Riders Digest

United Kingdom

Riders Digest 2011
A compendium of cost data and related information on the Construction Industry.

Compiled by Rider Levett Bucknall (UK) Ltd Cutlers Court 115 Houndsditch London EC3A 7BR Tel: +44 (0) 207 398 8300 Fax: +44 (0) 207 623 0466 Website: www.rlb.com
Rider Levett Bucknall UK Limited, Registered Number - 465 3580: Registered in England: Registered Office - Millennium Point, Curzon Street, Birmingham B4 7XG

While Rider Levett Bucknall UK (“RLB”) has endeavoured to ensure the accuracy of the information and materials in this publication (the “Materials”), it does not warrant its accuracy, adequacy, completeness or reasonableness and expressly disclaims liability for any errors in, or omissions from, the Materials. RLB shall not be liable for any damages, losses, expenses or costs whatsoever arising out of or in connection with the use or reliance on the Materials. The Materials are provided for general information only and should not be construed as costing, legal, tax, or any other professional advice. Professional advice should be sought when utilising any information in this publication to verify its applicability to their specific circumstances. The Materials may not, in any medium, be reproduced, published, adapted, altered or otherwise used in whole or in part in any manner without the prior written consent of RLB. Cost information in this publication is indicative and for general guidance only. All prices and rates are as at 1st Quarter 2011 and expressed in British Pounds unless otherwise stated. References to legislative provisions and regulations are as at 1st January 2011. Changes after this date will not be reflected.

Please note that all figures exclude prevailing Value Added Tax (VAT).

Second Edition 2011 © Rider Levett Bucknall

© Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011


Page UK Construction Trends market Outlook Price Indices and Construction Output UK construction Output by Sector Price Indices for Construction materials UK Construction Cost Data Definitions of Terminology External Works Construction Elements Office Fit Out Office Refurbishment Hotel Fit Out Estimating Data Reinforcement Ratios Average Construction Payment Drawdown method of measuring Building Areas International Construction Building Costs Specific Definitions for International Construction Costs Construction Activity Cycle Construction market Activity for major European Cities UK Construction Information List of UK Professional Bodies List of UK Government Bodies Ecology Species Assessment Calendar Construction Design and management Regulations RIBA Outline Plan of Work Equality Act BREEAm BREEAm in Use EPC - Energy Performance Certificates DEC - Display Energy Certificates Site Waste management Plans Capital Allowances OJEU Process OJEU Process Procedures Buying Solutions Procurement Options Code For Sustainable Homes Sustainable Construction Technologies Life Cycle Costing and Carbon Professional Services Overview of Services International Offices Europe Asia Oceania North America Caribbean middle East Miscellaneous Conversion Factors Calculation Formulae Calendar 106 52 54 55 59 60 62 66 68 74 76 77 78 84 87 102

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© Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011


Oceania. Our strategic position is to concentrate our effort on the things that we already do well – our embedded services and sectors and our centres of excellence – whilst expanding our national offering into new markets and services where we can make a real difference to our customers. The award is presented to companies demonstrating best practice in HR. seek fresh ideas and deliver excellence relationships • Suppliers .to be conscious of the difference we can make • Customers – to challenge the norm. Our strategic aim is to continue to cement Rider Levett Bucknall’s Research & Development division as the industry’s advisory experts of choice.to invest in our people and to value their contribution • Industry . skill and expertise to support our customers. We have ISO14001 accreditation and this year we have also been measured against the GRI reporting framework. we will be providing increased commentary and analysis to a number of leading Industry publications. Our Values: confidence in our ability to deliver their solution – which is a significant differentiator in today’s competitive market. The Project management Academy offered by Rider Levett Bucknall has been certified by the Internationally recognised Association for Project management.to act with integrity. to be financially robust and to deliver agreed financial plans Our office network within the UK and our membership of the Global Practice allows us to integrate significant resources.to be aware of our social responsibilities and to make our contribution to the community • Environment . honesty and fairness in all our • Shareholders – to be owned by our people. flexibility. Despite challenging times for the Industry. and to provide additional value-added services to our clients. receiving APm Corporate Accreditation. enabling integration with design teams utilising Building Information modelling techniques. but we will only take on commissions that we can deliver with certainty.Foreword Welcome to the second UK edition of “Riders Digest”. • People . we took the number one spot in the mid-sized category in the list of ‘Britain’s Top Employers’ which is awarded by the Corporate Research Foundation in conjunction with The Daily Telegraph. Our Responsible management approach will run through the whole company . giving users instant access to key industry information at their fingertips. and will also be releasing a smart phone “app”. Rider Levett Bucknall remain committed to being an independent.to be a beacon of best practice and lead and shape in everything we do • Community . With over 2. Rider Levett Bucknall (UK) Ltd © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 iv v . We also ranked in The Sunday Times’ Best 100 Companies to Work for. A clear differentiator for RLB is our approach to sustainability – both within our business and in the way we deliver our services.000 staff in more than 80 offices across Asia. having fulfilled the requirements of APm. and have also recently achieved Investors in People “Gold” recognition. the development of proprietary IT tools and the recruitment and retention of quality staff. Europe. Key publications such as the Riders Digest. project management and advisory services). but also have a better product with less environmental impact. high levels of technical expertise and hands on involvement from senior staff gives our customers Lance Taylor Chief Executive. career development. middle East and the Americas. Rider Levett Bucknall (UK) has been named as Britain’s Top Employer for the second consecutive year. the company’s robust financial position ensures that significant funds continue to be allocated to research and development initiatives. We believe that our culture of employee ownership and involvement. and scores are based on pay and benefits. In addition. a compendium of cost data and related information on the UK Construction Industry. I hope you again find this publication both informative and useful in your business.this aligns with our ‘more with Less’ philosophy. We have invested in equipping all technical staff in the UK with powerful mobile workstations. The Rider Levett Bucknall Global Practice was launched in June 2007. training and development. owner managed business that deliver and enable our customers to do “more with less” for the whole life of built assets. we enable clients to spend less money. the International Report and the European Report will continue. We can trace our roots back to the 18th century and we pride ourselves on our dedication to customer care and leading edge service provision. Rider Levett Bucknall brings together three companies who are committed to the quality of their core services (cost consultancy. working conditions and company culture.

UK Construction Trends market Outlook Price Indices and Construction Output UK Construction Output by Sector Price Indices for Construction materials .

However the lending restrictions which the banks continue to operate – particularly in the residential sector – have meant that commercial development in the UK has remained almost dormant this year. in figures sourced from the Office of National Statistics. Private sector construction in the UK is forecast to increase in 2011 and 2012. The main Inputs affecting tender prices are: Construction Demand: The total volume of construction orders in Great Britain fell in 3rd quarter 2010 by 14% when compared with the same quarter a year earlier. Analysis of the basic factors behind the tender prices is necessary to understand the potential reaction to current market conditions. suggests that 2011 will be another difficult year. but this will not offset the 17% fall in public sector construction forecast over the next two years. The coalition Government’s determination to reverse the public sector deficit within four years has led to deep and wide ranging cuts in government funding across all sectors.UK CONSTRUCTION TRENDS Market Outlook 2011: 2011 looks to be another tough year for the construction industry. with the only real signs of activity around London. resulting in a nett reduction. with continued low demand. whether in terms of running costs. There were significant increases in orders in the private housing sector and smaller increases in the private commercial sector 22% of contractors reported that output fell overall in 2010 compared with a year earlier. Capital investment is likely to be procured only by Clients with long term efficiency plans. measured as construction industry output. and Government forecasts show significant private sector growth over the next four years. varies widely among leading professional practices. We are operating in a very competitive UK market and we anticipate that this will continue throughout 2011 as the construction related market contracts further. it is difficult to see where this demand will come from in the UK construction sector. Opinions as to the length of time this low point in tender pricing will continue for. VAT increased to 20% and increasing tender prices. 2 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 3 . The Government view is that it will be private sector growth which leads the economy out of the recession.5% fall from a peak at the end of 2007 to a low at the beginning of 2010. the threat of inflation and a rise in interest rates and VAT to 20%. after suffering a dramatic 17. space rationalisation. and in the private industrial sector. the public non housing sector. and despite the government’s view of the private sector picking up the shortfall to lead the economy from recession. Demand from public sector clients is set to fall dramatically. in the infrastructure sector. Orders fell in the public housing sector. and deliver long term efficiency through collaboration and better understanding of clients’ values and long term goals. BCIS ‘all in’ tender price indices remained virtually static during 2010. Consultants will need to understand their clients’ business drivers in order to deliver solutions beyond provision of the built asset. The Construction Products Association predicts a 2% decline in total UK construction output this year and further reductions into 2012. BCIS forecasts show a little over 3% rise to the ‘all in’ tender price index during 2011. rising inflation. Tables and graphs on the following pages show how tender prices react to demand. or more cost effective methods of working. where new capital investment is likely to guarantee increased efficiencies and long term savings.

Contractor and Sub contractor margin The majority of Contractors reported falling margins during 2010. as the reduced demand had coincided with considerable reductions in the price of key materials and Preliminary costs. Demand is forecast to reduce in comparison to 2010 levels by a small amount further over coming year. with tender prices remaining at their lowest point since 2004 Contractors had previously been able to reduce tender prices. Preliminary Costs: Preliminaries. increase margin and cover increased costs in a static or reducing market.5% during 2010. Market Reaction Tender prices remained subdued. or increase tender prices in order to cover increased input costs. while trying to remain competitive in a reduced market. a rise in material costs. Despite the previous trend of falling demand leading tender price reductions. with slight increases in the following years. We do not anticipate an opportunity for Contractors to remain competitive. in 2011. expressed as a percentage of the remainder of the contract sum (excluding contingencies) fell to around 12. and these factors. contractors will either reduce margin further to absorb input price increases. combined with relatively stable labour costs will increase pressures on Contractors to increase tender prices. The decline in total demand since mid 2007 coincides with the reduction in tender prices. however.UK CONSTRUCTION TRENDS Materials Prices: materials prices are forecast to rise by just over 3% over the course of 2011. following a rise of just under 7% during 2010. Predictions for the coming year range from a rise in tender prices of between 2% and 3% and will depend on the ability of Contractors and their supply chain to absorb increased input costs. During 2011. This is due to different circumstances surrounding the inputs. after having fallen from over 16% in 2007. any further reduction in demand are unlikely to result in price reductions over the coming year. however forecasts predict it may take 5 years to return to 2005 levels. combined with aggressive margin reductions throughout the supply chain had resulted in the reductions in tender prices of over 17% seen over the last three years. What next? The tables on the following pages show the composition of UK construction demand from 1990 to date. 4 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 5 . but stable during 2010. these are expected to remain around this level for the coming year. as contractors try to offset increased material costs.

054 11.928 3.912 9.522 4.360 9.028 4.000 10.947 5.461 Public Housing Private Housing Public Works Private Industrial Private Commercial Repair Infrastructure 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1993 2.374 33.531 4.672 5.462 4.881 4.014 39.000 30.021 22.832 6.000 40.100 13.266 94.086 9.680 5.940 11.696 13.396 1999 1996 2.289 2009 2010 2005 2.247 8.713 5.804 (forecast) 2010 Public Housing 1.990 108.000 20.228 5.273 40.518 6.303 10.579 18.990 6.544 9.860 10.610 26.495 11.632 4.387 22.070 107.804 10.527 2003 2000 1.805 9.498 14.250 23.009 Output £ Millions 1996 1994 1997 1998 1995 2.146 10.413 4.504 30.522 8.888 8.256 14.230 82.000 15.391 85.138 18.457 92.623 4.134 5.Constant Prices Seasonally Adjusted (2005) .361 13.306 12.000 0 1990 1990 1991 1.344 17.578 4.520 12.762 33.250 22.Indices and UK Construction Output Comparison 6 1990 BCIS “All In”Tender Price Index 129 72 126 94 87 83 82 82 82 85 87 88 90 90 92 96 102 105 104 106 108 107 134 139 141 144 149 153 158 163 165 170 173 176 181 187 192 198 207 215 214 95 77 80 82 84 86 88 90 91 93 93 95 95 97 98 100 102 105 109 111 114 108 109 121 130 130 138 146 151 161 174 187 197 213 224 230 245 246 217 207 114 223 100 103 106 109 112 Consumer Price Index Retail Price Index (RPI) UK Construction Output (£ Thousand Million) 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 211 117 2012 218 120 2013 225 123 2014 232 125 UK CONSTRUCTION TRENDS Indices and UK Construction Output Comparison SOURCE: ONS.123 23.032 2005 2002 2006 2007 2003 1.162 12.463 5.187 12.565 5.470 38.630 4.312 17.553 101.951 11.919 4.436 38.742 4.319 5.023 11.248 8.623 22.563 7.542 104.880 105.419 9.946 5.321 33.892 5.444 89.710 14.£million .956 35.802 33.338 36.806 38.895 6.842 34.409 83.294 34.012 9.428 5. BCIS UK Construction Output by Sector 45.403 31.460 12.824 90.655 88.446 12.894 86.469 2004 2001 1.350 32.252 4.683 40.846 2001 1998 1.233 2008 2.590 5.306 16.365 4.052 94.523 20.425 (forecast) 2006 2.037 9.712 8.205 5.315 96.077 22.852 5.370 5.400 81.555 2008 2004 2.501 86.027 2000 1997 1.880 34.188 1.580 40.223 5.907 37.563 29.951 1992 1.000 25.591 2.484 13.088 4.452 18.210 100.321 105.851 23.669 13.909 15.170 7.450 7.271 4.102 3.929 17.741 2007 2.017 9.181 31.033 2009 2.054 14.904 82.134 22.834 10.494 Private Housing Public Works Private Industrial Private Commercial Repair Infrastructure Total UK Construction Output by Sector © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 7 SOURCE: ONS All Agencies Output .475 34.743 7.780 22.000 35.347 2002 1999 1.571 19.000 5.297 12.

UK CONSTRUCTION TRENDS UK Construction Materials Annual Average Price Index 8 UK Construction Materials Annual Average Price Index 300 2002 Hardcore 103 94 100 99 90 80 68 75 187 197 213 75 106 100 224 67 89 100 100 113 230 90 97 100 103 122 118 130 245 89 92 98 104 111 96 95 101 108 107 113 109 128 137 158 246 92 93 100 109 115 128 139 111 117 119 106 126 218 94 99 101 105 110 117 112 103 103 99 96 95 103 112 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 113 108 135 110 119 134 117 145 210 250 200 Cement Concrete Bricks Timber Sand 150 100 50 Structual Steel Rebar 0 2002 BCIS "All In" TPI 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Hardcore Sand Cement Concrete BCIS "All In" TPI SOURCE: ONS. BCIS Bricks Timber Structual Steel Rebar UK Construction Materials Monthly Average Price Index 250 200 150 100 50 Hardcore Sand Cement Concrete Bricks Timber Structual Steel Rebar 0 Mar-08 Apr-08 May-08 Jun-08 Jul-08 Aug-08 Sep-08 Oct-08 Nov-08 Dec-08 Jan-09 Feb-09 Mar-09 Apr-09 May-09 Jun-09 Jul-09 Aug-09 Sep-09 Oct-09 Nov-09 Dec-09 Jan-10 Feb-10 Mar-10 Apr-10 May-10 Jun-10 Jul-10 Aug-10 Sep-10 Oct-10 Nov-10 Hardcore 99 114 128 113 113 130 124 108 118 127 112 114 130 129 108 119 128 110 105 131 131 110 117 127 112 107 130 139 106 118 128 115 110 130 146 106 117 130 115 105 128 152 105 120 131 117 105 127 164 102 119 131 114 106 124 157 104 120 130 116 105 122 141 100 122 131 116 108 122 131 105 117 139 115 117 118 122 105 117 143 115 120 116 120 110 117 142 115 119 118 114 108 116 141 114 118 116 108 108 114 141 114 116 118 105 113 111 139 111 116 118 102 122 108 139 109 116 119 99 122 108 137 109 118 120 99 118 110 136 108 117 120 100 117 109 135 108 117 121 102 109 109 135 106 117 120 101 111 109 135 106 116 120 101 104 109 133 107 115 129 100 109 109 134 106 116 130 100 111 110 136 112 119 128 102 108 110 136 113 119 133 110 113 103 136 112 119 139 117 107 107 136 111 120 131 126 121 107 135 111 120 137 130 121 106 135 110 121 138 130 121 106 135 111 120 140 129 111 120 140 129 Sand Cement Concrete Bricks Timber Structual Steel UK Construction Materials Monthly Average Price Index © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 9 Rebar 136 147 158 175 192 189 199 180 151 146 140 138 130 122 125 124 123 120 128 125 121 121 123 126 133 154 158 153 150 154 152 151 SOURCE: ONS .

UK Construction Cost Data Definitions of Terminology External Works Construction Elements Office Fit Out Office Refurbishment Hotel Fit Out .

Office outside CBD refers to medium quality office buildings located outside the Central Business District. which are built for the middle range of the rental market. Refer to page 28 for more information.Shopping Mall Shopping malls with typical amenities and finishes in common spaces. external works. household electrical appliances. architectural works. vertical transportation. compactors. Car Parks Above Ground – minimal external walling excluding mechanical ventilation.e. pneumatic refuse disposal system. foundation. The rules of measurement of net internal area are defined in the RICS Code of measuring Practice (6th edition). incinerators. Residential Ratio of kitchen. engineered smoke control systems etc. processing plant and proprietary systems. site works. finishes and fittings. These rules are intended as a brief guide only and the full RICS code of measuring practiced should be consulted if required. Net Internal Area (NIA) NIA is the usable area within a building measured to the internal face of the perimeter walls at each floor level. Building Services Building Services include mechanical services . Special equipment – Chutes. façade maintenance equipment. Industrial Buildings Quality reflects a simplified type of construction suitable for light or heavy industries. special light fittings. Exclusions: 12 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 13 . ‘fourstar’ and ‘three-star’ international hotel ratings. The rules of measurement of gross external floor area are defined in the RICS Code of measuring Practice (6th edition). for the upper range of the rental market and leading owner occupiers such as headquarter offices for financial institutions and major companies. and basement).UK CONSTRUCTION COST DATA Definitions of Terminology Central Business District (CBD) The Central Business District is within the Central Business or Financial Area of major cities. attendance and other builder’s work in connection with services. Range given is significantly affected by the height and configuration of the building. Exclusions: Tenant equipment. super-structure. Loose furniture. Hotels Types of hotels listed are based on ‘five-star’. sanitary and plumbing. preliminaries. Gross Internal Floor Area (GIFA) (or gross internal area (GIA)) – is the area of a building measured to the internal face of the perimeter walls at each floor level. IT services – high speed cables etc. It is the prime area of all the commercial and financial activities in the region. laundry and bathroom areas to living areas and the quality of finishes required will affect the cost range. to the external face of the perimeter walls) at each floor level. Exclusions: Special and operating equipment. The rules of measurement of gross internal floor area are defined in the RICS Code of measuring Practice (6th edition). Advice regarding nett lettable areas used for calculating revenues should be given by the clients commercial property agent. fire protection system. Exclusions: Show flats. preliminaries. Building Works Building Works include substructure (piling. kitchen equipment and building owners’ special requirements. including covered basement and above ground car park areas.airconditioning and mechanical ventilation. Retail . Basement – diaphragm wall or contiguous bored piles walls with standard mechanical ventilation provisions. Refer to page 29 for more information. Office Buildings Office within CBD refers to good quality office buildings located at the Central Business District. Gross External Area (GEA) GEA is the area of a building including all building enclosed covered spaces measured externally (i. The Information above is a brief summary from the RICS new rules for measurement effective from 1st May 2009. Electrical services – electrical installations. shop fittings and finishes in tenancy spaces. building management systems.

drainage and kerbs ROADS (macadam finish including kerbs.Turfing only to large areas including topsoil.Reinforced concrete slab on ground (Grade 35) COLUMNS . channels and drainage)  . 6. subsoil sowing and treating £ per Item SUB-STRUCTURE .1250 m 1250 .150mm precast concrete slab or beam and block floor with reinforced insitu concrete screed structural topping 225 - 275 m3 20 - 35 m2 190 - 250 m 10 - 15 m2 350 - 475 m CAR PARKS .UK CONSTRUCTION COST DATA External Works The following rates are indicative only and include an allowance for profit and overheads but exclude preliminaries.Light landscaping to areas with minimal planting and site formation but excluding topsoil and turfing . plants.1750 m .Reinforced Concrete (900 x 900mm Grade 35) UPPER FLOORS (EXCLUDING BEAMS) .150mm reinforced concrete suspended floor slab (Grade 35) on holorib permanent formwork .Reinforced Concrete (600 x 600mm Grade 35) . The rates are not valid for tendering or pricing of variations.Residential estate.200mm reinforced concrete suspended slab with high quality formwork for exposed finish 85 - 120 m2 14 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 15 .ON GROUND  Based on 22m2 overall area per car with tarmacadam paving 1250 .80 metres wide excluding foot-paths and nature strips .Industrial estate 10.Reinforced concrete pad footing (Grade 35) 5 15 m 2 Construction Elements £ Unit 400 - 500 m3 . Description LANDSCAPING .40 metres wide including minimal to extensive formation No 50 - 65 m2 50 - 65 m2 850 . channels.Dense landscaping around buildings including shrubs.2000 including road lines. topsoil etc .

Double glazed window unit (casement type) . No.Single glazed .140mm block wall .Laminated toilet partition 400 600 each . including three flights and two quarter space landings £ Unit Item £ Unit EXTERNAL DOORS (EXCLUDING IRONMONGERY) .Structural steel.70m) including two flights and one half space landing .Single leaf solid core flush door .100mm block wall . No. No.UK CONSTRUCTION COST DATA Construction Elements Item STAIRCASES .Double leaf glazed door .Single leaf half hour fire door .Cavity wall construction. capped stick built system 100 120 m2 INTERNAL DOOR SET (INCLUDING IRONMONGERY) . frameless joints .Single leaf solid core door . 40 - 50 m 2 90 - 135 m2 INTERIOR SCREENS .Double leaf auto operating door 600 1000 3500 800 1200 4500 No. Purlins and insulated metal deck roof EXTERNAL WALLS .Fully glazed office partition full (2. 102mm facing brick outer skin 140mm blockwork inner skin . No.Plasterboard stud wall ROOF . 3000 - 4000 Rise 4000 - 5000 Rise INTERIOR WALLS .00m rise) .8m) height.Double glazed 200 500 300 600 m m 275 250 - 450 450 m2 m2 16 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 17 .1200mm wide reinforced concrete stair with painted steel tube balustrade (average rise 3.RC Slab (Grade 35) graded to fall and builtup roofing membrane .Glass curtain wall system.2000mm wide grand public stair with glass and metal balustrade (4.70m). including two flights and one half space landing .1050mm wide reinforced concrete stair with painted steel tube balustrade (average rise 3.Single leaf one hour fire door 450 500 600 750 800 950 No.250mm reinforced concrete wall (Grade 35) 115 20 25 30 150 25 35 35 m2 m2 m2 m2 7000 - 8000 Rise .

55.Plaster and vinyl fabric wallpaper .Average cost per plumbing point including fixture.Access floors.000 45.000 . 18 - 25 m2 25 - 35 m 2 18 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 19 .UK CONSTRUCTION COST DATA Construction Elements Item WALL FINISHES . standard duty 18 30 65 30 35 60 150 40 m2 m2 m2 m2 25 30 m2 15 20 m2 £ Unit Item SPECIALIST SERVICES SANITARY AND PLUMBING .metal framed plasterboard ceiling painted .75.Hydraulic lift serving 2 floors 60.Ceramic tile .000 No.000 18.13 passenger lift serving 4 floors . 15 50 - 25 70 m2 m2 - 18 m2 VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION .Cement render and ceramic tile CEILING FINISHES . No. soil 400 waste and vent.Carpet tile .Hygenic suspended ceiling system FLOOR FINISHES . excl DOC m Pack .000 .000 .20.Average cost for storm water drains. No. (site area) 15 £ Unit - 500 No.Exposed grid suspended ceiling with mineral fibre board acoustic ceiling .Plaster and emulsion paint .Glass sided escalator (4m rise) .Granite tile .

Finishes to cores Fully fitted out WC's Sprinklers.Lighting. from the riser across the lettable floor space. Finishes to main entrances Finishes to common areas Finishes to Staircases fitted as part of shell and core Finishes to lifts Finishes to Common Toilets 436-645 700-850 15% 35% Sanitary Fit out of Common Toilets Suspended Ceilings Raised Access floors Extension of Basic mechanical and Electrical Services. Fire Alarms and basic safety signage Office Carpets Distrubuted power to each floor but not to each terminal point Installation of Cellular Offices Enhanced finishes Conference / meeting Room Facilities IT and AV Installations Tea Point and Kitchen Fit Out Furniture Shell and Core Cat A Fit Out Cat B Fit Out P P P P P P P Ï Ï Ï P P Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï P P P Ï Ï P P P Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï P P P P P P Type of Tenancy Open Planned £/m2 Fully Partitioned £/m2 Typical Cellular Space General Cat A office Fit out 375-530 - 0% Plus. Definition of Office Fit Out catagories: Life Safety Infrastructure. Costs are calculated using the Cat A fitout cost PLUS the appropriate CAT B Allowance Definition of Office Fit Out categories: Building Envelope Emergency staircases Balustrades and Handrails to Emergency stairs Accomodation Stairs Balustrades and Handrails to Accomodation stairs Feature Stairs Balustrades and Handrails to Feature stairs Lifts Base Services. cooling and ventillation systems including controls. tanks. Heating.UK CONSTRUCTION COST DATA Office Fit-Out The following costs are an indication of those currently achievable for good quality office accommodation. main fire alarm panels. risers. Sprinkler Pumps. plant and equipment to edge of floor plates Shell and Core Cat A Fit Out Cat B Fit Out P P P P P Ï Ï P P Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï P P Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï 20 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 21 . Cat B Fit Out For: Corporate/ Call Centre Solicitors/ Financiers/ HQ - Computer Areas include access flooring and additional services costs but exclude computer equipment.

fixtures and equipment varies between different Hotel brands and the star rating of the hotel. kettles.800 per m2 Estimating Data Reinforcement Ratios Average Construction Payment Drawdown method of measuring Building Areas 125 . tv’s.500 to £6. etc.000 £10.000 to £16. £ CBD offices typical floor CBD offices core upgrade (excluding lift modernisation) 400 . paintings. fixtures and equipment The definition of furniture. crockery. £ Budget mid-market Luxury £4.300 m2 Hotel Furniture.Office Refurbishment The following refurbishment costs include demolition and removal of partitions and internal finishes. provide new floor. cutlery. Some operators may separately budget for operating stock and equipment (OSE) from furniture and fittings. desks. restaurant and bar furniture. office furniture. cupboards. Generally the cost to supply and install loose and fixed furniture fixtures and equipment for guest rooms and common areas includes items such as beds. ceiling and wall finishes but exclude fitting out. linen.000 £25. curtains.000 to £70. The lower end of the range indicates reuse and modification. hotel brand signage.000 per Guest room Guest room Guest room 22 .

height of buildings. including wet weather.6 96. Half retention is assumed to be released at the end of the defects period and is excluded from the figures. All data is related to the date of submission of contractors’ application to the client and not actual payment. load calculations and sizes of individual elements and grid sizes will result in considerable variation to the stated ratios.5 98.0 80.0 40. Average Construction Payment Drawdown Hotel Sector Contract Period % 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Half retention (1.ESTIMATING DATA Reinforcement Ratios The following ratios give an indication of the average weight of high tensile rod reinforcement per cubic metre of concrete (Grade 35) for the listed elements.6 6.5 kg/m3 115 30 150 100 70 200 - 200 60 250 150 150 300 150 75 80 220 100 - 250 150 150 300 200 120.7 68. ground conditions.0 0.0 20. industrial disputes etc. a civil & structural engineer should be consulted.0 Hotel Sector 100 150 180 90 75 125 130 - 450 300 200 200 200 160 Contract Expenditure (%) 100.3 30.0 Half retention 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 Contract Period (%) © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 25 .0 60.6 43.4 89.5 93. which will give an indication of the anticipated rate of expenditure when used for specific project types for preliminary budgetary purposes.5%) released after end of defects period Contract Expenditure % 0.4 11. Element Substructure Pile caps Bored Piles (compression) Bored Piles (tension) Raft Foundation RC pad footings Ground beams   Basement Retaining Wall RC Wall Ground Bearing Slab Edge Beams Lift Pits Above Ground Columns Beams Slab Walls (core) Lift Core Stairs 24 Average Construction Payment Drawdown The tabulation in next page is derived from the statistical average of a series of case histories.6 1.2 18.1 24. Construction periods exclude various extensions. Differing structural systems.6 78.4 59.5 2.0 98. For project specific ratios.3 36.7 51.0 84. which is generally one month later.

5 9.0 0.0 Office Sector Contract Period (%) Half retention 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 Half retention 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 26 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 27 .8 60.5 100 Contract Expenditure (%) 120.1 31.3 87.8 66.ESTIMATING DATA Average Construction Payment Drawdown Industrial Sector 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Half retention (1.9 18.8 98.0 60.4 6.5 23.9 53.8 96. to the external face of the perimeter walls) at each floor level.0 80.1 38.0 40.0 20.4 9.8 31.5 100 Industrial Sector Contract Expenditure (%) 100.9 97.9 98.0 60.8 94.3 91.3 19.5%) released after end of defects period Contract Expenditure % 3.5 94.5 78.0 Method of Measurement of Building Areas The Information provided is a summary from the RICS new rules for measurement effective from 1st may 2009.2 98.2 37.5%) released after end of defects period 120.0 13.6 52.4 45.8 61. The rules of measurement of gross external floor area are defined in the RICS Code of measuring Practice (6th edition). These rules are intended as a brief guide only and the full RICS code of measuring practiced should be consulted if required.3 82. Advice regarding net lettable areas used for calculating revenues should be given by the clients commercial property agent.1 69.8 14.0 20. Gross external area (GEA) – is the area of a building measured externally (i.2 25.0 0.6 91.e.1 88.0 Contract Period (%) Office Sector Contract Period % 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Half retention (1.1 83.2 76.0 40.0 80.8 96.7 72. Contract Period % Contract Expenditure % 4.4 44.0 100.

lift-wells and permanent lift lobbies Corridors and other circulation areas where used in common with other occupiers Permanent circulation areas. stairwells. heating or cooling apparatus protruding 0. chimney breasts. Vehicle parking areas (the number and type of spaces noted) 28 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 29 . heating or cooling apparatus. whether or not above the main roof level Service accommodation such as toilets. with clear height above. garden stores. measured at base level only excluding common areas Entrance halls excluding common areas Notional lift lobbies and notional fire corridors Kitchens Built-in units. tank rooms which are housed in a covered structure of a permanent nature. walls enclosing excluded areas. intermittent air-conditioning. but not those parts that are usable areas Areas under the control of service or other external authorities including meter cupboards and statutory service supply point Internal structural walls. corridors and thresholds/recesses associated with access. columns. and the like Projection rooms Voids over stairwells and lift shafts on upper floors Loading bays Areas with a headroom of less than 1. lift-wells. raked or stepped floors Corridors of a permanent essential nature (e. showers. Including Areas occupied by internal walls and partitions projections Columns. landings and balconies used in common Toilets. and the like occupying usable areas Ramps. raked or stepped floors Greenhouses. The rules of measurement of net internal area are defined in the RICS Code of measuring Practice (6th edition). with permanent access. and the like Structural. tank rooms (other than those of a trade process nature). bathrooms. piers. and the like in residential property Excluding Those parts of entrance halls.25m. covered ways and fire escapes Canopies Voids over or under structural. and the like Lift rooms. piers. toilet lobbies.g. fire corridors. bathrooms. fuel stores. vertical ducts. walkways. and the like Atria and entrance halls. chimney breasts. other projections. fuel stores. cleaners’ rooms. plant rooms. Including Atria with clear height above. other internal projections. changing rooms. smoke lobbies) mezzanine floor areas with permanent access Lift rooms.5m Pavement vaults Garages Conservatories Source: RICS Source: RICS Net internal area (NIA) – is the usable area within a building measured to the internal face of the perimeter walls at each floor level. toilet lobbies. and ducting in so far as the space it occupies is rendered substantially unusable The space occupied by permanent.ESTIMATING DATA Gross internal floor area (GIFA) (or gross internal area (GIA)) – is the area of a building measured to the internal face of the perimeter walls at each floor level. plant rooms. and the like Stairwells. walls separating tenancies and the like The space occupied by permanent and continuous air-conditioning.5m Areas rendered substantially unusable by virtue of having a dimension between opposite faces of less than 0. measured at base level only Internal open-sided balconies. cupboards. sloping areas and steps within usable areas Areas occupied by ventilation/heating grilles Areas occupied by skirting and perimeter trunking Areas occupied by non-structural walls subdividing accommodation in sole occupancy Pavement vaults Excluding Perimeter wall thicknesses and external projections External open-sided balconies. raked or stepped floors are to be treated as a level floor measured horizontally Horizontal floors. cleaners’ rooms. below structural. atria.25m or more into the usable area Areas with a headroom of less than 1. fuel stores. Refer to Appendix C of these rules. The rules of measurement of gross internal floor area are defined in the RICS Code of measuring Practice (6th edition). vertical ducts.

International Construction Building Costs Specific Definitions For International Construction Costs Construction Activity Cycle Construction market Activity for major European Cities .

2800 38     42   1750 .15200 9300 .9100 6100 .10400 5200 .8700 .7200 11100 .940 .3200 378 .5000 55     68   2000 .10400 5100 . RETAIL Shopping Centre Strip Shopping Range Rate/m2   7200 7050     5 Star HOTELS 3 Star Location/City Grade A Range Rate/m2       Range Rate/m2 Range Rate/m2 Range Rate/m2                         6500 .6600 10600 .2300 1350 .10000 5500 . etc.14500 23200 .2165 1825 .7000 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 33 .1700 20   650   25   3800 .2700 30     38   28     30   .8000 5700 .17500 11800 .9900 .1750 3000 .14600 6500 .15900 7200 6700 1110 93 1950 6000 .28300 18700 .9600 6000 .840 .1350 204 19100 .2750 12000 .6900 .22700 16500 .INTERNATIONAL CONSTRUCTION Building Costs All costs are stated in local currency per m2 of gross floor area as shown below.7800 3000 .2300 1385 .11000 .2000 3000 .1850 6700 .16500 23600 .3000   30   1100 . climatic conditions.2320 1900 .28900 18100 .9700 780 93 .9200 6350 .2800 1825 .188 2620 .6800 2165 .18000 5600 .2360 1460 .6700 2160 .1850 6500 .2320 1380 .4640 .6700 10800 .2350 1250 . market conditions.850 1750 .3850 .14400 8100 .16200 10500 . Variations in costs may be experienced for factors such as site conditions.3250 .14300 8100 .1825 1850 .9200 5700 .7200 11000 .2800 1675 .9900 15400 .20500 13000 . at fourth quarter 2010.501 1490 .21600 12900 .2700 1490 .3850 1750 .4000 775 665 750 .19700 Php (‘000) Ringgit Bht (‘000)   £GBP AED £GBP £GBP £GBP AED 38 50 30 38 14600 .23400 26 1600 25   2500 4500 2980 2495 2750 4700 36 21 28 57 72 46 54 2000 .1840 281 455 KRW (‘000) 1950 .4250 2350 .3875 .9400 5800 .1735 1350 . The costs stated in this section reflect the standards and specifications normal to that country Local Currency   Yuan Yuan $HKD mOP Yuan Yuan OFFICE BUILDING Premium Range Rate/m2 ASIA Beijing Guangzhou Hong Kong macau Shanghai Shenzhen Seoul Tokyo Singapore Jakarta Ho Chi minh City manila Kuala Lumpur Bangkok EMEA Birmingham Dubai London manchester Bristol Abu Dhabi 32 or region.10300 5600 .950 8500 .11500 VND (‘000) 18150 .8800 14400 .9000 .2850 9000 .19700 13000 .6200 .11400 6500 .19500 11700 .3500 1700 .13800 8000 .329 219 249 1850 .13500 7800 .11000 .1035 .9500 6000 .6000 .1790 Yen (‘000) $SGD IDR (‘000) 249 .3050 . regulatory requirements.10250 5700 .7800 5500 .2080 1245 . standards of specification.4000 8750 .23100 15200 .

4580 3650 .1940 860 .2850 35 1505 .1705 1050 .1560 970 .2100 970 .4300 3630 .2950 2010 .3680 2200 .3985 2155 .3015 1720 .1830 2045 .1990 1940 .1345 1240 .2200 2000 .3015 1290 .2950 2700 .1505 805 .1885 1185 .2800 2045 .3200 1000 .3040 2500 .2370 805 .INTERNATIONAL CONSTRUCTION Building Costs OFFICE BUILDING Premium Range Rate/m2 OCEANIA Adelaide Auckland Brisbane Canberra Christchurch Darwin melbourne Perth Sydney Wellington USA Boston Denver Honolulu Las Vegas Los Angeles Phoenix Portland San Francisco Seattle Washington DC NY Region 34 Location/City Local Currency   $AUD $NZ $AUD $AUD $NZ $AUD $AUD $AUD $AUD $NZ   $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD RETAIL Shopping Centre Strip Shopping Range Rate/m2       5 Star HOTELS 3 Star Grade A Range Rate/m2       Range Rate/m2 Range Rate/m2 Range Rate/m2                         2500 .1505 - © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 .4145 1505 .1780 1240 .1750 790 .1400 1300 .3830 2390 .1505 1885 .4085 3700 .4950 2690 .1775 2420 .2585 1400 .2635 1290 .3100 2500 .3010 2695 .1550 1030 .4170 3200 .3070 3445 .3910 2180 .3000 2100 .1400 970 .4250 3490 .2800 940 .3300 2090 .1720 2260 .3015 3985 .3765 1885 .1940 1400 .2480 2500 .4200 3730 .2100 1240 .2205 1185 .2635 1505 .1730 665 .3605 1240 .5815 2475 .1560 700 .3850 2000 .2100 1290 .2950 1020 .2475 1290 .3010 2795 .1940 1075 .1285 915 .4550 3400 .3745 2850 .1265 1050 .1990 1990 .1455 1240 .3950 2150 .2370 970 .2800 1505 .1775 775 .2420 1830 .2400             1550 .2850 2745 .2420 1075 .2885 1550 .3070 1240 .1290 805 .1940 1290 .4035 1775 .1615 2155 .1720 1775 .2370 1240 .3750 2200 .3000 2950 .4300 3400 .2600       1410 .1455 1240 .4780 2605 .4790 1615 .1615 2100 .4100       2600 .1500       2155 .3050 2200 .4230 2975 .3100 2565 .3505 2950 .2760 2850 .3015 1885 .1550 800 .2100 1240 .3350 2740 .3600 2640 .3100 2750 .3700 2300 .1200       3400 .3230 1505 .2950 1970 .2370 1130 .1750 2150 .1670 1185 .4035 1990 .3785 2550 .3765 1990 .1990 2205 .1550 1030 .3285 700 .3120 1775 .2850 3180 .2675 1785 .

20 15 - 23 700 .1850 2200 .8700 12000 .14500 12500 .1450 1850 .445 350 500 .1500 4500 .445 340 2700 .400 350 .5400 540 .500 360 .3810 3500 .500 315 .1850 5600 .16300 7200 .4800 5500 .242 224 .3750 3200 .12700 12600 .1200 1300 .5300 3700 .7000 7000 .7500 7100 .450 670 .3350 3350 .1500 14 .314 2100 .3600 3550 .8700 6900 .13700 5700 .2650 3500 .780 700 900 1100 .1600 10   .3550 2850 .1380 1380 .5100 900 .2165 845 .13200 2000 .4600 780 .26 950 .5500 1800 .180 1000 .18000 18 .5400 5400 .125 710 .1140 1240 .1400 1200 .10300 13900 .INTERNATIONAL CONSTRUCTION Building Costs CARPARKING Multi-Storey Range Rate/m   Yuan Yuan $HKD mOP Yuan Yuan KRW (‘000) Yen (‘000) $SGD IDR (‘000)     2 Location/City Local Currency   INDUSTRIAL Factory 2 RESIDENTIAL MULTI.1400 1350 .2400 2250 .890 249 .2700 2700 .4000 355 .3200 360 .940 94 .2200 1500 .19000 Php (‘000) Ringgit Bht (‘000)   £GBP AED £GBP £GBP £GBP AED 14 .2950 2500 .1950 2700 .2850 2400 .2550 3150 .8700 10400 .550 315 .3250 3250 .450 315 .5050 1900 .5800 1850 .1000 1100 .3650 2950 .1520 .276 600 .9300 8400 .800 320 .9000 6900 .2750 2350 .161 940 200 .2450 3050 .1000 665 .3850 4200 .7600 1225 .3600 3050 .1690 1675 .3700 3700 .1450 690 .13     15     18   950 .7800 810 .500 2700 .850 94 .5600 36 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 37 .2600 3050 .5550 5900 .6900 9600 .4850 6600 .4000 320 .19       18 24 36 46 29 50 VND (‘000) 6900 .5100 2050 .3100 2450 .680 94 .500 .STOREY Investment 2 Basement Range Rate/m       Warehouse 2 Owner Occupied 2 Range Rate/m       Range Rate/m       Range Rate/m       Range Rate/m2       ASIA Beijing Guangzhou Hong Kong macau Shanghai Shenzhen Seoul Tokyo Singapore Jakarta Ho Chi minh City manila Kuala Lumpur Bangkok EMEA Birmingham Dubai London manchester Bristol Abu Dhabi 1950 .2950 13     18   28   950   38   30     36   315 .7700 2200 .450 - 4300 .1825 1500 .

900       600 .2580 2450 .2850 2350 .1100 635 .1100 2200 .860 430 .2155 1775 .2155 970 .2475 1505 .1395 600 .1670 1420 .3200 635 .3210 2500 .1455 550 .1100 2150 .1290 755 .755 680 .1200 550 .860 755 .1400 680 .5920 700 .1830 1025 .2800 590 .1250 685 .STOREY Investment 2 Basement Range Rate/m       Warehouse 2 Owner Occupied 2 Range Rate/m       Range Rate/m       Range Rate/m       Range Rate/m2       OCEANIA Adelaide Auckland Brisbane Canberra Christchurch Darwin melbourne Perth Sydney Wellington USA Boston Denver Honolulu Las Vegas Los Angeles Phoenix Portland San Francisco Seattle Washington DC NY Region 625 .930 655 .915 1290 .2950 2500 .2850 860 .2690 645 .1025 915 .970 500 .1075 645 .970 915 .3050 490 .1240 590 .3000 2500 .1025 540 .645 700 .1345 485 .2100 860 .1050 1100 .755 805 .900 900 .3105 535 .1940 540 .2260 38 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 39 .1000 1100 .965 1015 .1025 755 .2300 550 .3000             600 .1185 1185 .3390 2100 .1505 1025 .3915 2565 .1345 755 .1030 2285 .1775 1290 .860 755 .850 600 .3280 600 .1025 1455 .825 600 .1050 1100 .1000 2200 .1410 600 .1000 620 .850 620 .1455 755 .2850 2500 .1700 670 .2900 2440 .1240 1025 .1720 645 .1075 970 .1030 600 .1100 440 .2315 1290 .1050 685 .1350 685 .3560 600 .860 700 .1125 990 .1395 650 .775 2440 .1130 860 .970 700 .1300             645 .915 645 .2530 1075 .900       2300 .1615 1185 .3015 590 .3010 2700 .2650 620 .915 1240 .1025 970 .2585 645 .1560 1505 .1130 1505 .2260 1670 .970 390 .800 1100 .970 900 .2600 2300 .2115 1985 .1025 915 .1400 640 .INTERNATIONAL CONSTRUCTION Building Costs CARPARKING Multi-Storey Range Rate/m   $AUD $NZ $AUD $AUD $NZ $AUD $AUD $AUD $AUD $NZ   $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD $USD     2 Location/City Local Currency   INDUSTRIAL Factory 2 RESIDENTIAL MULTI.915 1505 .970 755 .1075 860 .2745 755 .1505 590 .1455 755 .1200 1730 .2045 1345 .1075 1455 .1075 1130 .2885 2730 .650 2490 .2155 - 700 .1025 915 .1990 645 .

Each city has its own industry business cycle in the context of its own economy. air conditioned. The tabulation in the following page provides an overview of the relative growth / decline of each development sector in various cities. dryers. Exclusions: Loose furniture. carpet. RESIDENTIAL OWNER OCCUPIED multi-Storey units reflect medium to luxury quality. INVESTMENT reflect low-medium quality with basic fit-out provisions. HOTELS Range of costs excludes FF&E as defined on page 22. GRADE A OFFICES refer to high quality buildings which are built for the middle range of the rental market. and as such the performance of each development sector is not strictly comparable between cities. Construction Activity Cycle The cycle model illustrates the different growth and decline zones in a theoretical construction industry business cycle. laundry and bathroom areas to living areas and finishes required will affect the cost range. INDUSTRIAL Quality reflects a simplified type of construction suitable for light industry.INTERNATIONAL CONSTRUCTION Specific Definitions For International Construction Costs OFFICE BUILDING PREMIUM OFFICES refer to landmark high-quality office buildings located in a major CBD office market. refrigerators and tenants special requirements. and accommodation up to 20 storeys in height. insurance. Note: The ratio of kitchen. multi-national corporations and other major companies. which are trend-setters in establishing rents and accommodating leading owner occupiers including headquarter buildings for banks. Range given is significantly affected by the height and configuration of the building. Information as at first quarter 2011. washing machines. special light fittings. 40 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 41 .

Construction Activity Cycle INTERNATIONAL CONSTRUCTION 42 PEAK GROWTH ZONE ZONE PEAK ZONE PEAK DECLINE MID GROWTH ZONE MID ZONE MID DECLINE ZONE TROUGH GROWTH ZONE TROUGH ZONE TROUGH DECLINE ZONE UK Birmingham p q p p p q q p q q Bristol London manchester Sheffield EUROPE Berlin p q q q q q p q p p Brussels Bucharest Dublin madrid milan Paris Prague Stockholm p q q q q q q q p p q q q p q q q q q p p q p q q Houses Apartments Offices Industrial p q q q p Retail p p p p p Hotel q q q p p Civil q q q p p q p q q q q q q p p q q q q p p p q p q q q q q p p q q p q p p q p q p p p p p Construction Market Activity for Major European Cities © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 43 Vienna .

UK Construction Information List of UK Professional Bodies List of UK Government Bodies Ecology Species Assessment Calendar Construction Design and management Regulations RIBA Outline Plan of Work Equality Act BREEAm BREEAm in Use EPC .Energy Performance Certificates DEC .Display Energy Certificates Site Waste management Plans Capital Allowances OJEU Process OJEU Process Procedures Buying Solutions Procurement Options Code For Sustainable Homes Sustainable Construction Technologies Life Cycle Costing and Carbon .

org.uk www.com www.uk www.org.uk http://www.gov.org.uk www.lawsociety.hbf.uktradeinvest.gov.uk www.org.istructe.uk www.imeche.org.constructingexcellence.uk www.org.uk/ corporate/ www.hse.dft.aps.uk www.gov.gov.com www.thehousingforum.direct.planningportal.constructingexcellence.defra.gov.uk www.uk www.gov.ogc.uk www.uk www.org. co.org.gov.gov.theiet.uk www.communities.uk www.uk www.gov.statutelaw.cskills.gov.org/ www.statistics.org.ukplanning.org www.uk www.org/ www.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION List of UK Professional Bodies: Organisation Website Address List of UK Government Bodies: Organisation Constructing Excellence Construction Industry Council (CIC) Construction Industry Scheme Department for Transport Health and Safety Executive HM Treasury Homes and Communities Agency Ministry of Defence Office of Government Commerce (OGC) Partnership Sourcing Strategic Forum for Construction (SFfC) Sustainable Development Guidelines (DEFRA) The Department for Transport The Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR) The Government Information Service UK Environment Agency UK Government Planning UK Law Society UK National Statistics UK Planning UK Statute Law UK Trade and Investment Website Address www.uk www.uk Association of Independent Construction Adjudicators (AICA) www.bankofengland.ciob.gov.uk www.homesandcommunities.uk www.rics.berr.cbi.cic.mod.org www.gov.builders.uk www.uk/cis/ www.co.com www.dft.org www.gov.cic.uk www.org.apm.uk www.uk www.english-heritage.ice.ukcg.uk www.uk/sustainable/ govern www.org.gov.uk www.environment-agency.uk www.uk www.co.strategicforum.architecture.org.co.uk www.gov.org.hmrc.caalliance.hm-treasury.uk Construction Awards Alliance Constructing Excellence Construction Skills The Association for Project Management (APM) The Association for Project Safety (APS) The Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB) The Confederation of British Industry (CBI) The Construction Industry Council The House Builders Federation The Housing Forum Institution of Civil Engineers The Institution of Engineering and Technology Institution of Mechanical Engineers The Institution of Structural Engineers The National Federation of Builders The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) UK Contractors Group (UKCG) Bank of England English Heritage Communities and Local Government www.aica-adjudication.uk www.uk www.co.uk 46 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 47 .pslcbi.org.org.

local authority. NHBC – when arranging warranty repairs. homeowner if extending a domestic dwelling for business use.scrub and grassland All habitats Habitat No Someone will always be the Client. school governors. Aug Sep * Further licences will be required if the species or habitats are likely to be adversely impacted June July Jan Feb Mar Terrestrial Invertebrates Phase 1 Habitat Survey Bat Roosts/hibernation/ emergence & activity White Clawed Crayfish Breeding Door mice Vegetation Survey Wintering Birds Breeding Birds Greater crested Newts (Adults In Ponds) Badgers * Further licences will be required if the species or habitats are likely to be adversely impacted Optimal Survey Time 48 Sub-Optimal Survey Time © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 49 Water Voles Hares Reptiles Species Optimal Survey Time Apr May . nor do they have to develop substantial expertise in construction health and safety. when and by whom • who commissions the design and construction work (the employer under the contract) • who initiates the work • who is at the head of the procurement chain • who engages the contractors many Clients know little about construction health and safety. Tests to help determine who is Client • who ultimately decides what is to be constructed and where. leaseholder/residents’ management company. landlord . a Client is any one individual or organisation for whom a construction project is carried out. e. housing association. Sub-Optimal Survey Time Yes Yes Yes Rivers streams & standing water No No No No No No No No No Ponds and surrounding land Aquatic & terrestrial semi nat. charity. when the project is associated with a business or other undertaking (whether for profit or not). project originator on PFI.g.irrespective if for domestic dwellings. but are not normally expected to do them themselves.scrub and hedgerows ECOLOGICAL SPECIES ASSESSMENT CALENDAR Oct Nov Dec All habitats Rivers streams & standing water Woodland. woodlands & buildings Lowland open fields & some uplands All habitats including built structures Woodland.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Ecology Species Assessment Calendar Is a Survey Licence needed?* Construction Design and Management Regulations 2007 Who is a Client? Under these Regulations. so Clients are not required or expected to plan or manage projects themselves.water bodies. insurance company (except where home owner . unless this is central to their business.light scrub & brownfield sites Wetland & coastal farmland Hedges. habitats & brownfields sites Heath. Clients must ensure that various things are done.arranges work and is reimbursed). grassland.

No need for a written plan. The measures should focus on the needs of the particular job and be proportionate to the risks arising from the work. Architect. designers and contractors and ensure all appointed early enough for their respective roles. Where the works to be carried out will be a fixed workplace. Lead designer or contractor carrying out bulk of design work should normally co-ordinate the health and safety aspects of the design work Builder or main contractor should normally co-ordinate construction work. Additional duties for Notifiable projects (works will take more than 30 days or involve more than 500 person days) Appoint a CDM co-ordinator* to advise and assist with their duties and co-ordinate the arrangements for health and safety during the planning phase. Architect. Allow sufficient time and resources for all stages. in respect of any further information and/or ongoing design or additional designers or contractors. Higher risk work requires documentation closer to a construction phase plan. Demolition work requires a written plan showing how danger will be prevented. in what order. Update and issue as appropriate. ensure the works will comply with the Workplace (Health. Clarify team roles. project specific health and safety information needed to identify hazards and risks associated with the design and construction work. so far as reasonably practicable. reviewed or updated ready for handover. Ensure the designers and contractors are issued with the pre-construction information as early as possible. Check own competence and resources and check competence and resources of all appointees. may be sufficient to provide a brief summary which clearly sets out who does what. Keep health and safety file available for any future construction work or to pass to a new owner (* There must be a CDM co-ordinator and principal contractor in appointment until the end of the construction works) Appointing the right people as duty holders and making early appointments is particularly important for Clients with little construction or health and safety expertise. What Clients should do their best to avoid: • Inadvertently taking on additional responsibilities by specifying materials or methods of working will mean the Client will become a designer in relation to those specific matters and/or managing or carrying out construction work as they will become a contractor • Failing to appoint a CDM co-ordinator and Principal Contractor for the duration of the construction works as they will become legally liable for the work under those roles as well as for not making the appointments 50 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 51 . Ensure.Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 Co-operate with others concerned to enable those duty holders to comply with their duties. that there are suitable management arrangements for the project including welfare facilities for the duration of the project so the works can be carried out safely and without risk to health. Co-ordinate with others involved in order to ensure the safety of those carrying out the construction work and others who may be affected. Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 in respect of their design and materials used. Lead designer or contractor carrying out bulk of design work should normally co-ordinate the health and safety aspects of the design work Builder or main contractor should normally co-ordinate construction work. Non notifiable – High Risk Vital that those doing the works understand the risks involved and how to manage them. parties involved etc. as they will need to rely on the advice given by the CDM co-ordinator on matters relating to the competence of those they intend to appoint and the adequacy of the management arrangements made by appointees.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Client Duties Excludes Domestic Clients carrying out construction work to a residential property for their own or family residential use (but not where the work/ extension would be for a trade/ business use. Appoint a Principal Contractor* to plan and manage the construction work – preferably early enough for them to work with the designer on issues relating to buildability. Ensure the health and safety file is prepared. Make sure that the construction phase does not start unless there are : • Suitable management and welfare facility arrangements from start • A suitable principal contractor’s Construction Phase Plan Provide information relating to the health and safety file to the CDM co-ordinator. Depends on nature of work. Lead designer. irrespective of whether or not for profit) All Construction Projects Non notifiable – Low Risk Vital that those doing the works understand the risks involved and how to manage them. Take account of the general principles of prevention . Examples of higher risk work: • Structural alterations Deep excavation or excavation in unstable or contaminated ground • Unusual working methods • Lonising radiation or other significant health hazards • Nearby high voltage powerlines • A risk of falling into water with potential to be fast flowing • Diving • Explosives • Heavy or complex lifting operations Builder or main contractor should normally co-ordinate construction work. usability and maintainability.

The RIBA Outline Plan of Work summarises the deliverables required under each RIBA work stage. Administration of the building contract to Practical Completion. B Design Brief C Concept Preparation of Concept Design including outline proposals for structural and building services systems. Issuing of information to the contractor. F Production Information F1 Preparation of production information in sufficient detail to enable a tender or tenders to be obtained. Design D Design Development Development of concept design to include structural and building services systems. L2 Assisting building user during initial occupation period. setting out a logical structure for building projects starting with the brief and ending with post occupancy evaluation. appointing the contractor. Identification and evaluation of potential contractors and/or specialists for the project. L Post Practical Completion The activities in italics may be moved to suit project requirements. The Procedures identify the responsibilities of the design team at each stage of design and contract administration. Implementation of Design Brief and preparation of additional data.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION RIBA Outline Plan of Work RIBA Work stages are the stages into which the process of designing building projects and administering building contracts are usually divided. Pre-Construction Application for statutory approvals. Letting the building contract. Application for detailed planning permission. updated outline specifications and cost plan. L1 Administration of the building contract after Practical Completion and making final inspections. Arranging site hand over to the contractor. outline specifications and preliminary cost plan. F2 Preparation of further information for construction required under the building contract. Identification of procurement method. Development of initial statement of requirements into the Design Brief by or on behalf of the client confirming key requirements and constraints. L3 Review of project performance in use. G+H Invitation and appraisal of tenders Source: RIBA E Technical Design continued on page 53 Use 52 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 53 . sufficient to co-ordinate components and elements of the project and information for statutory standards and construction safety. Preparation of feasibility studies and assessment of options to enable the client to decide whether to proceed. business case and possible constraints on development. procedures. Review of information provided by contractors and specialists. Application for statutory approvals. ie: D E F1 F2 Application for detailed planning approval. G Tender Documentation H Tender Action RIBA Work Stages Description of key tasks Identification of client’s needs and objectives. Statutory standards and construction safety. Review of procurement route. Completion of Project Brief. Preparation and/or collation of tender documentation in sufficient detail to enable a tender or tenders to be obtained for the project. Preparation A Appraisal Construction J Mobilisation K Construction To Practical completion Provision to the contractor of further Information as and when reasonably required. and Further information for construction. Preparation of technical design(s) and specifications. organisational structure and range of consultants and others to be engaged for the project.

BRE is the certification and quality assurance body for BREEAm ratings. procedures and policies BREEAM What is BREEAM? BREEAm (BRE Environmental Assessment method) was created in 1990 and sets the standard for best practice in sustainable design and has become the most widely used assessment method to describe a building’s environmental performance. they constitute a very small part of the services that we offer. The building is then rated on a scale of: PASS. Rider Levett Bucknall offers a range of Access Consultancy services that will give best value to your project. In addition. 54 • Strategic consultancy services for large scale developments • Facilitating consultation with people with disabilities • Disability Impact Assessments and Access Plans • Expert advice & Expert Witness • Development of accessible practices. It provides legal rights for disabled people in the areas of: • employment • education • access to goods. property procurement and disposal. A set of environmental weightings then enables the credits to be added together to produce a single overall score. This is developed by an amalgamation of inclusive environments. GOOD. in addition to getting it right first time. the Disability Equality Duty in the DDA continues to apply. BUILDER OWNER OR OCCUPIER A B C PRE-BREEAM ADVICE CONSENSUS STANDARD QUALITY CONTROL FORMAL ASSESSMENT ISSUE CERTIFICATE © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 55 . although access audits of existing premises can be a part of our work. for example the issuing of licences The Equality Act also provides rights for people not to be directly discriminated against or harassed because they have an association with a disabled person. INDEPENDENT LICENSED ASSESSORS BUILDING DEVELOPER. The Equality Act 2010 aims to protect disabled people and prevent disability discrimination. This can apply to a carer or parent of a disabled person. VERY GOOD. services and facilities including larger private clubs and land based transport services • buying and renting land or property • functions of public bodies. most disabilities are invisible and therefore there is a risk of discrimination in every situation. EXCELLENT or OUTSTANDING A certificate is then awarded to the development. innovative approaches. people must not be directly discriminated against or harassed because they are wrongly perceived to be disabled. BRE trains and licenses organisations and individuals to carry out the assessment process and work with the design team. Any building professional can become trained and licensed to deliver BREEAm ratings and the process works as shown below. Rider Levett Bucknall can assist in the mitigation of the risk of litigation. opportunities for positive press or liaison with disability groups and individuals to achieve essential consultation. This can reduce the construction costs of providing access and limit liability. the Equality Act replaced most of the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA). use of assistive technologies. Advice can also include solutions that offer the best tax reductions. management procedures and equipment. by achieving buildings and services that are available to all. How Does BREEAM Work? The assessment process covers various building types which essentially look at the same broad range of environmental impacts: • Management • Health and Wellbeing • Energy • Transport • Water • Material and Waste • Landuse and Ecology • Pollution Credits are awarded in each of the above areas according to performance. Approximately 80% of the population will experience disability during their lifetime. membership of the National Register of Access Consultants (NRAC) enables Rider Levett Bucknall to provide recognised professional assistance in each of the following requirements: • Develop Disability Equality Plans • Access Statements for Planning applications • Access Statement for Building Regulation submissions • Access Audit of design proposals • Access Audit of existing premises • Accessibility of premises in rent reviews. Rider Levett Bucknall Consultancy services go far beyond undertaking access audits. However.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Equality Act 2010 From the 1st October 2010.

homes and leisure facilities • Increasing the marketability of a development both in terms of desirability and rentals • Demonstrating good and best practice Office of Government Commerce (OGC) As of march 2003. flexibility. Design teams use it as a way to improve the performance of their buildings as well as improve their own experience and knowledge of the environmental aspects of sustainability. The requirement covers: • All major new-build projects with a value greater than £500. • All refurbishment projects with a value over £500. Department of Health As of 1st of July 2008. English Partnerships also set Code for Sustainable Homes level 3 as the minimum standard for new build housing and a BREEAm Very Good rating for non domestic buildings in their quality standards. planners. quick and comprehensive. 10% recycled content). Schools and Families) In order to achieve capital funding a it is a condition that new build and refurbishment projects must achieve a ‘VERY GOOD’ rating under BREEAm Schools.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION How is BREEAM Used? Clients. It also allows them to achieve reduced capital costs for the client as although more money can be spent on the design process. In 2007.000 (primary schools) and £2million (secondary schools) 56 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 57 . develop action plans and also to monitor. the Welsh Assembly Government requires a BREEAm Excellent rating or a minimum of Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) Level 3 together (incl. funders and developers can use BREEAm to specify the sustainability performance of their buildings in a way that is easily visible in the market place. as far as practicable. maintainability and durability • Lower embodied and operational environmental impacts • High user satisfaction. alterations and extensions. the Housing Corporation prescribed a minimum standard of Level 3 Code for Sustainable Homes in their Design and Quality Standards. attempt to apply the same standards to all projects including smaller projects. Managers use it as a way to reduce running costs.000 (primary schools) and £2million (secondary schools) and affecting more than 10% of the floor area of the school • Designers should. and BREEAm Very Good for buildings above 1000m2. Property agents can use it to promote the environmental credentials and benefits of a building to potential buyers and tenants. DCSF (Department for Children. The standard is not required for refurbishment. Who Requires BREEAM Assessments? The BREEAm building assessments are required by various regulatory and government organisations. quality and control BREEAm buildings bring environmental. all health authorities in the UK require that new healthcare buildings seeking Outline of Business Case (OBC) approval must commit to achieving a BREEAm EXCELLENT rating and that all refurbishments commit to achieving a VERY GOOD rating. Homes and Communities Agency The Homes and Communities Agency was formed on 1st December 2008 bringing English Partnerships and the Housing Corporation together. OGC requires a BREEAm rating of ‘EXCELLENT’ for all new buildings. It can also create reduced life cycle costs which increases the buildings desirability for potential users. report and improve building performance at both the individual and portfolio level. Welsh Assembly Government As a main condition of funding. with the aim of zero carbon for all new buildings in Wales by 2011. What are the Benefits of BREEAM? A BREEAm assessed development can mean: • Functionality. The planning system in Wales also now requires as mandatory a minimum of CSH Level 3 and a reduction of 31% in carbon emissions above 2006 Building Regulations for residential buildings. economic and social benefits including: • Supporting a corporate environmental strategy • Creating better work places. although these schemes still have to be designed to energy efficient standards. environmentally constructed buildings save money by reducing mechanical plant and the use of resource intensive materials.

BREEAm In-Use has been developed to recognise and encourage better building management and targeted investment in existing building stock. but may coach the Assessor as to improvements that could result in a higher BREEAm In-Use score. In that way the assessment tool will enable building managers to see the impact of their building and existing systems and initiatives. reduce running costs and improve the environmental performance of your stock. BREEAM In-Use assessment differs from the established BREEAM schemes in that BREEAM assessors undertake an assessment of new buildings and submit the data to BRE Global to review and issue a certificate. Whereas for BREEAM In-Use the Auditor verifies the data obtained by the building manager and issue the certificate themselves. Licensed RLB BREEAm In-Use Auditors can then verify the building manager’s self assessment and then provide you with a valid certificate. enhanced chances of a successful outcome • Increased market appeal • Improved corporate image • Improving the predictability of costs/ delivery both on the design process and the specification of products Client satisfaction • As a result of improved understanding. “BREEAM In-Use” is a scheme launched by the BRE in late summer 2009 to help building managers reduce the running costs and improve the environmental performance of existing buildings. It consists of a standard BREEAm assessment methodology and a 3rd party (Auditor) certification process that provides a clear and credible route map to improving sustainability. Should you have a significant property portfolio you will benefit from being able to demonstrate your BREEAm In Use rating to your occupiers. Benefits for Investors and Developers Enhanced marketability • Recognised brand associated with quality buildings and organisations with active corporate social responsibility agendas • Represents a low risk investment choice Increased flexibility • Reduced letting voids • Increased investment security Good return on investment • Desirable buildings give a high rate of return and a low void rate. The BREEAm-In Use scheme enables your building managers (or our Surveyors acting on your behalf) to self-assess the performance of your portfolio using the online BREEAm In-Use tool.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Benefits for Design Team Enhanced knowledge • Increased skills base • Reduced research and design time • Improved client understanding. 58 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 59 . as well as the potential impact of any proposed changes. BREEAm In-Use Auditors may not provide formal consultation to Assessors. It can also help shape your strategic property portfolio management. additional market appeal and more efficient project management Reduced capital costs • Although more money may be spent on the design process many environmentally constructed buildings save money by reducing mechanical plant and the use of expensive (resource intensive) materials. BREEAM In Use The biggest opportunity to address the UK’s environmental impact lies in better management and improvement of the EXISTING BUILDING STOCK. customers and the marketplace generally.

floor or solid wall insulation. rented or sold: • Places of worship • Temporary buildings that will be used for less than two years • Standalone buildings with total useful floor area of less than 50m2 that aren’t used to provide living accommodation for a single household • Industrial sites. They also include a recommendation report giving advice on how to reduce the amount of energy used and lower the level of CO2 emissions in a building.Energy Performance Certificates What Are They? EPC’s are used to provide information on a buildings energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Potential figures are calculated by estimating what the energy efficiency and CO2 emissions would be if energy saving measures were put in to place. cavity. The rating measures the energy and CO2 efficiency of a property using a sliding scale from ‘A’ (very efficient) to ‘G’ (least efficient). Residential Landlords Private residential landlords are legally required to provide an EPC when renting out a home to new tenants. Which Buildings Do NOT Need an EPC? The following buildings do not need an EPC when they are built. Example of an EPC Which Buildings Need an EPC? An EPC is required for new builds or when a building is rented or sold. workshops and non-residential agricultural buildings that use minimal amounts of energy. They are only required for self-contained properties. A building will need an EPC if it has a roof and walls and has heating. a Predicted Energy Assessment (PEA) is usually required. 60 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 61 . The measures are loft. air conditioning or mechanical ventilation. If a building is made up of separate units with individual heating systems. EPCs are needed for buildings with multiple tenancies and let for different uses. e. For developers selling houses off-plan (not yet built). Prospective buyers or tenants must receive an EPC before they buy from a seller. Owners of newly built or refurbished business property must receive an EPC before they accept a property from a builder.g. All properties of the same type are measured using the same calculation. not per building). This allows a comparison of the energy efficiency between different buildings. office and/or residential accommodation. let or sublet.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION EPC . EPCs are not needed for: • lease renewals or extensions • compulsory purchase orders • sales of shares in a company where buildings remain in company ownership • lease surrenders Residential Developers Residential developers must provide an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) for any property they build.500 of spending for certain energy efficiency measures (per dwelling. draught proofing and hot water system insulation. How They Work? EPC’s carry ratings that compare the current energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions with potential figures that could be achieved. The building can either be a whole building or part of a building that has been designed or altered to be used separately. Commerical Buildings EPCs have to be provided by owners of commercial buildings when their premises are sold or let. with a mixture of retail. They are not necessary when a tenant rents a room and shares facilities. Landlords Energy Saving Allowance (LESA) – Private landlords who pay income tax can offset up to £1. each unit will need an EPC.

and who have the appropriate qualifications or experience. This is based on the energy consumption of the building. A domestic energy assessor is not qualified to conduct surveys relating to commercial property. A DEC is also accompanied by an Advisory Report that lists cost effective measures to improve the energy rating of the building. and show the public how much energy a building uses and its efficiency compared with other buildings.000 square metres which are occupied. the Operational Rating. This requires a Commercial Energy Assessor who is classified as non-domestic energy assessors (NDEA). How Long is an EPC Valid For? EPCs are valid for ten years on commercial and residential buildings except if they are part of a Home Information Pack (HIP). Where a public organisation has occupied a building for less than 15 months on 4 January 2009.or 12 months’ fuel meter readings .the energy assessor may calculate the operational rating for the building over the period of its occupation by the organisation. If it is part of a HIP. They show the actual energy usage of a building. Affected public buildings must have a DEC on display at all times . recorded by gas. and does not have an EPC . or partoccupied by a public authority or institution that provides public services to a large number of people and is visited by the public. What Counts as A ‘Larger Public’ Building? ‘Larger public buildings’ are those with a total useful floor area over 1. 62 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 63 . Rider Levett Bucknall can provide commercial energy assessments for non domestic properties. electricity and other fuel meters. an EPC must be less than three years old when the building is first put on the market. Example of a DEC DEC .UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Who Produces EPC’s? Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) can only be produced by energy assessors who are members of a government-approved accredited scheme for that type of building.together with an associated advisory report.Display Energy Certificates What Are They? The requirement for Display Energy Certificates (DECs) came into effect on 1 October 2008 and affects larger public buildings.

000 square metres? You are unaffected in that building YES Are you a public authority? (See box 1) NO Are you an institution providing a public service to a large number of people? (See box 2) NO You are unaffected YES YES Consider for each of your buildings Is this building frequently visited by members of the public? (See boxes 3 and 4) NO You are unaffected Box 2 – public service An institution providing a public service is one providing a service traditionally associated with local – or national government Box 3 – affected buildings Examples of buildings which may be affected included: • Schools • Leisure centres (but not private clubs) • Hospitals • Municipal golf clubhouses • Public libraries • Museums and art galleries provided by public authorities You are affected (See box 5) Box 4 – buildings unlikely to be affected Examples include: • Missile base • Air base • Restricted research establishment Box 5 – What to do if you have an affected building If you are affected: 1. • Restricted access buildings .UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Flowchart Showing Which Premises Need a DEC START Box 1 – Public Authorities Public authorities include: • Central and local government • NHS trusts • Schools – maintained and community • Police • Courts • Prisons • Ministry of Defence • Army • Executive agencies • Statutory regulatory bodies Premises That Do NOT Need A DEC The following types of premises do not need a DEC: • Premises of private organisations that share a building with a public authority or institution that needs a DEC. How Long is an DEC Valid For? DECs are valid for one year. irrespective how much of the building they occupy. You must place a Display Energy Certificate on display – in a prominent place – clearly visible to members of the public in each building 2. They are needed whether or not the building has an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) and in addition to any requirement for air conditioning checks. The advisory report is valid for up to seven years. both of these documents must be produced by an accredited energy assessor Source: Department for Communities and Local Government 64 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 65 . Consider for each of your buildings (a building also includes a part of a building designed or altered to be used separately) Is the total useful floor area of the building more NO than 1. • Premises operated by businesses. you must be in possession of an advisory report on ways of improving energy performance 3.such as research labs on campuses.

Rider Levett Bucknall’s SWmP Client Advisers are able to assist Clients in discharging their duties by offering the following services: • Agreeing the ethos and requirements for the project with respect to Sustainability and Site Waste management • Advising Designers on Construction Waste Management requirements for the project – what they can do to help with waste reduction and management and what information they will need to make available • Establishing with / from Designers throughout design their decisions that help reduce / manage waste • Obtaining from Designers. throughout design. The Client must prepare a Site Waste management Plan before construction work begins. manager. If a project is started without a Site Waste management Plan. achievable targets that will divert waste from landfill. The Site Waste management Plans Regulations 2008 require all construction and demolition projects with an estimated value above £300. (Guidance in Wales. with additional requirements for projects exceeding £500. The Principal Contractor has a duty to regularly update the plan and the Client can introduce a regular monitoring process to ensure post contract compliance. in order to control the amount of waste produced from construction sites. The aim of the Regulations is to improve resource efficiency. such as Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment method (BREEAm). and are a requirement by government and major private clients in attaining their waste management goals. Site Waste management Plans should endorse the Client’s Environmental Policy and set out measurable deliverables. installation. help demonstrate compliance with existing waste legislation and raise and maintain standards. estimates of types and quantities of waste • Compiling “pre-construction” Site Waste Management Plan information • Advising on the competence of potential SWM Principal Contractors and of Site Waste management requirements at Principal Contractor selection 66 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 67 . Environmental management Systems (EmS) and Corporate Responsibility (CR) as well as the Government Sustainable Construction Strategy. if the offence was committed by a “qualified person” (Director.000 (excl VAT). These consequences apply both to the company as well as to individuals. “Construction” is deemed to be any building. In Scotland and Northern Ireland site waste management plans are seen as “best practice” by their environmental standards agencies. The challenge is to set reasonable. and in Wales similar regulations are likely to come into force in the near future. They also support the wider initiatives of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).000 (excl VAT) to have a Site Waste management Plan (SWmP) prepared. Scotland and Northern Ireland is similar but without the mandatory elements requiring compliance). The regulations require duty holders to: • Provide information on actions taken to minimise and manage waste • Prepare a Site Waste Management Plan before site works commence (similar to the Construction Phase Plan under the Construction (Design and management) Regulations 2007) • Review. Site waste management plans attract points when assessing projects to sustainable standards. revise and refine the Site Waste Management Plan during the construction phase • Provide sufficient site security to prevent illegal disposal of waste. The legislation requires the introduction of effective management systems. demolition. civil engineering or engineering construction work.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Site Waste Management Plans In England the Site Waste management Plans Regulations 2008 are a legal requirement. so far as is reasonably possible. the Client and the Principal Contractor are both guilty of an offence. including renovation. The reason for the introduction of this legislation was that the largest source of waste in the UK and the principal user of raw materials is the construction sector. reduce fly tipping. dismantling and maintenance. Secretary or someone acting in such capacity). The consequences of non-compliance with the Regulations range from a Fixed Penalty Notice to an unlimited fine upon conviction.

History of capital allowances Tax relief for capital expenditure started to be allowed in 1878 however the current capital allowances code stems from the Income Taxes Act 1945 which introduced the tax relief to help promote investment in property to rebuild the country after the war. security. This is updated as required. The corporation tax rate is current at the time of print but will change to 27% from April 2011. For corporate taxpayers. • Incur capital expenditure on a qualifying item. and • Demonstrate that the qualifying item belongs to the taxpayer at the end of the accounting period in which the expenditure is incurred. To qualify the item acquired must qualify as plant and machinery and must satisfy the following: • The plant and machinery must be unused and not second hand • The expenditure is incurred after 1 April 2001.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Capital Allowances & Land Remediation Relief What are capital allowances? Capital allowances are a tax deduction (tax allowance) for certain capital expenditure. The rules relating to expenditure that qualifies for capital allowances is found in the Capital Allowances Act 2001. an escalator or a moving walkway • external solar shading. Enhanced Capital Allowances Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECA’s) legislation has been introduced to encourage the use of energy-saving plant and machinery. • The plant must meet the energy saving criteria specified by the Carbon Trust 68 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 69 . a powered system of ventilation. the person claiming must: • Be a UK taxpayer. expenditure to acquire an item that has an enduring benefit) is not deductible. They reduce a taxpayer’s tax bill for a given period by being deducted from the taxable income for the period. for individuals this is as much as a 50% cash saving of the capital allowances write down for the tax year. Integral Features The following items were introduced in the Finance Bill 2008 and are classed as integral features: • an electrical system (including a lighting system) • a cold water system • a space or water heating system. Expenditure that is capital in nature (that is. In deriving the taxable income. Qualifying expenditure Types of capital allowances There are several types of capital allowances each with different definitions of qualifying expenditure and different write down percentages as follows: General Plant & machinery Plant and machinery is defined in the Capital Allowances Act 2001 s23 and often depends on trade in use (eg. The write down allowance essentially aims to reflect the depreciation or diminishing value of the asset. To overcome this inequity. Why are they necessary? Companies that operate a business (or individuals that operate a trade) are taxed on their profits from that business/ trade. Adoption of qualifying items may also improve a project’s Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment method (BREEAm) ratings and contribute towards achieving Energy Performance Certification. Who can claim capital allowances? In order to qualify for capital allowances. expenditure incurred in earning income is generally allowed as a tax deduction. fixtures & fittings). this effectively equates to a cash saving of 28% of the capital allowances write down for the tax year. and any floor or ceiling comprised in such a system • a lift. expenditure to acquire an item that is used as part of the business / trade was allowed a tax allowance so that the expenditure is deductible over a number of years. Since that time there have been 3 rewrites of the legislation resulting in the 2001 Act. Fire prevention. air cooling or air purification. low carbon dioxide emission cars and natural gas and hydrogen refuelling infrastructure and water conservation plant and machinery in construction projects. • Use the qualifying item in the course of a trade.

This is done as the purchase price reflects the value of the land. which we have been doing very successfully.gov. In order to make a successful claim. agreements. Land Remediation Relief Land remediation relief was introduced with the aim to encourage the development of brownfield sites.000 or the total Employers National Insurance contributions paid by the claiming company during the accounting period when the ECA equipment was installed. However. The result is that detailed checks must be made on all property acquisitions to determine their tax history. This is in relation to integral features assets which did not previously qualify for capital allowances before the new integral features rules came into effect in Finance Act 2008. The payable credit equates to 19% of the amount spent on ECA eligible equipment. Purchase of second hand buildings (excludes residential) Capital expenditure need not be on new items in order to qualify for capital allowances. It is also important to note that to qualify for P&m allowances. dates of purchase etc.uk/ Payable ECA (Tax Credit) If a company is loss making. being claims on expenditure incurred on the acquisition of Plant and machinery in purchased buildings. the legislation must be thoroughly understood and this will involve making detailed investigation of the history of the property including examination of the contract of sale. that company may elect to take a payable tax credit in lieu of the 100% deduction available for ECA qualifying assets. property is being sold with an election between Vendor and Purchaser to agree the level of plant and machinery in the building that is being transferred. as well as the tax savings available. a taxpayer incurring expenditure 70 . leases. The ECA credit is only available to incorporated companies. details of vendor. As such. In addition to this the correct valuation techniques must be employed. All sale agreements should contain the necessary contract clauses and fully completed pre-contract questionnaires. When dealing with second-hand property. © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 71 The ECA website with further information is: http://www. the tax payer must own the plant. Also. The Act requires that to claim on second hand plant and machinery an apportionment of the purchase price must be undertaken. A fundamental principle of the tax system is that no more than one person can claim capital allowances on any qualifying asset at any one time. no allowances are given for plant and machinery or fixtures in a dwelling (residential property). the maximisation of capital allowances can also serve to have a positive effect on property yields.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Enhanced Capital Allowances (Continued) The items currently qualifying include:  to air energy recovery Air  Automatic monitoring and Targeting  Boilers  Combined Heat and Power  Compact heat exchangers  Compressed air equipment  Heat pumps for space heating  HVAC zone controls  Lighting  motors  Pipework insulation  Refrigeration Equipment  Solar thermal systems  Thermal screens  Variable Speed Drives  Warm air and radiant heaters  Flow Controllers  meters  Leakage detection  Efficient toilets  Efficient taps  Rainwater harvesting equipment on second hand assets will still be able to claim allowances under the same general rules as if he were acquiring the assets brand new. have installed ready for use or already in use in their trade and have incurred the expenditure on the plant. This is usually done at either £1 or at the tax written down value of the plant. This ensures that the position of the Vendor is secured and that they do not incur a balancing charge on disposal of the property. The intention of legislation is the clean up of ‘environmental’ contamination in. By far the most difficult area of claim is also frequently the most valuable. require an apportionment of the purchase price to be made. at the greater amount of £250. the value of each element must be reconstructed and a multiplier applied to each variant to ensure that the total comes back to the purchase price. allowances may be available where you contribute towards the cost of qualifying items used by another in their trade / business. HmRC are currently reviewing their stance on student accommodation at the time of going to print. building and plant and machinery in total. the common parts of a residential development should qualify for allowances on qualifying expenditure on common parts (eg lifts).eca. with further clarification to follow. The total amount of tax credit that can be granted in an accounting period is capped. Additional capital allowances can sometimes be available on existing buildings where claims have previously been made and elections signed. the allowances are tapered back where a contribution towards the cost is received (landlord contribution or grant funding). The claim preparation process however is different. Increasingly. the wording of the legislation however means that it is open to much wider interpretation giving a broad scope to claim. Such claims. where no previous claim has been registered. That is. Equally. Hm Revenue & Customs is entitled to reject a capital allowances claim that is submitted without the proper research. on or over the land. As such.

soil stabilisation. project viability may be improved.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Derelict Land Relief Derelict land relief was introduced by the Finance Act 2009.). < 4 rooms (excl bath/kitch/hall) . generous relief is available on demolishing and preparing the site for redevelopment. eg.5 yrs = £1m INT = £280K tax(cash) saving Given over time . unforeseen remediation works The 2009 budget included amendments to the current legislation which came into effect on 1 April 2009.unoccupied/storage for 1 year before conversion Remediating contaminated land and buildings e. a powered system of ventilation. In cash terms this equates to a 42% saving (assuming 28% corporation tax) on all expenditure claimed on land remediation relief. Land Remediation/Derelict Land Tax Credit If a company makes a loss for an accounting period in which they incur expenditure on remediating contaminated or derelict land. asbestos removal.g. For qualifying sites.original use above ground floor dwelling(s) .>75% in 6. whether it be extraction or containment works qualify for land remediation relief. soil stabilisation. The amount of tax credit which can be claimed is 16% of the qualifying LRR for the accounting period the claim relates to. fixtures & fittings) Electrical systems. However. Finally. such as the retail portfolio. human remains. the pre-budget report recognised Japanese Knotweed as a contaminant and stated that all expenditure incurred during current eligible periods can be claimed. The intention of the legislation was to encourage abandoned sites to be brought back into productive use.>75% in 13 yrs = £1m RR = £300K tax(cash) saving Given yr of expenditure Land Remediation LRR DEVELOPER 50% Year of disposal General Plant & Machinery GEN PM Integral Plant & Machinery INT 20% reducing balance 10% reducing balance Plant and machinery not defined in legislation – depends on trade in use (eg. enabling the extra over 50% to be claimed. • relief cannot be claimed against subsidised expenditure such as grant funding or.building <4 storeys above ground floor . Japanese knotweed Land Remediation LRR INVESTOR 150% 1st Year = £1. agriculture. while for developers/traders the cash return is equal to 8% of the expenditure (16% x 50%). so immediate tax savings can be realised. the cash return is equivalent to 24% of the expenditure incurred (16% x 150%). • if the acquisition cost of the land was specifically discounted in order to account for the cost of remediation works and stated as such in the purchase agreement. Excludes heavy industry. flood defences. where clients hold property as an asset. direct remediation and various design team fees • Prolongation. asbestos removal. steel. coal. Below are a few examples of the types of works where we have successfully claimed land remediation relief: • Remediation of contaminated sites • Asbestos management. suspended slabs • Concrete. Where clients trade property.original construction prior to 1980. air cooling or air purification a lift. . an escalator or a moving walkway and external solar shading Repairs and maintenance Revenue Relief RR 100% 1st year © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 73 . dig and dump. 72 • Gassing measures. they may elect to receive a payable credit from HmRC. Planned developments If this tax relief is factored into the appraisal. any expenditure incurred on Japanese Knotweed after 1 may 2008 (dependent on year end) will be accepted as qualifying land remediation relief. the full 150% can be claimed. Energy efficient & water saving plant and machinery 100% 1st Year = £1m ECA = £280K tax(cash) saving Given yr of expenditure = £1m FCA = £280K tax(cash) saving Given yr of expenditure 100% 1st year Conversion/renovation of space above into flats: . Tax Savings The relief is given at 150% for qualifying expenditure. membranes. a site must be listed on the English National Land Use Database as being derelict since 1998 or have been derelict for 10 years. Therefore. a cold water system.new flats NOT high value. human remains . security. Japanese knotweed Remediating contaminated land and buildings e. sulphate resistant • Fees. The only restrictions are that a company is not entitled to claim: • if the land is in a contaminated state due to the claimant company.g. a space or water heating system. short term lets. If a client’s year end is 31 march. a 50% benefit is realised as all construction expenditure (100%) is fully written off in any event to the P&L. For investors.g. Fire prevention. prolongation etc. professional fees. In order to qualify. Completed developments Retrospective claims are available on expenditure incurred within two years from the year end within which the expenditure was incurred.5m LRR (Capex £1m) = £420K tax(cash) saving Given yr of EXPENDITURE Accounts in loss = Tax credit (cash back) @ 16% = £240K £500K LRR (Capex £1m) = £140K tax(cash) saving Given yr of DISPOSAL Accounts in loss = Tax credit (cash back) @ 16% = £240K (loss given against 150%) = £1m GEN PM = £280K tax(cash) saving Given over time . flood defences. This tightened the qualifying criteria for LRR and removed some items from eligibility. including all associated works (e.ground floor for business use . dig and dump. In cash terms this equates to a 14% saving (assuming 28% corporation tax) on all expenditure claimed on land remediation relief. any expenditure incurred after 1 April 2008 can qualify for tax relief. Allowances & Reliefs Allowance/ Relief Business Premises Renovation BPRA Business Premises Renovation BPRA Enhanced Capital ECA Rates of Relief > % = most beneficial 100% 1st Year Tax Relief (Based on 28% Corporation Tax) = £1m BPRA = £280K tax(cash) saving Given yr of expenditure Qualifying Criteria Bring business premises vacant for > 1 yr in designated areas back into business use. prelims.

OJEU Thresholds • When a contract exceeds a relevant threshold.323 (€125.000) £607.927. Issue PQQs 37 (30) Days 37 (30) Days 37 (30) Days 15 (10) Days 15 (10) Days 37 Days 30 Days OJEU NOTICE Normal (Electronic) OJEU NOTICE Urgent (Electronic) OJEU NOTICE Normal (Electronic) OJEU NOTICE Urgent (Electronic) OJEU NOTICE Pin (Electronic) OJEU NOTICE Pin (Electronic) OJEU NOTICE Normal OJEU NOTICE Electronic 75 .935 (€750.000) £3. All original bidders (that were not excluded) must be invited to participate.000. Thresholds will be amended on a bi-annual basis. Organisations such as Local Authorities.000) 74 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 Negotiated Without OJEU advert Can be used when an Open or Restricted procedure has been discontinued because of irregular or unacceptable tenders.845.260 (€4.323 (€125.000) £3. NHS Trusts.846 (€80.000) £156.846 (€80.supplies.927.580 (€1.260 (€4.845. • Once the relevant threshold has been exceeded you are obligated to advertise through the OJEU.260 (€4.000) Open Prepare Specification Competitive Dialogue Negotiated with OJEU advert Restricted £156. The relevant thresholds are shown below: OJEU NOTICE Normal (Electronic) Supplies (Purchase of goods and including hire services) Services (Generally non construction services Works – (Generally relates to construction.000) £64.000) £3.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION OJEU Process • The OJEU is the Official Journal Of the European Union • This is the publication in which all contracts from the public sector which are valued above a certain financial threshold according to EU legislation.000) £810.442 (€193. services and works. engineering activities and D&B contracts) OJEU Process Chart Submit OJEU Award Notice within 48 days Award contract allowing for 10 day Standstill Period Evaluate Tenders against Award Criteria Receipt of Tenders Conclude dialogue and invite sufficient tenders to ensure competition 40 Days 22 Days 10 Days Conduct dialogue (in successive stages if necessary) Invite shortlist to participate in dialogue Receive tenders and negotiate (in successive stages if necessary) to identify best tender by applying the Award Criteria Issue ITT to shortlist 52 (45) Days Issue Invitation to Tender Submitted Expressions of Interest Shortlist against qualification criteria (minimum of 5 bidders) Submitted Expressions of Interest Shortlist against qualification criteria (minimum of 3 bidders) 36 (29) Days Entities Listed in Schedule 1 Other Public Sector Contracting Authorities Indicative Notices Small Lots £101.927.442 (€193. which derive from the EU directives. it is then subject to the requirements of the UK procurement regulations.845. • The legislation covers organisations and projects that receive public money. must be published. Central Government Departments and Educational Establishments are all covered by the legislation.935 (€750.000) £101.000) £607. • There are three different types of OJEU .000) £64.

compliant selection process. Buying Solutions Buying Solutions is the national procurement partner for UK public services. Using an open procedure means that the Invitation to Tender must be sent to all suppliers that express an interest in response to the Contract Notice. Negotiated Procedure The Negotiated Procedure allows Institutions to negotiate directly with suppliers in order to award a contract. personal service to all of our customers. It is a procedure which should only be used in limited circumstances. The new Project management and Full Design Team Services framework agreement provides a standard in the way these important building projects are organised and delivered . • The framework agreement supports Government best practice and complies with EU Procurement legislation. for example in cases of extreme urgency or when an open or restricted procedure has been discontinued. enabling customers to avoid costly and lengthy OJEU procedures and improve value for money and efficiency. by harnessing the public sector’s purchasing power. No party shall be excluded from tender.and is predicted to save £70 million for users over the four-year period of the framework agreement. Each year billions of pounds are spent on public sector building projects. This tender is open to any party in the EU. Restricted Procedures A restricted procedure is appropriate when many suppliers exist within a market and it is not feasible to issue an Invitation to Tender to each. Any public sector organisation. Buying Solutions already has access to the best quality and most competitive deals. Buying Solutions’ purpose is to maximise procurement efficiency and value for money. 76 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 77 .UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION OJEU Process Procedures Open A tender is placed with the OJEU. if you can establish best value from published data – or you can carry out a simple and speedy competition amongst some or all of the 12 framework agreement suppliers. The Project management and Full Design Team framework agreement is believed to be the only one of its kind with this level of accessibility. Competitive Dialogue Competitive dialogue is a procedure whereby an Institution will conduct dialogue with bidders directly with the aim of developing one or more suitable alternative solutions to meet requirements. This procedure is most appropriate when there are a small number of suppliers expected to request an Invitation to Tender. The Project management and Full Design Team Framework agreement operates throughout the United Kingdom – and through our extensive network of UK offices we are able to deliver local. You can appoint us direct via the framework agreement – with no further competition required. As one of only 12 suppliers to the Project management and Full Design Team framework agreement. large or small can use buying solutions to procure design team services. By using the collective buying power of the public sector and by benchmarking the Project management and Full Design Team services against other external offers. • The Buying Solutions Framework agreement offers a cost effective and direct call off route to suppliers for any publicly funded organisation. As part of the Efficiency and Reform Group within the Cabinet Office. • You could save an average of 77 days and £85k on your procurement of construction advisors. Rider Levett Bucknall have already been appointed following a rigorous EU.

• Client controls design. consideration should be given to the hierarchy of client and project requirements. Suppliers Suppliers Subcontractors Construct Trade contractors Sequence Brief Client Design Key Features • Design complete prior to tender • Contractor takes price and time risk for works as tendered. • Loss of Client Design Control. Procurement Strategy should be considered fully at the earliest opportunity. Construct Client Rep SubSuppliers contractors Design Team (pre novation) Key Features Design & Build Ability to transfer greater degree Suppliers of design risk to the contractor. (normally Client D&C approx quants & provTender & programme sums) Sequence Contractor • 2nd stage typically Briefnegotiation and relies on by Brief Design Tender Design TeamConstruct Design Team Construct Trade the competitive tendering of work pacakges Client Rep (pre (post Contractors novation) novation) • Pre-construction agreement required with MC Design Team Trade (post D&B • D&B can be accommodated Contractors novation) Contractor Construction Management Design Team Construct (pre novation) Client Rep D&C Contractor Construction Management Brief Construction Design Management . and highlight some of the main features of the more common routes available on the following pages. Construction Management • Two stage / negotiation can be accommodated as an alternative Construction Management Tender Construct Client Brief Design Tender Construct Client Rep Construction Management Client Management Contractor Design Team Client Rep Design Team Construction Manager Construction Management Client Trade Client Rep Contractors Trade Two Stage (based on traditional) Two Stage (based on traditional) Contractors Advantages Client Brief Design Design Team main Brief Trade Contractors Design Team • Enables quicker start. We can advise on an appropriate route to best meet these requirements. Develop & Construct © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 79 Brief Design Design Tender Client contractors D&B • 1st Stage tender awarded prior to design contractors novation) Brief Design completion Contractor based on prelims. quality and team relationships for the lifespan of the project. sequencing & subTrade Construct contractor selection. contract achievable -Rep specialist areas subject to contractor • Established / tried and tested design Traditional Lump Sum Two Stage (based on traditional) • minor changesMain be can Contractor • Client takes time and cost implemented risk for changes in design Client Client • Established method of Suppliers • Client takes design risk valuation Design Team • Contractual / adversarial Design Team • Capable of conversion to a Trade contractors guaranteed maximum price approach (GmP) Main Main Client Rep Contractor Contractor • Contractor designed elements can be Brief Design accommodated. ‘buildability’. • Potential for cost shock at end Contractors Client of 2nd Stage – particularly on Encorages a more collaborative large and complex schemes. approach Design Team Client Rep Brief Client Rep Design Develop Trade & Construct Greater Client involvement in the Tendering pre-selection andMain appointment Contractor of s/c’s. 78 Main Contractor Client Rep Suppliers Subcontractors Client Rep Key Contractual Line Communication Line Brief Tender Design Tender Construct Advantages Stage (based on traditional) Two Concerns / Considerations • Competitive fairness – all • Time required to complete tenders like forClient like full design prior to tender • Cost Certainty at outset of • Full design not always Design Team Client e. oh&p.g. and will affect its cost. Construction Concerns / Considerations Design Team Client Rep Traditional Sum Design Team Lump Client Rep Tendering Main Contractor Construct Client Design & Build Suppliers Client Main Contractor • Potential ‘abuse’ of negotiating position during 2nd stage – ContractorManager Management Design can be question mark over obtaining Contractor engaged earlier to advise on on traditional) Two Stage (based Tendering the best price. programme. Design Team (pre Trade Client Rep Client Brief Design • Scope change and design creep must be avoided / Tendering minimised to secure a realistic Construct and achievable lump sum contract.Traditional Lump Sum Traditional Lump Sum Client Design Team Procurement Options UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Selecting the correct procurement route for a project is fundamental to its success.

allows Constru • Client takes programme and early start with design and construction Client cost risk. Client administration of direct orders • Finishes / fit out can be designed later in between Client and Trade Management Client Rep process with less scope for change. • Early advice for design.TeamManagement programming and novation) Design Team Design Trade Client. • Client retains control over design. Design Team Trade (post Contractors • Lack of cost certainty for Construction • Early advice for design. Brief • Requires higher degree of • Programme (inc design) & cost plan agreed Brief Client involvement.Construction Management Construction Management Client Brief Design Tender Construct Brief Design UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION 80 Client Rep Design on Two Stage (basedTeamtraditional) Client Trade Contractors Design Team Client Rep Key Features Construction Manager Construction Management Advantages Tender Concerns / Considerations • Quick method of procurement . • Lack of cost certainty for • CM Client Construction Management facing – collaborative approach. Tendering Brief Design with Client and Design Team before work Design Team Client Rep • No single point of starts. overlapping. Contractors. Trade Contractors Suppliers • Trade contracts direct with Client. Construct Tendering Design Team Design Client Client Brief Sequence Tendering Construct Brief Client Rep Construct Design Tendering Constru • Pre-construction agreement required for preDesign Team Trade construction input. Two Stage (based on traditional) Brief Design • No single point of responsibility. © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 81 Brief Design Tendering Construct Contractors • Management Contractor appointed on a fixed Brief Design management fee (usually a % of prime cost) plus supervision / prelim costs (these can be fixed). Construct Tendering responsibility. Construction Management Client.allows • Client takes programme and early start with design and construction cost risk. Tendering • Project prime cost estimated and updated as Construct design proceeds and works packages are let. process with less scope forDesign change. Contractor Design Team Client Rep • Programme (inc design) & cost plan agreed • Potential ‘post box’ scenario. Main • Construction Manager engaged on a Contractor Brief Traditional Lump Sum management fee Design costs for site and paid supervision / site preliminaries. Contractor • Client retains control over design. buildability. (post (post Contractors novation) • Finishes / fit out can be designed later in novation)Client • Potential ‘post box’ scenario. overlapping. Tendering Sequence • Single contract between Design and MC with Client Brief Construct Trade Contractors contracted to mC. Management Key Features Trade • Contractual (and payment) line between Contractor Client and mC creates more programme / performance ownership. • Contractors Management Client involvement. programmingClient Rep and Design Team • Contract and payment Client buildability. • NotConstruct supply chain as much interface and transparency. with Client and Design Team before work Construction Trade Design Team Manager Requires higher degree of starts. Tendering • Direct client relationship with Trade Trade Contractors Contractors – can improve performance. Trade Contractors • Simpler / fewer contractual lines. contractors Design & Build Contractor Brief Subcontractors Design Team Main Client Rep Main Contractor Design Suppliers Client Tender Construct Client Rep Tender Construct Design & Build Trade contractors Develop & Construct Suppliers Client Develop & Construct Client Client Client Rep (pre novation) Contractor Construction Management Management Contracting Client Brief D&B Design Design Team Design Team (pre novation) (pre Brief Design novation) D&B Contractor Tender Client Rep Design Team (pre novation) D&C Contractor Design Team Trade (post Contractors Construction Management novation) Design Team Client Client Rep Trad Contrac Brief Client Rep Design Tende Design Management Contractor Tendering Design Team Trade Contractors Construct Manager Construction Advantages D&C Concerns / Considerations Construct Contractor • Quick method of procurement . Develop & Construct Design & Build .

Client Design & Build – can influence and limit the extent of • Earlier start on site – design can Trade Develop & Constru ‘competitiveness’ of bids. • Loss of design control– design needs to be developed to an appropriate level that is acceptable to the Client.Client Client Design Team Brief Client Rep Brief Client Rep Design Design Team Tendering Concerns Design Tender Brief Design & Build Design & Build Design Main Contractor Main Suppliers Brief based Client Contractor • Tender (Employers Requirements) normally Client Design on outline design but can be at scheme Trade design stage. novation) Client Design Team Employers Requirements need to be precise. • Setting the target cost at the right level. UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION 82 Tender Client Construct Client Rep Advantages Develop & Construct / Considerations Design Team Sub(pre contractors novation) Construction Management D&B Contractor Client Design Tender Construct Brief Design Team Design (post Team novation) Trade Client Rep Contractors Construction Management Key Features Management Sequence Brief Design Team Brief Design Client Rep Tendering Design Tendering Construct Construct (post novation) Client Rep • D&B Contractor makes proposals and adopts Construct (and completes) the design. Construction • Tender price can be single action or negotiated Design Team Manager Brief Design (usually through two stage) Trade Contractors Management Contractor Trade Contractors Brief De Tendering Construct Brief Design Brief Design Tendering Develop & Construct Tendering Develop & Construct Construct Advantages Concerns Construct / Considerations Client Design & Build Design Team (pre Client novation) Client Rep Design Team D&C (pre Contractor novation) D&B Contractor Client Rep • Integration of design and construction through collaborative approach. Contractor • Tried and tested. • Progressive co-ordination of Design Team design with the early integration of (pre novation) specialist contractors. Contractor C process (compared to Cm / mC). D&C on interest. • TradePre-selection of the ‘right’ contractor is key.Contractor • Quality of design and end product needs to be (pre D&B closely monitored. • Target cost and programme subject to change if they are not ‘robust’. D&C Contractor Design Team (post novation) Design Team (post Trade Contractors Trade Contractors Design Team (post novation) Contractors • Less cost certainty than traditional / D&B procurement routes. NEC3) typically adopted. Tendering • Initial appointment made on quality based Construct assessment plus oh&p / prelims – Pre-construction agreement required. novation) than novated for continuity (post / security Contractors novation) Design • More inflexible route to accommodate change. Client Rep • Target cost contracts (NEC3) require extensive administration. .Team of design. • Transfer of speculative risks to the • Higher tendering costs for contractors Suppliers Contractor. • Requires a collaborative approach from the whole team. • Programme responsibility with Brief (pre Design Client detailed. Develop • Overlapping of design and & Construct procurement without the risk of un-priced design development. Construct • Target cost contract (e. Client design used for Design tendering). Design Team Trade (postbe Post contract changes can be more expensive • Original design team canTeam Construction Management •Contractors Design Trade traditional contacts with bills of quantities. © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 83 Sequence Brief Design Tendering Construct novation) Key Features Brief Design • Main Contactor appointed early (at Stage C or D) • Design Team novated to Main Contractor before Tendering Brief Design fixed price is agreed.g. novation) • Possible to achieve a guaranteed Construct Contractor • Novation arrangements can create a conflict maximum price (GmP). Client • Quicker overall process. Contractors Tendering Construct procurement and overall development • Longer • Single point responsibility. • Good option in rising market – potentially not offering best price in a falling market. Client Rep (pre • Client loses influence over design control – • Cost certainty at outset. clear andRep D&B Contractor (subject to post D&C novation) Design Team Tender contract Client driven change). run in parallel (subject to level of contractors Team • D&B Contractor prices design risk.

reducing the construction materials) environmental impact of 4. one credit in the Energy/ CO2 category scores 1. Water (reducing potable for the home owner and water usage internally and the incorporation of the externally) principles of Lifetime Homes) 3. The total points awarded are translated into a star rating for the home: Percentage points required to achieve code levels: Total percentage points score 36 to 47 Points 48 to 56 Points 57 to 67 Points 68 to 83 Points 84 to 89 Points 90 Points and above Code Levels Level 1 (H) Level 2 (H H) Level 3 (H H H) Level 4 (H H H H) Level 5 (H H H H H) Level 6 (H H H H H H) How Does the Code Work? The Code assesses the sustainability of a home by awarding points in the following nine design categories: 1. Wales and Northern Ireland and it is a requirement that Code level 3 is attained to be eligible to receive social housing grant funding. The credits are converted into percentage points by applying a weighting factor. Management (Provision sourcing and of a suitable home user environmental impact of guide. Secured by Design is also included) 5. Health and well-being (providing a better internal home) and external environment 2. Materials (responsible 8.30 of a percentage point. It has been developed to enable a step change in sustainable building practice for new homes.e.17 percentage points whereas one credit in the materials category only scores 0. The weighting factor is different for each category i. Six stars (H H H H H H) is the highest level – demonstrating an exemplar development in sustainability terms. A Code rating is mandatory for all new homes built in England. Ecology (protection waste and construction or enhancement of the waste) existing site ecology and efficient use of the land) One star (H) is the entry level – above the level of the Building Regulations. Waste (handling of both household generated 9. It is therefore an essential requirement to enable registered social landlords to receive grant funding.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Code for Sustainable Homes What is the Code? The Department for Communities and Local Government launched the Code for Sustainable Homes in April 2007. Code level requirements .Within the Energy/CO2 and Water Categories there are mandatory minimum standards to be attained for each Code level. Scoring the Code . produce fewer carbon emissions and cost less to run. creating dwellings that are more energy and water efficient. Pollution (reduction in Emissions (reducing NOx emissions and use of energy use and Co2 Global Warming Protection emissions through building (GWP) insulation) construction. Surface Water Run-off and Waste and there are no minimum standards for Pollution. Homes built under the scheme are built to standards set in the Code. There is a minimum standard Code entry level for materials. which has already achieved success in reducing the environmental impact of affordable housing projects. Energy usage and CO2 6. in particular within the social housing sector. At Code level 6 it is also mandatory that the ‘Lifetime Homes’ standard is met. Surface water run-off construction activities (management of surface and compliance with a water run off and flood Considerate Constructor risk) type scheme. © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 85 84 . design and facility provision within the 7. management or Ecology.The Code levels are achieved by scoring credits against environmental issues within each category. It has been prepared in close consultation with the Building Research Establishment’s (BRE) Eco Homes System. New houses that do not meet the minimum Code level will receive a ‘Nil Rated’ certificate. Health and Wellbeing. Note: There are also additional technical guidance notes applicable for new homes built in Wales.

Home builders can innovate to find cost-effective solutions to meet and exceed minimum requirements. As a fuel.000 450 1.250 3.000 41. the technology is better suited to highlyinsulated homes with lower heating requirements. which means it sets levels for sustainability performance against each element. energy efficient homes. The energy rating of a home that has achieved 4 stars will have an energy performance equivalent to EPC band ‘A’.500 28. and acting as a guide to support effective business and investment planning.500 25. As a result. How Does it Work? • Biomass fuels can be waste. biomass is virtually carbon neutral: net emissions only relate to transport and pellet production. • Fuel is delivered by conveyor or pumping systems to the boiler. for a Three Bedroom Semi Detached House. so helping to reduce fuel poverty. but does not prescribe how to achieve each level. • Improved comfort and satisfaction: Homes built to the Code will enhance the comfort and satisfaction of the residents. residue or energy crops grown specifically for use as wood. and to differentiate themselves from their competitors.000 8.000 (Extra Over 2006 Building Regulations Compliance) Benefits for Social Housing Developers • Lower running costs: Homes built to Code standards will have lower running costs through greater energy and water efficiency. A conventionally insulated house requires more than 10m3 of biomass a year – with significant implications for transport and storage. • Fuel is burned to produce hot water in the same way as a coal or oil fired boilers. followed by an indicative table of the costs associated with each. bringing greater regulatory certainty for home builders. How does the Code relate to Energy Performance Certificates? EPC’s cover energy performance whereas the Code covers nine areas of sustainability. Consequently. tenants and funding bodies.250 30. • Flexibility: The Code is based on performance. to the most modern. or oil Fuel. Biomass boilers What is it? Biomass is an emergent technology in the UK. • The fuel is transported to the site and stored in a suitable area. As a result. © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 87 Approximate Cost Increases for Code Compliance The table shows the approximate extra over cost increase for achieving different levels of the Code for Sustainable Homes. homes achieving a rating under the Code for Sustainable Homes will register on the EPC scale between A and C. A home which achieves 5 or 6 Code stars exceeds the maximum EPC rating. 86 . The EPC rating has been designed to cover all homes – from the oldest listed dwellings. A few different options are listed below. most UK biomass is produced as a by-product of timber manufacturing and is consumed as woodchip. • The fuel is considered as carbon neutral since the CO2 emissions during combustion are considered to have been captured during the growing cycle. They can be added for any combination of the following reasons: • Reduce Carbon emissions • Reduce power consumption • Reduce running costs • Self Sufficiency (Power or Water) • As a substitute for mains supply • Improving internal environment. the availability of local supplies is an important factor in minimising carbon impacts. based on 2006 Building Regulation Compliance.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Benefits of the Code? Benefits for Residential Developers • A mark of quality: The Code can be used by home builders to demonstrate the sustainability performance of their homes. High efficiency combustion based on wood pellets can reach generation efficiencies of up to 92%. Low Three Bedroom Semi Detached Home: Code Level 1 Code Level 2 Code Level 3 Code Level 4 Code Level 5 Code Level 6 High £ £ 250 850 2.750 6. • Regulatory certainty: The levels of performance for energy efficiency indicate the future direction of building regulations. • Raised sustainability credentials: The Code will enable social housing providers to demonstrate their sustainability credentials to the public. but volumes of biomass required can be large. Sustainable Construction Technologies There are a great number of sustainable technologies that can be optionally applied to buildings. particularly as there are limited reliable sources of fuel.

which is most commonly used for individual buildings. Benefits Reduction of CO2 emissions Reduced capital costs if funded by an ESCo Energy cost savings “Good quality” CHP qualifies for climate levy exemption Can be considered as ‘clean energy’ qualifying for enhanced capital allowances Contribution toward compliance with building and renewable energy regulations and can be powered using biofuels Generating at point of use negates transmission losses Reduced dependency on electricity supplier An alternative to purchasing new or additional boiler Combined Heat and Power What is it? Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is a heating boiler and electricity generator combined. CHP is applicable on a variety of scales. from citywide development down to individual buildings. Steady heat and power loads will improve the economics of CHP and so systems should be designed to allow a suitably sized engine to run at or near maximum capacity for as much of the day as possible • micro-CHP refers to small scale CHP. with the remainder lost via cooling towers as waste heat at the power station and transmission line losses to the point of use. In the UK CHP is associated with large installations. such as in hospitals.5% of the UK’s total electricity requirement. metering. a generator (alternator) 3. How does it work? • CHP is the production of electricity and useful heat from a single plant close to the point of use. Units are becoming smaller and quieter and have the potential to be used in place of traditional boilers within homes. control and distribution systems for the generated heat and electrical power. 88 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 89 .800mW. heat recovery jackets on the engine carcass and exhaust system 4. equivalent to 7. • A typical CHP system conventionally comprises: 1.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Benefits Carbon neutral Government grants and/or capital allowances All fuel options are renewable Low capital cost per kW when compared to renewable alternatives mature and tested technology Range of boiler suppliers from single boiler to a power station Can be coupled with suitable plant to produce chilled water Can be coupled with suitable plant to produce CHP Limitations Capital cost is higher than conventional gas boilers Higher maintenance cost than equivalent gas boilers Footprint of boilers is larger than gas plus the addition of fuel storage could reduce lettable area’s A secure source of fuel is required Planning issues could be a problem due to the clean air act Ash needs to be disposed of Biomass systems are more management intensive and require expertise in facilities management • Conventional electricity generation from large scale power stations is very inefficient as only a small part of the input energy is converted to electricity (typically 25–35%).500 CHP engines in operation in the UK. Data from the end of 2005 recorded about 1. The heat used to generate the power is used to heat the building rather than exhausted in cooling towers. • Heat can also be used to provide cooling via absorption chillers. producing 5. a diesel or gas turbine engine 2.

a mown lawn. The energy source is the sun heating the ground below the surface. In a good system. Open loop The installation would consist of one or more holes bored into the ground.g. • An extensive green roof consists of low maintenance. and in some instances can be reversed to provide cooling. Heat pumps can also be used above ground with air and under water in ponds and lakes. often with irrigated low growing vegetation e.g. To be efficient a heat pump must have a “coefficient of performance” of about three (COP 3). Extracted water is normally passed through heat exchangers and used for heating. Extracted water could be used on site. There are basically two types predominantly used in the UK.e. Air handling units). Grey Water What is it? The term grey water refers to re-used waste water from domestic activities such as dishwashing. A poor COP rating may mean the system is not as green as a gas boiler as it would give off more CO2. rejecting or collecting heat depending on the time of year and internal conditions. low growing vegetation (sometimes called a bio diverse roof) e. with a pump lowered into the hole to extract ground water that will be more or less at a constant temperature all year. plant and construction if not funded by an ESCo maintenance costs are likely to be higher than conventional plant There may be environmental issues due to plant noise and flue gases. This recovered heat is transferred to the heating system by a heat exchanger. Benefits A source of renewable energy Government grants and/or capital allowances Constant temperature water source Low operating costs (pump energy) No contamination from ground or ground water (closed loop) Combined with heat pump can provide heating and cooling A low cost supply of water (open loop) Loops can be installed within building piles saving drilling costs Limitations Initial bore costs will vary dependant on the geological structure The bore will not necessarily yield sufficient water supply for the intended application (open loop) A licence to extract water is required from the relevant statutory body (Environment Agency) this can be time consuming (open loop) Site access (possibly crane) is required to remove pump for maintenance Back up chillers / boilers may still be required Ground Source Heat Pumps What is it? This is a system of drawing heat from the ground using either a vertical borehole or a series of coiled pipes laid a few metres below the surface. How does it work? There are two types of ground source heat pumps. which is protected from extremes of heating and cooling. Requires predictable and relatively constant loads for optimum performance Requires full use of generated heat for optimum efficiency Loss of net lettable area’s Provision for Flue’s Closed loop Vertical / Horizontal / Piles The installation would consist of one or more holes bored into the ground. cooling or a combination of both. this in turn heats the water and antifreeze mixture in the coil. by the mass of earth above. every unit of electrical energy input will yield three or more units of heat energy. with a header connection at the top linking directly to a load or heat pump (i. bathing and laundry. so the temperature will remain at around 10-12°C. • An “intensive green roof” requires labour intensive maintenance. It is a closed loop so no water is extracted from the ground. 90 Green Roofs The term “Green roof” is used to describe roofs that are planted with living plants or vegetation. down which the pipework loops are fed and grouted in place. layed directly in horizontal trenches or integrated with the piling reinforcement. © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 91 .UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Limitations Capital cost. re-injected through a borehole or discharged to a water sauce such as a river. in effect the pipework acts as a simple heat exchanger with the soil. Sedum.

filters and sensors can present operational problems Providing sufficient grey water storage capacity may present a problem Rainwater Harvesting What is it? There are two uses of harvested rainwater. As a result of these factors. washing machines can be supplied. How does it work? • Reclaimed water can be used for several applications such as toilet flushing. prices will surely begin to rise. Wide range of water filtration techniques available Limitations Requires water filtration and treatment before use Installation and maintenance costs may not justify savings Pumps. Savings rely on the need for non potable supply. To date there are few rainwater and grey water systems in the UK and little independent evaluation of their operation or the water savings achieved. pressure from environmental regulators and the increasing availability of the necessary technology has raised the profile of water conservation measures. A potable system involves much greater planning and system costs due to the possibility of contamination. water demand in buildings can be reduced by substituting mains water for rainwater or grey water in certain applications. Well-publicised water shortages. irrigation and none potable uses • Grey water can be direct-fed from a packaged filtration and storage unit and pumped to the water outlets as shown or alternatively indirect fed. where the grey water is supplied from a packaged filtration and storage unit and pumped to high level storage tank to gravity feed the outlets • There are several methods of treating the recovered water for none potable use which include sand filters. Passive biological treatment in the form of reed beds can also be used Benefits Up to 30% reduction in water consumption (reduces water bills without changing the user’s behaviour). Non potable supplies can be as simple as a drain pipe into a water butt. If the building mains water supply is metered this may produce cost savings for the building owner or operator. filers and sensors require regular management and maintenance Providing sufficient water storage capacity may present a problem CO2 saving Low 92 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 93 . Grey water recycling systems are can be used for saving water in homes as well as workplaces. such as toilet flushing. irrigation. but may lead to problems involving odour and discolouration. potable and non potable. washing machines and car washing • Indirect pumped systems collect rainwater in a tank and then pump it to a high level header tank which provides a head of water to gravity feed the outlets • Direct pumped systems which feed the outlets without the need for a header tank • Gravity systems where a header tank is directly feed at high level. membrane filters and biological treatment. How Does It Work? • Reuses waste water (bathing. hand washing and laundry) for toilet flushing. Benefits The use of rainwater for toilet flushing and other non potable uses reduces the consumption of treated mains water thereby saving on the cost of a metered water supply Can help to reduce surface water run-off and risk of flooding Limitations Requires water filtration and treatment Roof materials may effect the quality of harvested water Cleaning should be regular and debris removed to prevent water contamination Installation and maintenance costs may not justify savings Pumps.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION it accounts for up to 80% of domestic water usage. The UK has an abundance of water and this keeps our mains supply costs relatively low. This however appears to be changing with the UK’s first drought orders and recent hose pipe bans in the South East. Systems uses can provide toilet flushing and irrigation. filters and sensors require regular management and maintenance to prevent heath risks CO2 saving Low Grey water must not be stored for more than 24 hours untreated and for not more than three days after treatment more suited to new installations than retrofit Pumps.

commonly known as solar cells. • The best way to utilise PV cells is to use them as a direct replacement for an element of a building. 8m2 of PVs are required to generate 1kWp – an output that will typically contribute about a fifth of annual household electricity consumption. but may be partly offset if integrated with building fabric Planning issues could be a problem Businesses must pay tax on Feed-in Tariffs may have implications for load capacity of roof or building structure may have implications for availability of plant space on roof PV panels may require regular cleaning Photovoltaics What is it? Photovoltaic cells are an established technology that have been in production for 40 years. however there is only a limited prospect of further efficiency improvements to panels. Benefits A source of renewable energy which can be grid connected Feed-in Tariffs replaced government grants on 1st April 2010 index linked and guaranteed for 25 years. Hydroelectric plants tend to have longer economic lives than fuel-fired generation. They are fast becoming a popular option for surface water handling. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. Another major problem is that power generation is not synchronised with peak demand which necessitates selling back to the grid.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Hydroelectric Hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. Swales. For example PV cells could be used as roofing or shading elements on south facing roofs. with some plants now in service having been built 50 to 100 years ago. generate direct current electrical energy when exposed to light. Although PVs do not face the economy of scale issues of wind. and organisations such as the Environment Agency and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Filter drains. greatly improving the financial return Feed-in Tariffs are tax free to private individuals Power is exempt from the Climate Change Levy The system produces no noise or harmful emissions No moving parts. This height difference is called the head. electrons Sustainable Urban Drainage Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) include: Pervious surfaces. leaving minimal operational or maintenance costs Does not require direct sunlight. Even for the most efficient monocrystalline panels. Soakaways. there is a constraint on PV output related to available roof area with a suitable aspect and pitch. Solar cells are constructed from certain semiconducting materials that absorb solar radiation. water for a hydraulic turbine may be run through a large pipe called a penstock. are displaced within the material. ponds and wetlands. as façade panels on the south façade or as an architectural feature integrated within glazing. Basins. It is not currently cost effective as an energy source but reductions will come from an increase in market size. supported by planning guidance. © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 95 94 . The major advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination of the cost of fuel. • Cells are grouped together to form “PV modules” that may in turn be arranged in “solar arrays” which are referred to as solar panels. but care must taken to avoid overshadowing Limitations Initial costs are high. To obtain very high head. natural gas or coal. Filter strips. converting solar energy into electrical power. The energy extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water’s outflow. Building Regulations. A monocrystalline panel may have a 20% efficiency but has a maximum efficiency of 40%. The cost of operating a hydroelectric plants is nearly immune to increases in the cost of fossil fuels such as oil. thus starting a flow of current through an external connected circuit. Infiltration trenches. How does it work? • Photovoltaic materials. pipes and accessories. Rainwater re-use and Green roofs. Fuel is not required and so it need not be imported.

During its circulation through the tubes. but care must taken to avoid overshadowing Cheaper than evacuated tubes more visually appealing than evacuated tubes Benefits Evacuated Tube Collectors The system produces no noise or harmful emissions minimal operational or maintenance costs Does not require direct sunlight. saving about 0. Systems based on the circulation of liquids and air are both available. as the potential for scaling and corrosion of the internal surfaces can lead to increased servicing and maintenance. although heating systems can also be supplemented. circulating fluid flows through the collector and transfers the heat to a hot water tank. an absorption plate. How does it work? • In a typical system. reduction of flow rates and of water volumes. Flat plate consists of an insulated metal box with a glass or plastic cover and a dark or black coloured absorber plate. Evacuated tube collectors consist of rows of parallel transparent glass tubes. each containing an absorber tube covered with a selective coating. • A basic solar thermal collector comprises of a translucent cover.000 to 2. A typical domestic solar hot water system of 1.000kWh can provide about 70% of annual hot water needs. and the heat transfer system. and flows to the dwelling where it can be used for bathing.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION SUDS aim to replicate the natural drainage pattern of a site prior to development. 96 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 97 . water is heated as it is passed directly through the collector. There are two main types of collector. Benefits Flat Plate Collectors The system produces no noise or harmful emissions minimal operational or maintenance costs Does not require direct sunlight. Direct systems can have higher efficiencies than indirect systems. but will have higher running costs. With the more common indirect system. The main benefits are the reduction of pollution. a heat transfer medium (generally a water/antifreeze mixture) travels through a series of heat conducting tubes known as a heat collector. • Commercially available systems are either indirect (closed loop) or direct (open loop).2 to 0.4 tonnes of carbon per annum. but care must taken to avoid overshadowing Higher efficiency and less space take compared to flat plate Higher water temperature than flat plate Limitations Flat Plate Collectors Planning issues could be a problem may have implications for load capacity of roof or building structure may have implications for availability of plant space on roof Lower efficiency and larger space take compared to evacuated tubes Lower water temperature than evacuated tubes Limitations Evacuated Tube Collectors Planning issues could be a problem may have implications for load capacity of roof or building structure may have implications for availability of plant space on roof more expensive than flat plate Cannot be embedded within roof structure Solar Thermal What is it? Solar collectors are used to generate higher levels of heat from solar energy than can be achieved by passive measures. washing etc. similar to vacuum flask technology. based on an evacuated tube system. The main objective is to heat domestic hot water. known as flat plate and evacuated tube. with the most efficient and expensive. the fluid picks up heat which is then transferred to the domestic hot water supply. • With direct systems.

• While horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs or ‘propeller type’) are the most common. • Types of fuel cell. leading to a decreasing life expectancy of the turbine. Wind increases with height. Phosphoric acid. They can either be connected to the national grid to export electricity. mounted on a building structure or in the case of new buildings it also possible to integrate turbines within the buildings structure. • Wind velocities are the key factor in the location of wind turbines. greatly improving the financial return Power is exempt from the Climate Change Levy The system produces no harmful emissions Highly visible demonstration of renewable energy Limitations Planning issues could be a problem may have implications for load capacity of roof or building structure may have implications for availability of plant space on roof Substantial foundations required Electricity generation dependant on wind speeds Noise is an issue if sighted on or close to buildings Fuel Cell How does it work? • A fuel cell is similar to a battery except that fuel (most commonly hydrogen) is constantly fed into it to generate electricity and heat by an electrochemical process. used directly for electricity or used to charge batteries for on-site use. wind in towns is often affected by turbulence. molten carbonate. Pure water is produced as the output emission. However most housing is in sheltered areas. A turbine moving in fast winds is likely to cause resonance through the building. the type of electrolyte determines what type of fuel cell belongs to. A wind turbine will generate noise typically 2 or 3 decibels above the background noise. • Turbines can range from small domestic turbines producing hundreds of watts of energy to large offshore turbines with a capacity of 5mW and a diameter of 100m. solid oxide. • Hydrogen can be supplied through bottle stores or reformed from natural gas. It is recommended that an average wind speed of 5m/s second is needed for a turbine to be viable. the wind in one direction may fall below 3m/s leaving the head turning aimlessly trying to find wind. particularly for larger turbines. • In a building context a fuel cell can be used as a CHP unit generating electricity and heat for building services. with a rooftop being the ideal place to place a turbine.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Wind Turbines What is it? The UK is the windiest country in Europe with an average wind speed of 6m/s. These are separated by a solid or liquid electrolyte. landscape designations and proximity to special wildlife areas or bird migration corridors. • Hydrogen is supplied to the anode while oxygen is supplied to the cathode thus creating the chemical reaction. Woking BC. the UK’s only commercially operational fuel cell (200kW phosphoric acid) system providing power 98 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 99 . • Turbines can be free standing mounted on a tower. Benefits A source of renewable energy Feed-in Tariffs replaced government grants on 1st April 2010 index linked and guaranteed for 20 years. airports. an anode on the negative side and a cathode on the positive side. however this may lead to added structural costs. there is growing interest in vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) particularly in urban locations where they are thought to be able to cope with more turbulent winds. proton exchange membrane etc. How does it work? • Wind turbines convert the power in the wind into electrical energy using rotating wing-like blades which drive a generator. Care must be taken with site selection. Wind turbines do not produce power below about 3m/s.G. Even though turbines are multi directional. so proximity to living spaces should be avoided. • E. so average wind speed will be about 3 or 4m/s. • Fuel cells have two electrodes. A feasibility study should take into account wind speed and turbulence and constraints such as radar stations.

500 Environmental impact.000 12.f. fuel cell stack replacement after 5 years.5 kW output £5. thus not matching traditional applications where heat demand is higher than that of electricity.000 kWh 9. Negligible emission of pollutants in the ideal case. elec 3.f.5 m/z L Space and convenient source of fuel 8-10 years £150 . They can produce electricity at efficiencies well above standard internal combustion engines combined with generators or steam cycles. Benefits Fuel cells have very few moving parts and consequently require minimal maintenance. many types of fuel cell power plants must have their stack and fuel processor units replaced every 5 to 10 years (e.870 c.£1. Site space for large turbines Environmental impact.600 c.f.£6.000 . Key: For larger turbines the payback can be within 10 years (taking into account Feed-in Tariffs) Payback Period Their efficiency does not vary with their size. Some types of fuel cells produce low grade heat unsuitable in most cases for industrial purposes. un-shaded – for hot water Over 25 years £800 .000 c. Very quiet mode of operation. gas CO 2 £2. Hospital B Most types of building F Average site wind speed minimum 7 m/s G Average site wind speed minimum 3.375 c. Unverified level of performance over time.000 .000 of capital cost Capital Cost They can be employed as grid connected or stand alone.200 c.300/m2 for laminated glass Annual saving per £100. hotels and leisure M Space and convenient source of fuel – for summer heat CHP E M Environmental impact.£2.160 c.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION E Industrial.000 per kW Up to 1.500 Under 10 years 8-10 years K Feasible ground conditions . elec 5. Approximately 10 years Under 10 years £1.000 c.000 per kW 7. Roof space f or small turbines Available roof space Potential barriers Candidate Prebuildings requisites G H H None F A B Renewable technology Photovoltaic rain screen or glass Tower-mounted wind genera tors Photovoltaic rain screen or panels Building-mounted ‘micro wind’ C 100 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 101 Borehole cooling D B K Site space for pipes 12.000 per kWp (£600-£700 /m2) for domestic schemes £850 . gas 40.500 .000 per kW depending on fuel cell type. Woking BC. un-shaded J Roughly south-facing.g. elec 17.000 5.000 c.f.000 40. 43. and maintenance 28.£5.500 c.000 Environmental impact. Application and Cost Data 100. (Note subsidised by an American defence company to be used as a demonstration project). Hotel.£380 per kW 19. Their performance and reliability over their lifetime still remains to be confirmed. while offering high reliability in continuous power supply.f. Depending on the type employed. the rejected heat can be utilised for either low or high grade heat.f.f. just water vapour.000 c. elec + 12. Some fuel cells provide heat to power ratio of less than unity.000 per kW £3. and maintenance B Biomass boilers L A Industrial distribution centres C Prestige offices and retail D Residential and commercial. Fuel cells can be used for co-generation hence increasing their overall efficiency up to 85% in all sites identified as suitable for CHP.000 + 63.f.f.400 .000 per kWp (£400 .£5. Leisure. estimated cost £250. gas 50. • Potentially applicable for transport.000/m2 9.000 Infrastructure. stationary (residential / commercial buildings) and portable appliances.000 Site space for pipes K Ground source heat pump B 2-50kW output £3. elec Renewable Technologies.200 per kWe 4-6 years H Roughly south-facing. Limitations At present fuel cell costs are very high varying anywhere between £2.£2.£1.£1.000 None J D Passive solar water heating and heat all year round.f. the primary energy source is hydrogen and currently there is no infrastructure provision hence the use of bottle stores or reforming of natural gas. gas 100.200 .£500/m2) for large schemes and £4.000 12. gas £700 .

the Carbon Footprint as well as capital and operational costs. The EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings means that all buildings constructed. The Communities and Local Government Report. Cost Analysis of the Code for Sustainable Homes (July 2008) indicates substantial cost increases above the 2006 Building Regulations to achieve a Code 4 rating. it includes the core business costs. early. are aiming to achieve Code 4 by 2012. Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 Building Regulations EU Energy Performance of Building Directive Clients Requirements Design Team Contractor Operator Inception Brief Design Construct Operate Time (Building Life Cycle) Figure 1: Influence on a Low Carbon Sustainable Building Solution 102 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 103 . Figure 1 below illustrates the diminishing influence of the various stakeholders on a project as design and. the Housing Associations. Our Life Cycle Cost and Carbon modelling Tool also facilities the decision process in achieving optional carbon reduction targets early in the design process. commercial sustainable carbon and life cycle model to ensure that the optimum solution is achieved. for example. Whole Life Costing is often confused with Life Cycle Costing: Life Cycle Costing is the systematic economic evaluation of property costs over a period Whole Life Costing is the systematic economic evaluation of all costs and benefits over a period of analysis. the cost of achieving Code 3 is estimated to be 10% above Building Regulations (2006) and 31% to achieve Code 6. and component life cycle cost benchmarking. Sustainable and therefore Low Carbon Construction is now enforced by Government Legislation and EU directives. We have also developed a Life Cycle Cost model for fifteen of the sustainable technologies available in the UK. sold or let must have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) to achieve Building Regulations approval. the Cost of Carbon. Public buildings over 1. construction progresses. Our Key tenet is to ensure that we achieve the Greatest Whole Life Value for the Lowest Whole Life Cost. It is essential to have a suitable. The huge weakness in the housing and commercial markets exacerbates the issue of project viability in very difficult market conditions.e.000 m2 must have an annual Display Energy Certificate. Rider Levett Bucknall has developed our Life Cycle Cost and Carbon modelling Tool to capture both the embodied energy and the energy emissions i.e. On medium sized sites. However. ultimately. It is not a simple exercise to identify the Life Cycle Cost overhead of carbon reduction targets.UK CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION Life Cycle Costing and Carbon Counting the Cost of Carbon Information on the embodied carbon of many construction materials is not broadly available to support the design process. new project optioneering. Our approach to Life Cycle Costing in the UK is now predicated on the new standard ISO15686-5 Buildings and Constructed Assets – Service Life Planning Life Cycle Costing. The model is equally applicable to building portfolios. Under the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 all new projects must contribute to sustainable development. i.e. This includes the embodied and emitted energy. Registered Social Landlords. Rider Levett Bucknall have spent a year Researching and Developing a solution to this issue i. this figure can vary dramatically depending upon the geographic’s and the size and nature of development. This enables us to very quickly analyse and recommend the most suitable option on a particular scheme very early in the design.

Professional Services Overview of Services Building Surveying Project management Quantity Surveying .

We are a leading independent firm providing some of the most comprehensive and forward thinking construction and property advice available. We do this through our global team of experts, who possess a passion for both core services and innovation. We are committed to developing new services and techniques aimed at enhancing your business in the long term. You will benefit at every stage of the construction cycle to successful project delivery. We operate out of 60 offices across 20 countries and have a total staff of over 2000, but we work hard to ensure that you receive a tailored service. We work closely with all our clients to provide the best solutions on a local, regional or international platform. The following services are offered through our core services of Cost Consultancy, and Quantity Surveying, Project management, Building Surveying, CDmC Services and Specialist Advisory Services. BUILDING SURVEYING RLB Building Surveyors are able to provide Property Asset management advice to clients who have aspirations to either:1. maintain their existing property portfolio 2. Refurbish, remodel or build new properties 3. Disposal of, or acquire new properties RLB can aid Clients in realising their asset objectives but also provide complementary services including quality and efficiency, environmental performance, statutory compliance, liquidity and commercial aspects. RLB are able to tailor this combination of services to ensure they fulfil the Client’s exacting requirements Our Building Surveyors are highly qualified professionals who offer expert advice on a variety of projects and take on many roles throughout the lifecycle of a building. From project inception to demolition RLB can offer concise and pertinent guidance to make any project a success. The services provided by the Building Surveyor in providing Property Asset management advice can be briefly summarised as follows.:Professional Services Professional services are the ‘traditional’ competencies which underpin the conventional Building Surveying role. With the technical knowledge of construction and building pathology, Building Surveyors can offer advice across a range of topics. The umbrella term ‘professional services’ is firstly concerned with the physical attributes of a property; namely the assessment of its current state, condition and configuration. This stream of services includes the following:
• Identification and correction of building defects • Due diligence assessments on behalf of a prospective

property purchaser

• measured surveys to calculate a property’s nett lettable area • Building condition surveys as part of a planned or reactive

maintenance strategy existing properties

• Feasibility studies to aid Client’s in realising their aspirations for

The professional services spectrum also encompasses the complex legal/regulatory compliance regime which governs property and construction. The high ethical and professional standards imposed by the RICS ensures surveyors are in a position to offer reasoned and practical advice on the range of legal topics including:
• The Party Wall etc. Act 1996 • Dilapidations claims under the Landlord and Tenant Act 1927

The benefit of a surveyor’s familiarity with the legal framework together with their work experience are imperative to safeguarding Clients’ interests. Building Surveying is a dynamic profession and surveyors provide an integral service for Client’s seeking to fulfill their statutory duties under new and changing legislation, for example:
• Disabled Access Audits (Equality Act 2010) • Fire Risk Assessments (Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order


Construction Services Building Surveyors have always taken a major role in large construction schemes and have developed a range of services to suit specific project situations. The traditional roles of an Architect such as Project management, Contract Administration and Specification Writing are now often undertaken by Building Surveyors. Clients have found that the Building Surveyor’s broad knowledge base and adaptability lend themselves well to these critical roles. Building Surveyors are able to plan, design, specify and administer refurbishment and smaller new build and extension projects. Project monitoring is another role that Building Surveyors have been able to take on. This role involves the Building Surveyor acting as an independent advisor for an interested party in a construction project. Usually where a financial institution is funding a project and they require specific standards to be met, but also where a tenant has signed a lease for a new building and want to ensure that the space meets their requirements.


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With health and safety becoming ever more important on construction sites Building Surveyors are well placed to adopt the role of CDm Co-ordinator. This position was created by the Construction (Design and management) Regulations 2007 and involves the co-ordination of the health and safety aspects of a project from initial design, during construction and throughout the whole life cycle of the structure. Environmental Services Building Surveying services continually evolve to reflect the emerging concepts in the property and construction sector. With growing emphasis being placed on improving energy efficiency and reducing carbon omissions, the transferable skills of a Building Surveyor are suitable for assessing the environmental impact of the built environment. Having a comprehensive knowledge of construction technology and an understanding of building operations and material performance, Building Surveyors are well placed to offer a range of energy assessments as part of their services portfolio. many Surveyors have widened their scope of service by becoming RICS accredited energy assessors to assist Clients in fulfilling their legal obligation under the European Energy Performance in Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate – An assessment of a building’s carbon omissions to give an energy rating together with recommendations for improving efficiency (required for New Builds and properties for sale or letting). Display Energy Certificate and Advisory Report – An appraisal of a building’s actual energy consumption based on utility bills, generating a property specific operational rating (required for public buildings over 1000m2 and reviewed on an annual basis). SKA Assessment – Provides an assessment and labeling method designed to rate and compare the environmental performance of office fit-out projects in the UK. A Ska Rating helps organisations achieve more sustainable fit-outs. The benefit of using a Building Surveyor for environmental assessments is that they are suitably qualified to review the feasibility of recommendations and physically implement them on site. In addition, Building Surveyors often form an integral part of a design team. Their technical knowledge is invaluable in recommending innovative and sustainable solutions to reduce the environmental impact of a new build. many Building Surveyors have expanded their skill set by becoming accredited BREEAm (BRE Environmental Assessment method) assessors to assist Clients in achieving best environmental practice. PROJECT MANAGEMENT Rider Levett Bucknall offers customers a focused service that puts a client’s needs first. We appoint a Project manager, or a Project management Team, that we know will bring the relevant experience to bear on your project. Our specialist expertise will be applied to establish the appropriate balance of emphasis and attention to detail throughout the project, to ensure that initial budget and timescales are met without compromising quality. We will co-ordinate the activities of all parties, so that they focus on the project’s objectives and what is expected of them. It means we will dynamically control your project from the outset, setting out a framework of controls that can be applied to the entire process. With the backing of advanced computer systems and clear reporting procedures, we will deliver your project to your requirements and to meet your precise needs. Our services include Project management through all development stages from briefing through to completion and occupation. Our activities often embrace a number of specialist skills and disciplines, which are co-ordinated by the Project management team:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Consultant Selection Strategic Briefing Development management Design management Business Cases Commissioning management move management Project Control Programme management management Consultancy Procurement Advice Change management Contract Selection Risk management Due Diligence Project monitoring

QUANTITY SURVEYING Cost Consultancy Our approach to Quantity Surveying is one which focuses on the business needs of the customer and aims to deliver a cost management service which enables our customers to make informed decisions in relation to their property assets. Our range of services is enhanced by our sector expertise and appropriate experienced staff that will provide positive advice at the various stages of the project cycle. Feasibility Studies Our internal benchmark information enables us to provide a speedy response at early stages of a project to assess if the


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project requirements can be achieved and to offer alternative solutions if appropriate. Cost Modelling This can be used as a dynamic tool to review alternative design options and explore ‘what if’ scenarios to identify the most cost effective options within the parameters of the brief. Cost Planning Our cost plan will be a detailed elemental budget, which will form the key cost management control document and will be prepared in conjunction with the whole project team to ensure ownership of the budget. All future changes will be managed against the signed off cost plan. Value Engineering We will work with the project team, and where required, facilitate workshops in order to undertake a structured review at key project stages to ascertain that the project is meeting the functional requirements of the brief and is providing whole life value. Risk Analysis and Risk Management We will advise the project team on strategies for identifying and minimising specific risks together with appropriate levels of cost and a methodology for managing risks within the identified levels. Specialist Mechanical and Electrical Cost Advice Our specialist surveyors are able to provide cost advice in relation to services installations and where appropriate are able to challenge designs based upon their detail understanding of technical knowledge and design criteria relating to installations. Procurement Advice Based upon the customer’s principle objectives in relation to cost certainty, quality of design, workmanship and programme we will undertake a review of these objectives and provide recommendations in relation to the optimum procurement method to best achieve these objectives. Contractor/Supplier Selection Evaluating the most suitable contractor’s/suppliers for a project based upon scope, content, complexity, procurement and the need for specialist knowledge and innovative thinking. Pre and Post Contract Cost Control A key element of our role is to manage the costs within the signed off budget through :
• Continual cost checking of design development • Value engineering • Alternative cost studies • Post contract cost control including change order process

International Offices
Europe Asia Oceania North America Caribbean middle East

Tender and Contract Preparation and Evaluation Preparation of tender and contract documents which provide details of the project requirements and clearly identify responsibility for risks.

© Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 111

com Contact: mark Williamson LONDON . Skulthaisurawong Tower 141/58 Surawong Rd Suriyawong. 45-46 Sampoerna Strategic Square South Tower.com Contact: Christopher Leong MALAYSIA KUALA LUMPUR .rlb. Bristol.com Contact: Simon Kerton RLB | EUROALLIANCE Telephone: E-mail: Contact: + 44 7774 667 177 mike. Sheffield.leong@sg.th Contact: William Lo 112 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 113 . Lot 4. 72-74 Nguyen Thi minh Khai Street. B4 7XG UK Telephone: +44 0 121 503 1500 Facsimile: +44 0 121 503 1501 E-mail: birmingham@uk. S1 2JA UK Telephone: +44 0 114 273 3300 Facsimile: +44 0 114 273 3301 E-mail: sheffield@uk.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Jl. Jend. Bangrak Bangkok 10500. Curzon Street Birmingham.com mike Staples ASIA SINGAPORE .rlb.com Contact: Phil Higham SAMLESBURY . Cutlers Court 115 Houndsditch.staples@uk. RG40 1TL UK Telephone: +44 0 118 974 3600 Facsimile: +44 0 118 974 3601 E-mail: wokingham@uk. 59200 Kuala Lumpur. Vietnam Telephone: +84 83 823 8070 Facsimile: +84 83 823 7803 E-mail: rlb@vn.com Contact: Kang Kian Kiat KOTA KINABALU .rlb. Wokingham Berkshire. 11 – 3 Jalan Tun Fuad Stephens PO Box 12340. Osborne Road.com Website: www.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL LLP 150 Beach Road #09-01.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Telephone: +44 7966 982 010 E-mail: samlesbury@uk. Gateway West Singapore 189720 Telephone: +65 6339 1500 Facsimile: +65 6339 1521 E-mail: rlb@sg.com Website: www. mid Valley City Lingkaran Syed Putra.com Contact: Chin Hon Kong THAILAND .rlb.rlb. Ridgeway Welwyn Garden City.com Contact: mark Weaver WELWYN GARDEN CITY .com Website: www.co.rlb. AL7 2AA.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 6th Floor Orchard Lane Wing. Ward 6.rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL millennium Point. District 3 Ho Chi minh City. Indonesia Telephone: +62 21 575 0828 / +62 21 575 0829 Facsimile: +62 21 575 0801 E-mail: chris.com/singapore Contact: Winston Hauw VIETNAM HO CHI MINH CITY .rlb. UK Telephone: +44 0 170 787 1506 Facsimile: +44 0 170 739 5037 E-mail: welwyn@uk. 16th Floor.com Contact: mark Weaver BRISTOL . Balm Green.com Contact: Tony Catchpole MANCHESTER .rlb. malaysia Telephone: +60 8 821 1626 Facsimile: +60 8 821 1873 Email: ydmfs@streamyx.rlb. 149 Whiteladies Road Clifton.rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL The Weltech Centre.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 3rd Floor.com Contact: Ong Choon Beng INDONESIA . Unit 1603. Grosvenor House.my / ymfkl@streamyx.com Contact: Steve Aikman SHEFFIELD . m5 3E5 UK Telephone: +44 0 161 868 7700 Facsimile: +44 0 161 868 7701 E-mail: manchester@uk. Hertfordshire.net.RIDER HUNT LEVETT & BAILEY (SIAM) LIMITED Level 36.asia.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 1st Floor.rlb. Surdirman Kav. LTD Centec Tower. BS8 2RA UK Telephone: +44 0 117 974 1122 Facsimile: +44 0 117 974 1141 E-mail: bristol@uk.YONG DAN MOHAMAD FAIZ SDN BHD 51-10 The Boulevard. London EC3A 7BR UK Telephone: +44 0207 398 8300 Facsimile: +44 0207 623 04 66 E-mail: london@uk.rlb. Newton Aycliffe County Durham. Salford Quay manchester. Thailand Telephone: +66 2 234 4933 Facsimile: +66 2 234 4934 Email: rhlbthai@riderhunt. Fountain Precinct.YONG DAN MOHAMAD FAIZ (SABAH) Block m. Kota Kinabalu 88826 Sabah. Durham Way South Aycliffe Industrial Park.INTERNATIONAL OFFICES EUROPE UNITED KINGDOM BIRMINGHAM .RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 8 Exchange Quay. Sinsuran Shopping Complex No.com Contact: Dean Sheehy TEESIDE .rlb.rlb. Level 18 Jakarta 12930.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL CO. malaysia Telephone: +60 3 2282 8838 Facsimile: +60 3 2283 1836 / +60 3 2283 1863 Email: ymfkl@tm.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL mulberry House. DL5 6XP UK Telephone: +44 0 870 770 9830 E-mail: newcastle@uk.com Contact: Andrew Reynolds WOKINGHAM .RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Evans Business Centre.rlb.

rlb.com Contact: Stephen Liu CHONGQING .com Contact: K. Guangzhou 510095. Hangzhou 310014 Zhejiang Province. Central District Chongqing 400010. Chau HAIKOU .rlb.com Contact: K. 38 Da Tong Road.com Website: www.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 801. Chengdu.rlb. Shanghai 200021. China Telephone: +86 571 8539 3028 Facsimile: +86 571 8539 3708 Email: hangzhou@cn.ph Contact: Corazon C.com Contact: Stephen Lai / W.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL MACAU LIMITED Room 1202.rlb.com Contact: Stephen Lai SHANGHAI . Hong Kong Telephone: +852 2823 1823 Facsimile: +852 2861 1283 Email: hongkong@hk. China Telephone: +86 23 6380 6628 Facsimile: +86 23 6380 6618 Email: chongqing@cn. East Ocean Centre 24A Jian Guo men Wai Avenue. Sichuan. China Telephone: +86 25 8678 0300 Facsimile: +86 25 8678 0500 Email: nanjing@cn.rlb. Nanjing 210009 Jiang Su Province. Suite 2301 East Tower.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 2306 23rd Floor.rlb.com Contact: Kenneth Kwan NANJING .com Website: www. China Telephone: +86 21 6330 1999 Facsimile: +86 21 6330 2012 Email: shanghai@cn. China Telephone: +86 411 3973 7778 Facsimile: +86 411 3973 7779 Email: dalian@cn.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 2016 Dongshan Plaza 69 Xian Lie Road Central.com Website: www.rlb. Sanya Hainan 572000.rlb. Fortune Center.com Website: www.com Website: www.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 1803-1809.com Website: www.com Contact: Kenneth Kwan SANYA . Q. Fuzhong International Plaza 126 Xin Hua Road.rlb. Guiyang 550002.com Contact: Danny Chow DALIAN . Zhongshan Road.com Website: www.rlb.com Website: www.rlb.RIDER HUNT LIACOR.rlb.rlb. 20th Floor 3 Yiu Hing Road.com Contact: Lo See Wing GUANGZHOU . China Telephone: +86 20 8732 1801 Facsimile: +86 20 8732 1803 Email: guangzhou@cn. South Tower. manila. Ortigas Commercial Centre Pasig City 1605.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Rooms 6-12.com Website: www. INC. Chau 114 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 115 . Deep Blue Plaza. Philippines Telephone: +63 (02) 634 0535 +63 (02) 634 3124 Facsimile: +63 (02) 634 2786 Email: rhl@rhl.rlb.com Contact: Lo See Wing CHENGDU .203 Zhao Hui Road. 31st Floor.INTERNATIONAL OFFICES PHILIPPINES . Chau HONG KONG .com Website: www.rlb. China Telephone: +86 28 8670 3382 Facsimile: +86 28 8613 6160 Email: chengdu@cn.m.com Website: www. Zhongshan District Dalian 116001. China Telephone: +86 898 8898 7866 Facsimile: +86 898 8898 6818 Email: sanya@cn. China Telephone: +86 851 553 3818 Facsimile: +86 851 553 3618 Email: guiyang@cn.com Website: www.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL MACAU LIMITED Alameda Dr Carlos D’Assumpcao No. Shaukeiwan. 18th Floor.com Contact: Kenneth Kwan GUIYANG . 398 Edificio CNAC 9˚ Andar.com Contact: Philip Lo MACAU .rlb.com. 610016.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room E.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 1805. Shanghai Square Office Tower 138 Huai Hai Zhong Road.com Website: www. 18th Floor. I-J macau Telephone: +853 2875 3088 Facsimile: +853 2875 3308 Email: macau@mo. Tagumpay E.rlb. No .rlb. Bihai International House He Dong Road.rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 10th Floor. 12th Floor.rlb.rlb. 18th metropolitan Tower No 68 Zourong Road.com Contact: K. Ballard.rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 1103 – 11F.m.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL LIMITED Eastern Central Plaza.rlb.rlb. China Telephone: +86 898 6672 6638 Facsimile: +86 898 6672 1618 Email: haikou@cn. Haikou 570102 Hainan Province.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 1801. Chaoyang District Beijing 100004.rlb. Xiwang Tower No 136. NIC 201 Zhong Yang Road.m. Huamin Empire Plaza 1 Fuxing Street. Philippine Stock Exchange Centre Exchange Road. Wang CHINA BEIJING .rlb. China Telephone: +86 10 6515 5818 Facsimile: +86 10 6515 5819 Email: beijing@cn. Barrios HANGZHOU .

com Website: www.rlb.com Contact: Stephen Lai OCEANIA AUSTRALIA ADELAIDE . 20th Floor 3 Yiu Hing Road. Kangnam-Gu Seoul 135-729. Wuhan 430022. 1st Floor.rlb. New World International Trade Centre No. Tower A.com Website: www.rlb. Tianjin International Building 75 Nanjing Road. Jiangsu.rlb. Q.rlb.com Contact: Lo See Wing WUHAN .rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL LIMITED RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL (HONG KONG) Eastern Central Plaza.com Website: www.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL SA PTY LTD Level 4. Shaukeiwan. Cairns QLD 4870. Everbright International Trade Center No. 568 Jianshe Avenue.rlb. China Telephone: +86 510 8274 0266 Facsimile: +86 510 8274 0603 Email: wuxi@cn.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL QLD PTY LTD 3rd Floor. QLD 4001. China Telephone: +86 27 6885 0986 Facsimile: +86 27 6885 0987 Email: wuhan@cn.rlb.rlb.com Website: www.rlb.rlb. China Telephone: +86 755 8246 0959 Facsimile: +86 755 8246 0638 Email: shenzhen@cn. Yarralumla ACT 2600.com Contact: Bill Wilkes CANBERRA .rlb. Wang XIAN .RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL KOREA LTD Room 3305. Australia Telephone: +61 7 3009 6933 Facsimile: +61 7 3009 6999 Email: brisbane@au.INTERNATIONAL OFFICES SHENYANG .com Contact: Stephen Lai / W.com Website: www. Q. Zhuhai 519015. 31st Floor.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL ACT PTY LTD 16 Bentham Street PO Box 7035.co.com Website: www. Chan SHENZHEN .KYOWA CONSTRUCTION COST CONSULTANTS CO.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 4510 – 4513 45th Floor. 69 Heping North Avenue Heping District. China Telephone: +86 22 2339 6632 Facsimile: +86 22 2339 6639 Email: tianjin@cn.rlb. Cairns QLD 4870.com Contact: Kenneth Kwan JAPAN TOKYO . Tianjin 300050.jp Contact: Tsuyoshi Ishihara SOUTH KOREA SEOUL . Cairns Professional Centre 92-96 Pease Street.rlb.com Contact: Kenneth Kwan TIANJIN . Tokyo 101-0032. Wealth Building No. President Building.com Contact: Stephen Knight BRISBANE .com Website: www.com Contact: mark Chappe 116 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 117 .rlb.com Website: www.rlb. Australia PO Box 5224.rlb.H. 220 Ren min Zhong Road Wuxi Jiangsu 214000.com Contact: Stephen Liu ZHUHAI .RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 1908 19th Floor. China Telephone: +86 29 8833 7433 Facsimile: +86 29 8833 7438 Email: xian@cn. China Telephone: +86 24 2396 5516 Facsimile: +86 24 2396 5515 Email: shenyang@cn.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 3108.A. Xian 710075. Australia Telephone: +61 8 8100 1200 Facsimile: +61 8 8100 1288 Email: adelaide@au.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 2301 23rd Floor.co.rlb. Digital Plaza Hi-Tech International Business Centre 33 Keji Road. South Korea Telephone: +82 2 582 2834 Facsimile: +82 2 563 5752 Email: seoul@kr.com Contact: mark Burow CAIRNS . China Telephone: +86 756 388 9010 Facsimile: +86 756 388 9169 Email: zhuhai@cn. Hong Kong Telephone: +852 2823 1823 Facsimile: +852 2861 1283 Email: hongkong@hk. 47 Haibinnanlu.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 2906 29th Floor. Law Society House.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 25th Floor.com Website: www.com Website: www.jp Website: www. No.rlb. Shenyang 110003 Liaoning.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Room 1205-1206.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL QLD PTY LTD Suite 7. 63 Pirie Street Adelaide S. Australia Telephone: +61 2 6281 5446 Facsimile: +61 2 6281 5378 Email: canberra@au.rlb. Trade Center 159-1 Samsung-Dong. Jida. Japan Telephone: +81 3 3865 0591 Facsimile: +81 3 3865 0595 Email: ishihara@kyowa-sekisan.rlb.com Website: www.kyowa-sekisan. Australia Telephone: +61 7 4032 1533 Facsimile: +61 7 4032 1566 Email: cairns@au. LTD Kanda Ponpian Building 2-5 12 Iwamoto-Cho Chiyoda-Ku.rlb. 179 Ann Street Brisbane QLD 4000.rlb. 33F Trade Tower.com Website: www. Australia PO Box 1383.rlb.rlb.com Contact: Stephen Lai / W. 5000. Shun Hing Square Diwang Commercial Centre 5002 Shennan Road East Shenzhen 518001.com Contact: Stephen Lai TAIWAN . Wang WUXI .com Contact: C.rlb.com Website: www.

RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL NT PTY LTD Level 4.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL NSW PTY LTD 63 Lindsay Street PO Box 97. 48 Shortland Street Auckland 1141.rlb. 380 St Kilda Road melbourne VIC 3004. Tauranga 3141.com Website: www.com Contact: Brian Dackers CHRISTCHURCH RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL CHRISTCHURCH LTD Level 3.rlb. Charles Luney House 250 Oxford Terrace. Australia Telephone: +61 2 9806 0044 Facsimile: +61 2 9806 0244 Email: westsyd@au. Australia Telephone: +61 2 4940 0000 Facsimile: +61 2 4961 1222 Email: newcastle@au.com Contact: mark Hocking NORTHERN NSW OFFICE RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL NSW PTY LTD Level 1. NSW 2450.rlb. Level 1 North 2 miami Key.com Contact: malcolm Timms OTAGO . Georges Terrace Perth WA 6000. New Zealand PO Box 1117.com Contact: Wayne Kitching TAURANGA .rlb. St martins Tower. New Zealand Telephone: +64 3 409 0325 Facsimile: +64 3 409 0327 Email: chris.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL VIC PTY LTD Level 13. Pacific Fair Qld 4218.com Contact: Bob Richardson WESTERN SYDNEY RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL NSW PTY LTD Level 5. Australia Telephone: +61 8 8941 2262 Facsimile: +61 8 8941 2572 Email: darwin@au. Australia Telephone: +61 7 5443 3622 Facsimile: +61 7 5443 6233 Email: suncoast@au.rlb. 35 Grey Street.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL WA PTY LTD 7th Floor.com Contact: Chris Haines PALMERSTON NORTH RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL PALMERSTON NORTH LTD Suite 1.rlb. 12 Remarkables Park PO Box 691.com Website: www. 9 Park Avenue.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL AUCKLAND LTD Level 1. Vero Centre. Australia Telephone: +61 7 4771 5718 Facsimile: +61 7 4772 3848 Email: townsville@au.com Contact: michael Kerr NEWCASTLE . 62 Cavenagh Street Darwin NT 0800. New Zealand PO Box 5377 Auckland 1141.com Website: www.rlb. Christchurch.rlb.com Website: www.rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL NSW PTY LTD Level 5.rlb.rlb. Parramatta NSW 2124. Australia Telephone: +61 3 9690 6111 Facsimile: +61 3 9690 6577 Email: melbourne@au.com Contact: Gary Train TOWNSVILLE .RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL QLD PTY LTD 63 The Esplanade. New Zealand Telephone: +64 6 357 0326 Facsimile: +64 6 356 5624 Email: palmerstonnorth@nz. Australia Telephone: +61 8 9421 1230 Facsimile: +61 8 9421 1535 Email: perth@au. 44 St.rlb. Broadbeach. North Ward Townsville QLD 4810. Townsville QLD 4810. Australia Telephone: +61 2 9922 2277 Facsimile: +61 2 9957 4197 Email: sydney@au.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL QLD PTY LTD Level 1. Australia Telephone: +61 2 6659 2060 Facsimile: +61 2 6659 2001 Email: northernnsw@au.com Contact: Alastair mcmichael SUNSHINE COAST .rlb. Qld 4218.rlb. PO Box 461.com Contact: Paul Lassemillante GOLD COAST .com Website: www.com Website: www. 219 Broadway Avenue. North Sydney NSW 2059.com Website: www.com Website: www.rlb.INTERNATIONAL OFFICES DARWIN . Australia PO Box 19. Palmerston North 4440.com Website: www.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL QLD PTY LTD City Pacific Corporate Park.rlb.haines@nz.com Website: www. New Zealand Telephone: +64 7 579 5873 Facsimile: +64 7 571 5210 Email: tauranga@nz.rlb. Australia PO Box 3423. New Zealand Telephone: +64 9 309 1074 Facsimile: +64 9 379 5420 Email: auckland@nz. New Zealand Telephone: +64 3 365 0590 Facsimile: +64 3 365 0570 Email: christchurch@nz. 34 Charles Street Parramatta NSW 2150. Australia PO Box 531. Palmerston North 4414.com Contact: Peter Spencer MELBOURNE .RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL OTAGO LTD Level 2.rlb. Darwin NT 0801.rlb. PO Box 13619.rlb.com Contact: Chris marais NEW ZEALAND AUCKLAND .rlb. PO Box 197 Coffs Harbour.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL AUCKLAND LTD Level 15.rlb. Australia Telephone: +61 7 5595 6900 Facsimile: +61 7 5595 6999 Email: goldcoast@au.com Website: www.com Contact: Richard Gerrish 118 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 119 .rlb.com Website: www.com Website: www.com Website: www. Australia PO Box 1419. maroochydore QLD 4558.rlb.rlb.com Contact: mark Hocking PERTH .rlb. 45 Eyre Street.rlb.com Website: www. Level 1.rlb.rlb.rlb. Queenstown 9348. 41 mcLaren Street North Sydney NSW 2060. Australia PO Box 101.com Contact: mark Brittain SYDNEY . Hamilton NSW 2303.

HI 96720 Telephone: +1 808 883 3379 Facsimile: +1 808 883 3389 E-mail: koa@us.rlb.com Website: www.com Website: www.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 250 South Fifth Street. USA Telephone: +1 602 443 4848 Facsimile: +1 602 443 4849 E-mail: PHX@us.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL PmB #408.rlb.rlb.com Website: www.com Contact: Craig Roth BOSTON .com Contact: Graham Roy NEW YORK .rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Brewery Block 2 1120 NW Couch Street.com Contact: Graham Roy SAN FRANCISCO .com Contact: Tony Smith / Paul Brussow / maelyn Uyehara KENNEWICK .rlb. Suite 603 414 West Soledad Avenue Hagåtña.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL WELLINGTON LTD 279 Willis Street.com Website: www.rlb.com Website: www.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 117 Keawe Street.rlb.com Website: www. Suite 522 Los Angeles.rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 425 market Street.rlb.com Website: www. ID 83702. Level 22 San Francisco.rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 6555 South Valley View Boulevard.rlb. 1001 Bishop Street.rlb. Second Floor.rlb.com Website: www. USA Telephone: +1 415 362 2613 E-mail: SFO@us. USA Telephone: +1 617 737 9339 Facsimile: +1 617 737 0540 E-mail: BOS@us. Suite 510 Las Vegas Nevada 89118. 60 South Street. Suite C Kennewick.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 1621 Eighteenth Street.com Contact: Peter Knowles GUAM .com Contact: Grant Owen PHOENIX . Wellington 6141. Suite 1616 New York. USA Telephone: +1 702 227 8818 Facsimile: +1 702 227 8858 E-mail: LAS@us.rlb. New Zealand Telephone: +64 4 384 9198 Facsimile: +64 4 385 7272 Email: wellington@nz.rlb. Hawaii 96738. Arizona 85018.com Contact: Graham Roy NORTH AMERICA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BOISE .rlb.INTERNATIONAL OFFICES WELLINGTON .com Website: www. California 94105.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 26 Broadway.rlb.rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 4343 East Camelback Road.rlb.com Website: www. Suite 810. Suite 255 Denver. Waikoloa Highlands Center 68-1845 Waikoloa Road. USA Telephone: +1 503 226 2730 Facsimile: +1 503 226 1267 E-mail: PDX@us. WA99336. USA Telephone: +1 212 952 1300 E-mail: EWR@us.com Contact: Emile le Roux HILO . Boston. Boise. Hawaii 96813. Suite 730 Portland.rlb. Guam 96910 Telephone: +1 671 473 9054 E-mail: GUm@us.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL American Savings Bank Tower Suite 1340. USA Telephone: +1 213 689 1103 Facsimile: +1 213 624 0949 E-mail: LAX@us.rlb. Wellington 6011. USA Telephone: +1 720 904 1480 Facsimile: +1 720 904 1481 E-mail: DEN@us. Suite 350 Phoenix.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL GCIC Building.com Contact: martin Grace LOS ANGELES . USA Telephone: +1 208 947 0807 E-mail: BOI@us.com Contact: Julian Anderson / Scott macpherson / John Jozwick PORTLAND .com Website: www. USA Telephone: +1 808 521 2641 Facsimile: +1 808 521 3296 E-mail: HNL@us.rlb. California 90014.com Contact: Grant Owen DENVER .rlb.com Contact: Kevin mitchell HONOLULU .rlb. Honolulu. NY 10004.rlb. Suite 125 Hilo.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Two Financial Center. USA Telephone: +1 509 735 3056 Facsimile: +1 509 783 6477 E-mail: psc@us.com Website: www. mA 02111.com Website: www.com Contact: Kevin mitchell LAS VEGAS .com Contact: Tony Sutherland KONA .rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Pacific Center 523 West Sixth Street.rlb.rlb.rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 3104 West Kennewick Avenue. Suite 106 Waikoloa. Colorado 80202.rlb. Oregon 97209.com Website: www.com Website: www. USA Telephone: +1 808 883 3379 Facsimile: +1 808 883 3389 E-mail: KOA@us.com Contact: Nick Castorina 120 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 121 . New Zealand PO Box 27-013.

RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 4 Commerce House.rlb. Alberta T2N 2A1 Canada Telephone: +1 403 571 0505 Facsimile: +1 403 571 0507 E-mail: YYC@ca. Level 3 Suite 68.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 1924 First Avenue.hoyle@bb.com Website: www.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Phoenix Centre. USA Telephone: +1 206 223 2055 Facsimile: +1 206 223 2056 E-mail: SEA@us. Riyadh 11482. Arizona 85701 Telephone: +1 520 202 7378 Facsimile: +1 520 202 7379 E-mail: tus@us.rlb. St michael Barbados WI BB11114 Telephone: +1 246 435 5795 Facsimile: +1 246 445 5788 E-mail: robert.rlb.com Contact: Grant Owen CANADA CALGARY . Level 2 Seattle.rlb.rlb.com Contact: Tony Bratt DOHA QATAR . 287.com Website: www.com Contact: martyn Bould BARBADOS .rlb. Box 1489 Grand Cayman KY 1110.com Contact: Joel Brown WASHINGTON DC .rlb.rlb.rlb.rlb. WA98272 Telephone: +1 360 805 0413 Facsimile: +1 360 805 0314 E-mail: PAE@us. Suite 900 Tucson.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL PO Box 8080. Dr Roy’s Drive George Town.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Two East Congress.rlb.com Website: www. Office 806 PO Box 31316 West Bay Doha Qatar Telephone: +974 4 101 724 Facsimile: +974 4 101 500 mobile: +974 3 614 958 E-mail: sam.com Website: www.grahamdubai@ae. Washington 98101.INTERNATIONAL OFFICES SEATTLE .com Contact: Sam Graham DUBAI .rlb. George Street Belleville.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL 1200 G Street NW.rlb.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL LTD 200 .com Contact: Robert Hoyle 122 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 123 .com Contact: Roy Baxter MIDDLE EAST ABU DHABI . Cayman Islands Telephone: +1 345 946 6063 Facsimile: +1 345 946 6073 E-mail: martyn. Sheikh Zayed Road PO Box 115882.bould@ky.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Oasis Centre.UAE Telephone: +971 5 0292 5723 E-mail: tony. Azaiba.com Contact: Andy Isherwood CARIBBEAN CAYMAN ISLANDS .RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL LIMITED LLC Building No.609 14th Street NW Calgary.rlb.com Contact: Justin Dinius TUCSON .rlb.com Contact: Chris Burris 304 West main Street monroe.rlb. Sultanate of Oman Telephone: +968 2449 9676 Facsimile: +968 2449 7174 E-mail: oman@om. Suite 800 Washington. United Arab Emirates Telephone: +971 4339 7444 E-mail: dubai@ae.com Website: www.rlb. Suite 1120 Airport Road PO Box 105766 Abu Dhabi .com Contact: Stephen Lai RIYADH .com Website: www. 18th November Road North.com Website: www. DC 20005 Telephone: +1 202 434 8350 E-mail: DCA@us.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Al Fardan Tower Level 8.bratt@ae.com Contact: Rob Edgecombe MUSCAT . Saudi Arabia Telephone: +966 1479 7772 Facsimile: +966 1474 8783 E-mail: riyadh@sa.com Website: www.rlb. Dubai.RIDER LEVETT BUCKNALL Al Wifaq Building Level 11.rlb.rlb.

Miscellaneous Conversion Factors Calculation Formulae Calendars .

8 30.16 6.386 Temperature Temperature Degree Celsius to Degree Fahrenheit Degree Celsius to Degree Fahrenheit Degree Fahrenheit to Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit to Degree Celsius °F = (°C x 9/5) + 32 °F = (°C x 9/5) + 32 °C = (°F-32) x 5/9 °C = (°F-32) x 5/9 To convert To convert Length Length Milli-inches into micrometres Milli-inches into micrometres Inches into millimetres Inches into millimetres Inches into centimetres Inches into centimetres Inches into metres Inches into metres Centimetres into inches Centimetres into inches Feet into millimetres Feet into millimetres Feet into centimetres Feet into centimetres Feet into metres Feet into metres Yards into metres Yards into metres Fathoms into metres Fathoms into metres Chains into metres Chains into metres Furlongs into metres Furlongs into metres Miles.433 (Side)2 x 0.220 0.323995 0.323995 0.0 0.035 28.1416 4 x (radius)2 x 3.0283168 0.4 2.000 10.168 201.00 9.387064 16.598 (side)2 by height by 2. nautical into kilometres Miles.264 2.1416 4 x (radius)2 x 3.035 0.316847 0.4 25.349523 0.205 1016.0304 929.589988 2.01605 2.0283495 0.8 304.609344 1.1416) + area of base 3.000 100 100 2.8288 1.092903 9.785 3.240 2.4046856 2.471 2.349523 28.7854 2 ⁄⁄3 x base x height 2 3 x base x height Diameter x 3.220 0.1416 4 3 x (radius)3 x 3.113 2. rhombus Area of equilateral triangle Area of equilateral triangle Area of trapezium Area of trapezium Area of ellipse Area of ellipse Area of parabola Area of parabola Circumference of circle Circumference of circle Surface area of sphere Surface area of sphere Surface area of cone Surface area of cone Volume of cylinder Volume of cylinder Multiply Multiply Base by 1⁄⁄2 height Base by 1 2 height (radius)2 by 3.471 10.764 10.MISCELLANEOUS Conversion Factors To convert To convert Area Area Square inches into square millimetres Square inches into square millimetres Square inches into square centimetres Square inches into square centimetres Square feet into square centimetres Square feet into square centimetres Square feet into square metres Square feet into square metres Square yards into square feet Square yards into square feet Square yards into square metres Square yards into square metres Square metres into square feet Square metres into square feet Square metres into square yards Square metres into square yards Square yards into acres Square yards into acres Acres into square metres Acres into square metres Acres into square yards Acres into square yards Acres into hectares Acres into hectares Hectares into acres Hectares into acres Hectares into square metres Hectares into square metres Square kilometres into hectares Square kilometres into hectares Square miles into square kilometres Square miles into square kilometres Square miles into acres Square miles into acres Square kilometres into square miles Square kilometres into square miles Volume and Capacity Volume and Capacity Cubic inches into cubic centimetres Cubic inches into cubic centimetres Cubic inches into litres Cubic inches into litres Cubic feet into cubic metres Cubic feet into cubic metres Cubic feet into litres Cubic feet into litres UK pints into litres UK pints into litres US pints into litres US pints into litres UK litres into pints UK litres into pints UK litres into gallons UK litres into gallons US litres into gallons US litres into gallons US litres into pints US litres into pints Cubic yards into cubic metres Cubic yards into cubic metres UK gallons into litres UK gallons into litres US gallons into litres US gallons into litres UK gallons into cubic metres UK gallons into cubic metres UK fluid ounces into cubic centimetres UK fluid ounces into cubic centimetres Mass Mass Grains into metric carats Grains into metric carats Grams into ounces Grams into ounces Ounces into grams Ounces into grams Ounces into kilograms Ounces into kilograms Pounds into kilograms Pounds into kilograms Kilograms into pounds Kilograms into pounds Tons into kilograms Tons into kilograms Tons into metric tonnes Tons into metric tonnes Tons into pounds Tons into pounds Tons into tonnes Tons into tonnes Tonnes into tons Tonnes into tons 0.016387 0.5682613 0.785 0.0283168 28.386 0.196 0. statute into kilometres Miles.3048 0.598 4 ⁄⁄3 x (radius)3 x 3.840 0.113 0.8288 20.0045461 0.852 1.0469 1016.0254 0.984 Volume of cube or prism Volume of cube or prism Volume of cone Volume of cone Volume of hexagonal prism Volume of hexagonal prism Volume of Sphere Volume of Sphere Length by breadth by depth Length by breadth by depth Height by 1⁄⁄3 area of base Height by 1 3 area of base (side)2 by height by 2.7645549 4.4516 6.0469 1.9144 0.0254 0.7645549 0.984 0.5682613 0.00 0.4516 929.205 2.9144 1.0 638. nautical into kilometres Multiply by Multiply by 25. rhombus Area of square.48 30.0045461 28.1416 Length of arc by 1⁄⁄2 radius Length of arc by 1 2 radius Base x height Base x height (Side)2 x 0.016 1.54609 3.8564 4.413063 28.8564 4046.473 0.589988 638.54 2.1416) + area of base Area of base by height Area of base by height 126 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 127 .4535924 0.196 1.840 4.4 25.48 0.387064 0.760 1.1168 201.0304 0.7854 minor axis x 0.4535924 2.1168 20.016387 0.01605 1.764 1.609344 1.016 0.240 1.1416 (radius by slant side by (radius by slant side by 3.394 304.16 645.316847 28.1416 Diameter x 3.54609 4.4046856 0.1416 Conversion Factors Multiply by Multiply by 645.8356127 10.433 Height x 1⁄⁄2 x Height x 1 2 x (sum of parallel sides) (sum of parallel sides) Major axis by Major axis by minor axis x 0.0083613 0.473 1.3048 0.413063 Calculation Formulae To calculate To calculate Area of Triangle Area of Triangle Area of circle Area of circle Area of sector of circle Area of sector of circle Area of square.4 25.264 0.092903 0.54 0.760 0.0283495 0.394 0. statute into kilometres Miles.0083613 4046.8356127 0.168 1.852 16.1416 (radius)2 by 3.

2011 JANUARY M T W T F S S 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2012 FEBRUARY JANUARY M T W T F S S 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 FEBRUARY M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 MARCH M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 APRIL M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 MARCH M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 30 APRIL M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 28 29 30 31 MAY M T W T F S S 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 JUNE M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 MAY M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 JUNE M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 JULY M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 AUGUST M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 30 31 JULY M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 AUGUST M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 SEPTEMBER M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 OCTOBER M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 SEPTEMBER M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 31 DECEMBER M T W T F S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 26 27 28 29 30 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 128 © Rider Levett Bucknall UK 2011 129 .

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