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Name: Anangha Mestry. Std: F.Y.B.Sc.IT. Div: B Sem: II Sub: DCN (Case Study) Roll No.: 11231


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Case Study No. 1 Case Study No. 1 Case Study No. 1 Case Study No. 1

CASE STUDY: 1 Topic:- Study Of Signal Propagation Problem Statement :- How wireless network works ?
Wireless networks utilize components similar to wired networks; however, wireless networks must convert information signals into a form suitable for transmission through the air medium. Even though wireless networks directly contribute only to a portion of the overall network infrastructure, attention to all network functions is necessary to counter impairments resulting from the wireless medium. This chapter discusses concepts common to all types of wireless networks, with emphasis on components and information signals A wireless network consists of several components that support communications using radio or light waves propagating through an air medium. Some of these elements overlap with those of wired networks, but special consideration is necessary for all of these components when deploying a wireless network. Figure 2-1 illustrates these primary components.

Task To Perform: 1. No of resources used: a) Router:

A network router is a small electronic device that allows you build a home network simply. The home router serves as the core or "centerpiece" of the network to which computers, printers and other devices can be connected. Networking with a router helps you to (for example): share files between computers share an Internet connection between computers share a printer connect your game console or other home entertainment equipment to the Internet Routers are not necessarily required to build a network. For example, you can connect two computers directly to each other with just a cable (or without wires in some cases). Home routers offer convenience and easier maintenance as your network grows.

b) Switches:
A network switch is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one local area network (LAN). Technically, network switches operate at layer two (Data Link Layer) of the OSI model.

Network switches appear nearly identical to network hubs, but a switch generally contains more intelligence (and a slightly higher price tag) than a hub. Unlike hubs, network switches are capable of inspecting data packets as they are received, determining the source and destination device of each packet, and forwarding them appropriately. By delivering messages only to the connected device intended, a network switch conserves network bandwidth and offers generally better performance than a hub.

2. Flow of working:
a) Access Codes: These rules provide the basis for a common approach for all wireless transmission and reception installations in the, to enable the effective management of the wireless networking service, and to minimize the two major risks associated with implementation:

Security breaches: Wireless networks are inherently insecure as anyone with the proper equipment can passively listen in on the wireless network. Wireless access points improperly configured without appropriate restrictions will allow unauthorized access to the network and potentially allow eavesdroppers to capture user passwords and data. Interference: There is a finite number of radio frequencies available for wireless use. The most common wireless LAN technology standard (802.11b) defines 14 possible frequencies or channels. However they are close enough together that they can interfere with each other. Thus it is common practice to use only 3 channels. If wireless LANs are installed without coordination with others in the area interference is likely that will result in significantly degraded performance for everyone. b) Access Speed:

The speed of a wireless network depends on several factors. First, wireless local area networks (WLANs) feature differing levels of performance depending on which Wi-Fi standard they support. Each Wi-Fi standard is rated according to its maximum theoretical network bandwidth:

802.11b offers up to 11 Mbps 802.11a and 802.11g WLANs offer up to 54 Mbps 802.11n offers up to 300 Mbps.

CASE STUDY: 2 Topic:- Session Layer Problem Statement:- Function of session layer
The session layer tracks connections: also called sessions. The session layer should keep track of multiple file downloads requested by a particular FTP application, or multiple telnet connections from a single terminal client, or web page retrievals from a web server. With TCP/IP this functionality is handled by application software addressing a connection to a remote machine and using a different local port number for each connection.

Task To Perform: 1. The session layer performs the following functions:

Communication with the Presentation layer above. Organize and manage one or more connections per application,between hosts. Communication with the Transport layer below.

2. Protocols used in session layer:

ADSP: AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol ASP: AppleTalk Session Protocol H.245: Call Control Protocol for Multimedia Communication ISO-SP: OSI session-layer protocol (X.225: ISO 8327) iSNS: Internet Storage Name Service L2F: Layer 2 Forwarding Protocol L2TP: Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol NetBIOS: Network Basic Input Output System PAP: Password Authentication Protocol PPTP: Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol RPC: Remote Procedure Call Protocol RTCP: Real-time Transport Control Protocol SMPP: Short Message Peer-to-Peer SCP: Session Control Protocol SOCKS: the SOCKS internet protocol: see Internet socket ZIP: Zone Information Protocol

3. Devices used in session layer:

AppleTalk Data Session Protocol

Network file system Concurrent database access X-windows system Remote procedure call SQL Net bios names Digital network architecture

Examples: Sessions are used to keep track of individual connections to remote servers. Your web browser is an excellent example of the use of sessions. Your web browser (an application layer object) opens a web page. That page contains text, graphics, Macromedia Flash objects and perhaps a Java applet. The graphics, the Flash object and the Java applet are all stored as separate files on the web server. To access them, a separate download must be started. Your web browser opens a separate session to the web server to download each of the individual files. The session layer keeps track of which packets and data belong to which file and keeps track of where they go (in this case, to your web browser). In most modern Internet applications, the session, presentation and application layers are usually rolled together inside the application itself, thus, your browser performs all functions of the session, presentation and application layers.

CASE STUDY: 3 Topic:- Tcp/Ip Protocol Problem Statement:- Analysis of Tcp/Ip The TCP/IP Protocol Suite
The TCP/IP protocol suite, also referred to as the Internet protocol suite, is the set of communications protocols that implements the protocol stack on which the Internet and most commercial networks run. It is named after the two most important protocols in the suite: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). The TCP/IP protocol suitelike the OSI reference modelis defined as a set of layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that are transmitted physically over the network.

Study Of Each Field: TCP/IP Model and the OSI Reference Model
The TCP/IP protocol suite was developed before the OSI reference model. As such, it does not directly map to the 7-layer OSI reference model. The TCP/IP protocol stack has only layers that can be loosely mapped to the OSI protocol stack, as shown

Application Layer
The application layer of the TCP/IP model corresponds to the application layer of the OSI reference model. Some well known examples of application level entities within the TCP/IP domain are: FTP/Telnet/SSH HTTP/Secure HTTP (SHTTP) POP3/SMTP SNMP

Transport Layer
The transport layer of the TCP/IP model maps fairly closely to the transport layer of the OSI model. Two commonly used transport ayer entities are TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Internet Layer
The Internet layer of the TCP/IP model maps to the network layer of the OSI model. Consequently, the Internet layer is sometimes referred to as the network layer. The primary component of the Internet layer is the Internet Protocol (IP).Many of the TCP/IP routing protocols are also classified as part of the Internet layer.

Network Access Layer

The lowest layer of the TCP/IP protocol stack is the network access layer. The network access layer contains two sublayers, the media access control (MAC) sublayer and the physical sublayer. The MAC sublayer aligns closely with the data link layer of the OSI model, and is sometimes referred to by that name. The physical sublayer aligns with the physical layer of the OSI model.

Examples of the network access layer Ethernet

Wireless Fidelity (Wi-FI)/WiMAX PPP, PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) ATM/Frame Rela

Functions Performed By TCP:

Despite the complexity of TCP, its basic operation can be reasonably simplified by describing its primary functions. The following are what I believe to be the five main tasks that TCP performs:

TCP is used by many different applications for their transport protocol. Therefore, like its simpler sibling UDP, an important job for TCP is multiplexing the data received from these different processes so they can be sent out using the underlying network-layer protocol. At the same time, these higher-layer application processes are identified using TCP ports. The section on TCP/IP transport layer addressing contains a great deal of detail on how this addressing works.

Connection Establishment, Management and Termination:

TCP provides a set of procedures that devices follow to negotiate and establish a TCP connection over which data can travel. Once opened, TCP includes logic for managing connections and handling problems that may result with them. When a device is done with a TCP connection, a special process is followed to terminate it.


Data Handling and Packaging:

TCP defines a mechanism by which applications are able to send data to it from higher layers. This data is then packaged into messages to be sent to the destination TCP software. The destination software unpackages the data and gives it to the application on the destination machine.

Data Transfer:
Conceptually, the TCP implementation on a transmitting device is responsible for the transfer of packaged data to the TCP process on the other device. Following the principle of layering, this is done by having the TCP software on the sending machine pass the data packets to the underlying network-layer protocol, which again normally means IP.

Providing Reliability and Transmission Quality Services:

TCP includes a set of services and features that allow an application to consider the sending of data using the protocol to be reliable. This means that normally, a TCP application doesn't have to worry about data being sent and never showing up, or arriving in the wrong order. It also means other common problems that might arise if IP were used directly are avoided.

Providing Flow Control and Congestion Avoidance Features:

TCP allows the flow of data between two devices to be controlled and managed. It also includes features to deal with congestion that may be experienced during communication between devices.

Clearly, TCP is responsible for a fairly significant number of key functions. This list may not seem that impressive. The reason is that this is just a high-level look at the protocol, and these functions are summarized in the list above; when we look at them in detail we will see that each one actually involves a rather significant amount of work for TCP to do.

TCP/IP Services and Client/Server Operation:

TCP/IP is most often studied in terms of its layer-based architecture and the protocols that it provides at those different layers. And we're certainly going to do that, don't worry. These protocols, however, represent the technical details of how TCP/IP works. They are of interest to us as students of technology, but are normally hidden from users who do not need to see the guts of how TCP/IP works to know that it works. Before proceeding to these details, I think it might be instructive to take a bigger picture look at what TCP/IP does.

TCP/IP Services:
In the section describing the OSI Reference Model I mentioned that the theoretical operation of the model is based on the concept of one layer providing services to the layers above it. TCP/IP covers many layers of the OSI model, and so it collectively provides services of this


sort as well in many ways. Conceptually, we can divide TCP/IP services into two groups: services provided to other protocols and services provided to end users directly.

Services Provided to Other Protocols:

The first group of services consists of the core functions implemented by the main TCP/IP protocols such as IP, TCP and UDP. These services are designed to actually accomplish the internetworking functions of the protocol suite. For example, at the network layer, IP provides functions such as addressing, delivery, and datagram packaging, fragmentation and reassembly. At the transport layer, TCP and UDP are concerned with encapsulating user data and managing connections between devices. Other protocols provide routing and management functionality. Higher-layer protocols use these services, allowing them to concentrate on what they are intended to accomplish.

End-User Services
The other general types of service provided by TCP/IP are end-user services. These facilitate the operation of the applications that users run to make use of the power of the Internet and other TCP/IP networks. For example, the World Wide Web (WWW) is arguably the most important Internet application. WWW services are provided through the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), a TCP/IP application layer protocol. HTTP in turn uses services provided by lower-level protocols. All of these details are of course hidden from the end users, which is entirely on purpose.


CASE STUDY: 4 Topic:- Transmission Media

The means through which data is transformed from one place to another is called transmission or communication media. There are two categories of transmission media used in computer communications.


Bounded media are the physical links through which signals are confined to narrow path. These are also called guide media. Bounded media are made up o a external conductor (Usually Copper) bounded by jacket material. Bounded media are great for LABS because they offer high speed, good security and low cast. However, some time they cannot be used due distance communication. Three common types of bounded media are used of the data transmission. These are
a) b) c)

Coaxial Cable Twisted Pairs Cable Fiber Optics Cable

Coaxial cable is very common & widely used commutation media. For example TV wire is usually coaxial. Coaxial cable gets its name because it contains two conductors that are parallel to each other. The center conductor in the cable is usually copper. The copper can be either a solid wire or stranded martial. Outside this central Conductor is a non-conductive material. It is usually white, plastic material used to separate the inner Conductor form the outer Conductor. The other Conductor is a fine mesh made from Copper. It is used to help shield the cable form EMI. Outside the copper mesh is the final protective cover. (as shown in Fig) The actual data travels through the center conductor in the cable. EMI interference is caught by outer copper mesh. There are different types of coaxial cable vary by gauge & impedance. Gauge is the measure of the cable thickness. It is measured by the Radio grade measurement, or RG number. The high the RG number, the thinner the central conductor core, the lower the number the thicker the core. Here the most common coaxial standards.

50-Ohm RG-7 or RG-11 : used with thick Ethernet. 50-Ohm RG-58 : used with thin Ethernet


75-Ohm RG-59 : used with cable television 93-Ohm RG-62 : used with ARCNET.


Low cost Easy to install Up to 10Mbps capacity Medium immunity form EMI Medium of attenuation


Inexpensive Easy to wire Easy to expand Moderate level of EMI immunity


Single cable failure can take down an entire network



b) Twisted Pair Cable:

The most popular network cabling is Twisted pair. It is light weight, easy to install, inexpensive and support many different types of network. It also supports the speed of 100 mps. Twisted pair cabling is made of pairs of solid or stranded copper twisted along each other. The twists are done to reduce vulnerably to EMI and cross talk. The number of pairs in the cable depends on the type. The copper core is usually 22-AWG or 24-AWG, as measured on the American wire gauge standard. There are two types of twisted pairs cabling


1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) 2. Shielded twisted pair (STP)

1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) :

UTP is more common. It can be either voice grade or data grade depending on the condition. UTP cable normally has an impedance of 100 ohm. UTP cost less than STP and easily available due to its many use. There are five levels of data cabling

Category 1
These are used in telephone lines and low speed data cable.

Category 2
These cables can support up to 4 mps implementation.

Category 3
These cable supports up to 16 mps and are mostly used in 10 mps.

Category 4
These are used for large distance and high speed. It can support 20mps.

Category 5
This is the highest rating for UTP cable and can support up to 100mps. UTP cables consist of 2 or 4 pairs of twisted cable. Cable with 2 pair use RJ-11 connector and 4 pair cable use RJ-45 connector.

Characteristics of UTP:

low cost easy to install High speed capacity High attenuation Effective to EMI 100 meter limit

Advantages of UTP:

Easy installation Capable of high speed for LAN


Low cost Short distance due to attenuation

Disadvantages of UTP

2. Shielded twisted pair (STP):

It is similar to UTP but has a mesh shielding thats protects it from EMI which allows for higher transmission rate. IBM has defined category for STP cable.

Type 1
STP features two pairs of 22-AWG

Type 2
This type include type 1 with 4 telephone pairs

Type 3
This type feature two pairs of standard shielded 26-AWG

Type 4
This type of STP consist of 1 pair of standard shielded 26-AWG

Type 5
This type consist of shielded 26-AWG wire

Characteristics of STP:

Medium cost Easy to install Higher capacity than UTP Higher attenuation, but same as UTP Medium immunity from EMI 100 meter limit

Advantages of STP:

Shielded Faster than UTP and coaxial


Disadvantages of STP:

More expensive than UTP and coaxial More difficult installation High attenuation rate

Fiber Optics:
Fiber optic cable uses electrical signals to transmit data. It uses light. In fiber optic cable light only moves in one direction for two way communication to take place a second connection must be made between the two devices. It is actually two stands of cable. Each stand is responsible for one direction of communication. A laser at one device sends pulse of light through this cable to other device. These pulses translated into 1s and 0s at the other end. In the center of fiber cable is a glass stand or core. The light from the laser moves through this glass to the other device around the internal core is a reflective material known as CLADDING. No light escapes the glass core because of this reflective cladding. Fiber optic cable has bandwidth more than 2 gbps (Gigabytes per Second).

Characteristics Of Fiber Optic Cable:

Expensive Very hard to install Capable of extremely high speed Extremely low attenuation No EMI interference

Advantages Of Fiber Optic Cable:

Fast Low attenuation No EMI interference

Disadvantages Fiber Optics:

Very costly Hard to installation