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are born with all the advantages however, this does not mean that they never gets a taste of that. While this advantageous „silver spoon‟ factor has determined the course of many organization become more successful by having a good Managers; which is the major key of organizational successful is leadership. The 21st century poses many challenges to organizations and their leaders. Globalization, increased competition, international conflict, and continuous technological changes, combined with multiple reporting relationships as well as employee and customer diversity, make the requirements of leadership increasingly complex. What is leadership? Leadership has a lot of meanings; some view leadership as a series of specific traits or characteristics. Others see it as comprised of certain skills and knowledge. And some, me included, think of leadership as a process. Basically, the view of leadership actually is a process, places an emphasis on social interaction and relationship. Arthur Carmazzi holds that “leaders are not about changing the mindset of the group but in the cultivation of an environment that brings out the best (inspires) in the individuals in that group”. Means that each individual has various environments that bring out different facets from their own identity, and each facet is driven by emotionally charged perceptions within each environment. To lead, one must create a platform through education and awareness where individuals fill each other‟s needs. This is accomplished by knowing why people may react favorably to a situation in environment A, but get frustrated or disillusioned in environment B. According to Ms. Tiffany Yates‟ study (as cited in Bolgelt & Falk, 2007), “leadership is a nature requires individuals to think in new and different ways about products, services and processes-to learn new ways of doing things, take risks, make mistakes, and step out of
the normal way doing things.” This is not easy for individuals; particularly in business settings where failure is often consider career limiting. If an organization‟s culture fosters a fear of being fired, ridiculed, or marginalized at work, it damages the ability to direct selfmanaged leadership teams. There is a conundrum which is that risk taking is essential for leading innovation and change effectively; yet risk taking is increasingly difficult in a risk management environment. It‟s important to have a definition of leadership because for example, in my role as a leadership consultant it is not necessary for me to share my clients definition of leadership – but it is important to know whether they have a definition and, if they do, what is included in that definition. If there isn‟t an understanding of what leadership entails it diminishes the likelihood that the client will get what they want from our relationship. It is similar to a client looking to hire a consultant to increase employee engagement and, after digging a bit deeper with the client, discovering that what they are actually looking for is a way to improve the efficiency of work processes. Besides that, by having good leadership its will help organizational became more effectiveness, if a leader has a good personal quality that can facilitate the successful accomplishment of executive performance requirements, which in turn drive organizational success. It‟s also appears constancy of purpose gives people confidence. This makes sense, because if things are not constantly changing, people can trust the future. However, from a negative standpoint, leaders can damage people's individual selfconfidence and thus negatively affect a group or team through their actions. Anxiety can negatively influence organizational efficacy. Anxiety about job loss or other uncertainties can negatively affect organizations. People without assurance will not have efficacy, and their loss of confidence will have a negative impact on performance. Finally, it is the leader who regulates the flow of anxiety into a department. So it depends on how an organization selects or develops its managers. For example, if organization believes that certain people are “born
leaders” because of their personal traits, need, or orientation, then the managers could be selected partially on the basis of their scores on certain test. But if the organization believe that leadership consists of specific skills or behaviors, then theoretically we should be able to train any employee to become an outstanding leader. The organization must able to give time and teach leaders to adapt the behavior to meet the situation. In context of Malaysia, once known primarily for its commodity exports of tin and rubber, has grown rapidly into an important trading partner of both the United States and Europe. A large Islamic nation with a diverse population of Malays, Chinese, and Indians, it preserves many traditional values while adopting an increasingly international outlook. Malaysians place particular emphasis on collective well-being and display a strong humane orientation within a society that respects hierarchical differences; in this situation, effective leaders are needed to avoid actions that incompatible with values and expectations in Malaysian population. And it‟s expected to show compassion while using an autocratic or participative style. There are many leadership theories, and the early leadership theories was focused on what qualities distinguished between leaders and followers, while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill levels. While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of eight major types which are "Great Man" Theories, Trait Theories, Contingency Theories, Situational Theories, Behavioral Theories, Participative Theories, Management Theories, and Relationship Theories. Here I‟m going to focus on Behavioral Theories; which is this theory are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.
Then, According to Ann Gilley & Heather S. McMillan & Jerry W. Gilley (2009), “the value of interpersonal skills in successfully implementing change, specifically the abilities to motivate, communicate, and create environments supportive of teams”. Leaders who possess and demonstrate these skills are perceived as more effective in driving change. The business terrain is littered with the remains of organizations and their leaders who lacked the requisite skills to successfully drive change, and they have become statistics in the rate of failure of change. So that means, to become an effective leadership and organizational became more effectiveness, the leader must have skills. The basic skills are integrity, vision/strategy, communication, relationships, persuasion, adaptability, teamwork, coaching and development, decision-making and planning. Integrity means honesty and more. It refers to having strong internal guiding principles that one does not compromise. It means treating others as you would wish to be treated. Integrity is a skill to the extent that we see it in action. But it goes much deeper than surface actions. It is based on one‟s guiding beliefs and values, and is an important example of an essential leadership quality. A leader must have a clear idea where his or her organization and unit are going beyond this month‟s results or this year‟s budget. Where is it going in the long term? Even tactical leaders must be clear about this and need to refer frequently to the vision, mission, and values of the organization in their communications with others. Vision is another example of an essential leadership quality. Communication in the context of leadership refers to both interpersonal communications between the leader and followers and the overall flow of needed information throughout the organization. Leaders need to learn to be proficient in both the communication that informs and seeks out information (gives them a voice) and the communication that connects
interpersonally with others. Communication is another example leadership skill that must be cultivated by all leaders. Networking (the art of social “schmoozing”) is also a relationship skill. Relationships develop from good interpersonal and group communication skills but relationship skills also go deeper. A leader who likes dealing with people issues, who can initiate and deepen relationships with others, has a great leadership advantage. This is a leader who can build a team and achieve impressive results. This kind of leadership is based on personal power (the right kind of power), not position power. Relationship-building is an example of an essential leadership quality. The ability to influence others and cause them to move in a particular direction is a highly important skill in leadership. In fact, leadership is often defined as the ability to persuade or influence others to do something they might not have done without the leader‟s persuasion. Leader ability to be persuasive is directly related to how much people trust you and how good your communication and relationships are. Persuasion (also called influence) is a good example of an essential leadership skill. Adaptability and flexibility in not being bound by a plan are important success factors in leadership today. The leader must move easily from one set of circumstances (the plan) to the next (the plan is not going as expected) and take them all in stride, even when the circumstances are unexpected. The good leader has to embrace change and see it as opportunity. The leadership skill of adaptability is another example of a critical skill. No one person can do it all. That‟s why a team, comprised of others with different skill sets, is essential. A leader must know how to build and nurture such a team. A good leader knows when to be a leader and when to be a follower. The best leaders are good followers when that's what is needed. Building teamwork is another essential leadership skill example.
Enveloping others is an important role for a leader. Encouraging others to expand their capabilities and take on additional assignments is part of the leader‟s responsibility. Leaders who feel threatened by the capabilities of others are challenged in this area. Coaching and development are essential skills all leaders must cultivate. A leader must be able to wade through information, comprehend what‟s relevant, make a well-considered decision, and take action based on that decision. Making decisions too quickly or too slowly will impede your leadership effectiveness. Decisiveness is another example of an essential leadership quality. The last one is planning, planning involves making certain assumptions about the future and taking actions in the present to positively influence that future. To plan means to focus more strategically. Plans are important for guidance and focus, but plans can seldom be cast in stone. Planning is an excellent and necessary example leadership skill. These arguments have been supported by Yukl (1982), Carter (1952), Hemphill and Coons (1950) and Gibbs (1969) in their behavioral “theory”; which is this theory have proposed because it has another way to think about leadership. That actually an excellent leaders is must have specific skills or engage in leaders behaviors. Leadership effectiveness could be due to the personality of the manager. It could be due to the leadership style of the manager or it could be due to other factors such as age, gender, experience, and educational background. This is true as managers are not alike; they do not enjoy the same personality traits and they do not use the same leadership style. Some of them may fall in the Extroversion dimension while others may fall in the Agreeableness one. Some of them may be autocratic while others may be democratic. Based on the above, to be good and effective leaders must have skills and good behavioral; mostly all this statement (research) and practice is base on aboard country and this
is also happen and use in Malaysian context which our leader is played their role as well. For example, the prosperity enjoyed by all Malaysian today is the outcome from scarification and effort from our previous leaders. The late or former Prime Minister such as Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra al-haj, Tun Abdul Razak, Tun Hussain Onn, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad and Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi are the nation development engineers which so brave and so intelligence solving all the threat from internal and external the country. Malaysia will not achieve the status of one of the world most developed Muslim country and having all the first class „hardware‟ without these leaders. Then, during the leading period of Malaysia fourth Prime Minister – Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad, who known as Asia Little Giant by western country leading Malaysia throughout his 22 years of leadership. He was making Malaysia economy grew strongly and the name of country outshine internationally. Under the leadership of Tun Mahathir, the aim, mission, vision and country development ideas was successfully carried out continuously. “Today's business environment is very challenging, with the world economy still recovering from the electronics downturn and the dot.com burst in 2001, the emergence of new economic hubs such as China, India and Vietnam as well as the dramatic increase in globalization of the economy. Along with the related technological and social trends, these bring about the so-called threat of a "hollowing-out" effect, with the possibility of manufacturing factories, either foreign or local Malaysian, moving their manufacturing bases to areas with cheaper and more abundant labor supply” (PDC report, 2002). Based on this situation, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad introduced one system that calls Gold Dinar in 2002. This system is in response to the currency crisis of the scale seen in Asia in 1997-1998. Malaysia‟s concern since then has been the vulnerability and volatility of the money, a bane suffered by this country and others in the regions in 1997-1998 that it now wants to avoid or minimize. Having one of the most open economies, Malaysia is often at the mercy of swings in its currency. Though pegging the Malaysian Ringgit to US Dollar in 1999
has brought some semblance of stability, the currency is nonetheless still subject to constant volatility with other currencies. Just as the capital-control measures the government introduced in response to the financial crisis in 1998 were initially viewed with cynicism by many, the Gold Dinar plan has its share of critics and supporters. Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad brings lot of changes in his career. He converts our Malaysia from agriculture to industrial. He is the one who introduced Malaysia as an industrial nation to other countries. He brings lot of changes in economy, politics and social. He also grows up the Malaysia Economy to compete with other nation such like USA, China and also Korea. Turning to the context of a community in Malaysian organization, empirical evidences also indicated that the practice of participative approach will lead to more effective leadership. Community leaders in Malaysia performed various roles such as leading a multiracial team, change agent, problem-solver, negotiator, planning and conducting community programs, communicator, resource-linker and manager. In approaching those leadership roles, empirical evidences indicated that the leaders often have to use participative approach in order to be effective. For example, in solving racial problems in the community; they will call the parties involved, sit down and discuss with them, get views from the other committee members and also views of officer from the Department of National Unity and Integration (locally abbreviated and known as JPNIN). After discussion, the officer from JPNIN will provide some explanation on racial unity, get feedback from all parties involved and get agreement from the conflicting parties on settling the problem. The committee members of the Association and the Chairman also together assist in solving community problems. In bringing about change for the community; they try to get agreement from the members of the community, through giving out written notices, committee members of the Association, and other NGO leaders about the change and every change that is going to be implemented will be discussed in the meeting with committee members.
Working in a team; it‟s important to have a team with high commitment and sincerity in conducting volunteer work then only we can have active team, such as voluntary Patrolling Scheme by members of community need their voluntary participation that work in teams, and there should be no conflicts in the teams. In making decision; they will accept ideas from members of the community and also evaluate those ideas according to situations; and practicing good values is always show good characters and values to the people so that they will follow their leadership. It‟s requiring traits such being tolerant and flexible to handle people of various races such as being fair when providing services to all races. Based on the above discussion, to be an effective leader is must able to know how to resolve problem and making decision. Besides that, the leader should not be autocratic and too task-oriented in their approach and they need to engage others in any community work that they are conducting. As a conclusion, based on the definitions given by all the authors above and from the review of literature that I have done, they are different perception in definition of leadership and it‟s (leadership) also can be concluded to be a group phenomenon since there are no leaders without followers. It also follows that there is a process of influencing between the leaders and followers. Leadership is also considered to be goal directed because the leaders use the influence to guide the followers through a course of action to achieve certain goals. It can be said that leadership is defined as a process whereby a person influences individuals and groups within an organization, which helps them to establish and accomplish goals. Besides that, to be a good leader one must also have skills and good behavioral, and the effective leader is a key to a success of organization or country. Furthermore, from my view with this entire journal more discussed about effective leadership from various theories. The dominant ideas on leadership initially begin with the behavior theory; and this theory has been adopted in Malaysian context. It‟s supported by Ms. Tiffany Yates‟ study, which is this case study it
illustrates effectiveness of developing self-directed leadership teams. That means by having specific leader skills such as leaders can or able to organize and structure work, communicate formally with subordinates, set goals, make decisions, and so on; it will help them in developing self-directed leadership teams and indirectly it will increase company productivity. And the finding also concludes that have a relations between value of the culture in country and the effect on the value on the organization‟s culture. Then I also agreed with this author, it‟s a relevant and applicable theory that Malaysia context used; it because from my view the truly Malaysian manager must therefore be sensitive to the needs and wants of their subordinates. If the subordinates prefer a nurturing and participative style, the adaptation from autocratic style is needed. And this statement approved when we looking or turning in context of Malaysian community; and also has been support by researchers that have been proposed a behavioral theory.