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: Khaled Mohamed Ali Bedewi : 541010448
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Master of Business Administration – MBA III MB0050 Research Methodology Set – 1 2527 21st February , 2012
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A categorical variable. Differentiate between nominal. and so on. 1. You can code the five genotypes with numbers if you want. education. ordinal. The numerals or symbols are just labels and have no quantitative value. Roll No. is for mutual exclusive. A ordinal variable. you might ask patients to express the amount of pain they are feeling on a scale of 1 to 10. with an example of each. Ans. Measurements may be classified into four different levels. 2. But the difference between the 7 and the 5 may not be the same as that between 5 and 3. categories.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 Q. the next highest rank 2. interval and ratio scales. also called a nominal variable. Statistical techniques that are commonly used to analyze ordinal scale data are the median and rank order correlation coefficients. Many statistics books begin by defining the different kinds of variables you might want to analyze. The individual with the highest score might be assigned rank 1. a. Ordinal scales may be constructed using rank order. from * to *****. rating and paired comparisons. A score of 7 means more pain that a score of 5. The values simply express an order. but the order is arbitrary and any calculations (for example.SMU . and that is more than a score of 3. is one where the order matters but not the difference between values. ratings of organizations and economic status. computing an average) would be meaningless. Another example would be movie ratings. For example. or vice versa. your study might compare five different genotypes. Variables that lend themselves to ordinal measurement include preferences. The numbers in this level of measurement indicate only rank order and not equal distance or absolute quantities. 1. Nominal measurement is therefore the simplest level of measurement. The example of male and female applicants to an MBA program mentioned earlier is an example of nominal measurement. based on the characteristics of order.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 2 | P a g e of 17 . Example is Individuals may be ranked according to their “socio-economic class”. For example. which is measured by a combination of income. distance and origin. occupation and wealth. The number of cases under each category is counted. This scheme was developed by Stevens and published in 1946. This means that the distance between ranks 1 and 2 is not necessarily equal to the distance between ranks 2 and 3. but not ordered. It does not have characteristics such as order. distance or arithmetic origin.
0 does not mean 'no acidity' (quite the opposite!). or coefficient of variation. is not a ratio variable. OK to compute. A temperature of 100 degrees C is not twice as hot as 50 degrees C. When working with ratio variables. distance and area. you can look at the ratio of two measurements. and the definition of molar is fairly arbitrary. because weight is a ratio variable. enzyme activity are ratio variables. 4. Since interval scales are more powerful than nominal or ordinal scales. However. The different levels of measurement and their characteristics may be summed up. as pH=0 just means 1 molar of H+. frequency distribution. there is none of that variable. weight. temperature in degrees Kelvin in a ratio variable. A ratio variable. has all the properties of an interval variable. A weight of 4 grams is twice a weight of 2 grams. ratio.. because pH is not a ratio variable. Examples Height. but not interval variables. standard error of the mean.SMU . It is not a ratio variable.. A temperature of 50 degrees is exactly 10 degrees hotter than 40 degrees and 10 degrees cooler than 60 degrees. satisfaction and other properties which do not have natural zero points. standard deviation. Apart from being able to use all the statistical techniques that are used with the nominal. happiness. ordinal and interval scales. add or subtract. A interval variable. it is possible to multiply and divide the numbers on a ratio scale. mean. as 0. because temperature C is not a ratio variable.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 3 | P a g e of 17 . The main limitation of ratio measurement is that it cannot be used for characteristics such as leadership quality. they also lend themselves to more powerful statistical techniques. A pH of 3 is not twice as acidic as a pH of 6. is a measurement where the difference between two values is meaningful. Variables like height. techniques like the geometric mean and coefficient of variation may also be used.. Another counter example is pH. Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Yes No No No No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Roll No. and also has a clear definition of 0. expressed in F or C. median and percentiles.0 on either of those scales does not mean 'no temperature'. The difference between a temperature of 100 degrees and 90 degrees is the same difference as between 90 degrees and 80 degrees. Temperature.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 3.0. A pH of 0. such as standard deviation.0. Since there is a natural zero. A temperature of 0. product moment correlation and “t” tests and “F” tests of significance. Example is The Centigrade or Fahrenheit temperature gauge is an example of the interval level of measurement. weight.0 degrees Kelvin really does mean 'no temperature'. When the variable equals 0.
Research is also necessary for collecting information on the social and economic structure of an economy to understand the process of change occurring in the country. Thus.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 Q. Research helps to formulate alternative policies. research also helps in the proper allocation of a country’s scare resources. or the optimization problems. large staff of research technicians or experts is engaged by the government these days to undertake this work. although in itself it is not a part of research. In the process. depends particularly on the analysis of needs and desires of the people. It provides the basis for almost all government policies of an economic system. which requires research. Operational research relates to the application of logical. All these researches are very useful for business and industry. It gives intellectual satisfaction of knowing things for the sake of knowledge. The prognosis. Therefore. The increasingly complex nature of government and business has raised the use of research in solving operational problems. More specifically. Collection of statistical information though not a routine task. involves various research problems.e. research also facilitates the decision making of policy-makers. market research. for example. production and sales. and the availability of revenues. It brings out the significance of research. research as a tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation which are as follows: Investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts Diagnoses of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them. research in social sciences is concerned with both knowledge for its own sake. It also possesses practical utility for the social scientist to gain knowledge so as to be able to do something better or in a more efficient manner. b. for it leads to inquiry. Government budget formulation. the prediction of future developments Research also assumes a significant role in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry. What are the purposes of measurement in social science research? the purposes of measurement in social science research: According to a famous Hudson Maxim. operations research. and motivational research are vital and their results assist in taking business decisions. which are responsible for business decision making. The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increasing in modern times. Market research is refers to the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the formulation of efficient policies relating to purchases. and analytical techniques to find solution to business problems such as cost minimization or profit maximization. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 4 | P a g e of 17 . and inquiry leads to invention”. i. Motivational research helps to determine why people behave in the manner they do with respect to market characteristics. Roll No.. for both the government and business. it is concerned with the analyzing the motivations underlying consumer behavior. This.SMU . Thus. 1 Ans. Research assumes significant role in formulation of economic policy. increased amounts of which makes progress possible. Research is equally important to social scientist for analyzing social relationships and seeking explanations to various social problems. In several ways. “All progress is born of inquiry. in addition to examining the consequences of these alternatives. Doubt is often better than overconfidence. mathematical. besides promoting the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. and knowledge for what it can contribute to solve practical problems.
1. Extensive literature review Review of literature is a systematic process that requires careful and perceptive reading and attention to detail. Other sources are the Education Index and the Educational Resources information centres (ERIC). Irrespective of the sources of the literature. The task of defining the research problem is of greatest importance in the entire research process. Providing insights into possible research designs and methods of conducting the research and interpreting the results. Roll No. In the review of the literature. What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? b. periodicals. “If one had the literature and exercised enough patience and industry in reviewing available literature. it may well be that his problem has already been solved by someone somewhere some time ago and he will save himself the trouble. sharpening the focus of the research. the researcher is able to focus on the problem and phrase it in analytical or operational terms. a. It requires thorough understanding of the problem and rephrasing it in meaningful terms from an analytical point of view. Why literature survey is important in research? Ans.Identifying research Problem This involves the identification of a general topic and formulating it into a specific research problem.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 5 | P a g e of 17 . Types of Research Projects those that relate to states of nature those which relate to relationships between variables In understanding the problem. It is important in the following ways: Specifically limiting and identifying the research problem and possible hypothesis or research questions i. the researcher attempts to determine what others have learned about similar research problems. They have the advantage of comprehensiveness and speed. Computer-assisted searchers of literature have become very common today. technical reports and academic theses.SMU . Being able to define the problem unambiguously helps the researcher in discriminating relevant data from irrelevant ones. Informing the researcher of what has already been done in the area. Within the library there is access to books. After the literature review. Providing suggestions for possible modifications in the research to avoid unanticipated difficulties.” Nwana (1982). It is also necessary to examine conceptual and empirical literature on the subject. 2 a.e. This helps to avoid exact duplication. ethics of research require that the source is acknowledged through a clear system of referencing. it is helpful to discuss it with colleagues or experts in the field. They are also very costeffective in terms of time and effort although access to some of the databases requires payment. The library is the most likely physical location for the research literature.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 Q.
Of course. efficient use of library/Internet services and organizing how they check sources are especially important skills. Having located literature. Governments publish great quantities of data on many topics. Reading all the knowledge that's accumulated so far on the problem you want to study can be time-consuming and even tedious. The Internet. Careful reading of both tables and text for awhile will convince you they don't always agree. Why Literature survey is important in research? Doing a literature survey before you begin your investigation enables you to take advantage of the unique human capacity to pass on detailed written information from one generation to another. There are many sources for literature reviews. You might ask yourself. Most libraries have staff trained in information retrieval who can help find sources and suggest strategies to review the literature. A literature survey amounts to reading available material on a given topic. But for the novice. The time varies from problem to problem. Only 30 percent of the sample said they did not vote. keeping a checklist of useful information will help you read each source. At some point in this search you'll find the material is beginning to be only peripherally related to your current interest or that author’s claim originality for their work. for example. Sometimes data are grossly misinterpreted in the text. particularly for research articles: What was the exact problem studied? How were the topics of interest defined? What did the authors expect to find? How were things measured? What research did this author cite? Have you read it? Who were the subjects of study? What do the results show? Do the data presented agree with the written conclusions? What were the limitations of the study? A thorough literature survey should demonstrate that you've carefully read and evaluated each article or book. A useful way to locate past as well as current writing is to begin with the most current sources likely to contain relevant material.b.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 6 | P a g e of 17 . doing a good literature survey is easier when you know a great deal about the subject already. Thoroughness is the key. Consider. businesses and private organizations gather and publish information you might find useful. In such a case you'd probably be familiar with publications and even other people who do research in your area of interest. Because research reports can be tedious and difficult to understand for new researchers. The United Nations and the United States Government Printing Office are two major sources. While its customary to include only data from sources that actually research the problem in a precise fashion. such as the American Political Science Review. including journals of general interest in each discipline. For certain problems you may want to search through popular or non-scholarly periodicals as well. of course. Roll No. and producing a summary. but on other occasions authors are more subtle. But careful evaluation of that material helps make your investigation worthwhile by alerting you to knowledge already gained and problems already encountered in your areas of interest. many tend to read others' conclusions or summaries and take the author's word that the data actually support the conclusions. follow these authors' footnotes and bibliographies. In addition.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 Ans.SMU . There are also journals for specific topics such as the Leadership and Organization Development Journal. now allows easy access to limitless information on given topics. the following statements: Fully 30 percent of the sample said they did not vote. Then. Thoroughness in your review means not only finding all current publications on a topic but locating earlier writing as well.1. analyzing and organizing findings. articles in more popular sources may provide interesting insight or orientations. Talking to knowledgeable people may also give you information that helps you formulate your problem. There's no easy rule for how long ago literature was published on your topic.
Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 The percentage is the same. organizing what you know about the content and methods used to study your problem. you're able to write your literature survey in a way that's clear. It's important that after you finish your reading. Note in most journal articles that what probably began as a long literature survey is usually condensed on the first few pages of the research report. and otherwise reorganized. Reading the actual data before accepting the author's conclusions will help prevent some of these errors of interpretation from creeping into your own research. want to add to this growing body of knowledge we call social science by a creative summary of what's been accomplished by others as well as by your own research.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 7 | P a g e of 17 . too. compared. You may find it helpful to record information about each source on a separate card or piece of paper so that information can later be reshuffled.SMU . but the impression conveyed is decidedly different. Roll No. You. explaining previous research on the problem and how the current study will contribute.
Control: One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. iv. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. it would be known as an extraneous variable. Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. intelligence may also influence the school performance.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 Q. if demand depends upon price. But. a. then demand is a dependent variable. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables. all variables need not be continuous. age is a continuous variable. like height. However. it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable. income. while price is the independent variable. The concept may assume different quantitative values. more variables determine demand. Therefore. Roll No. For example. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called ‘non-continuous variables’. iii. Components of a research design Components of Research Design: It is important to be familiar with the important concepts relating to research design. like income and prices of substitute commodity. since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. a. What are the characteristics of a good research design? [ 5marks] b. And if. the dependent variable. whereas the number of children is a non-continuous variable. they are also known as ‘discrete variable’. a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. However. For example. and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. v. Then. 2. 3. demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price. Technically. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former.SMU . Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as ‘continuous variables’. measurement and analysis of data more explicitly: i. In this context. What is the study about? Why is the study being conducted? Where will the study be carried out? What type of data is required? Where can the required data be found? b. Research Design – Definition “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure “Is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted. ii. In statistical term. For instance. weight. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an ‘experimental error’. 3. They are: 1. assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school performance and their selfconcepts. it constitutes the blueprint for the collection.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 8 | P a g e of 17 . What are the components of a research design? Ans. The term control is used in experimental research to reflect the restrain in experimental conditions. the term control is used when a researcher designs the study in such a manner that it minimizes the effects of extraneous independent variables. etc. income and price of substitute. then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price.
Likewise. In the example considered. then the three types of fertilizers would be treated as the three treatments. when the dependent variable is not free from its effects. then both the groups may be called as ‘experimental groups’. For instance. Experiment: An experiment refers to the process of verifying the truth of a statistical hypothesis relating to a given research problem. Research hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is tested by adopting scientific methods. it is known as ‘control group’. the Group A can be called a control group and the Group B an experimental one. A research design may include only the experimental group or the both experimental and control groups together.SMU . it is known as research hypothesis. On the other hand. Further. then it is known as absolute experiment. characteristics or the blocks. Treatments: Treatments are referred to the different conditions to which the experimental and control groups are subject to. if a research study attempts to examine through an experiment regarding the comparative impacts of three different types of fertilizers on the yield of rice crop. experiment may be conducted to examine the yield of a certain new variety of rice crop developed. then the experiment is known as a comparative experiment. The research hypothesis is a predictive statement which relates a dependent variable and an independent variable. Generally. absolute experiment and comparative experiment. It is worth mentioning here that such experimental units must be selected with great caution. Whereas. Roll No. to which the different treatments are applied. Meanwhile. when the group is exposed to certain new or special condition. If a researcher wishes to determine the impact of a chemical fertilizer on the yield of a particular variety of rice crop. If both the groups A and B are exposed to some special feature.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 4. if the researcher wishes to determine the impact of chemical fertilizer as compared to the impact of bio-fertilizer. Confounded relationship: The relationship between dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable. a research hypothesis must consist of at least one dependent variable and one independent variable. the two treatments are the parents with regular earnings and those with no regular earnings. Experimental and control groups: When a group is exposed to usual conditions in an experimental hypothesis-testing research.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 9 | P a g e of 17 . Experiments may be categorized into two types namely. the relationships that are assumed but not be tested are predictive statements that are not to be objectively verified are not classified as research hypothesis. In the afore-mentioned example. Experiment unit: Experimental units refer to the predetermined plots. it is known as an ‘experimental group’.
MULTI-PHASE SAMPLING Definition: It is sometimes convenient and economical to collect certain items of information from the whole of the units of a sample and other items of usually more detailed information from a sub-sample of the units constituting the original sample. and the first sample inspected. The batch can then be accepted or rejected upon the results of this inspection or the second sample be inspected and the decision made upon the combined result. or (b) as supplementary information at the second phase. when y is investigated. In accordance with the characteristics of a particular plan. the number of defectives. b. and there exists some other variate.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 10 | P a g e of 17 . a second sample is taken.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 Q.Denote the number of defectives in sample 1 by d1 and in sample 2 by d2 then: If d1 < a1. Multistage sampling is a complex form of cluster sampling. the lot is rejected. Now this is compared to the acceptance number a2 and the rejection number r2 of sample 2. a ratio or regression estimate being used. is counted. If a second sample of size n2 is taken. In double sampling.d2. a second sample is taken. and the information thus obtained is used either (a) to stratify the population at the second phase. At the first phase. a. the lot is rejected.SMU . e. r2=a2+ 1 to ensure a decision on the sample.g. If d1 > r1. x is investigated. is relatively expensive. correlated with it. Two-phase sampling is sometimes called "double sampling". What is replicated or interpenetrating sampling? Ans. which is relatively cheap to investigate. If D2 > r2. x. y. the lot is accepted. DOUBLE SAMPLING Definition: A standard form of sample design for industrial inspection purposes. n1 and n2. For example. The number of defectives is then counted and compared to the first sample’s acceptance number a1 and rejection number r1. Thetotal number of defectives is D2=d1+d2. Distinguish between Doubles sampling and multiphase sampling. If D2 < a2. two samples are drawn. if the collection of information concerning variate. it may be profitable to carry out sampling in two phases. Double sampling plans were invented to give a questionable lot another chance. Application of double sampling requires that a first sample of size n1 is taken at random from the (large) lot. Advantages cost and speed that the survey can be done in convenience of finding the survey sample normally more accurate than cluster sampling for the same size sample Roll No. if in double sampling the results of the first sample are not conclusive with regard to accepting or rejecting. 4. a.4. If a1 < d1<r1. This may be termed two-phase sampling. the lot is accepted.
Deciding what elements within the cluster to use is the second stage. where in cluster sampling only the selected clusters are studied. a random sample is drawn from all the strata. In stratified sampling. they are substantially different. in order to reduce travel requirements.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 Disadvantages Is not as accurate as SRS if the sample is the same size More testing is difficult to do Using all the sample elements in all the selected clusters may be prohibitively expensive or not necessary. In some cases. and selecting some of these collection districts (first stage). dwellings are listed within each selected block. Instead of using all the elements contained in the selected clusters. Constructing the clusters is the first stage. the researcher randomly selects elements from each cluster. Under these circumstances. multistage cluster sampling becomes useful. and some of these dwellings are selected (third stage). Although cluster sampling and stratified sampling bear some superficial similarities. an additional stage of clustering is used. either in single stage or multi stage. For example. several levels of cluster selection may be applied before the final sample elements are reached. In remote areas.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 11 | P a g e of 17 . Next.SMU . The selected collection districts are then divided into blocks. Roll No. The technique is used frequently when a complete list of all members of the population does not exist and is inappropriate. household surveys conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics begin by dividing metropolitan regions into 'collection districts'. only for selected blocks. and blocks are chosen from within each selected collection district (second stage). This method means that it is not necessary to create a list of every dwelling in the region.
4 Ans. It is practical. Roll No.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 Q. But disadvantage is that it limits the amount of stratification that can be employed. All the sub-samples should be drawn using the same sampling technique and each is a self-contained and adequate sample of the population.b is replicated or interpenetrating sampling Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling It involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than one full sample from a population.SMU . What is replicated or interpenetrating sampling? 4. b.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 12 | P a g e of 17 . It provides a simple means of calculating the sampling error. Replicated sampling can be used with any basic sampling technique: simple or stratified. The replicated samples can throw light on variable nonsampling errors. single or multi-stage or single or multiphase sampling.
The quality of data refers to their accuracy. Environmental and cultural settings are required for the study. 5. Advantages of Secondary Data Secondary sources have some advantages: 1. The following questions should be considered. What is the authority and prestige of the organization? Is it well recognized? Is it noted for reliability? It is capable of collecting reliable data? Does Roll No. The use of secondary data enables a researcher to verify the findings bases on primary data. 4. collection of data is just matter of desk work. reliability and completeness.SMU . • What are the definitions and classifications employed? Are they consistent? • What are the measurements of variables used? What is the degree to which they conform to the requirements of our research? • What is the coverage of the secondary data in terms of topic and time? Does this coverage fit the needs of our research? On the basis of above consideration. thanks to Xeroxing facilities. 5. What are the criteria used for evaluation of secondary data? Ans. 1. Data Quality If the researcher is convinced about the available secondary data for his needs.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 Q5. 2. It readily meets the need for additional empirical support. 2.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 13 | P a g e of 17 . The researcher need not wait the time when additional primary data can be collected Ans. the use of secondary data extends the researcher’s space and time reach. a. a. the pertinence of the secondary data to the research on hand should be determined. The use of secondary data broadens the data base from which scientific generalizations can be made. Wider geographical area and longer reference period may be covered without much cost. the next step is to examine the quality of the data. Thus. Secondary data. Once their source of documents and reports are located. Even the tediousness of copying the data from the source can now be avoided. The assurance and reliability of the available secondary data depends on the organization which collected them and the purpose for which they were collected. he should evaluate them before deciding to use them.5. Data Pertinence The first consideration in evaluation is to examine the pertinence of the available secondary data to the research problem under study. 3. if available can be secured quickly and cheaply. How is secondary data useful to researcher? b.b Evaluation of Secondary Data When a researcher wants to use secondary data for his research. as a researcher who is imaginative and flexible may be able to redefine his research problem so as to make use of otherwise unusable available data.
3. It is important to go to the original source of the secondary data rather than to use an immediate source which has quoted from the original. The question of possible bias should also be examined. Then only. Roll No.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 it use trained and well qualified investigators? The answers to these questions determine the degree of confidence we can have in the data and their accuracy.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 14 | P a g e of 17 . The researcher must be on guard when the source does not report the methodology and sampling design. the researcher can review the cautionary and other comments that were made in the original source. Whether the purpose for which the original organization collected the data had a particular orientation? Has the study been made to promote the organization’s own interest? How the study was conducted? These are important clues.SMU . This depends on the methodology and sampling design adopted by the original organization. Is the methodology sound? Is the sample size small or large? Is the sampling method appropriate? Answers to these questions may indicate the appropriateness and adequacy of the data for the problem under study. Data Completeness The completeness refers to the actual coverage of the published data. Then it is not possible to determine the adequacy of the secondary data for the researcher’s study.
after all. The most complete form of the sociological datum. In general. during. treating subjects as they come up in conversation. the events which precede and follow it.SMU . in which case the researcher has in fact observed the behavior he is talking about. either openly in the role of researcher or covertly in some disguised role. In the course of our current participant observation among medical students? we have thought a good deal about the kinds of things we were discovering which might ordinarily be missed or misunderstood in such an interview. and questioning people. Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon in its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study. for there can always be good reasons of practicality.3 In this kind of interview. and after its occurrence. and explanations of its meaning by participants and spectators. the shortcomings we attribute to the interview exist when it is used as a source of information about events that have occurred elsewhere and are described to us by informants. allowing his imagination and ingenuity full rein as he tries to develop new hypotheses and test them in the course of the interview. is the form in which the participant observer gathers it: An observation of some social event.? The differences we consider between the two methods involve two interacting factors: the kinds of words and acts of the people under study that the researcher has access to. We begin by considering some concrete problems: learning the native language. What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more appropriate Ans. 6. We want. Observation means viewing or seeing.6. Our criticisms are not relevant when analysis is restricted to interpretation of the interviewee's conduct during the interview. before. pursuing interesting leads. Such a datum gives us more information about the event under study than data gathered by any other sociological method. We simply wish to make explicit the difference in the data gathered by one or the other method and to suggest the differing uses to which they can legitimately be put. over some length of time. the interviewer explores many facets of his interviewee's concerns. listening to what are said. or the problem of the degree to which the interviewer really understands what is said to Roll No. and the kind of sensitivity to problems and data produced in him. to compare the results of intensive field work with what might be regarded as the first step in the other direction along this continuum: the detailed and conversational interview (often referred to as the unstructured or undirected interview). By participant observation we mean that method in which the observer participates in the daily life of the people under study.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 15 | P a g e of 17 .Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 Q. W e have no intention of denigrating the interview or even such less precise modes of data gathering as the questionnaire. or research design for their use. Our comparison may prove useful by suggestive areas in which interviewing (the more widely used method at present and likely to continue so) can improve its accuracy by taking account of suggestions made from the perspective of the participant observer. Participant observation can thus provide us with a yardstick against which to measure the completeness of data gathered in other ways. a model which can serve to let us know what orders of information escape us when we use other methods. in this paper. Observation is classical method of scientific study. economy. observing things that happen.
birds etc. The validity of what men of position and authority say can be verified by observing what they actually do. especially when the observed persons are not aware of their being observed (3) Observations is more suitable for studying subjects who are unable to articulate meaningfully. but selects the range of things to be observed on the basis of the nature. When he observed the movements of the vehicles. It grasps the significant events and occurrences that affect social relations of the participants.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 16 | P a g e of 17 . When qualitative information is required or probing is necessary to draw out fully. Observation should be exact and be based on standardized tools of research and such as observation schedule. matters interviewees are unable or unwilling to talk about. But attention is focused on data that are pertinent to the given study. facial expressions and pauses. social metric scale etc. It may be defined as a two way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant. The researcher need not ask people about their behavior and interactions he can simply watch what they do and say. Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. scope and objectives of his study. Other methods introduce elements or artificiality into the researcher’s situation for instance. if any. (2) Data collected by observation may describe the observed phenomena as they occur in their natural settings. It is both a physical and a mental activity: The observing eye catches many things that are present. attitudes. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents.g. but also learning from the respondent’s gesture. values. and his environment. There is no such artificiality into the researched situation for instance. Observation is less demanding of the subjects and has less biasing effect on their conduct than questioning. and then Roll No. and precision instruments.. tribal. and getting information on matters people see through distorting lenses. 4. the persons sitting in them. For example. Observation is selective: A researcher does not observe anything and everything. It is done by using a structured schedule or an unstructured guide. 3. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a person’s opinions. Observation has following advantages: (1) The main virtue of observation is its directness: It makes it possible to study behavior as it occurs. 1. Observation as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. the respondent may not behave in a natural way. studies of children. We then consider some more general differences between the two methods. There is not such artificiality in observational studies. animals. It captures the natural social context in which persons behavior occur. Observation is purposive and not casual: it is made for the specific purpose of noting things relevant to the study. Furthermore verbal resorts can be validated and compared with behavior through observation. (4) Observations improve the opportunities for analyzing the contextual back ground of behavior. suppose a researcher desires to study the causes of city road accidents and also formulated a tentative hypothesis that accidents are caused by violation of traffic rules and over speeding.SMU . beliefs past experience and future intentions. in interviews. 2. initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 him. all such things which are not relevant to his study are ignored and only over speeding and traffic violation are keenly observed by him. the respondent may not behave in a natural way. Interviewing requires face to face contact or contact over telephone and calls for interviewing skills. etc. their hair style. e. in interview. It involves not only conversation. Interview method Interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection.
It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioural context of the data furnished by the respondents. or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available. It permits probing into the context and reasons for answers to questions. For example only observation can provide an insight into all the aspects of the process of negotiation between union and management representatives. incorrect understanding of questions. Interview can add flesh to statistical information. Last interview calls for highly interviewers. Where the area covered for the survey is a compact. Roll No.Sikkim Manipal University Spring 2011 interviewing is required. Second. He can note the conditions of the interview situation. Interview is often superior to other data-gathering methods. the interviewer can gather other supplemental information like economic level. Even more. control can be exercised over the interview situation. interview poses the problem of recording information obtained from the respondents. through observation of the respondent’s environment. the interviewer can do more to improve the percentage of responses and the quality of information received than other method. The availability of such persons is limited and the training of interviewers is often a long and costly process. People are usually more willing to talk than to write. Note taking in invariably distracting to both the respondent and the interviewer and affects the thread of the conversation. an interview can obtain a great deal of information. certain types of personal and financial information may be refused in face-to face interviews. faulty memory. etc. Such information might be supplied more willingly on mail questionnaires. inability to articulate etc. living conditions etc. Situation where interview method is appropriate: to study the Reading habits of newspaper/magazines readers. the interview results are often adversely affected by interviewer’s mode of asking questions and interactions. Fifth. When used with well conceived schedules. Demerits of interview method Interviewing is not free limitations. First the greatest value of this method is the depth and detail of information that can be secured.SMU . Fourth. visual materials and the like in order to improve the quality of interviewing. Last. and incorrect recording and also by the respondent’s faulty perception. Second. even confidential information may be obtained. It far exceeds mail survey in amount and quality of data that can be secured.: 541010448 Assignment Set – 1 MB0050 17 | P a g e of 17 . Once report is established. and adopt appropriate approaches to overcome such problems as the respondent’s unwillingness. There are several advantages to personal interviewing. Fourth. personal interview is feasible. especially if they are to be unsigned. Situation where observation is appropriate: Observations make it possible to capture the whole event as it occurs. interview is flexible and adaptable to individual situations. suspicion. the accuracy and dependability of the answers given by the respondent can be checked by observation and probing. the interviewer can use special scoring devices. Third. No full proof system is available. Its greatest drawback is that it is costly both in money and time. Third.