This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SUBMITTED TO: SIR KAMRAN ZAHOOR PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY: HENNA BHATTI ERUM BHATTI HASSAN AHMED DANYAAL JAVAID DAWAR ALI PEERZADA TANZEEL TAHIR
Origins of the term WAR An international relation dispute, characterized by organized violence between national military units is known as a war. There are three Types of war: 1) Hot War: The actual warfare.
2) Warm War: Where talks are still going on. 3) Cold War: Client States fight on the behalf on their supporting nations. COLD WAR A STATE OF PERMANENT HOSTILITY BETWEEN TWO POWERS WHICH NEVER ERUPTS INTO AN ARMED CONFRONTATION OR A ―HOT WAR‖ In current historiography the term ―Cold War‖ describes the conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States from 1945 until 1989. It was popularized by the American journalist Walter Lippmann in 1947 and widely used thereafter to describe US-Soviet relations. In the aftermath of the Second World War the Soviet Union and the United States were the most powerful states and they formed the two poles of the international state system (the bipolar system). Both nations were competing for position of dominance within the system and they wanted to stop each other filling the power vacuum created by the Second World War. The American policy in the Cold War was called ―containment‖ but it was a policy of confining communism in those areas where it already existed. At the end of World War II, English author and journalist George Orwell used the term Cold War in his essay ―You and the Atomic Bomb‖, published October 19, 1945, in the British newspaper Tribune. Contemplating a world living in the shadow of the threat of nuclear warfare, he warned of a ―peace that is no peace‖, which he called a permanent ―cold war‖, Orwell directly referred to that war as the ideological confrontation between the Soviet Union and the Western powers. Moreover, in The Observer of March 10, 1946, Orwell wrote that ―after the Moscow conference last December, Russia began to make a ‗cold war‘ on Britain and the British Empire.‖ The first use of the term to describe the post–World War II geopolitical tensions between the USSR and its satellites and the United States and its western European allies is attributed to Bernard Baruch, an American financier and presidential advisor. In South Carolina, on April 16, 1947, he delivered a speech (by journalist Herbert Bayard Swope) saying, ―Let us not be
deceived: we are today in the midst of a cold war.‖ Newspaper reporter-columnist Walter Lippmann gave the term wide currency, with the book Cold War (1947) Background
American troops in Vladivostok, August 1918, during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. There is disagreement among historians regarding the starting point of the Cold War. While most historians trace its origins to the period immediately following World War II, others argue that it began towards the end of World War I, although tensions between the Russian Empire, other European countries and the United States date back to the middle of the 19th century As a result of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (followed by its withdrawal from World War I), Soviet Russia found itself isolated in international diplomacy. Leader Vladimir Lenin stated that the Soviet Union was surrounded by a "hostile capitalist encirclement", and he viewed diplomacy as a weapon to keep Soviet enemies divided, beginning with the establishment of the Soviet Comintern, which called for revolutionary upheavals abroad. Subsequent leader Joseph Stalin, who viewed the Soviet Union as a "socialist island", stated that the Soviet Union must see that "the present capitalist encirclement is replaced by a socialist encirclement." As early as 1925, Stalin stated that he viewed international politics as a bipolar world in which the Soviet Union would attract countries gravitating to socialism and capitalist countries would attract states gravitating toward capitalism, while the world was in a period of "temporary stabilization of capitalism" preceding its eventual collapse. Various events before the Second World War had been demonstrative of mutual distrust and suspicion between the Western powers and the Soviet Union, including the Bolsheviks' challenge to capitalism; Western support of the anti-Bolshevik White movement in the Russian Civil War; the 1926 Soviet funding of a British general workers strike causing Britain to break relations with the Soviet Union; Stalin's 1927 declaration of peaceful coexistence with capitalist
1952 : USA exploded her first hydrogen bomb. with allegations of British. However. French. the American refusal to recognize the Soviet Union until 1933. Stalin died. the Western Allies had deliberately delayed opening a second anti-German front in order to step in at the last moment and shape the peace settlement. According to this view. Japanese and Nazi German espionage. Stalin remained highly suspicious and believed that the British and the Americans had conspired to allow the Soviets to bear the brunt of the fighting against Nazi Germany. .ended in 1949 1949 : NATO established.countries "receding into the past". 1953 : Korean War ended.and French-led coup d'état. In wartime. Britain signed a formal alliance and the United States made an informal agreement. Soviet perceptions of the West left a strong undercurrent of tension and hostility between the Allied powers. conspiratorial allegations during the 1928 Shakhty show trial of a planned British. 1947 : Marshall Aid to the west of Europe. China becomes communist 1950 : Korean War started. Thus. CAPITALISM & COMMUNISM: IDEOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES • • • • • • Capitalism (USA) Limited government Multi party politics Individual rights Free enterprise economy Open society A command economy Closed society Communism (USSR) Strong central state One party government Cold War Chronology • • • • • • • 1945 : ‘A‘-Bomb dropped on Hiroshima+ Nagasaki. USSR exploded her first hydrogen bomb. and the Stalinist Moscow Trials of the Great Purge. 1948 : start of the Berlin Blockade . USSR exploded her first ‗A‘-bomb. As a result of the German invasion in June 1941. Stalin of USSR refused it for Eastern Europe. the Allies decided to help the Soviet Union. the United States supplied both Britain and the Soviets through its Lend-Lease Program. USA ahead in the arms race.
1965 : USA openly involved in Vietnam. Timeline of the Cold War 1940s . 1973 : Yom Kippur War. 1959 : Cuba becomes a communist state. Russia‘s action in the Soviet zone of Germany. ‗Peaceful coexistence‘ called for. Russia‘s fear of the American atomic bomb Russia‘s dislike of capitalism. Main causes of the Cold War • • • • • • • • • American fear of communist attack. Russia's aim of spreading world communism. 1979 : USSR invaded Afghanistan. 1968 : USSR invades Czechoslovakia. 1967 : Six-Day War in Middle East. America‘s refusal to share nuclear secrets. 1986 : Meeting in Iceland between USSR (Gorbachev) and USA (Reagan). Suez Crisis. 1956 : Hungary revolts against USSR. 1962 : Cuban Missile Crisis. 1957 : Sputnik launched. 1987 : INF Treaty signed. 1963 : Huge increase of American aid to Vietnam.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1955 : Warsaw Pact created. 1961 : Military aid sent to Vietnam by USA for the first time. Truman‘s dislike of Stalin. Russia‘s fear of the American attack. Russia‘s need for a secure western border. Berlin Wall built.
1950: June – Korean War begins. 1949: May 12 – Berlin Blockade ends. 1954: March -. spy plane was shot down over Soviet territory. 1948: June 24 – Berlin Blockade begins. 1975: April 17 – North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam. 1989: January – Soviet troops withdraw from Afghanistan. 1961: August 17 – Construction of Berlin Wall begins. 1948: February – Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia. 1945: August 8 – United States first used atomic bomb in war. . 1989: November – Berlin Wall falls.Kennedy elected President. 1963: July – Nuclear Test Ban Treaty ratified 1972: July – SALT I signed. 1954: July – Vietnam split at 17th parallel. 1979: July – SALT II signed. 1960: November – John F . 1960: May – Soviet Union reveals that U.KGB established. 1961: August 13 – Berlin border closed.S. 1949: July – NATO ratified.• • • • • • • 1950s • • • • 1960s • • • • • 1970s • • • 1980s • • • 1945: February 4 – Yalta Conference Cold War Begins. 1953: July – Korean War ends. 1989: September – Hungary becomes independent. 1945: August 14– Japanese surrender End of World War II.
The Allies disagreed about how the European map should look. and how borders would be drawn. 1991: August – End of Soviet Union Cold War Ends. following the war. . Each side held dissimilar ideas regarding the establishment and maintenance of post-war security. Roosevelt andJoseph Stalin. The western Allies desired a security system in which democratic governments were established as widely as possible. Franklin D. 1945.1990s • • • 1990: May 29 – Boris Yeltsin elected to presidency of Russia. End of World War II and post-war (1945–47) Wartime conferences regarding post-war Europe The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference:Winston Churchill. 1990: October 3 – Germany reunited. permitting countries to peacefully resolve differences through international organizations.
Post-war Allied occupation zones in Germany.Given the Russian historical experiences of frequent invasions and the immense death toll (estimated at 27 million) and the destruction the Soviet Union sustained during World War II. both Churchill and new United States President Harry S. In the American view. and at Yalta Roosevelt signed a separate deal with Stalin in regard of Asia and refused to support Churchill on the issues of Poland and the Reparations. With the Soviets already occupying most of Eastern Europe. whereas in the British approach Stalin appeared as the greatest threat to the fulfillment of their agenda. among other things. Stalin seemed a potential ally in accomplishing their goals. In October 1944. The Western Allies were themselves deeply divided in their vision of the new post-war world. Truman opposed. albeit this conference also failed to reach a firm consensus on the framework for a post-war settlement in Europe. the Soviet Union sought to increase security by dominating the internal affairs of countries that bordered it. Roosevelt's goals – military victory in both Europeand Asia. The differences between Roosevelt and Churchill led to several separate deals with the Soviets. Further Allied negotiations concerning the post-war balance took place at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. whose relations with the Soviets were severed. . Churchill traveled to Moscow and agreed to divide the Balkans into respective spheres of influence. Stalin was at an advantage and the two western leaders vied for his favors. In April 1945. which were mainly centered on securing control over the Mediterranean. the Soviet-controlled rival to the Polish government-in-exile. and the creation of a world peace organization – were more global than Churchill's. and the independence of Eastern European countries as a buffer between the Soviets and the United Kingdom. the achievement of global American economic supremacy over the British Empire. the Soviets' decision to prop up the Lublin government. ensuring the survival of the British Empire.
Following the Allies' May 1945 victory. the participants' mounting antipathy and bellicose language served to confirm their suspicions about each others' hostile intentions and entrench their positions. Stalin protested to US officials when Truman offered the Soviets little real influence in occupied Japan. The 1945 Allied conference in San Francisco established the multi-national United Nations (UN) for the maintenance of world peace. the Soviet Union. Shortly after the attacks. Accordingly. he reacted to the news calmly. which started in late July after Germany's surrender. serious differences emerged over the future development of Germany and eastern Europe. Potsdam Conference and defeat of Japan Winston Churchill. At this conference Truman informed Stalin that the United States possessed a powerful new weapon. and the Soviets regarded it almost exclusively as a propaganda tribune. Beginnings of the Eastern Bloc . the UN was essentially converted into an inactive forum for exchanging polemical rhetoric. In Allied-occupied Germany. while strong US and Western allied forces remained in Western Europe. but the enforcement capacity of its Security Council was effectively paralyzed by individual members' ability to use veto power. given that the Soviets' own rival program was in place. United States. At the Potsdam Conference. Britain and France established zones of occupation and a loose framework for four-power control. Stalin was aware that the Americans were working on the atomic bomb and. 1945. the US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference. One week after the end of the Potsdam Conference. the Soviets effectively occupied Eastern Europe. Harry S. Moreover. The Soviet leader said he was pleased by the news and expressed the hope that the weapon would be used against Japan.
but also adopted the brutal methods employed by Joseph Stalin and Soviet secret police to suppress real and potential opposition. part of eastern Finland (which became the Karelo-Finnish SSR) and eastern Romania (which became the Moldavian SSR). Estonia (which became the Estonian SSR). The Soviet-style regimes that arose in the Bloc not only reproduced Soviet command economies. These included eastern Poland (incorporated into two different SSRs). the People's Republic of Romania and the People's Republic of Albania. the People's Republic of Bulgaria. the People's Republic of Poland.Post-war territorial changes in Eastern Europe and the formation of the Eastern Bloc. Latvia (which became the Latvian SSR). the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. such as East Germany. In Asia. The Eastern European territories liberated from the Nazis and occupied by the Soviet armed forces were added to the Eastern Bloc by converting them into satellite states. During the final stages of World War II. the Soviet Union laid the foundation for the Eastern Bloc by directly annexing several countries as Soviet Socialist Republics that were initially (and effectively) ceded to it by Nazi Germany in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war. the People's Republic of Hungary. and went on to occupy the large swath of Korean territory located north of the 38th parallel. Lithuania (which became the Lithuanian SSR). .
imprisoned. and in several instances. it portrayed the US as being in the grip of monopoly capitalists who were building up military capability "to prepare the conditions for winning world supremacy in a new war". When the slightest stirrings of independence emerged in the Bloc. James F. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was concerned that.]" A few weeks after the release of this "Long Telegram". whom he accused of establishing an "iron curtain" from "Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic". George F. Missouri. supervised the establishment of Soviet-style secret police systems in the Bloc that were supposed to crush anti-communist resistance. On September 6. Byrnes delivered a speech in Germany repudiating the Morgenthau Plan (a proposal to partition and de-industrialize post-war Germany) and warning the Soviets that the US intended to maintain a military presence in Europe indefinitely.] it was a battle between us and Russia over minds [. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow helped to articulate the US government's increasingly hard line against the Soviets. a plan "to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire". That September. the British War Cabinet's Joint Planning Staff Committee developed Operation Unthinkable. put on trial. was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible. the Soviet side produced the Novikov telegram.. and became the basis for US strategy toward the Soviet Union for the duration of the Cold War. 1946.. Tensions build In February 1946. executed. In April–May 1945. Stalin's strategy matched that of dealing with domestic pre-war rivals: they were removed from power. the NKVD. and the perception that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was unreliable.. The speech called for an Anglo-American alliance against the Soviets. former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill delivered his famous "Iron Curtain" speech in Fulton.As part of consolidating Stalin's control over the Eastern Bloc. however. Containment through the Korean War (1947–53) Cominform and the Tito–Stalin split . led by Lavrentiy Beria. "The nub of our program was to win the German people [. As Byrnes admitted a month later. there existed a Soviet threat to Western Europe. The plan. sent by the Soviet ambassador to the US but commissioned and "co-authored" by Vyacheslav Molotov. given the enormous size of Soviet forces deployed in Europe at the end of the war..
when the Tito–Stalin split obliged its members to expel Yugoslavia. the goal of which was to stop the spread of communism. but ultimately held steady. . Containment and the Truman Doctrine European military alliances.In September 1947. Truman delivered a speech that called for the allocation of $400 million to intervene in the war and unveiled the Truman Doctrine. The American government's response to this announcement was the adoption of containment. the British government announced that it could no longer afford to finance the Greek monarchical military regime inits civil war against communist-led insurgents. US policymakers accused the Soviet Union of conspiring against the Greek royalists in an effort to expand Soviet influence. which remained Communist but adopted a non-aligned position. citing Stalin's efforts (amid post-war confusion and collapse) to undermine the US by encouraging rivalries among capitalists that could precipitate another war. the Soviets created Cominform. Enunciation of the Truman Doctrine marked the beginning of a US bipartisan defense and foreign policy consensus between Republicans and Democrats focused on containment and deterrence that weakened during and after the Vietnam War. US president Harry S. Cominform faced an embarrassing setback the following June. which framed the conflict as a contest between free peoples and totalitarian regimes. Even though the insurgents were helped by Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavia. Truman's advisers urged him to take immediate steps to counter the Soviet Union's influence. the purpose of which was to enforce orthodoxy within the international communist movement and tighten political control over Sovietsatellites through coordination of communist parties in the Eastern Bloc. In February 1947. Main articles: Containment and Truman Doctrine By 1947.
Other critiques of consensus politics came from anti-Vietnam War activists. while European and American Communists. The red columns show the relative amount of total aid per nation. as well as social democrats. including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants. goods and infrastructure .Moderate and conservative parties in Europe. gave virtually unconditional support to the Western alliance. although dissent began to appear after 1956. the CND and the nuclear freeze movement. Marshall Plan and Czechoslovak coup d'état Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that receivedMarshall Plan aid. France and the United States unsuccessfully attempted to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union for a plan envisioning an economically self-sufficient Germany. paid by the KGB and involved in its intelligence operations. European economic alliances Main articles: Marshall Plan and Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948 In early 1947. Britain. adhered to Moscow's line.
With US assistance. and the National Security Council. The plan's aim was to rebuild the democratic and economic systems of Europe and to counter perceived threats to Europe's balance of power. creating a unified Department of Defense. Soviet operatives executed a coup d'état of 1948 in Czechoslovakia. following reports of strengthening "reactionary elements". Berlin Blockade and airlift . Greece. Increases occurred in intelligence and espionage activities. In early 1948. such as communist parties seizing control through revolutions or elections. In June 1947. The twin policies of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan led to billions in economic and military aid for Western Europe. in accordance with the Truman Doctrine. Stalin believed that economic integration with the West would allow Eastern Bloc countries to escape Soviet control. The public brutality of the coup shocked Western powers more than any event up to that point. the United States enacted the Marshall Plan. set in a motion a brief scare that war would occur and swept away the last vestiges of opposition to the Marshall Plan in the United States Congress. The Italian Christian Democrats defeated the powerful CommunistSocialist alliance in the elections of 1948.already removed by the Soviets. Stalin therefore prevented Eastern Bloc nations from receiving Marshall Plan aid. including the Soviet Union. which was purported to involve Soviet subsidies and trade with eastern Europe. Eastern Bloc defections and diplomatic expulsions . Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947. a pledge of economic assistance for all European countries willing to participate. the only Eastern Bloc state that the Soviets had permitted to retain democratic structures. the Greek military won its civil war. Stalin was also fearful of a reconstituted Germany. One month later. The plan also stated that European prosperity was contingent upon German economic recovery. These would become the main bureaucracies for US policy in the Cold War. the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). and that the US was trying to buy a pro-US re-alignment of Europe. became known as the Molotov Plan (later institutionalized in January 1949 as the Comecon). his vision of a post-war Germany did not include the ability to rearm or pose any kind of threat to the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union's alternative to the Marshall plan. and Turkey.
preventing food. including the introduction of a new Deutsche Mark currency to replace the old Reichsmark currency that the Soviets had debased. Britain. In May 1949. they began to re-industrialize and rebuild the German economy. Australia. representatives of a number of Western European governments and the United States announced an agreement for a merger of western German areas into a federal governmental system. The Soviets mounted a public relations campaign against the policy change. 300.3% and an overwhelming victory for the non-Communist parties. 1948 and produced a turnout of 86. Stalin backed down and lifted the blockade. The results effectively divided the city into East and West versions of its former self. later "Trizonia" with the addition of France's zone. in early 1948. The United States.000 Berliners demonstrated and urged the international airlift to continue. Main article: Berlin Blockade The United States and Britain merged their western German occupation zones into "Bizonia" (1 January 1947. April 1949). Once again the East Berlin communists attempted to disrupt the Berlin municipal elections (as they have done in the 1946 elections). Shortly thereafter. Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949). France. which were held on December 5. As part of the economic rebuilding of Germany. In addition. New Zealand and several other countries began the massive "Berlin airlift". supplying West Berlin with food and other provisions. which supplied candy to German children. in accordance with the Marshall Plan. NATO beginnings and Radio Free Europe . one of the first major crises of the Cold War. and the US accidentally created "Operation Vittles".C-47s unloading at Tempelhof Airport in Berlin during the Berlin Blockade. Canada. materials and supplies from arriving in West Berlin.
Media in the Eastern Bloc was an organ of the state. Radio Free Europe attempted to achieve these goals by serving as a surrogate home radio station. especially those who believed that the Cold War would eventually be fought by political rather than military means. the United States. the first Soviet atomic device was detonated in Semipalatinsk. an alternative to the controlled and party-dominated domestic press. Britain.The Soviet Union proclaimed its zone of occupation in Germany the German Democratic Republic that October. dedicated to bringing about the peaceful demise of the Communist system in the Eastern Bloc. funded a long . acting through the CIA.the US. American policymakers. acknowledged that the Cold War was in its essence a war of ideas. Soviet propaganda used Marxist philosophy to attack capitalism. The United States. with radio and television organizations being state-owned. establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). completely reliant on and subservient to the communist party.President Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment of 1949 with guests in the Oval Office. Along with the broadcasts of the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Voice of America to Eastern Europe. such as George F. including Kennan and John Foster Dulles. Following Soviet refusals to participate in a German rebuilding effort set forth by western European countries in 1948.Kazakh SSR. a major propaganda effort begun in 1949 was Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. while print media was usually owned by political organizations. Canada and eight other western European countries signed the North Atlantic Treaty of April 1949. claiming labor exploitation and warmongering imperialism were inherent in the system. France. That August. Kennan. Britain and France spearheaded the establishment of West Germany from the three Western zones of occupation in April 1949. mostly by the local communist party. Radio Free Europe was a product of some of the most prominent architects of America's early Cold War strategy.
had made an unsuccessful proposal to allow the reunification of a neutral Germany to prevent West Germany's incorporation into NATO. Australia. fighting against the restoration of Europe's colonial empires in South-East Asia and elsewhere. United States officials moved thereafter to expand containment into Asia. South Africa. France. the United States. In the early 1950s (a period sometimes known as the "Pactomania"). thereby guaranteeing the United States a number of long-term military bases. the National Security Council proposed to reinforce pro-Western alliance systems and quadruple spending on defense. the UN Security Council backed the defense of South Korea. In May 1953.list of projects to counter the Communist appeal among intellectuals in Europe and the developing world. the Philippines. Australia. in order to counter revolutionary nationalist movements. Chiang and his KMT government retreated to the island of Taiwan. Mao Zedong's People's Liberation Army defeated Chiang Kai-shek's United Statesbacked Kuomintang (KMT) Nationalist Government in China. the Netherlands. often led by communist parties financed by the USSR. Beria. a secret 1950 document. In June 1950. Belgium. Kim Il-Sung's North Korean People's Army invaded South Korea. Confronted with the communist revolution in China and the end of the American atomic monopoly in 1949. . the US worked for the rearmament of West Germany and. and the Soviet Union promptly created an alliance with the newly formed People's Republic of China. In NSC-68. Turkey. though the Soviets were then boycotting meetings in protest that Taiwan and not Communist China held a permanent seat on the Council. and Latin America. Korean War One of the more significant impacts of containment was the outbreak of the Korean War. New Zealand and other countries joined to stop the invasion. in 1955. the United Kingdom. secured its full membership of NATO. by then in a government post. New Zealand. the Truman administration quickly moved to escalate and expand the containment policy. A UN force of personnel from South Korea. Chinese Civil War and SEATO In 1949. Africa. To Joseph Stalin's surprise. In the early 1950s. Thailand and the Philippines (notably ANZUS in 1951 and SEATO in 1954). the US formalized a series of alliances with Japan. Canada.
the American defense budget had quadrupled. 15 September 1950. such as Great Britain. was divided for and against the war. Among other effects. and the Armistice was approved only in July 1953. During the last 18 months of the Truman administration. and even nuclear war. Stalin insisted that they continue fighting. . UN Command CiC (seated). Eisenhower was inaugurated president that January. North Korean leader Kim Il Sung created a highly centralized and brutal dictatorship. after Stalin's death. the Korean War galvanised NATO to develop a military structure. thecorrupt American-backed strongman Syngman Rhee pursued a comparable system of totalitarian rule. Many feared an escalation into a general war with Communist China. Even though the Chinese and North Koreans were exhausted by the war and were prepared to end it by late 1952. Albeit Rhee was overthrown after popular protests against his rigged re-election victory in 1960. Eisenhower and De-Stalinization In 1953. Dwight D. and Eisenhower moved to reduce military spending by a third while continuing to fight the Cold War effectively. Public opinion in countries involved. South Korea subsequently fell under a period of military rule that lasted until the re-establishment of a multi-party system in 1987. according himself unlimited power and generating a formidable cult of personality. In the South. hoping to unite Korea under United Nations auspices and withdrawal of all foreign forces. changes in political leadership on both sides shifted the dynamic of the Cold War. The strong opposition to the war often strained Anglo-American relations. For these reasons British officials sought a speedy end to the conflict.General Douglas MacArthur. observes the naval shelling of Incheon from the USS Mt. Crisis and escalation (1953–62) Khrushchev. McKinley.
the Warsaw Pact. the new regime . he declared that the only way to reform and move away from Stalin's policies would be to acknowledge errors made in the past. As part of a campaign of de-Stalinization. On February 25. Nikita Khrushchev became the Soviet leader following the deposition and execution of Lavrentiy Beria and the pushing aside of rivals Georgy Malenkovand Vyacheslav Molotov. consumer goods would be abundant. Khrushchev declared that even if the USSR was behind the West. Dulles also enunciated the doctrine of "massive retaliation". who had already created a network of mutual assistance treaties in the Eastern Bloc by 1949.After the death of Joseph Stalin. established a formal alliance therein. On November 18. Khrushchev used his famous "Whether you like it or not. John Foster Dulles. allowed Eisenhower to face down Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East during the 1956 Suez Crisis. 1956. while addressing Western ambassadors at a reception at the Polish embassy in Moscow. In 1961. shocking everyone present. We will bury you" expression. Possessing nuclear superiority. Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution Map of the Warsaw Pact countries While Stalin's death in 1953 slightly relaxed tensions. initiated a "New Look" for the containment strategy. in 1955. and within two decades. the situation in Europe remained an uneasy armed truce. Khrushchev shocked delegates to the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party by cataloguing and denouncing Stalin's crimes. but rather about the historically determined victory of communism over capitalism. threatening a severe US response to any Soviet aggression. In response to a popular uprising. 1956. The Soviets. Eisenhower's secretary of state. He later claimed that he had not been talking about nuclear war. within a decade its housing shortage would disappear. calling for a greater reliance on nuclear weapons against US enemies in wartime. the "construction of a communist society" in the USSR would be completed "in the main". for example. The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 occurred shortly after Khrushchev arranged the removal of Hungary's Stalinist leader Mátyás Rákosi. history is on our side.
From 1957 through 1961. Khrushchev rejected Stalin's belief in the inevitability of war. Berlin Ultimatum and European integration . peace would allow capitalism to collapse on its own. now. Thousands of Hungarians were arrested. where international class struggle meant the two opposing camps were on an inevitable collision course where Communism would triumph through global war. with tensions henceforth based primarily on clashing geopolitical objectives rather than ideology. with great decline in membership as many in both western and communist countries felt disillusioned by the brutal Soviet response.formally disbanded the secret police. However. He claimed that Soviet missile capabilities were far superior to those of the United States. a fact that was immediately recognized by some. particularly in Western Europe. imprisoned and deported to the Soviet Union. Khrushchev openly and repeatedly threatened the West with nuclear annihilation. and approximately 200.000 Hungarians fled Hungary in the chaos. capable of wiping out any American or European city. However. such as the Yugoslavian politician Milovan Djilas who shortly after the revolution was crushed said that "The wound which the Hungarian Revolution inflicted on communism can never be completely healed" America's pronouncements concentrated on American strength abroad and the success of liberal capitalism. The communist parties in the west would never recover from the effect the Hungarian Revolution had on their membership. by the late 1960s. as well as giving the Soviets time to boost their military capabilities. Hungarian leader Imre Nagy and others were executed following secret trials. The Soviet army invaded. The events in Hungary produced ideological fractures within the Communist parties of the world. and declared his new goal was to be "peaceful coexistence". the "battle for men's minds" between two systems of social organization that Kennedy spoke of in 1961 was largely over. declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free elections. This formulation modified the Stalin-era Soviet stance. which remained for decades until Gorbachev's later "new thinking" envisioning peaceful coexistence as an end in itself rather than a form of class struggle.
and France a sixmonth ultimatum to withdraw their troops from the sectors they still occupied in West Berlin. one hallmark of the 1950s was the beginning of European integration—a fundamental by-product of the Cold War that Truman and Eisenhower promoted politically. economically." NATO formally rejected the ultimatum in mid-December and Khrushchev withdrew it in return for a Geneva conference on the German question. More broadly. Every time I want to make the West scream. Worldwide competition . Khrushchev earlier explained to Mao Zedong that "Berlin is the testicles of the West. fearful that an independent Europe would forge a separate détente with the Soviet Union. or he would transfer control of Western access rights to the East Germans.The maximum territorial extent of countries in the world under Soviet influence. but which later administrations viewed ambivalently. and militarily. giving the United States. which would use this to exacerbate Western disunity. Khrushchev made an unsuccessful attempt to turn all of Berlin into an independent. I squeeze on Berlin. after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and before the official Sino-Soviet split of 1961 During November 1958. demilitarized "free city". Great Britain.
1961 Soviet stamp commemorating Patrice Lumumba. or perceived in the West to be allied with communists. The popularly-elected and non-aligned Mosaddegh had been a Middle Eastern nemesis of Britain since nationalizing the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1951. Indonesia and Indochina were often allied with communist groups. a covert operation aimed at the overthrow of the Iranian Prime Minister. Nationalist movements in some countries and regions. notably Guatemala. prime minister of the Republic of the Congo. The United States made use of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to do away with a string of unfriendly Third World governments and to support allied ones. the United States and the Soviet Union increasingly competed for influence by proxy in the Third World as decolonization gained momentum in the 1950s and early 1960s. a CIA-backed military coup ousted the left-wing President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. additionally. the Soviets saw continuing losses by imperial powers as presaging the eventual victory of their ideology. In 1953. Mohammad Mosaddegh. the shah's domestic security and intelligence agency. Churchill told the United States that Mosaddegh was "increasingly turning towards communism" and was moving Iran towards the Soviet sphere. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Both sides were selling armaments to gain influence. In Guatemala. assumed control as an autocratic monarch. a military junta headed by Carlos Castillo . The post-Arbenz government.1961 Soviet postage stampdemanding freedom for African nations. The shah's policies included the banning of the communist Tudeh Party and general suppression of political dissent by SAVAK. The pro-Western shah. In this context. President Eisenhower's Central Intelligence Agency implemented Operation Ajax.
the United States pressured the British to withhold Guyana's independence until an alternative to Jagan could be identified. Many emerging nations of Asia. In British Guiana. Between 1954 and 1961. the CIAcultivated President Joseph Kasa-Vubu ordered the dismissal of the democratically-elected Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and the Lumumba cabinet in September. Embarrassed by the landslide electoral victory of Jagan's allegedly Marxist party.Armas. In the ensuing Congo Crisis. despite Britain's shift to a reconsideration of its view of the left-wing Jagan as a Soviet-style communist at this time. and decreed a Preventive Penal Law Against Communism at the request of the United States. The consensus reached at Bandung culminated with the creation of the Belgrade-headquartered Non-Aligned Movement in 1961. Eisenhower's United States sent economic aid and military advisers to strengthen South Vietnam's pro-Western regime against communist efforts to destabilize it. Lumumba called for KasaVubu's dismissal instead. Peace accords signed in Geneva left Vietnam divided between a pro-Soviet administration in North Vietnam and a proWestern administration in South Vietnam at the 17th parallel north. Africa. . supported. the British imprisoned the PPP's leadership and maneuvered the organization into a divisive rupture in 1955. dozens of Third World governments resolved to stay out of the Cold War. engineering a split between Jagan and his PPP colleagues. the leftist People's Progressive Party (PPP) candidate Cheddi Jagan won the position of chief minister in a colonially-administered election in 1953. Independence movements in the Third World transformed the post-war order into a more pluralistic world of decolonized African and Middle Eastern nations and of rising nationalism in Asia and Latin America. and Latin America rejected the pressure to choose sides in the East-West competition. Jagan again won the colonial elections in 1957 and 1961. set up a National Committee of Defense Against Communism. Worn down by the communist guerrilla war for Vietnamese independence and handed a watershed defeat by communist Vietminh rebels at the 1954 Battle of Điện Biên Phủ. In 1955. newly independent from Belgium since June 1960. and brought into office. In the Republic of the Congo. Khrushchev broadened Moscow's policy to establish ties with India and other key neutral states. the French accepted a negotiated abandonment of their colonial stake in Vietnam. Meanwhile. but was quickly forced to resign from power after Britain's suspension of the still-dependent nation's constitution. the CIA-backed Colonel Mobutu quickly mobilized his forces to seize power through a military coup d'état. returned nationalized American property. at the Bandung Conference in Indonesia.
launched the first Earth satellite. On the nuclear weapons front. the Soviets focused on a bitter rivalry with Mao's China for leadership of the global communist movement. referred to the Chinese leader as a "lunatic on a throne". the United States and the USSR pursued nuclear rearmament and developed long-range weapons with which they could strike the territory of the other. and treated the new Soviet leader as a superficial upstart.Sino-Soviet split. The Chinese-Soviet animosity spilled out in an intra-communist propaganda war. space race. accusing him of having lost his revolutionary edge. Mao had defended Stalin when Khrushchev attacked him after his death in 1956. disturbed by Mao‘s glib attitude toward nuclear war. Further on. Khrushchev made many desperate attempts to reconstitute the Sino-Soviet alliance. The launch of Sputnik inaugurated the Space Race. The period after 1956 was marked by serious setbacks for the Soviet Union. ICBMs Charting the progress of the Space Racein 1957-1975. In August 1957." Cuban Revolution and the Bay of Pigs Invasion . the Soviets successfully launched the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and in October. Khrushchev. but Mao considered it useless and denied any proposal. Sputnik. which astronaut Frank Borman later described as "just a battle in the Cold War. beginning the Sino-Soviet split. This culminated in the Apollo Moon landings. For his part. After this. most notably the breakdown of the Sino-Soviet alliance.
but President Eisenhower deliberately left the capital to avoid meeting Cuba's young revolutionary leader Fidel Castro during the latter's trip to Washington in April. Kennedy mounted an unsuccessful CIA-organized ship-borne invasion of the island at Playa Girón and Playa Larga in Las Villas Province — a failure that publicly humiliated the United States. and the Soviet Union pledged to provide support. but hostile toward the Cubans' efforts to decrease their economic reliance on the United States. toppling President Fulgencio Batista. leaving Vice President Richard Nixon to conduct the meeting in his place. Diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States continued for some time after Batista's fall. the administration of newly-elected American President John F. on October 27. In January 1961.Flag of the 26th July Movement. Eisenhower formally severed relations with the Cuban government. during the Berlin Crisis of 1961 . Berlin Crisis of 1961 Soviet tanks face US tanks at Checkpoint Charlie. the 26th of July Movement seized power in January 1959. Castro responded by embracing Marxism-Leninism. just prior to leaving office. Eisenhower's officials were not sure as to whether Castro was a communist. In Cuba. In April 1961. whose unpopular regime had been denied arms by the Eisenhower administration.
Kennedy and his administration experimented with various ways of covertly facilitating the overthrow of the Cuban government. where the four occupying World War II powers governed movement. and Eastern Bloc emigration and defection The Berlin Crisis of 1961 was the last major incident in the Cold War regarding the status of Berlin and post–World War II Germany.S. the Soviet approach to restricting emigration movement was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. possibly involving the American military — and yet one more Kennedy-ordered operation to assassinate Castro. The request was rebuffed. Cuban Missile Crisis and Khrushchev ouster A U. Significant hopes were pinned on a covert program named the Cuban Project. devised under the Kennedy administration in 1961. The emigration resulted in a massive "brain drain" from East Germany to West Germany of younger educated professionals. Navy P-2 of VP-18 flying over a Soviet freighter during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Continuing to seek ways to oust Castro following the Bay of Pigs Invasion. By the early 1950s. That June. hundreds of thousands of East Germans annually emigrated to West Germany through a "loophole" in the system that existed between East and West Berlin. Berlin Wall. Preparations to install Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba were undertaken in response. Khrushchev learned of the American plans regarding Cuba: a "Cuban project" — approved by the CIA and stipulating the overthrow of the Cuban government in October. In February 1962. the Soviet Union issued a new ultimatumdemanding the withdrawal of Allied forces from West Berlin. However. such that nearly 20% of East Germany's population had migrated to West Germany by 1961.Main articles: Berlin Crisis of 1961. and on August 13. . effectively closing the loophole. East Germany erected a barbed-wire barrier that would eventually be expanded through construction into the Berlin Wall.
the Antarctic Treaty. Confrontation through détente (1962–79) The United States reached the moon in 1969—a milestone in the space race. and ultimately responded to the installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba with a naval blockade and presented an ultimatum to the Soviets. he was also credited with ruining Soviet agriculture and bringing the world to the brink of nuclear war. Accused of rudeness and incompetence. The aftermath of the crisis led to the first efforts in the nuclear arms race at nuclear disarmament and improving relations. . Khrushchev backed down from a confrontation. a public humiliation for Marxism-Leninism. although the Cold War's first arms control agreement. Khrushchev had become an international embarrassment when he authorized construction of the Berlin Wall. but allowed him a peaceful retirement. and the Soviet Union removed the missiles in return for an American pledge not to invade Cuba again. It further demonstrated the concept of mutually assured destruction that neither nuclear power was prepared to use nuclear weapons fearing total destruction via nuclear retaliation. The Cuban Missile Crisis (October–November 1962) brought the world closer to nuclear war than ever before. Khrushchev's Kremlin colleagues managed to oust him.Alarmed. In 1964. Kennedy considered various reactions. had come into force in 1961.
he argued for the creation of a tripartite directorate that would put France on an equal footing with the United States and the United Kingdom. Moscow was forced to turn its attention inward to deal with the Soviet Union's deep-seated domestic economic problems. During this period. with per capita GDPs approaching those of the United States. less-powerful countries had more room to assert their independence and often showed themselves resistant to pressure from either superpower. while Eastern Bloc economies stagnated. Soviet leaders such as Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin embraced the notion of détente. From the beginning of the post-war period. As a result of the 1973 oil crisis. French NATO withdrawal The unity of NATO was breached early in its history. and also for the expansion of NATO's coverage to include geographical areas of interest to France. In a memorandum sent to President Dwight D. more complicated pattern of international relations in which the world was no longer divided into two clearly opposed blocs. Meanwhile. De Gaulle protested at the United States' strong role in the organization and what he perceived as a special relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom. with a crisis occurring during Charles de Gaulle's presidency of France from 1958 onwards. where France was waging a counter-insurgency and sought NATO assistance. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan on 17 September 1958. .United States Navy F-4 Phantom IIintercepts a Soviet Tupolev Tu-95 D aircraft in the early 1970s In the course of the 1960s and 1970s. combined with the growing influence of Third World alignments such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the NonAligned Movement. Cold War participants struggled to adjust to a new. most notably French Algeria. Western Europe and Japan rapidly recovered from the destruction of World War II and sustained strong economic growth through the 1950s and 1960s.
Romania and China. The invasion sparked intense protests from Yugoslavia. freedom of speech and freedom of movement. Brezhnev outlined the Brezhnev Doctrine. the Soviet army.000 Czechs initially fleeing. a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia called the Prague Spring took place that included "Action Program" of liberalizations. with the total eventually reaching 300. in which he claimed the right to violate the sovereignty of any country attempting to replace Marxism-Leninism with capitalism. In answer to the Prague Spring. During the speech. invaded Czechoslovakia. along with an economic emphasis on consumer goods. limiting the power of the secret police and potentially withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact.Considering the response given to be unsatisfactory. including an estimated 70. Czechoslovakia invasion In 1968.000. Brezhnev Doctrine Leonid Brezhnev and Richard Nixonduring Brezhnev's June 1973 visit to Washington. which described increasing freedom of the press. together with most of their Warsaw Pact allies. The invasion was followed by a wave of emigration. and from Western European communist parties. but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries. it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned. during a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers' Party one month after the invasion of Czechoslovakia. In September 1968. Brezhnev stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism. this was a high-water mark in détente between the United States and the Soviet Union. de Gaulle began the development of an independent French nuclear deterrent and in 1966 withdrew from NATO's military structures and expelled NATO troops from French soil. the possibility of a multiparty government. .
the hardline anti-communist General Suharto wrested control of the state from his predecessor Sukarno in an attempt to establish a "New Order". The PRD's activists were violently harassed by the Dominican police and armed forces. President Lyndon B. President Lyndon B. Johnson stationed some 575. by 1975. Johnson (right) during the Glassboro Summit Conference In late April 1965. Johnson landed some 22. Hungary and East Germany. which were facing a declining standard of living contrasting with the prosperity of West Germany and the rest of Western Europe. during the occupation. Although Balaguer enjoyed a real base of support from sectors of the elites as well as peasants. Presidential elections held in 1966. former President Juan Bosch. In Indonesia. did not actively campaign.000 troops in the Dominican Republic for a one-year occupation of the republic in an invasion codenamed Operation Power Pack. the military orchestrated the mass killing of an estimated half-million members and sympathizers of the Indonesian Communist Party and other leftist organizations. citing the threat of the emergence of a Cuban-style revolution in Latin America. but his costly policy weakened the US economy and. Escalating the scale of American intervention in the ongoing conflict between Ngô Đình Diệm's South Vietnamese government and the communist National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) insurgents opposing it. Third World escalations Alexei Kosygin (left) next to U. handed victory to the conservativeJoaquín Balaguer. From 1965 to 1966. his formally runningDominican Revolutionary Party (PRD) opponent.The doctrine found its origins in the failures of Marxism-Leninism in states like Poland. ultimately culminated in what most of the world saw as a humiliating defeat of the world's most powerful superpower at the hands of one of the world's poorest nations. .S.000 troops in Southeast Asia to defeat the NLF and their North Vietnamese allies in the Vietnam War.
Uruguay. When fighting between the Somalis and Ethiopians broke out in the 1977-1978 Somali- . Violence ensued. becoming the first democratically elected Marxist to become president of a country in the Americas. as well as the nationalist governments of Algeria and Iraq. The United States' covert response included financing Manley's political opponents. Indirect Soviet assistance to the Palestinian side of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict included support for Yasser Arafat's Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Moreover. who built up relations with the Cubans and Soviets. Although pre-Sadat Egypt had been the largest recipient of Soviet aid in the Middle East.In Chile. Jamaica began pursuing closer relations with the Cuban government as a result of Michael Manley's election in 1972. General Augusto Pinochet carried out a violent coup against the government on September 11. which received the bulk of its arms and economic assistance from the USSR. Brazil. the pro-American Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie was overthrown in a 1974 coup by the Derg. and the fitting out of a private mercernary army against the Manley government. the Socialist Party candidate Salvador Allende won the presidential election of 1970. Displeasing the United States. Somali army officers led by Mohamed Siad Barre carried out a bloodless coup in 1969. the continent-wide South American Operation Condor — employed by dictators in Argentina. a radical group of Ethiopian army officers led by the proSoviet Mengistu Haile Mariam. the Soviets were also successful in establishing close relations with communist South Yemen. Allende's reforms of the economy were rolled back and leftist opponents were killed or detained in internment camps under the Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional(DINA). 1973 and quickly consolidated all political power as a military dictator. Four years later. Despite the beginning of an Egyptian shift from a pro-Soviet to a pro-American orientation in 1972 (under Egypt's new leader Anwar El Sadat). Additionally. Backed by the CIA. the Middle East continued to be a source of contention. In Africa. which (sometimes accurately) perceived Soviet or Cuban support behind these opposition movements. creating the socialist Somali Democratic Republic. was a troublesome client. Chile. Egypt. the instigation of mutiny in the Jamaican army. Bolivia. and Paraguay to suppress leftist dissent — was backed by the United States. with a reluctant Soviet Union feeling obliged to assist in both the 1967 Six-Day War (with advisers and technicians) and the War of Attrition (with pilots and aircraft) against pro-Western Israel. rumors of imminent Soviet intervention on the Egyptians' behalf during the 1973 Yom Kippur War brought about a massive American mobilization that threatened to wreck détente. The Soviet Union vowed to support Somalia.
The 1974 Portuguese Carnation Revolution against the authoritarian Estado Novo returned Portugal to a multi-party system and facilitated the independence of the Portuguese colonies Angola and East Timor. In Africa. and United States President Richard Nixon decided to use the conflict to shift the balance of power towards the West in the Cold War. Barre lost his Soviet support and allied with the United States. the apartheid government of South Africa.EthiopianOgaden War. Cuban troops took part in the war on the side of the Ethiopians. The United States. The Chinese had sought improved relations with the Americans in order to gain advantage over the Soviets as well. Sino-American re-approachment Richard Nixon meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. Apartheid South Africa sent troops to support the UNITA. the People's Republic of China. In Southeast Asia. Suharto's Indonesia invaded in December — the beginning of an occupation that would last a quarter-century. bolstered by Cuban personnel and Soviet assistance. and several other African governments also supported a third faction. backed by the United States. Without bothering to consult the Soviets in advance. a two-decade civil war replaced the anticolonial struggle as fighting erupted between the communist People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). where Angolan rebels had waged a multi-faction independence war against Portuguese rule since 1961. As a result of the Sino–Soviet split. Supported by Australia and the United States. but the MPLA. tensions along the Chinese–Soviet border reached their peak in 1969. . eventually gained the upper hand. the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). the Cuban government sent its troops to fight alongside the MPLA. and Mobutu's government in Zaire. backed by the Cubans and Soviets. and the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA). the colony of East Timor unilaterally declared independence under the leftwing Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Fretilin) in November 1975.
Brezhnev. Nixon announced a stunning rapprochement with Mao's China by traveling to Beijing and meeting with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai. Nixon met with Soviet leaders. These aimed to limit the development of costly anti-ballistic missiles and nuclear missiles. Meanwhile. At this time. Brezhnev attempted to revive the Soviet economy. the first comprehensive limitation pact signed by the two superpowers. including agreements for increased trade. Other agreements were concluded to stabilize the situation in Europe. which was declining in part because of heavy military expenditures. and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Helsinki Accords. which banned the development of systems designed to intercept incoming missiles. June 18. and détente Leonid Brezhnev and Jimmy Carter sign SALT II treaty. Meanwhile. and Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Following his China visit.In February 1972. These Strategic Arms Limitation Talks resulted in two landmark arms control treaties: SALT I. As a result of their meetings. tensions were beginning to ease. . Nixon. these developments coincided with the "Ostpolitik" of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt. the USSR achieved rough nuclear parity with the United States. Nixon and Brezhnev proclaimed a new era of "peaceful coexistence" and established the groundbreaking new policy of détente (or cooperation) between the two superpowers. meanwhile. Although indirect conflict between Cold War powers continued through the late 1960s and early 1970s. détente would replace the hostility of the Cold War and the two countries would live mutually. the Vietnam War both weakened America's influence in the Third World and cooled relations with Western Europe. 1979. Between 1972 and 1974. in Vienna Main articles: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. the two sides also agreed to strengthen their economic ties. including Brezhnev in Moscow.
Asked by the interviewer if he had regrets. Indirect conflict between the superpowers continued through this period of détente in the Third World. his efforts were undermined by the other events that year. Soviet war in Afghanistan During December 1979. including the Iranian Revolution and the Nicaraguan Revolution. who were criticising the Soviet leadership in harsh terms. some six months prior to the Soviet military intervention. and demanding a significant increase in military spending. In a post-Afghan War interview conducted by French weekly newsmagazine Le Nouvel Observateur. particularly during political crises in the Middle East. Tensions greatly increased between the major powers with both sides becoming more militaristic. continued to persecute distinguished Soviet personalities such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov." Carter responded to the Soviet intervention by withdrawing the SALT II treaty from the Senate. Although President Jimmy Carter tried to place another limit on the arms race with a SALT II agreement in 1979. led by Yuri Andropov. Ethiopia. which both ousted pro-US regimes. imposing embargoes on grain and technology shipments to the USSR. the KGB. Late 1970s deterioration of relations In the 1970s. approximately 75. Second Cold War (1979–85) The term second Cold War has been used by some historians to refer to the period of intensive reawakening of Cold War tensions and conflicts in the late 1970s and early 1980s.000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in order to support the Marxist government formed by ex-Prime-minister Nur Muhammad Taraki. President Jimmy Carter's National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski stated that the president had already signed a directive to provide aid to the anticommunist mujahideen insurgency against the pro-Soviet PDPA government of Afghanistan in July. given that "the Soviets justified their intervention by asserting that they intended to fight against a secret involvement of the United States in Afghanistan" and that "people didn't believe them. and further announced that the United . and his retaliation against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in December. assassinated that September by one of his party rivals.culminating in the Helsinki Accords signed at the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe in 1975. Chile. and Angola.
Ronald Reagan bluntly stated. Besides continuing Carters' policy of supporting the .. Then-CIA director William Casey described the Khomeini government as "faltering and [possibly] moving toward a moment of truth. In 1983.. the CIA passed an extensive list of Iranian communists and other leftists secretly working in the Iranian government to Khomeini's administration.States would boycott the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics. Ronald Reagan defeated Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election. Allen. in addition to containment. What do you think of that?" In 1980. Both Reagan and new British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher denounced the Soviet Union and its ideology. Despite anti-American sentiment in Iran as a result of the 1979 Iranian Revolution against the pro-American shah and an accompanying breakdown in relations with the new Ayatollah Khomeini government over the Iran hostage crisis. vowing to increase military spending and confront the Soviets everywhere.S." he said. formulated an additional right to subvert existing communist governments." One mode of American support for the Iranians consisted of secret arms sales. He described the Soviet incursion as "the most serious threat to the peace since the Second World War". and some would say simplistic. including mass executions that virtually eliminated the pro-Soviet infrastructure in Iran. the Reagan administration reached out to the anti-communist Khomeini in an effort to recruit the theocracy into the American camp in the early 1980s. The U. A Tower Commission report later observed that the list was utilized to take "measures. has almost no cards to play. "It is this: We win and they lose." By early 1985. Reagan and Thatcher Thatcher's Ministry meets with Reagan's Cabinet at the White House. the USSR has many. "My idea of American policy toward the Soviet Union is simple. four years prior to becoming president. his basic expectation in relation to the Cold War. Reagan's anti-communist position had developed into a stance known as the new Reagan Doctrine — which. Reagan labeled the Soviet Union an "evil empire" and predicted that Communism would be left on the "ash heap of history". in a conversation with Richard V. 1981 In January 1977.
Soviet and US military and economic issues US and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles. Poland's Wojciech Jaruzelski reacted to the crisis by imposing a period of martial law. the Kremlin's top ideologist. Polish Solidarity movement and martial law Pope John Paul II provided a moral focus for anti-communism.Islamic opponents of the Soviet Union and the Soviet-backed PDPA government in Afghanistan. In December 1981. advised Soviet leaders not to intervene if Poland fell under the control of Solidarity. Mikhail Suslov. for fear it might lead to heavy economic sanctions. a visit to his native Poland in 1979 stimulated a religious and nationalist resurgence centered on the Solidarity movementthat galvanized opposition and may have led to his attempted assassination two years later. Reagan imposed economic sanctions on Poland in response. 1945–2006 . the CIA encouraged anti-communist Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency to train Muslims from around the world to participate in the jihad against the Soviet Union. Additionally. representing a catastrophe for the Soviet economy. the CIA also sought to weaken the Soviet Union itself by promoting political Islam in the majority-Muslim Central Asian Soviet Union.
Delta 183 launch vehicle lifts off. The Soviet Armed Forces became the largest in the world in terms of the numbers and types of weapons they possessed. in the number of troops in their ranks. Moscow had built up a military that consumed as much as 25 percent of the Soviet Union's gross national product at the expense of consumer goods and investment in civilian sectors. Soviet spending on the arms race and other Cold War commitments both caused and exacerbated deepseated structural problems in the Soviet system. carrying the Strategic Defense Initiative sensor experiment "Delta Star". but in large part by the interests of massive party and state bureaucracies dependent on the sector for their own power and privileges. However. the quantitative advantages held by the Soviet military often concealed areas where the Eastern Bloc dramatically lagged behind the West. which saw at least a decade of economic stagnation during the late Brezhnev years. and in the sheer size of their military–industrial base. . Soviet investment in the defense sector was not driven by military necessity.
the largest peacetime defense buildup in United States history. produced LGM-118 Peacekeepers. which affected the Soviet Union. and the deployment of Soviet RSD-10 Pioneer ballistic missiles targeting Western Europe. By the early 1980s. along with inefficient planned manufacturing and collectivized agriculture. This buildup was accelerated by the Reagan administration. This deployment would have placed missiles just 10 minutes' striking distance from Moscow. installed US cruise missiles in Europe. even as other non-OPEC nations were increasing production.5 percent in 1986. the Soviet Union did not respond by further building its military because the enormous military expenses. With the background of a buildup in tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States. dubbed "Star Wars" by the media. were already a heavy burden for the Soviet economy.After ten year old American Samantha Smith wrote a letter to Yuri Andropov expressing her fear of nuclear war. a defense program to shoot down missiles in mid-flight. and announced his experimental Strategic Defense Initiative. Reagan persuaded Saudi Arabia to increase oil production. Andropov invited Smith to the Soviet Union. After Reagan's military buildup. NATO decided. President Carter began massively building up the United States military. as oil was the main source of Soviet export . under the impetus of the Carter presidency. Tensions continued intensifying in the early 1980s when Reagan revived the B-1 Lancer program that was canceled by the Carter administration. These developments contributed to the 1980s oil glut. primarily West Germany. which increased the military spending from 5. the USSR had built up a military arsenal and army surpassing that of the United States. At the same time. Soon after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. to deploy MGM-31 Pershing and cruise missiles in Europe.3 percent of GNP in 1981 to 6.
revenues. Issues with command economics, oil prices decreases and large military expenditures gradually brought the Soviet economy to stagnation. On September 1, 1983, the Soviet Union shot down Korean Air Lines Flight 007, a Boeing 747 with 269 people aboard, including sitting Congressman Larry McDonald, when it violated Soviet airspace just past the west coast of Sakhalin Island near Moneron Island —an act which Reagan characterized as a "massacre". This act increased support for military deployment, overseen by Reagan, which stood in place until the later accords between Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev. The Able Archer 83 exercise in November 1983, a realistic simulation of a coordinated NATO nuclear release, has been called most dangerous moment since the Cuban Missile Crisis, as the Soviet leadership keeping a close watch on it considered a nuclear attack to be imminent. US domestic public concerns about intervening in foreign conflicts persisted from the end of the Vietnam War. The Reagan administration emphasized the use of quick, low-cost counterinsurgency tactics to intervene in foreign conflicts. In 1983, the Reagan administration intervened in the multisided Lebanese Civil War, invaded Grenada, bombed Libya and backed the Central American Contras, anti-communist paramilitaries seeking to overthrow the Sovietaligned Sandinista government in Nicaragua. While Reagan's interventions against Grenada and Libya were popular in the United States, his backing of the Contra rebels was mired in controversy. Meanwhile, the Soviets incurred high costs for their own foreign interventions. Although Brezhnev was convinced in 1979 that the Soviet war in Afghanistan would be brief, Muslim guerrillas, aided by the US and other countries, waged a fierce resistance against the invasion. The Kremlin sent nearly 100,000 troops to support its puppet regime in Afghanistan, leading many outside observers to dub the war "the Soviets' Vietnam".However, Moscow's quagmire in Afghanistan was far more disastrous for the Soviets than Vietnam had been for the Americans because the conflict coincided with a period of internal decay and domestic crisis in the Soviet system. A senior US State Department official predicted such an outcome as early as 1980, positing that the invasion resulted in part from a "domestic crisis within the Soviet system. ... It may be that the thermodynamic law of entropy has ... caught up with the Soviet system, which now seems to expend more energy on simply maintaining its equilibrium than on improving itself. We could be seeing a period of foreign movement at a time of internal decay". The Soviets were not helped by their aged and sclerotic leadership either: Brezhnev, virtually incapacitated in his last years, was succeeded by Andropov and Chernenko, neither of whom lasted long. After Chernenko's death,
Reagan was asked why he had not negotiated with Soviet leaders. Reagan quipped, "They keep dying on me".
Final years (1985–91)
Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House, 1987
Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1988. Gorbachev reforms By the time the comparatively youthful Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary in 1985, the Soviet economy was stagnant and faced a sharp fall in foreign currency earnings as a result of the downward slide in oil prices in the 1980s. These issues prompted Gorbachev to investigate measures to revive the ailing state. An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary and in June 1987 Gorbachev announced an agenda of economic reform called perestroika, or restructuring. Perestroika relaxed the production quota system, allowed private ownership of businesses and paved the way for foreign investment. These measures were intended to redirect the country's resources from costly Cold War military commitments to more productive areas in the civilian sector. Despite initial skepticism in the West, the new Soviet leader proved to be committed to reversing the Soviet Union's deteriorating economic condition instead of continuing the arms race with the
West. Partly as a way to fight off internal opposition from party cliques to his reforms, Gorbachev simultaneously introduced glasnost, or openness, which increased freedom of the press and the transparency of state institutions. Glasnost was intended to reduce the corruption at the top of the Communist Party and moderate the abuse of power in the Central Committee. Glasnost also enabled increased contact between Soviet citizens and the western world, particularly with the United States, contributing to the accelerating détente between the two nations. Thaw in relations In response to the Kremlin's military and political concessions, Reagan agreed to renew talks on economic issues and the scaling-back of the arms race. The first was held in November 1985 in Geneva, Switzerland. At one stage the two men, accompanied only by an interpreter, agreed in principle to reduce each country's nuclear arsenal by 50 percent. A second Reykjavík Summit was held in Iceland. Talks went well until the focus shifted to Reagan's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, which Gorbachev wanted eliminated: Reagan refused. The negotiations failed, but the third summit in 1987 led to a breakthrough with the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF). The INF treaty eliminated all nucleararmed, ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 kilometers (300 to 3,400 miles) and their infrastructure. East–West tensions rapidly subsided through the mid-to-late 1980s, culminating with the final summit in Moscow in 1989, when Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush signed the START Iarms control treaty. During the following year it became apparent to the Soviets that oil and gas subsidies, along with the cost of maintaining massive troops levels, represented a substantial economic drain. In addition, the security advantage of a buffer zone was recognised as irrelevant and the Soviets officially declared that they would no longer intervene in the affairs of allied states in Eastern Europe. In 1989, Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan and by 1990 Gorbachev consented to German reunification, the only alternative being a Tiananmen scenario. When the Berlin Wall came down, Gorbachev's "Common European Home" concept began to take shape. On December 3, 1989, Gorbachev and Reagan's successor, George H. W. Bush, declared the Cold War over at the Malta Summit; a year later, the two former rivals were partners in the Gulf War against Iraq.
Faltering Soviet system
with the Baltic states withdrawing from the Union entirely. Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. Soviet dissolution Commonwealth of Independent States. such as Poland. particularly Russia. created on December 21. with the dissolution of the USSR looming. is viewed as a successor entity to the Soviet Union but. condemned the January 1991 killings in Latvia and Lithuania. The 1989 revolutionary wave that swept across Central and Eastern Europe overthrew the Soviet-style communist states. even Bush. the Communist Party was forced to surrender its 73-year-old monopoly on state power. according to Russia's leaders. 1991. privately warning that economic ties would be frozen if the violence continued. and. the official end of the Soviet Union Gorbachev's permissive attitude toward Eastern Europe did not initially extend to Soviet territory. Romania being the only Eastern-bloc country to topple its communist regime violently and execute its head of state. who strove to maintain friendly relations. By 1989. The Commonwealth of Independent States. the Soviet alliance system was on the brink of collapse. The USSR was fatally weakened by a failed coup and a growing number of Soviet republics. At the same time freedom of press and dissent allowed by glasnost and the festering "nationalities question" increasingly led the Union's component republics to declare their autonomy from Moscow. its purpose was to "allow . deprived of Soviet military support. glasnost weakened the bonds that held the Soviet Union together and by February 1990.The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. the Communist leaders of theWarsaw Pact states were losing power. In the USSR itself. Hungary. who threatened to secede from the USSR.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union. creating a wrenching adjustment as the military-industrial sector had previously employed one of every five Soviet adults. Russian living standards have worsened overall in the post–Cold War years. The USSR was declared officially dissolved on December 25. with the United States the sole remaining superpower. the post–Cold War world is widely considered as unipolar. After Russia embarked on capitalist economic reforms in the 1990s. although the economy has resumed growth since 1999. 1991. Following the Cold War. The Cold War defined the political role of the United . The aftermath of the Cold War continues to influence world affairs. it suffered a financial crisis and a recession more severe than the US and Germany had experienced during the Great Depression.a civilized divorce" between the Soviet Republics and is comparable to loose confederation. meaning its dismantling left millions throughout the former Soviet Union unemployed. Russia cut military spending dramatically. a Aftermath NATO/CSTO NATO has expanded eastwards into the former Warsaw Pact and parts of the former Soviet Union since the end of the Cold War.
. and had 526. while nearly 100. particularly in the former Yugoslavia. The breakdown of state control in a number of areas formerly ruled by Communist governments has produced new civil and ethnic conflicts. as a share of their gross national product the financial cost for the Soviet Union was far higher than that incurred by the United States. the end of the Cold War has ushered in an era of economic growth and an increase in the number of liberal democracies.000 Americans lost their lives in the Korean War and Vietnam War. The Cold War also marked the apex of peacetime military-industrial complexes. millions died in the superpowers' proxy wars around the globe. is not always easily erased.States in the post–World War II world: by 1989 the US held military alliances with 50 countries. These complexes. Although the loss of life among Soviet soldiers is difficult to estimate. ethnic wars. The militaryindustrial complexes have great impact on their countries and help shape their society. policy and foreign relations. have grown considerably during the Cold War. such as Afghanistan. The aftermath of Cold War conflict. especially in the USA. revolutionary wars. and large-scale military funding of science.000 troops posted abroad in dozens of countries. while in other parts of the world.000 in Asia (mainly Japan and South Korea). Military expenditures by the US during the Cold War years were estimated to have been $8 trillion.000 in Europe (two-thirds of which in west Germany) and about 130. In Eastern Europe. with 326. though their origins may be found as early as the 19th century. independence was accompanied by state failure. Most of the proxy wars and subsidies for local conflicts ended along with the Cold War. however. In addition to the loss of life by uniformed soldiers. most notably in Southeast Asia. as many of the economic and social tensions that were exploited to fuel Cold War competition in parts of the Third World remain acute. interstate wars. as well as refugee and displaced persons crises have declined sharply in the post–Cold War years.
A series of meetings began in November 1969 and continued until May 1972 when agreement was reached between Richard Nixon (USA) and Leonid Brezhnev (Soviet Union) on the limitation of strategic ballistic missiles. also known as Strategic Arms limitation Treaty. the so called red telephone. Nixon's visit to China in February 1972 seemed to exert pressure on the Soviet Union to reach an agreement and sign the treaty. tensions rose and fell many times." a French word meaning "release of tensions. in which the Soviets promised to grant free elections in Europe." It was hoped that the new relationship would herald a permanent improvement in relations between the U. The 1970s witnessed détente why? 1) The horrors of Vietnam shocked people 2) There was a growing fear of a nuclear holocaust especially with the growth in those countries that had nuclear weapons. but differences in outlook led to an increasing number of conflicts. agreed for both countries to halt the production of nuclear weapons and missiles. ensuring further reduction in arms by the Soviets and by the US. and the Helsinki Agreement. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 effectively closed that chapter of the Cold War. The Interim Treaty Limits were placed on the number of ICBMs (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles) 1618 for USSR and 1054 USA. The differing weapon structure of each side made comparison difficult. The first Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) treaty. The SALT 1 treaty outlined agreement in three areas: 1. The two superpowers also agreed to install a direct hotline between Washington DC and Moscow. SLBMs (submarine launched Ballistic Missiles) 740 for both . and Soviet Union. Each side was allowed to have only 100 ABMs on each of two sites. SALT II. The Helsinki Accords.S. has been seen as a major concession to ensure peace by the Soviets. One of the key stumbling blocks to agreement was how arms should be limited and which types of weapons should be included in the arrangements. Also both USA and USSR had huge stock of weapons. enabling both countries to quickly interact with each other in a time of urgency. The SALT II pact of the late 70s continued the work of the SALT I talks.DÉTENTE 1970s During the course of the Cold War. SALT 1 SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Agreement. this period was characterized by the signing of treaties such as the SALT I. One period of relaxation developed in the early 1970s and became known as "Détente. It was the first step towards solving one of the most important issues that was disabling any kind of relationship between the USSR and the US. 2. The ABM Treaty (anti ballistic missile defenses). one for their capital city and one to protect their nuclear missiles.
Helsinki Agreement In contrast to relations in the Third World. technology. Some critics complained that the Helsinki agreements legitimized the boundary changes imposed on Eastern Europe by the Soviets after the World War two. Basket Three dealt with humanitarian cooperation and contained provisions relating to the free flow of people. The USA and the USSR pledged ' to do their utmost to avoid military confrontation ' and ' to exercise restraint' in international relations. The Basic Principles Agreement This laid down some important rules for the conduct of nuclear warfare. 2. The final act consisted of three sets or ―baskets‖ of agreement: 1. designed to reduce tension. strategic bombers. The first basket also includes a number of confidence-building measures. such as advance notification of large scale maneuvers.g. Basket Two outlined ways to increase East-West cooperation in fields of economics. however SALT II ran into difficulties. SALT 11 As SALT I had been an interim agreement the intention was to negotiate further. 1975. détente in Europe continued to make progress. as well as trade. information. An outline agreement was proposed in 1974 at the Vladivostok summit between Leonid Brezhnev (Soviet Union) and US President Gerald Ford. The SALT 1 agreement was to last for five years therefore SALT 2 talks began in November 1972. 3. 3. a) declaration on the importance of sovereignty and self-determination. science. the principle of non-intervention in internal affairs and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. This agreement set equal limits for missile launchers and strategic bombs but left out Cruise . the non use of force. and ideas.countries. two years of negotiations under the auspices of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) led to the Helsinki Accord. However this treaty did not cover developments such as MIRVs (Multiple Independently target able Re-entry Vehicle) which were capable of carrying a collection of nuclear weapons on a single missile. In August 1975. Basket One dealt with security issues and included. In reality the Russian MIRV and the American Cruise Missile were being built whilst SALT 1 was finalized. The Soviet Union was allowed more as America had greater capacity in other areas e. Nevertheless it played a positive role in breaking down barriers that divided Europe. the inviolability of frontiers. environment.
(With ABM systems in place the ability to retaliate if hit by a nuclear missile was uncertain and therefore encouraged each side to strike first). the American Senate were growing very uneasy about the Soviet violation of previous agreements and in response refused to ratify the treaty in 1980. In 1977. Despite reassurance from President Carter. Increasing conflict in the Third World led to the Senate‘s rejection of SALT II in 1980. The American Senate. SALT II: It set equal limits for missile launchers and strategic bombers but left out cruise missiles where the US had a significant lead. B) The Interim Treaty meant that limit were placed on the number of ICBMs and SLBM and it was an important step towards limiting nuclear arms. the newly elected American President. At the conference the Warsaw Pact countries wished to secure US recognition of European borders established after the Second World War and the US saw this as an opportunity to gain concessions from the Soviet government in return. saw all arms control as a mechanism for allowing the USSR 'to catch up with America' and so the agreement stalled. Jimmy Carter. Consisted of the ABM treaty. ACHIEVEMENTS OF DÉTENTE Treaties such as SALT (1972) and the Helsinki Agreements (1975) have been seen as the central achievements of Détente. C) The Basic Principles Agreement extended the guidelines to be used by both sides to minimize the development of nuclear war. attempted to renegotiate the SALT II Treaty in order to reduce the number of Soviet Missiles. The Helsinki Agreement: An agreement reached at a conference in Helsinki to discuss European security. in particular the right wing senators. SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty): agreement and the Basic Principle Agreement. It took until 1979 for precise figures to be agreed and the SALT II treaty was signed by Brezhnev and Carter in June of that year.missiles. US-China relations: By 1972 relations between China and the US were good enough to allow Nixon to visit China as a guest of the government. the interim A) The ABM treaty reduced the tension caused by the destabilizing impact of defensive systems. . The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963) and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968) are also important.
as in the Helsinki Agreement.European Détente (Ostpolitik): Ostpolitik played a major role in reducing tension in Europe and contributing to Détente. . In addition. Yet on substantial matters little was achieved: armaments had increased during this period and many of the agreements signed were ignored. This situation was to produce a lot of renewed suspicion and mistrust that led to the breakdown of Détente in 1979. or withdrawn later. as in the case of SALT II. Détente did not reduce tension in all areas of international relations. Both the superpowers tried to take advantage of Détente. but tension between the USSR and China remained high. Détente was not the beginning to an end of the Cold War but rather its continuation through other means. Conflict continued and even intensified in the Third World. It gave legal recognition and reinforcement to the division of Cold War Europe. Assessment The achievement of Détente was that the superpower relations had been stabilized and risks minimized. Europe was more stable.
In the deadlocked negotiations on the issue of intermediate-range nuclear forces in Europe. which was based on each side‘s ability to retaliate against nuclear attack. the United States and the Soviet Union began new talks to reduce strategic weapons. the heart of its arsenal. Reagan‘s aim was to re-establish US military superiority. In the fall of 1983. It might give the United States the capacity and confidence to launch a preemptive first strike. The Soviets rejected the US proposal and the talks remained deadlocked until the Soviets canceled them in November 1983. announced by Reagan in March 1983. The initial US proposal in the new negotiations. NATO began deploying the missiles and the Soviets terminated the INF talks (The Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles Although opposed to the SALT II treaty. which he believed had been lost during détente. The United States offered to cancel plans to deploy Pershing II IRBM and Tomahawk cruise missiles in exchange for the Soviets dismantling all their intermediate-range missiles in Europe and elsewhere. the Reagan administration put forth what became known as the ―zero option‖. the Reagan administration decided in late 1981 to observe its provisions as long as the Soviets did likewise. His policies created a mushrooming US budget deficit. thus clearing the way for the deployment of the Pershing II and Tomahawk missiles. A key element in the build-up was the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Popularly known as Star Wars. The US military build-up was also part of an overall strategy of increasing US strength before engaging in arms control negotiations with the Soviet Union. while allowing the United States to proceed with the planned modernization of all parts of its strategic triad. regain the initiative in the Cold War and use the arms race to place great strain on the Soviet economy. renamed Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START).and sea-based US forward based systems and the national nuclear forces of Great Britain and France. There is evidence that the United States put forth the zero option in the expectation that the Soviets would reject it (as they did). SDI threatened to violate several US-Soviet agreements. In the meantime.THE NEW COLD WAR Reagan spent over 2 trillion dollars to build up US conventional and nuclear forces. . required deep cuts in the Soviet Union‘s land-based missiles. The proposal excluded air. Many analysts regarded SDI as a dangerous and destabilizing attack on mutual deterrence. SDI was a technologically ambitious and extremely expensive plan to develop a nationwide ballistic-missile defense system that would deploy weapons in outer space to destroy enemy missiles in flight. The SDI would accelerate the arms race as the Soviets would increase the numbers of their missiles in order to overwhelm US defenses.
which had been fighting the Marxist-led government of the country since 1975. The United States also provided increased military and other assistance to pro-US Third World regimes. Took the initiative in the Cold War • . which were battling the government installed by the Vietnamese in 1978. The United States was more successful in Grenada where a US invasion overthrew a leftist government in October 1983. Yury Andropov in February 1984. This became known as the Iran-Contra Affair and its unveiling in late 1986 might have made Reagan more willing to reach arms control agreements with the Soviets Although US pressure on Nicaragua exacted a heavy toll. In Afghanistan the Reagan administration continued the support of the mujahedin‘s resistance to Soviet occupation both militarily and economically. The heart of it was US support for anti-communist insurgents fighting against Soviet-supported governments In Angola the United States continued to provide military and economic assistance to guerrilla forces led by UNITA. The initial focus of US policy toward the Third World during the Reagan‘s administration was El Salvador. and Konstantine Chernenko in March 1985 March 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev came to power. When the US Congress prohibited all aid to the Contras in May 1984. The United States settled for a massive increase in military and economic assistance to El Salvador to prevent leftist guerrilla forces to take power In 1981 President Reagan authorized the CIA to support covert activity in the Nicaragua in order to overthrow the Nicaraguan government by organizing and supporting a military force of Nicaraguan exiles known as contra-revolutionaries or Contras. The invasion in Grenada. GORBACHEV AND THE END OF THE COLD WAR • The problems in US-Soviet relations in the first half of the 1980s were intensified because of the deaths in quick succession of three Soviet leaders – Brezhnev in November 1982. The United States also sent aid to non-communist resistance groups in Cambodia. coupled with increases in support for the Contras and the Afghan resistance led to a codification of US policy toward the Third World which became known as the Reagan Doctrine. the Reagan administration supported them illegally by selling arms to Iran and diverts the profit to the Contras. the Sandinistas remained in power.THE THIRD WORLD Reagan followed a confrontational policy toward Third World regimes he deemed hostile.
The INF Treaty marked the first arms reduction (as opposed to arms limitation) agreement of the Cold War. Gorbachev focused first on arms control. Stage One proposed that the United States and the Soviet Union reduce their intermediate-range nuclear forces to zero. Although the two leaders almost reached agreements on eliminating nuclear weapons entirely. Gorbachev dropped his previous insistence that agreement on SDI was a prerequisite for progress on all arms control matters and accepted the ―zero option‖ proposed by the United States in 1981. THE REYKJAVÍK SUMMIT IN OCTOBER 1986 In October 1986 Reagan and Gorbachev held a Summit in Reykjavík. Reagan‘s dogged defense of SDI prevented any agreement as the Soviet leader insisted that agreement on SDI was a prerequisite for progress on all arms control matters. French. Wanted to strengthen the ABM treaty from 1972 and confine the research of defenses to laboratories. Proposed that the United States and the Soviet Union should reduce their intermediaterange nuclear forces to zero (accepted Reagan‘s zero option).• • • • • • The heart of his policies was glasnost (open debate on government policies) and perestroika (economic restructuring) Gorbachev wanted to end the Cold war and democratic renewal in the Soviet Union. In the Summit Gorbachev put forth three proposals: • • • Proposed a plan to cut US and Soviet strategic nuclear forces in half. and Chinese forces. . Thought that a limited number of nuclear weapons provided sufficient security against US nuclear attack April 1985: To show his good will Gorbachev suspended the countermeasures applied in response to the NATO INF deployments and halted further deployment of SS 20s November 1985: Gorbachev and Reagan met in Geneva and established good personal relationship January 1986: Gorbachev unveiled a plan for complete nuclear disarmament to take place in three stages by the year of 2000. December 1987: The Intermediate Nuclear forces (INF) Treaty signed in Washington . Both were necessary for economic transformation in his country. (Accepted US definition of strategic weapons). Following Reykjavík. and did not mention British. The United States should quit the SDI program.
Gorbachev turned his attention to conventional forces. The cutbacks grew out of drastic revision of Soviet military strategy that replaced the previous objective of not losing a war with the West with the objective of preventing such a war. pre-eminent symbol of the Cold War division of Germany and Europe. 1990: A treaty signed where the Soviets accepted German reunification as well as its membership in NATO October 3. and socialism. In December 1988 he announced a 12 percent unilateral reduction in total Soviet conventional forces. Only in Romania did the collapse of communist rule result in significant bloodshed THE DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF EASTERN EUROPEAN COMMUNISM • • • September 12. 1991: The Warsaw Pact formally dissolved • . The chain of events started in Poland where a non-communist prime minister was appointed in August. the East German government ended the communist monopoly of power and announced free elections to be held in March 1990. The following month. was breached. The new strategy also had important implications for Soviet policy toward Eastern Europe. the Berlin Wall. The same day that the Berlin wall came down. the Bulgarian Communist Party deposed its longtime leader and promised reforms and free elections. Control of Eastern Europe was vital to Soviet security under the old strategy but the new Soviet security strategy no longer required maintaining a sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. December 1988: Gorbachev announced a 12 percent unilateral reduction in total Soviet conventional forces Building on this momentum. • Change of Soviet strategy. 1990: The Federal Republic of Germany absorbed East Germany November 1990: NATO and the Warsaw Pact signed a treaty drastically reducing the size and armaments of their conventional forces in Europe (the CFE-treaty) ratified by the United States in November 1991 July 1. THE COLLAPSE OF THE COMMUNIST EASTERN EUROPE IN 1989 By the end of 1989 every pro-Soviet communist regime in Eastern Europe had collapsed. Economic factors played an important role in this changed strategy. legality. On the night of November 9-10. In Czechoslovakia massive demonstrations and general strike led to the appointment of non-communist government on December 10. 1989. In October the Hungarian communists split and the reformers formed a new party dedicated to democracy.
US actions raised the costs of confrontation and forced the Soviets into corner from which there was no escape save for surrender. and revitalizing their society. • .• • At the same time Gorbachev was working to repair relations with the PRC December 1991: The Soviet Union disssolved. democratizing their policies. The disagreement can be classified as following: • Reagan‘s supporters and some scholars claim that the Soviets shifted to less confrontational policies in response to the US military build-up and political offensive. US actions did not cause the changes in Soviet domestic and foreign policies and might have delayed them by providing opponents of reform with arguments against better relations with the West and the relaxation of internal control. According to this analysis. The Sandinistas agreed to hold free elections in Nicaragua in February 1990. WHY THE COLD WAR ENDED While most scholars agree that the Cold War ended when the leaders of the Soviet Union decided it was no longer worth fighting. reforming their economy. Other scholars argue that the new generation of Soviet leaders that emerged in the 1980s had already concluded that the policies of their predecessors had been counterproductive and that continued conflict threatened their goal of overcoming the disastrous legacy of Stalinism. END OF THE COLD WAR IN THE THIRD WORLD • • • • • • February 1988: Gorbachev announced his intention to pull all Soviet troops from Afghanistan February 1989: the Soviet Union withdraws its forces from Afghanistan Gorbachev successfully pressured the Vietnamese to withdraw their troops from Cambodia in two stages in 1988 and 1989 December 1989: An agreement provided for the withdraw of all foreign forces from Angola by mid-1991 1990: The Soviets began cutting back military assistance and withdrawing their advisers from Ethiopia and the Cubans withdrew their combat forces and advisers at the same time 1987: Peace effort led by Costa Rican President Oscar Arias Sánchez ends the Cold War in Central America. In this view. the reason for the shift in Soviet policies is still in dispute.
It is often noted that Japan (though not technically a developing country in the 1950s. South East Asia In South East Asia. The countries around 'Red China' hurried to form alliances either with the US or with each other against the threat. Affects of cold war in the modern world: Impact of cold war on developing nations: The Cold War had a vast impact on the developing nations. as well as securing its own markets (the Marshall Plan) Economic measures also played a significant role in the Berlin Blockade of 1948-9. which boosted Japanese exports .to prevent reunification of the country under a Communist government. • As the Cold War developed in the 1960s and 1970s offers of financial assistance became an important tool in securing the superpower‘s influence in the Third World.a legacy that means that Cambodia still ranks among the world's poorest countries.ECONOMIC MEASURES IN THE COLD WAR • • In order to ensure that spheres of influence were brought firmly under their control. . To give a 'broad brush' overview of the differences. as the US and its allies tried . but still struggling to rebuild after WW2) was helped in this respect by the conflict in Korea. South Korea itself directly received large amounts of US aid. in attempting to implement an agrarian 'workers' paradise'. one can look at the different regions of the developing world and how the impact was vastly different: East Asia In East Asia. China fell to the Communists in 1949. the superpowers used economic measures Restoring the economies of Europe after the Second World War was a powerful weapon of the USA against the spread of communism. In Cambodia. with vastly differing outcomes depending on all manner of factors: the geopolitics of the time. killed millions of Cambodians through starvation and genocide .an oft-quoted example being early transistor radios for American GIs. perceived strategic importance and so on.ultimately unsuccessfully . which also both turned Communist in the mid 1970s (at the same time as the war in Vietnam ended). the Khmer Rouge. the Cold War had widely differing effects. Vietnam suffered several decades of bloody conflict that cost the lives of millions of Vietnamese people. This conflict spilled over into Laos and Cambodia.
ironically. and Communism was successfully repulsed. for example. there were very few Cold War 'success stories' in sub-Saharan Africa. economic and military. Cold War rivalries encountered newly-independent countries still struggling to find their feet. With Communism crushed. Many note though that.in particular the presence of US military personnel . Central and South America In Central (and to a lesser extent South) America. it's democratic records is more questionable. and the picture was (and still is) complicated further by the resource-rich nature of many of the countries involved. Malaysia successfully implemented a high growth strategy that even now propels it forwards in terms of economic growth. money and other forms of support flowed. suffered one of the longest conflicts in modern history. the story was happier . where US support kept the highly corrupt and undemocratic Marcos in power for a generation. The results were often catastrophic Angola. but as with Thailand. Unlike in certain parts of East and South East Asia. Further to the south in South East Asia. this must be viewed against a story of fairly high economic growth.American aid. in order to keep Communism out and 'democracy' in.2006 . Both Communists and the 'Free World' found their champions in either the governments or 'freedom movements' in each particular country. Like Thailand however. as superpower interference had a negative influence almost everywhere. Arms. the struggle against Communism and Communist insurgencies lead to US interventions which often resulted in protracted and bloody civil wars.seized power again from the democratically elected government) Others note that increased Western influence in Thailand .led directly to the rise of HIV AIDS and the sex industry in Thailand. Malaysia (with British military assistance) successfully crushed a Communist insurgency in a long 'Emergency' that lasted over the 1950s. Indonesia's brutal suppression of domestic Communists (with a massive death toll) was so bloody as to equal some of the worst excesses of Communism elsewhere. MODERN COLD WAR • Unstable and misunderstood Russia . A similar story to the Philippines. the country was ruled for most of the latter 20th Century by a military junta (which only last year . Sub-Saharan Africa Across sub-Saharan Africa did the Cold War have perhaps the most enduring negative impact on the developing world. flowed in to prevent this 'bastion of democracy' from falling to Communism.In neighboring Thailand though. This led to high economic growth.
allowed private ownership of businesses and paved the way for foreign investment. which increased freedom of the press and the transparency of state institutions. Despite initial skepticism in the West. Soviet Dissolution . the new Soviet leader proved to be committed to reversing the Soviet Union's deteriorating economic condition instead of continuing the arms race with the West. particularly with the United States. Glasnost was intended to reduce the corruption at the top of the Communist Party and moderate the abuse of power in the Central Committee. or restructuring. Dollar Economic war Gorbachev reforms By the time the comparatively youthful Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary in 1985. Gorbachev simultaneously introduced glasnost. These measures were intended to redirect the country's resources from costly Cold War military commitments to more profitable areas in the civilian sector. Glasnost also enabled increased contact between Soviet citizens and the western world. An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary and in June 1987 Gorbachev announced an agenda of economic reform called perestroika.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Uni-polar world 9/11 revolutionized the world War on terror War in Afghanistan and Iraq by USA Threat to the Muslim Community Oil Crisis Chinese Factor Economic resurgence of Russia Media influences and war Rising Japanese. These issues prompted Gorbachev to investigate measures to revive the ailing state. Chinese and Indian economies US policies and the 3RD World countries Euro vs. contributing to the accelerating détente between the two nations. the Soviet economy was stagnant and faced a sharp fall in foreign currency earnings as a result of the downward slide in oil prices in the 1980s. Partly as a way to fight off internal opposition from party cliques to his reforms. or openness. Perestroika relaxed the production quota system.
no significant major powers. Unstable and Misunderstood Russia: After the dissolution of Soviet Union. and many minor powers. Citing economic hardships. the Communist leaders of the Warsaw Pact states were losing power. But that does not mean that the world is uni polar. particularly Russia. throughout the world revolutionized the way international affairs and issues are approached and addressed. the Communist Party was forced to surrender its 73-year-old monopoly on state power The USSR was fatally weakened by a failed coup and as a growing number of Soviet republics. deprived of Soviet military support.By 1989. the Soviet alliance system was on the brink of collapse. 1991. The American declaration of war against terror. the post–Cold War world is considered as a uni polar world with the United States as the world's sole remaining superpower. and the rise of other great powers around the world. Cold War allies becoming less dependent on the United States. A uni polar system would have one superpower. So. most of the countries misunderstood Russia then & now again. (Afghan war. glasnost weakened the bonds that held the Soviet Union together and by February 1990. But the recent technological & economic advancements in Russia have made it one of the contenders to be one of the next superpowers. Uni Polar World: After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 that ended the Cold War. a declining dollar. and. There is now only one superpower. In the USSR itself. Afghanistan war . 9/11 Revolutionized the World & War on Terror: The incident of 9/11 terrorist attacks not only changed the International politics but also affected the US image in the world especially amongst the third world countries mainly Muslim Countries. threatened to secede the USSR was declared officially dissolved on December 25. with the dissolution of the USSR looming. Iraq war). There has been some recent speculation that the United States is declining in relative power as the rest of the world rises to match its levels of economic and technological development. some experts have suggested the possibility of the United States losing its superpower status in the future. which was a crusade against islam. Russia faced a lot of financial and economic crises that caused instability.
China is projected to be the rising superpower with a huge population and a rapidly growing economy. US continued this brutality in Iraq thus causing a threat to the Muslim World. Afghanistan has been the bone of contention throughout the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the US. approximately 75.000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in order to support the Marxist government formed by ex-Prime-minister Nur Muhammad Taraki. With the continuous advancements in virtually all the fields. imposed embargoes on grain and technology shipments to the USSR. Threat to Muslim Community: The biggest part of the modern cold war is the Muslim Community. China continuously raises voices against the violent actions of US showing its increasing power status. The fact that the US still spends a huge amount of money on military and defense related expenses is worrisome to both China and Russia. and the world is in oil crisis barring few countries in the Middle East.During December 1979. Chinese Factor China is one of the rising economies of the current century and strategically the most important player in the current scenario of the cold war. Oil Crisis: The modern cold war is not the war to rule lands or nations. It is to take control of as much resources of the world as one can. Pakistan. This region again formed the basis of the Modern Cold War after the US intervention in Afghanistan after 9/11 terrorist attacks. Libya and other Middle Eastern countries is also causing a lot of dissatisfaction and raised security concerns in the Muslim community. US being the industrial country need a lot of oil resources. and further announced that the United States would boycott the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics. the Chinese are very uneasy about excessive US inter interference in Asia. demanded a significant increase in military spending. The Chinese already have the world‘s largest military as far as numbers are concerned and they are quickly improving their technological capabilities hence they are expected to openly challenge American supremacy in about a decade. assassinated that September by one of his party rivals. The relations between China and the US have always been uneasy and there are serious disagreements in certain issues such as Taiwan etc. The investment of US dollars in Chinese market has weakened the US economy and strengthened the Chinese economy. As a result. He described the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan as "the most serious threat to the peace since the Second World War". The dependence of the . China is tipped to be the next biggest superpower. US President Jimmy Carter withdrew the SALT II treaty from the Senate. US army launched an attack on Afghanis claiming that Afghanistan is a terrorist country. US continuous intervention in the affairs of Iran.
The record of such predictions has not been perfect. However the prediction has not come to fruition. The fact that Islamic model of government (i. . The Khilafat) is based on a different ideology from both the capitalist and the socialist models also increases the chance that there is a cold war going on between the Islamic and western world. US and the third World Many third world countries are very uncomfortable with the western policies towards them some examples are Iran. due to its large GDP and high economic growth at the time. Even though officially the Governments of most Muslim countries attempt to ally them with the US but the public opinion in almost all Muslim countries is primarily anti American. Socialist and other alternative schools of thought. For example in the 1980s some commentators thought Japan would become a superpower. but after the adaptation of the Euro by the European union the supremacy of the dollar was challenged and a substitute was available. Tensions with Islamic World Many Muslims see the war against terror as a war against the Islamic world. Economic War For more than a decade the American capitalist model was considered to be the best and the US dollar had the monopoly of being the currency for foreign trade and transaction. This is because the United States has not clearly defined its enemies or its objectives for this war. The fact that the US provides unconditional support to Israel even when it violates international laws is another factor. which contributes to the feeling amongst many Muslims that the war against terror being led by the US is basically a new Crusade in which key Muslim countries are being attacked and conquered or weakened by the coalition of Non–Muslims.e. Chinese & Japanese Economies Academics and other qualified commentators sometimes identify potential superpowers thought to have a strong likelihood of being recognized as superpowers in the 21st century. Rising Indian. this means that the relations between the US and the Islamic world have a potential of deteriorating any time if the provocative US policies are not changed.superpower economy on the scarce oil resource is on e of the triggering point of cold war between US and the middle eastern countries. More recently the recent economic meltdown and the collapse in the banking sectors in the US and other major capitalist economies the western capitalist model is being openly challenged by the Islamic. North Korea etc as more and more countries get dissatisfied with the current status quo they may form alliances and coalitions against the western block and emerging powers like China can take advantage of that.
the Euro has gained credibility over the years thus strengthening the EU and causing the cold economic war. DOLLAR The Euro has gained strength over dollar in the past decade or so mainly because it has a big part to do with how US import so much stuff such as oil. 2) The current policies being followed by the US and implemented on other nations by the US are increasingly alienating it and hostilities against the US and many other western nations are continuously on the rise. Republic of India and the Russian Federation. the People's Republic of China. the United States. are among the powers which are most often cited as having the ability to influence future world politics and reach the status of superpower in the 21st century. Nations are beginning to notice America‘s selfish motives 3) One factor that is highlighted from studying the cold war is that both governments in the USA and the USSR insist that they were acting to defend their own nations against what they suspected were hostile ambitions of the other hence both the super powers were greatly motivated by fear. Media Influences and war The media advancement has also played an evil role in causing disagreement among the countries. the European Union. the Federative Republic of Brazil. and economic potential and influence in international affairs. CONCLUSION From our findings in this research and presentation on the cold war the following points can be concluded: 1) The blame lies on nobody for the cause of the cold war. others claim they will rise to rival. A key factor that contributed to hostilities between the US and USSR was lack of communication and misunderstandings between the two nations. Also. EURO VS. but not replace. While some believe one (or more) of these countries may replace the United States as a superpower. However. The media enjoys the freedom of sharing views with public and taking public opinion which was not the case in the past. growing military strength. .Due to their large markets. although clearly it was the fight for a single super power! Such a situation must never be allowed to arise between any two nuclear-armed countries again because the result can easily be nuclear war and the destruction of all or most of humanity in the modern times. the $13+ trillion dollar debt doesn't give the US Dollar much credibility either.
4) One thing we can all learn from the Cold War is that all nations should consider each others security and other needs before embarking on new policies. .