Biology Welcome to the GCSE Biology revision section.

Click on the links below to see resources for Cell Activity, Genetics and DNA, Green Plants as Organisms, Humans as Organisms, Living Things in their Environment and Polymerisation of Amino Acids. These resources are constantly being added to. Cell Activity Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells Both types of cell have these: - Nucleus - Cytoplasm - Cell membrane - Mitochondria (Energy is released here by respiration) Only plant cells have these: - Cell wall - Large vacuole - Chloroplasts

Specialised Cells Root hair cell in Plants: It is adapted to do its job of taking in water and nutrients by having: - a large surface area - a thin cell membrane The Sperm cell is an example of a specialised animal cell:

Red Blood Cell - Carries oxygen around the body

Adaptations: No nucleus, large surface area, so maximum area for oxygen carriers: haemoglobin White Blood Cell – Fight disease, some make antibodies

Adaptations - Irregular shape, they can change shape to squeeze out of blood vessels and get to the site of infection. Others have cytoplasm which can flow making it possible for the cell to change shape, surround and engulf bacteria. Can increase in numbers to fight disease. Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems All living things are made up of Cells A group of Cells e.g. Heart Muscle makes up a Tissue e.g. Heart Muscle Tissue A group of Tissues makes up an Organ e.g. Heart A group of Organs makes up a System e.g. Circulatory System A group of Systems make up an Organism e.g. Humans Diffusion Diffusion = movement of molecules, from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. Oxygen diffuses into cells, and the waste carbon dioxide diffuses out.

Osmosis Osmosis = movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of high concentration of water to a low concentration of water molecules. It allows plants to take in water through their roots. It is used in kidney dialysis machines to filter the blood. Partially Permeable Membrane

Small molecules, such as water can pass through the small holes in the membrane. But larger molecules like sugar cannot pass through the membrane. Cell Division Cell Division Introduction Mitosis and Meiosis are the two types of cell division. Mitosis enables growth and repair to occur. Meiosis is for the production of sex cells. Mitosis is used in asexual reproduction. Meiosis is used to produce gametes for sexual reproduction Mitosis prodcues cells with identical number of chromosomes and genetic information are produced (46 in humans). Meiosis produces daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes of the parent (23 in humans) Meiosis (Sexual) Meiosis is the type of cell division by which germ cells (eggs and sperm) are produced.

Mitosis (Asexual) Mitosis is a process of cell division which results in the production of two daughter cells from a single parent cell. The daughter cells are identical to one another and to the original parent cell. Each chromosome replicates.

Summary - Specialised cells are adapted for a specific function e.g. root hair cell, red blood cell - Cells > tissues > organs > systems > organism - Diffusion = movement of particles from a region of high concentration to low concentration e.g. alveoli - Mitosis = asexual reproduction. Daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as parent cells - Meiosis = sexual reproduction. Daughter cells (gametes) have ½ the number of chromosomes as parent cells Genetics and DNA Genes Inside the nucleus are chromosomes Chromosome = 1000s of coils of genes Genes = comprise ‘DNA’ that decides our characteristics

and a gene from your father for a particular characteristic So each pair contains two “options” for a characteristic These options are called alleles e.DNA = deoxyribose nucleic acid (chemical) Each gene acts as a code for a particular characteristic Genes continued. gene = eye colour. A human egg cell and sperm cell contains 23 chromosomes Embryo therefore contains 23 pairs of chromosomes Each pair contains a gene from your mother.g. brown eye colour Alleles Alleles example: Eye Colour A heterozygous brown-eyed father and a blue-eyed mother Result: 50:50 chance of being either brown eyed or blue eyed Alleles Introduction . alleles = blue eye colour.

Adult sheep egg removed from ovary and nucleus removed 2. Strawberry runners and Daffodils Tissue Cultures . using donated DNA 4.An Allele is an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome.artifical clone) 1. Fused cell developed. Empty egg cell fused with DNA of udder cell of donor sheep 3. Alleles are dominant or recessive Homozygous = two same alleles (purebred) Heterozygous = two different alleles Dominant + recessive > dominant Dominant + dominant > dominant Recessive + dominant > dominant Recessive + recessive > recessive See next page for an example of this Cloning Animal Cloning Simple organisms reproduce by mitosis (e. amoeba) so identical offspring are produced Example: Dolly the Sheep (1996 .g. Embryo implanted into uterus of foster-mother sheep Result: Dolly became genetically identical to donor sheep Plant Cloning Clone = organism that is genetically identical to its parent Example of cloning in nature: Potato tubers.

Plants multiply very quickly by human intervention A number of cells are taken from the ‘parent’ plant and are grown by mitosis in growth hormones Advantages Disadvantages Many plants grow in a short amount of time Same genetic make-up: vulnerable to disease Little space is needed. space. mates It is ‘Survival of the Fittest’ Natural Selection = Survival of organisms best suited to surviving and reproducing in their environment See the next page for evidence of evolution Evidence for Evolution Rocks and Fossils The remains of organisms from millions of years ago are preserved as fossils in sedimentary rocks Fossils are formed in one of two ways: 1) Organism decomposes. and minerals become implanted in the tissue so that the organism turns to rock 2) Organism’s shape leaves an impression in the ground . conditions are controlled No new characteristics can arise by chance All new plants inherit the desired characteristics No variation: danger of reducing gene pool Evolution Evolution Introduction Darwin made 4 key observations: 1) Living things tend to produce more offspring than survive 2) Population numbers in a species stay constant over time 3) Each species displays a wide variation in features 4) Some of these variations are passed on to offspring Living things are in continuous competition with each other for food.

Greatly affected by environment .Multi-toed feet for walking on forest floor to single-toed hooves for running over open country Extinction Species or whole families of organisms die out (extinction) Any of 3 factors can contribute to extinction: 1. environment changes too quickly 2. shoe size.e. in low temperatures (glaciers) and high soil acidity (peat bog) Example of Evolution: The Horse Fossils provide evidence for the main stages of evolution of the horse over 60 million years . length of hair . new predator or disease kills them 3. height.Fossils are formed in areas of insufficient oxygen to decay.g. beaten by another species for competition for food Slowly changing environments mean that gradually certain characteristics will become favourable and those species without these characteristics will die out The environment can also change quickly.Dog-sized to 2m in height .Small differences between individuals . This affects great numbers of species that cannot keep up with the changes required for survival Variation & Mutation Continuous vs. Discontinuous Variation Continuous Variation .

doing better than others in that species.plotted on a bar chart or pie chart Environmental Variation Causes: climate. an organism’s genetic make-up (DNA) can change or mutate. personality. lifestyle. eye colour) .e. fashion. blood type Mutation During replication.. build. diet.Gamete forms from a unique combination of genetic information Siblings can have both similar and very different traits They are mixtures of their parents. natural hair colour. each sibling can receive different characteristics of their parents e. blood group. If mutation is large then the organism will probably not survive to reproduce If mutation is small then change might be beneficial.g.Mixing of parent information during meiosis . eye colour. aptitudes Genetic Variation Causes: .g.Genes: instructions for our genetic make-up (e. sex.plotted on a line graph Discontinuous Variation .Not greatly affected by environment . eye colour . taste.g.g. accidents Environment affects how our inherited characteristics develop Twins who grow up separately might become very different: e. culture. Offspring will flourish. hair colour. Many more offspring will inherit this beneficial mutation and will be better suited to that environment Thus continues natural selection Summary .Differences that are classed or categorised . hair colour.

Animal Cloning: used for selective breeding .Alleles: different types of the same gene (e.Evolution: Survival of the fittest! .Extinction: Occurs for 3 main reasons Green Plants as Organisms Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Introduction Photosynthesis is the chemical change which happens in the leaves of green plants. During this reaction. carbon dioxide and water are converted into glucose and oxygen.Example of Evolution: Horse . It is the first step towards making food. The reaction requires energy in the form of sunlight. blue eyes) ..Clones: genetically identical to the parent (mitosis) . Plants are producers – they produce their own food Plants produce their food via photosynthesis Photosynthesis occurs in the leaf .Tissue Culture: Many of a specialist organism type produced .Evidence for Evolution: Rocks and fossils . and chlorophyll must also be present.g.Mutation: Cells mutate under certain conditions .

3. Daytime Daytime Photosynthesis & Respiration Night-time No sunlight therefore no photosynthesis . Even if there is plenty of light a plant cannot photosynthesise if it has run out of carbon dioxide.Oxygen (waste product) Factors Affecting Photosynthesis Three factors limit photosynthesis from going any faster 1. Light level . Night-time vs.Chlorophyll – not used up . Increasing the light intensity will make photosynthesis faster.Needs .Only respiration Plant Hormones Plant Hormones Introduction Stem > always grows towards light Roots > always grow away from light Auxins (plant hormones controlling its growth) are produced in the growing tips of shoots and roots .Water (from the soil) . Temperature .CO2 (from the air) .If it gets too cold the rate of photosynthesis will slow right down. Carbon dioxide level . 2.Photosynthesis can be limited by the level of carbon dioxide.Glucose . If it gets too hot then plants cease to be able to photosynthesise.Without enough light a plant cannot photosynthesise very fast. even if there is plenty of water and carbon dioxide.Sunlight energy (any light except green light) – not used up Produces .

gravity and moisture Auxins cause some cells to elongate or grow at a faster rate Tropism = plant’s response to light. Sprayed onto unripened fruit during transportation to supermarkets 4. Producing fruit without seeds: Growth hormones sprayed on unpollinated flowers > grow fruit without fertilisation 3. gravity or moisture Positive tropism = response towards stimulus Negative tropism = response away from stimulus Geotropism = plant’s response to gravity Positive geotropism = roots grow towards direction of gravity Negative geotropism = shoots grow away from direction of gravity Hydrotropism = plant’s response to water Positive hydrotropism = shoots always follow direction of water Phototropism = plant’s response to light Light destroys auxins. grapes Transport & Water Relations Transpiration System Plants require water for growth.g. Plants are cloned quickly and cheaply 2. Increasing size of fruit: e. Growth of plant on shaded side continues > plant growth leans towards light Commercial Uses of Plant Hormones 1. temperature regulation and to hold themselves up Transpiration is the loss of water from the leaves by evaporation Transpiration system . Auxins on sunlit side of plant are destroyed.Auxins respond to light. Ripening fruit: Plant hormone ethene ripens fruit.Growing cuttings: cuttings are dipped into powder containing growth hormones. growth slows.

Water carried to leaves through xylem vessels . When open – O2 and CO2 enter and exit When closed – Reduce water loss Xylem and Phloem Vessels Xylem are vein like tissues that transport water and minerals up a plant Phloem are vein like structures through which food is transported around a plant ..As water evaporates.Water escapes through holes called stomata . more is sucked up xylem Stomata are tiny holes under a leaf allowing it to breathe.Water absorbed into roots through root hair cells . They open and close to control water loss.Water evaporates from underside of leaves .

but instead rely on the support of the strong. Fibre is important because it allows the muscles in our intestines to move the material along (called peristalsis).g. CO2. light intensity . Fibre is not digested in our diet. potatoes and rice. butter. auxin.Plant hormone.Xylem and phloem vessels transport water. fish. bread. responds to light.Water travels around the plant via the transpiration system . minerals and food . Example of food which carbohydrates can be found in are pasta. Example of food which fats can be found in are cheese. fruit and vegetables.Light destroys auxin .Photosynthesis: carbon dioxide + water > glucose + oxygen . Digestive System Introduction . impermeable xylem vessels Summary .Limiting factors: temperature.Auxin speeds up plant growth . They also contain fat-soluble vitamins.Cell Turgor Green plants rely on cell turgor which is the stiffness given to cell walls to hold themselves up Cell walls become turgid with water In woody plants.Water is needed in green plants for structure and support Humans as Organisms Food. eggs and cheese. Nutrition & Digestion Nutrition The main food types are: Carbohydrates (sometimes referred to as Starch) are required by our bodies as a source of energy. they do not need cell turgor. Examples of food which contain protein are meat. gravity and moisture . Examples of food which contain fibre are wholemeal products e. night-time: respiration . Fats are needed to insulate our bodies and to make cell membranes. Protein are required for growth and repair. oils and margarine.Daytime: respiration & photosynthesis.

Within the stomach the following happens to the foods Carbohydrate is turned into glucose. The following also play a part in the process . needed to insulate our bodies and make cell membranes. Large Intestine (Colon) is where indigestible food is passed to. The two sets of muscles produce wave-like contractions enabling food to move down the gut. Fats and oils are turned into fatty acids and glycerol. This process is called chemical digestion.The food we eat needs to be broken down into small pieces which we chew up into even smaller ones before swallowing them. Vitamins and minerals do not have to be digested because they are already small enough to get into our blood. Digestive System Diagram The digestive process is as follows: 1. Enzymes are responsible for this process. The Small Intestine receives the food next and produces protease and lipase. Chemical Digestion starts in the mouth through enzymes and saliva. large surface area by villi 3. This is known as physical digestion. food is absorbed into blood. Any excess water is absorbed before it is excreted from the anus. Once the food gets to the stomach the food is broken down further by the stomach's muscular walls. The food is then moved to the stomach 2. Peristalsis is the movement of food through the digestive system by the contractions of two sets of muscles in the walls of the gut. Substances which our body needs cannot be absorbed into our blood until they have been broken down further and converted into small soluble chemicals. Protein is turned into amino acids. required for cell growth and repair. which our bodies need to make energy.

Exam Tip: Think about the journey of food through the digestive system as you would any other journey. Digestive System Experiment To show just what happens if bacteria make it past the skin and nose the students look at the digestive system. There's only one beginning and only one end. and absorb very small molecules into the blood stream. the path that food takes when we eat. It is this acid that is responsible for killing off unwanted pathogens in our food.The Stomach produces protease. lipase.The Gall Bladder stores bile after its been made by the liver . Describe the movement of food and what happens to it at each stage. Villi are located in the small intestine. protease for proteins and lipase for fats. They are normally used in hospitals to investigate the causes of many gastro-intestinal problems. And of course there is stomach acid. but other things get added along the way. protease Villi Villi are small projections covering the inside walls of the small instestine. Because the scientist hadn't eaten for 24 hours there is no food in his stomach but plenty of enzymes and digestive juices. HCl and pummels food with muscular walls . the same pH as car battery acid. Challenge yourself to memorise the functions of all the major parts. One of the scientists is given a special camera to swallow. Try to remember that there are only three main digestive enzymes: carbohydrase for carbohydrates. .The Pancreas produces enzymes: carbohydrase. All other molecules (indigestible) are passed into the large intestine.. Food products pass into the blood stream through the villi.

• What are the three main types of food molecules? And what are each broken down into by digestive enzymes? • Describe how you would test for (a) Starch. (b) Protein (c) Simple sugars (d) Fats. And then through the aortic valve and out of the aorta to the rest of the body . And then up through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery towards the lungs 4. It’s then pumped through a valve into the right ventricle chamber 3. The right side of the heart pumps de-oxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen. Deoxygenated blood enters through the vena cava into the right atrium 2. It’s then pumped through a valve into the left ventricle 6. The left side of the heart pumps the oxygenated blood from the lungs around the rest of the body. Heart & Circulatory System Circulatory System The heart is a four-chambered muscular pump which pumps blood round the circulatory system. Oxygenated blood enters through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium 5.Example Exam Questions: • Describe how surface area of the small intestine is increased by villi. 1.

Oxygen is absorbed from the lungs into the blood. and carbon dioxide is removed from the blood and breathed out from the lungs. This exchange is vital. Alveoli .How the Blood is Transported Arteries (thick walled muscular tubes) carry blood away from the heart at high pressure in thick walled lumen Capillaries (very narrow tubes) have thin walls to allow glucose and oxygen to diffuse through Veins (thin walled tubes) carry low pressure blood back to the heart. Veins have thinner walls and valves to prevent backflow of blood Breathing & Respiratory System Breathing When we breathe in and out we suck air into them then expel it again.

Our bodies require energy for the seven life processes .Moist . with energy being released by the breaking of bonds in the glucose molecules. Aerobic Respiration Aerobic respiration takes place in the presence of oxygen. Glucose molecules react with oxygen molecules to form carbon dioxide and water molecules.Alveoli are the final branchings of the respiratory tree and act as the primary gas exchange units of the lung Used for exchanging gases: Deoxygenated enters lungs from body. There are two main types of respiration.Large surface area . Energy is required for growth.Good blood supply Respiratory System Respiration is the release of energy from glucose or other organic substances. repair. movement and other metabolic activities. oxygenated enters capillaries from lungs Advantages of alveoli . aerobic and anaerobic.

running fast) Only 1/20th energy amount is produced compared to aerobic respiration Lactic acid builds up. oxygen and from breathing Water and carbon dioxide are exhaled Anaerobic Respiration Anaerobic respiration occurs when oxygen is not available. the week builds up to the most grisly Big Experiment yet . From hunting for the body's hidden enemy. which causes muscle fatigue due to oxygen debt This is overcome by deep breathing to oxidise the acid Skin Experiments RevisionWorld and Sky Learning has teamed up with Graham Warren. science teacher at Woodchurch High School Specialist Engineering College and author of woodchurchscience to create a GCSE Science study aid to accompany the Discovery Channels. and lactic acid is produced . This extreme demonstration shows the incredible strength of skin and is equivalent to hanging 20 bags of sugar from each square centimetre by a metal hook.This energy is obtained from respiration glucose + oxygen > water + carbon dioxide + energy Glucose comes from our food.together with a much smaller amount of energy. Sky Channel 520. to investigating the strength of skin with the help of extreme performance artists and following the digestive process as it happens. The Big Experiment" series will air on the Discovery Channel. Energy can still be produced without oxygen Only a little bit of energy is obtained from respiration glucose > lactic acid + energy Anaerobic respiration occurs in humans when oxygen is not obtained quick enough (e. dermis and subcutaneous layers. "The Big Experiment" six part series which is about the explosive. bacteria.a full horse dissection Skin Covering our entire body our skin is our biggest organ. . mind blowing power of science and how it can change lives. Skin is strong because of the presence of collagen and elastin protein fibres within the epidermis. Students are visited by suspension artists who have trained themselves to hang by hooks from the tough parts of their skin. in both the boys' toilets and their own noses. These experiments introduces the students to the wonder of the Human Body.g. Glucose is only partially broken down.

Explain why. entering the body. Example Exam Questions: • In hospitals. the students are asked to visit the boy's toilets lit only by ultraviolet light. • Why do our ‘hairs standing on end' make very little difference to our body warmth nowadays? Bacteria To show just how important our skin is in keeping out bacteria. Later in the program they discover just what sorts of bacteria lurk up our noses! . There's a lot to learn here so think about writing mini-essays to help you remember material.Exam Tip: There are three main things that the skin does for us. The students also take swabs from different areas of the toilets to find out which are most heavily populated and then they use a biotrace luminometer to analyse the results. Example Exam Questions: • Explain how the skin alters body temperature when (a) you're too cold (b) when you're too hot. the immune system and immunisation. absorbing the normally invisible UV light re-emitting it as visible light that we can see. The highest readings were found nearest to the sinks where the presence of warm water encourages bacterial growth. colonies of bacteria grow and multiply on the agar jelly. the nose has a lining consisting of small hairs called cilia designed to move mucus that is produced in goblet cells. When these dishes are incubated. Eyes and Brain The Nose To help prevent bacteria entering our bodies. The third is that skin helps control temperature. it stops you drying out and it stops germs getting in ensuring a constant internal environment. The first two are obvious. it is very important that nurses and doctors wash their hands thoroughly after examining each patient. The students are encouraged to find out what's lurking up their noses by smearing some of their own mucus (from picking their noses!) on to some agar jelly in a petri dish. Exam Tip: Break down your revision about microbes into several smaller chunks: bacteria and viruses. These fluoresce under UV light. Under these conditions bacteria and other organic matter glow in the dark. Use bullet points to order your thoughts. • Describe how you could use Petri dishes filled with sterile nutrient agar to find out whether doctors and nurses wash their hands thoroughly enough in a hospital.

Example Exam Questions: • Explain the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. which bring about a response. The central nervous system co-ordinates the information and responds by sending signals to the effectors. You may be expected to label a diagram so learn the names of the major parts. Sketch them out and practise labelling. Relay – carry messages from one part of CNS (central nervous system) to another 3. • Present arguments for and against the introduction of non-smoking pubs and restaurants. don't be worried about reproducing brilliant diagrams from memory. Sensory – carry signals from sense organs to brain 2. Nervous System Nervous System Introduction The nervous system is a means of gathering information about. • The respiratory system can be damaged by smoking tobacco. It takes place in every cell in our bodies and is more to do with releasing energy. Motor – carry signals from CNS to muscles . The nervous system is made up of receptors which respond to stimuli and pass on information about them. Remember that respiration is not just ‘breathing in and breathing out'. and responding to. With particular reference to the cilia explain why smokers suffer more bronchial disease than people who do not smoke.Exam Tip: When learning complicated processes like breathing and digestion. changes in the environment either inside or outside the body. Electrical signals are carried around the body along neurones Example: you walk into a bright room Stimulus > receptor > CNS > effector > response So… Light intensity > eye > brain > eye muscles receive information > eye muscles make pupil smaller Neurones There are 3 neurones 1.

which might be too slow So… the brain is bypassed Stimulus > receptor > effector > response Hormones Hormones Introduction Hormones help to regulate metabolic processes in the body Hormones are secreted into the blood through endocrine glands They travel in the blood to organs where they take effect The diagram below shows the endocrine system Hormone Reference Chart . a bee sting The reflex arc does not require a conscious action.Reflex Arc A reflex arc is the subconscious movement from a stimulus that can cause harm e.g.

Womb lining builds-up . The egg ripens in the ovaries . Four hormones are involved: Oestrogen. Progesterone.stimulated by FSH 2.stimulated by Oestrogen . FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone ) and LH (Luteinising hormone ) Key stages 1.The Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes in women associated with reproductive fertility.

caused by low levels of oestrogen and progesterone 6. Insulin not injected by pancreas 2.3. Blood and tissue loss (menstruation) Homeostasis Controlling Blood Sugar Level Homeostasis is the body’s method of controlling the internal conditions Blood Glucose level too high? 1. Hypothalamus (part of brain) detects too much water in blood 2. Egg is releases . Less glucose absorbed by tissues 3. Blood glucose increased Diabetes – This is a condition where people who suffer from this do not make insulin so it needs to be injected Controlling Body Water Too much water? 1. Blood glucose reduced Blood Glucose level too low? 1. Pituitary gland releases less ADH . Glucose absorbed by liver 4. Insulin injected by pancreas 2.stimulated by progesterone 5. Maintenance of uterus lining .stimulated by the LH (about day 14) 4. Glucose absorbed by tissues 3. Less glucose absorbed by liver 4. Uterus lining breaks down .

3. nose and cuts or bites in the skin Microbes (bacteria and viruses) can cause diseases Two types of white blood cell: 1. Lymphocytes – engulf pathogens 2. Our hairs lie flat so we let more body heat out 2. Kidneys absorb less water from blood 4. Decreased blood flow occurs through the skin Maintaining Health Fighting Infection Microbes (an organism too small to be seen by the naked eye) can enter the body through the mouth. More water reaches bladder and is lost through urine 5. Increased blood flow occurs through the skin to radiate out heat Too cold? 1. Blood water level returns to normal Too little water? 1. Phagocytes – contain antibodies . Hypothalamus detects too little water in blood 2.Our hairs stand up trapping a layer of air which acts like an insulator 2. We sweat and the evaporation of this cools us down 3. We stop sweating stopping the heat loss by evaporation 3. Blood water level returns to normal Controlling Temperature Too hot? 1. Less water reaches bladder and is lost through urine 5. Pituitary gland releases more ADH 3. Kidneys absorb more water from blood 4.

Organisms inhale oxygen and exhale CO2 . they contain: 1. Tar contains carcinogens which cause cancers 3. Engulf the microbe 2. Carbon monoxide – poisonous gas which joins onto red blood cells making them incapable of transporting oxygen around the body Summary . Produce antibodies to neutralise the microbe 3 Produce antitoxins to neutralise the toxins released by the microbe Drugs Overview Drugs: Tobacco & Smoking Cigarettes are harmful in three ways.small molecules are absorbed into blood .Nicotine – addictive drug that leads to heart disease.Food is digested > v.White blood cells do 3 things: 1. Tar – coats the lining of the lungs > less O2 is absorbed. Nicotine raises blood pressure and narrows arteries 2.The heart pumps oxygenated blood to the body. and deoxygenated blood to the lungs .

Anaerobic respiration produces energy without oxygen: Glucose > lactic acid + small amounts of energy . two rows of eyelashes to keep sand out .water .slit-like nostrils.mates to reproduce .Organisms respire to produce energy required to survive: Glucose + oxygen > water + carbon dioxide + energy .food .Stimulus > receptor > CNS > effector > response .Hormones help regulate the body’s metabolic rate . temperature..The body is affected in different ways by many types of drug Living Things in their Environment Competition & Adaptation Competition Organisms compete with each other for certain essential needs for survival.nutrients & minerals Animals compete for: .water .living space Adaptation Example: Camel & Polar Bear Living things adapt over time to their environment in order to survive Camel well suited for desert: .light for photosynthesis .The body controls: water.The body’s white blood cells fight disease . glucose content by homeostasis . Survival of the Fittest! Plants compete for: .

plants and their environment Our impact is so great due to: .population increase . The effects: . flat feet to stop them sinking into sand .sudden changes in climate Urbanisation & Industrialisation More and more people are moving into the cities.food and water supply .wide.thick fur to keep sun off their skin Polar Bear well suited for Arctic: .white fur camouflages against snow and ice . hairy soles avoid bear from slipping Impact of Humans Impact of Humans Introduction Humans pose a huge threat to lives of animals. and waste Human Population Growth Humans can adapt to survive in almost all habitats and climates.over-crowding .black skin absorbs heat well ..wide. The human population is increasing rapidly and is threatening the environment The population will eventually be limited by these factors: .consumption of natural resources.thick layers of fat and fur for insulation .technologies that change the world so quickly .disease and pollution .

land taken out of food production .farmland is built on.Microbes increase the competition for oxygen .rural communities and cultures dissolve as people leave to live in urban areas Development of industries The effects: . Birds eat the fish 4.loss of natural habitats. Plants grow faster and boost crop yields. 4. as cities and roads are built .non-renewable fossil fuels are used for energy ..Algae grows fast using up lots of oxygen and blocking sunlight . Fish eat the animals.release of greenhouse gases speeds up global warming Effect of Fertilisers Intensive farming can damage the environment. . Pesticides can be abosrbed by small aquatic animals 2. 3. which have eaten pesticides 3. Rain means may wash nutrients from the fields and into rivers and lakes (this is called run-off).increased pollution due to traffic. Pesticides enters food chain Fishing & Forestry . Fertilisers containing plant nutrients are sprayed onto fields 2. Eutrophication (hyper-nutirtion from fertisiler pollution) occurs which can kill almost everything living. energy consumption and waste production .Water becomes de-oxygenated causing aquatic life to die Effect of Pesticides Pesticides used to kill insects and other crop damaging micro-organisms can effect the food chain 1.Plants begin to die providing food for microbes . 1.

sewage and oil.sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. rivers Effects: . causes soil erosion leading to barren land and potential flooding 3) causes pollution from combustion 4) increased levels of carbon dioxide as loss of photosynthesis Pollution Atmospheric Pollution: Causes: by combustion. which mix with rainwater to form acid rain .Fishing: Unsustainability: the using up of resources faster than they are produced so that they will not continue in the future Example: North Sea Cod are over-fished so are reproducing slower than are being caught. which cause climate change . exhaust fumes. lakes. waste dumps Effects: .carbon dioxide and Methane.smoke.carbon monoxide. which destroy habitats and kill animals . The effect of this means the cod population is heavily declining Forestry: Humans burn wood or clear land for farming causing deforestation: Deforestation: 1. which damages air quality . livestock. destroys habitats 2. which is poisonous to humans and animals Water Pollution: Causes: deposition of substances into seas.fertilisers and pesticides. which damage ecosystems Global Warming The Earth is heating up as CO2 levels are increasing – why? .

Energy is absorbed up a food chain. Deforestation (loss in photosynthesis) 2. Combustion of fossil fuels Increase in methane due to: 1. this amount of energy decreases rapidly 1st trophic: photosynthesis 2nd onwards: .respiration . energy is transferred along food chains from one trophic level to the next. rotting plant material 3. drilling for oil and gas Energy Transfer In every ecosystem.movement . but at each trophic level.excretion .Earth’s atmosphere is an insulating layer It lets the Sun’s heat in but also stops some going out Increase in carbon dioxide due to: 1.transport Carbon & Carbon Cycle . The trophic level is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain .what it eats and what eats it. livestock farming 2.

They cannot get it directly from the air because nitrogen gas is too stable to react inside an organism to make new compounds. moving repeatedly from one organism to another. Plants can take up and use nitrogen when it is in the form of nitrates or ammonium salts.make new cells for growth and repair Carbon cycles through ecosystems. Nitrogen must be changed into a more reactive form to allow plants and animals to use it. . Nitrogen fixation is the process when it is changed into a more reactive substance.Living organisms need carbon to: .make energy (through respiration) . Nitrogen Cycle Living organisms need nitrogen to make proteins. and between organisms and the environment.make food (green plants photosynthesise) .

Plants and animals compete for certain things to survive .Habitats and the environment are destroyed by urbanisation & industrialisation. and is transferred through the nitrogen cycle Polymerisation of Amino Acids • Two amino acids can be linked by a CONDENSATION reaction (removal of a water molecule) • This creates a PEPTIDE BOND between the Carbon atom in the acid group and the Nitrogen atom in the amine group .Carbon is a necessity to life.Humans impact on the environment and the lives of others . fishing & forestry and pollution . use of fertilisers.Organisms adapt to suit their environment . use of pesticides.Summary . and is transferred through the carbon cycle .Nitrogen is a necessity to life.Energy is transferred through food web trophic levels .Global warming is increasing rapidly due to human impact .

found in bone. • Tertiary structure is the "global" folding of a single polypeptide chain.• The resulting molecule is called a DIPEPTIDE • • A chain of amino acids can be built up in this way .catalyse metabolic reactions o Haemoglobin . tendons and ligaments for tensile strength .it is called a POLYPEPTIDE A protein may contain just one polypeptide or may have two or more chains that interact Protein Structure Protein structure is broken down into four levels: • Primary structure . cartilage.binds to oxygen to transport it around body Fibrous Proteins • Polypeptides form long chains running parallel to each other • These chains are linked by disulphide cross bridges – making the proteins very stable and strong • Fibrous proteins have Structural functions: o Keratin in skin and hair o Collagen . GLOBULAR and FIBROUS Proteins Globular Proteins • Molecule forms a coiled shape (globule) • Hydrophobic groups point into centre of molecule away from water • Only hydrophilic groups are exposed outside the molecule so globular proteins are soluble • Globular proteins have roles in metabolic reactions: o Enzymes .the "linear" sequence of amino acids. • Secondary structure is "local" ordered structure brought about via hydrogen bonding mainly within the peptide backbone. • Quartenary structure involves the association of two or more polypeptide chains into a multi-subunit structure.

cartilage. It is found in many diverse organisms and organs: • • • in humans in tendons.an example of a Fibrous Protein Collagen is the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.an example of a Globular Protein • Haemoglobin has a quaternary structure made up of 4 separate polypeptide chains: o 2 identical ?-chains with 141 amino acids each o 2 identical ?-chains with 146 amino acids each • Each polypeptide chain is folded/coiled into a compact shape due to hydrophobic interactions between the (hydrophobic) R groups • All 4 polypeptide chains are linked to form a roughly spherical haemoglobin molecule • The precise 3D-shape of the Haemoglobin molecule is absolutely critical to it's Oxygencarrying function • The Hydrophilic R-groups are arranged around the outside of the molecule which allows Haemoglobin to mix with the watery medium inside red blood cells • Attached to each polypeptide chain is a prosthetic HAEM group with an Fe2+ ion • Each Fe2+ ion can combine with one O2 molecule • Human haemoglobin has four polypeptide chains and four haem groups and can therefore carry 4 x O2 molecules • When haemoglobin is bound to oxygen it is called oxyhaemoglobin and the colour changes from purplish red to bright red • The 3D-shape of globular proteins is critical to their function – slight changes can have radical effects – eg in sickle cell anaemia one amino acid change causes a shape change in the molecule that in turns reduces the ability of haemoglobin to bind to oxygen and changes the shape of the whole red blood cell from a biconcave disk to a sickle shape. Severe sickle cell anaemia can be fatal. the walls of blood vessels. gums sea anemones egg cases of dogfish . Collagen . bone.Haemoglobin .

• The triple stranded molecules run parallel to others and disulphide cross-linkages between the R-groups of the amino acid lysine holds the molecules together forming fibres • The ends of the collagen molecules are staggered to avoid weak points – giving collagen ¼ the tensile strength of steel QUESTIONS Quick Fire Questions Quiz 1 Question 1 In which part of a cell does aerobic respiration take place? Answer mitochondria Question 2 What is meant by the term carnivore? Answer An animal that feeds exclusively on animals. Question 3 What do the initials DNA stand for? Answer deoxyribonucleic acid Question 4 . straight and unbranched helix The Quaternary Structure of Collagen • 3 of these helical polypeptides are wound around each other and held by H-bonds.Collagen is strong but still flexible – this is important in tendons which cannot be rigid The Primary structure of collagen • a repeat sequence of 3 amino acids glycine-proline-X (any other amino acid) The Secondary/Tertiary Structure of Collagen • glycine is the smallest amino acid and this together with proline allow the polypeptide chain to be wound into a tightly coiled.

Question 3 What is an exoskeleton? Answer an external skeleton such as a shell Question 4 What is a synapse? Answer The gap between two neurons Question 5 .What are alleles? Answer different forms of the same gene Question 5 What is the main function of platelets? Answer They help blood clot Quiz 2 Question 1 How do green plants make their own food? Answer photosynthesis Question 2 What is the function of stomata? Answer They control the exchange of gases and water loss in the leaf.

Human Eye Answer .What is the main function of platelets? Answer they help the blood to clot Longer Questions Question 1 .

Question 2 .Blood Answer .

Alleles Answer .Question 3 .

Nutrition Answer .Question 4 .

Question 5 .Enzymes Answer .

Question 6 .Viruses Answer .

Question 7 .Energy Answer .

Anatomy Answer .Question 8 .

Question 9 .Transpiration .

Answer Question 10 .Food Web .

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