuclear forces. required deep cuts in the Soviet Union‘s land-based missiles. SDI was a technologically ambitious and extremely expensive plan to develop a nationwide ballistic-missile defense system that would deploy weapons in outer space to destroy enemy missiles in flight. the heart of its arsenal. There is evidence that the United States put forth the zero option in the expectation that the Soviets would reject it (as they did). NATO began deploying the missiles and the Soviets terminated the INF talks (The Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles Although opposed to the SALT II treaty. A key element in the build-up was the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). The proposal excluded air. The initial US proposal in the new negotiations. Reagan‘s aim was to re-establish US military superiority.
THE THIRD WORLD Reagan followed a confrontational policy toward Third World regimes he deemed hostile. The initial focus of US policy toward the Third World during the Reagan‘s administration was El Salvador. The United States settled for a massive increase in military and economic assistance to El Salvador to prevent leftist guerrilla forces to take power In 1981 President Reagan authorized the CIA to support covert activity in the Nicaragua in order to overthrow the Nicaraguan government by organizing and supporting a military force of Nicaraguan exiles known as contra-revolutionaries or Contras. coupled with increases in support for the Contras and the Afghan resistance led to a codification of US policy toward the Third World which became known as the Reagan Doctrine. the Reagan administration supported them illegally by selling arms to Iran and diverts the profit to the Contras. Yury Andropov in February 1984. which had been fighting the Marxist-led government of the country since 1975. When the US Congress prohibited all aid to the Contras in May 1984. which were battling the government installed by the Vietnamese in 1978. The United States also sent aid to non-communist resistance groups in Cambodia. The United States was more successful in Grenada where a US invasion overthrew a leftist government in October 1983. The United States also provided increased military and other assistance to pro-US Third World regimes. The heart of it was US support for anti-communist insurgents fighting against Soviet-supported governments In Angola the United States continued to provide military and economic assistance to guerrilla forces led by UNITA. Took the initiative in the Cold War • . This became known as the Iran-Contra Affair and its unveiling in late 1986 might have made Reagan more willing to reach arms control agreements with the Soviets Although US pressure on Nicaragua exacted a heavy toll. GORBACHEV AND THE END OF THE COLD WAR • The problems in US-Soviet relations in the first half of the 1980s were intensified because of the deaths in quick succession of three Soviet leaders – Brezhnev in November 1982. and Konstantine Chernenko in March 1985 March 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev came to power. In Afghanistan the Reagan administration continued the support of the mujahedin‘s resistance to Soviet occupation both militarily and economically. the Sandinistas remained in power. The invasion in Grenada.
In the Summit Gorbachev put forth three proposals: • • • Proposed a plan to cut US and Soviet strategic nuclear forces in half. Wanted to strengthen the ABM treaty from 1972 and confine the research of defenses to laboratories.• • • • • • The heart of his policies was glasnost (open debate on government policies) and perestroika (economic restructuring) Gorbachev wanted to end the Cold war and democratic renewal in the Soviet Union. Proposed that the United States and the Soviet Union should reduce their intermediaterange nuclear forces to zero (accepted Reagan‘s zero option). THE REYKJAVÍK SUMMIT IN OCTOBER 1986 In October 1986 Reagan and Gorbachev held a Summit in Reykjavík. Both were necessary for economic transformation in his country. Gorbachev dropped his previous insistence that agreement on SDI was a prerequisite for progress on all arms control matters and accepted the ―zero option‖ proposed by the United States in 1981. The United States should quit the SDI program. Although the two leaders almost reached agreements on eliminating nuclear weapons entirely. Following Reykjavík. (Accepted US definition of strategic weapons). Reagan‘s dogged defense of SDI prevented any agreement as the Soviet leader insisted that agreement on SDI was a prerequisite for progress on all arms control matters. and Chinese forces. The INF Treaty marked the first arms reduction (as opposed to arms limitation) agreement of the Cold War. . Stage One proposed that the United States and the Soviet Union reduce their intermediate-range nuclear forces to zero. December 1987: The Intermediate Nuclear forces (INF) Treaty signed in Washington . Gorbachev focused first on arms control. French. and did not mention British. Thought that a limited number of nuclear weapons provided sufficient security against US nuclear attack April 1985: To show his good will Gorbachev suspended the countermeasures applied in response to the NATO INF deployments and halted further deployment of SS 20s November 1985: Gorbachev and Reagan met in Geneva and established good personal relationship January 1986: Gorbachev unveiled a plan for complete nuclear disarmament to take place in three stages by the year of 2000.
In October the Hungarian communists split and the reformers formed a new party dedicated to democracy. Only in Romania did the collapse of communist rule result in significant bloodshed THE DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF EASTERN EUROPEAN COMMUNISM • • • September 12. In Czechoslovakia massive demonstrations and general strike led to the appointment of non-communist government on December 10. December 1988: Gorbachev announced a 12 percent unilateral reduction in total Soviet conventional forces Building on this momentum. Gorbachev turned his attention to conventional forces. was breached. • Change of Soviet strategy. the East German government ended the communist monopoly of power and announced free elections to be held in March 1990. and socialism. the Berlin Wall. The chain of events started in Poland where a non-communist prime minister was appointed in August. On the night of November 9-10. The same day that the Berlin wall came down. THE COLLAPSE OF THE COMMUNIST EASTERN EUROPE IN 1989 By the end of 1989 every pro-Soviet communist regime in Eastern Europe had collapsed. legality. the Bulgarian Communist Party deposed its longtime leader and promised reforms and free elections. The cutbacks grew out of drastic revision of Soviet military strategy that replaced the previous objective of not losing a war with the West with the objective of preventing such a war. pre-eminent symbol of the Cold War division of Germany and Europe. 1991: The Warsaw Pact formally dissolved • . The following month. The new strategy also had important implications for Soviet policy toward Eastern Europe. 1990: A treaty signed where the Soviets accepted German reunification as well as its membership in NATO October 3. 1989. 1990: The Federal Republic of Germany absorbed East Germany November 1990: NATO and the Warsaw Pact signed a treaty drastically reducing the size and armaments of their conventional forces in Europe (the CFE-treaty) ratified by the United States in November 1991 July 1. Control of Eastern Europe was vital to Soviet security under the old strategy but the new Soviet security strategy no longer required maintaining a sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. Economic factors played an important role in this changed strategy. In December 1988 he announced a 12 percent unilateral reduction in total Soviet conventional forces.
According to this analysis.• • At the same time Gorbachev was working to repair relations with the PRC December 1991: The Soviet Union disssolved. END OF THE COLD WAR IN THE THIRD WORLD • • • • • • February 1988: Gorbachev announced his intention to pull all Soviet troops from Afghanistan February 1989: the Soviet Union withdraws its forces from Afghanistan Gorbachev successfully pressured the Vietnamese to withdraw their troops from Cambodia in two stages in 1988 and 1989 December 1989: An agreement provided for the withdraw of all foreign forces from Angola by mid-1991 1990: The Soviets began cutting back military assistance and withdrawing their advisers from Ethiopia and the Cubans withdrew their combat forces and advisers at the same time 1987: Peace effort led by Costa Rican President Oscar Arias Sánchez ends the Cold War in Central America. US actions raised the costs of confrontation and forced the Soviets into corner from which there was no escape save for surrender. US actions did not cause the changes in Soviet domestic and foreign policies and might have delayed them by providing opponents of reform with arguments against better relations with the West and the relaxation of internal control. Other scholars argue that the new generation of Soviet leaders that emerged in the 1980s had already concluded that the policies of their predecessors had been counterproductive and that continued conflict threatened their goal of overcoming the disastrous legacy of Stalinism. the reason for the shift in Soviet policies is still in dispute. reforming their economy. In this view. The Sandinistas agreed to hold free elections in Nicaragua in February 1990. The disagreement can be classified as following: • Reagan‘s supporters and some scholars claim that the Soviets shifted to less confrontational policies in response to the US military build-up and political offensive. and revitalizing their society. • . WHY THE COLD WAR ENDED While most scholars agree that the Cold War ended when the leaders of the Soviet Union decided it was no longer worth fighting. democratizing their policies.
The countries around 'Red China' hurried to form alliances either with the US or with each other against the threat. the Cold War had widely differing effects. In Cambodia.ultimately unsuccessfully . • As the Cold War developed in the 1960s and 1970s offers of financial assistance became an important tool in securing the superpower‘s influence in the Third World. South East Asia In South East Asia. This conflict spilled over into Laos and Cambodia. the Khmer Rouge. which boosted Japanese exports . as well as securing its own markets (the Marshall Plan) Economic measures also played a significant role in the Berlin Blockade of 1948-9.a legacy that means that Cambodia still ranks among the world's poorest countries. in attempting to implement an agrarian 'workers' paradise'. Vietnam suffered several decades of bloody conflict that cost the lives of millions of Vietnamese people. the superpowers used economic measures Restoring the economies of Europe after the Second World War was a powerful weapon of the USA against the spread of communism. which also both turned Communist in the mid 1970s (at the same time as the war in Vietnam ended). one can look at the different regions of the developing world and how the impact was vastly different: East Asia In East Asia. but still struggling to rebuild after WW2) was helped in this respect by the conflict in Korea. To give a 'broad brush' overview of the differences. Affects of cold war in the modern world: Impact of cold war on developing nations: The Cold War had a vast impact on the developing nations.an oft-quoted example being early transistor radios for American GIs. killed millions of Cambodians through starvation and genocide .ECONOMIC MEASURES IN THE COLD WAR • • In order to ensure that spheres of influence were brought firmly under their control.to prevent reunification of the country under a Communist government. It is often noted that Japan (though not technically a developing country in the 1950s. China fell to the Communists in 1949. . perceived strategic importance and so on. as the US and its allies tried . with vastly differing outcomes depending on all manner of factors: the geopolitics of the time. South Korea itself directly received large amounts of US aid.
Further to the south in South East Asia. The results were often catastrophic Angola. Both Communists and the 'Free World' found their champions in either the governments or 'freedom movements' in each particular country. the struggle against Communism and Communist insurgencies lead to US interventions which often resulted in protracted and bloody civil wars. and Communism was successfully repulsed. MODERN COLD WAR • Unstable and misunderstood Russia . the country was ruled for most of the latter 20th Century by a military junta (which only last year . but as with Thailand. Like Thailand however. the story was happier . economic and military. Many note though that.In neighboring Thailand though.in particular the presence of US military personnel . Cold War rivalries encountered newly-independent countries still struggling to find their feet. it's democratic records is more questionable. this must be viewed against a story of fairly high economic growth.2006 . Malaysia successfully implemented a high growth strategy that even now propels it forwards in terms of economic growth. Unlike in certain parts of East and South East Asia. Sub-Saharan Africa Across sub-Saharan Africa did the Cold War have perhaps the most enduring negative impact on the developing world.led directly to the rise of HIV AIDS and the sex industry in Thailand. ironically. and the picture was (and still is) complicated further by the resource-rich nature of many of the countries involved. in order to keep Communism out and 'democracy' in. suffered one of the longest conflicts in modern history. money and other forms of support flowed.American aid. where US support kept the highly corrupt and undemocratic Marcos in power for a generation. With Communism crushed. Arms. Indonesia's brutal suppression of domestic Communists (with a massive death toll) was so bloody as to equal some of the worst excesses of Communism elsewhere. This led to high economic growth. A similar story to the Philippines. there were very few Cold War 'success stories' in sub-Saharan Africa. as superpower interference had a negative influence almost everywhere. Central and South America In Central (and to a lesser extent South) America. flowed in to prevent this 'bastion of democracy' from falling to Communism. for example.seized power again from the democratically elected government) Others note that increased Western influence in Thailand . Malaysia (with British military assistance) successfully crushed a Communist insurgency in a long 'Emergency' that lasted over the 1950s.
Perestroika relaxed the production quota system. contributing to the accelerating détente between the two nations. Soviet Dissolution . These issues prompted Gorbachev to investigate measures to revive the ailing state. Partly as a way to fight off internal opposition from party cliques to his reforms. Despite initial skepticism in the West. Glasnost was intended to reduce the corruption at the top of the Communist Party and moderate the abuse of power in the Central Committee. Chinese and Indian economies US policies and the 3RD World countries Euro vs. the new Soviet leader proved to be committed to reversing the Soviet Union's deteriorating economic condition instead of continuing the arms race with the West.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Uni-polar world 9/11 revolutionized the world War on terror War in Afghanistan and Iraq by USA Threat to the Muslim Community Oil Crisis Chinese Factor Economic resurgence of Russia Media influences and war Rising Japanese. the Soviet economy was stagnant and faced a sharp fall in foreign currency earnings as a result of the downward slide in oil prices in the 1980s. Gorbachev simultaneously introduced glasnost. particularly with the United States. Dollar Economic war Gorbachev reforms By the time the comparatively youthful Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary in 1985. An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary and in June 1987 Gorbachev announced an agenda of economic reform called perestroika. which increased freedom of the press and the transparency of state institutions. or openness. Glasnost also enabled increased contact between Soviet citizens and the western world. These measures were intended to redirect the country's resources from costly Cold War military commitments to more profitable areas in the civilian sector. allowed private ownership of businesses and paved the way for foreign investment. or restructuring.
Uni Polar World: After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 that ended the Cold War. no significant major powers. There has been some recent speculation that the United States is declining in relative power as the rest of the world rises to match its levels of economic and technological development. which was a crusade against islam. deprived of Soviet military support. the Communist leaders of the Warsaw Pact states were losing power. some experts have suggested the possibility of the United States losing its superpower status in the future. glasnost weakened the bonds that held the Soviet Union together and by February 1990. But that does not mean that the world is uni polar. 1991. with the dissolution of the USSR looming. the Communist Party was forced to surrender its 73-year-old monopoly on state power The USSR was fatally weakened by a failed coup and as a growing number of Soviet republics.By 1989. a declining dollar. and the rise of other great powers around the world. Russia faced a lot of financial and economic crises that caused instability. 9/11 Revolutionized the World & War on Terror: The incident of 9/11 terrorist attacks not only changed the International politics but also affected the US image in the world especially amongst the third world countries mainly Muslim Countries. the Soviet alliance system was on the brink of collapse. the post–Cold War world is considered as a uni polar world with the United States as the world's sole remaining superpower. particularly Russia. The American declaration of war against terror. Afghanistan war . Iraq war). most of the countries misunderstood Russia then & now again. throughout the world revolutionized the way international affairs and issues are approached and addressed. Cold War allies becoming less dependent on the United States. and many minor powers. But the recent technological & economic advancements in Russia have made it one of the contenders to be one of the next superpowers. (Afghan war. So. Citing economic hardships. Unstable and Misunderstood Russia: After the dissolution of Soviet Union. There is now only one superpower. threatened to secede the USSR was declared officially dissolved on December 25. In the USSR itself. and. A uni polar system would have one superpower.
US army launched an attack on Afghanis claiming that Afghanistan is a terrorist country. approximately 75. the Chinese are very uneasy about excessive US inter interference in Asia. assassinated that September by one of his party rivals. and further announced that the United States would boycott the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics. This region again formed the basis of the Modern Cold War after the US intervention in Afghanistan after 9/11 terrorist attacks. The investment of US dollars in Chinese market has weakened the US economy and strengthened the Chinese economy. demanded a significant increase in military spending. It is to take control of as much resources of the world as one can. Chinese Factor China is one of the rising economies of the current century and strategically the most important player in the current scenario of the cold war.During December 1979. He described the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan as "the most serious threat to the peace since the Second World War". Pakistan. US continued this brutality in Iraq thus causing a threat to the Muslim World. The Chinese already have the world‘s largest military as far as numbers are concerned and they are quickly improving their technological capabilities hence they are expected to openly challenge American supremacy in about a decade. The dependence of the . imposed embargoes on grain and technology shipments to the USSR. US continuous intervention in the affairs of Iran. China is projected to be the rising superpower with a huge population and a rapidly growing economy. With the continuous advancements in virtually all the fields.000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in order to support the Marxist government formed by ex-Prime-minister Nur Muhammad Taraki. China continuously raises voices against the violent actions of US showing its increasing power status. US President Jimmy Carter withdrew the SALT II treaty from the Senate. China is tipped to be the next biggest superpower. US being the industrial country need a lot of oil resources. Oil Crisis: The modern cold war is not the war to rule lands or nations. As a result. Threat to Muslim Community: The biggest part of the modern cold war is the Muslim Community. The relations between China and the US have always been uneasy and there are serious disagreements in certain issues such as Taiwan etc. The fact that the US still spends a huge amount of money on military and defense related expenses is worrisome to both China and Russia. and the world is in oil crisis barring few countries in the Middle East. Afghanistan has been the bone of contention throughout the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the US. Libya and other Middle Eastern countries is also causing a lot of dissatisfaction and raised security concerns in the Muslim community.
US and the third World Many third world countries are very uncomfortable with the western policies towards them some examples are Iran.superpower economy on the scarce oil resource is on e of the triggering point of cold war between US and the middle eastern countries. due to its large GDP and high economic growth at the time. but after the adaptation of the Euro by the European union the supremacy of the dollar was challenged and a substitute was available.e. Tensions with Islamic World Many Muslims see the war against terror as a war against the Islamic world. The fact that Islamic model of government (i. which contributes to the feeling amongst many Muslims that the war against terror being led by the US is basically a new Crusade in which key Muslim countries are being attacked and conquered or weakened by the coalition of Non–Muslims. Socialist and other alternative schools of thought. . Even though officially the Governments of most Muslim countries attempt to ally them with the US but the public opinion in almost all Muslim countries is primarily anti American. North Korea etc as more and more countries get dissatisfied with the current status quo they may form alliances and coalitions against the western block and emerging powers like China can take advantage of that. Economic War For more than a decade the American capitalist model was considered to be the best and the US dollar had the monopoly of being the currency for foreign trade and transaction. More recently the recent economic meltdown and the collapse in the banking sectors in the US and other major capitalist economies the western capitalist model is being openly challenged by the Islamic. this means that the relations between the US and the Islamic world have a potential of deteriorating any time if the provocative US policies are not changed. The Khilafat) is based on a different ideology from both the capitalist and the socialist models also increases the chance that there is a cold war going on between the Islamic and western world. The record of such predictions has not been perfect. This is because the United States has not clearly defined its enemies or its objectives for this war. For example in the 1980s some commentators thought Japan would become a superpower. Rising Indian. However the prediction has not come to fruition. Chinese & Japanese Economies Academics and other qualified commentators sometimes identify potential superpowers thought to have a strong likelihood of being recognized as superpowers in the 21st century. The fact that the US provides unconditional support to Israel even when it violates international laws is another factor.
the European Union. . but not replace. are among the powers which are most often cited as having the ability to influence future world politics and reach the status of superpower in the 21st century. However. Republic of India and the Russian Federation. DOLLAR The Euro has gained strength over dollar in the past decade or so mainly because it has a big part to do with how US import so much stuff such as oil. Nations are beginning to notice America‘s selfish motives 3) One factor that is highlighted from studying the cold war is that both governments in the USA and the USSR insist that they were acting to defend their own nations against what they suspected were hostile ambitions of the other hence both the super powers were greatly motivated by fear. others claim they will rise to rival. A key factor that contributed to hostilities between the US and USSR was lack of communication and misunderstandings between the two nations. the $13+ trillion dollar debt doesn't give the US Dollar much credibility either. 2) The current policies being followed by the US and implemented on other nations by the US are increasingly alienating it and hostilities against the US and many other western nations are continuously on the rise. the United States. and economic potential and influence in international affairs. EURO VS. While some believe one (or more) of these countries may replace the United States as a superpower.Due to their large markets. Media Influences and war The media advancement has also played an evil role in causing disagreement among the countries. Also. the People's Republic of China. growing military strength. the Euro has gained credibility over the years thus strengthening the EU and causing the cold economic war. CONCLUSION From our findings in this research and presentation on the cold war the following points can be concluded: 1) The blame lies on nobody for the cause of the cold war. although clearly it was the fight for a single super power! Such a situation must never be allowed to arise between any two nuclear-armed countries again because the result can easily be nuclear war and the destruction of all or most of humanity in the modern times. the Federative Republic of Brazil. The media enjoys the freedom of sharing views with public and taking public opinion which was not the case in the past.
4) One thing we can all learn from the Cold War is that all nations should consider each others security and other needs before embarking on new policies. .
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