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32

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS-I1

ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 40,NO. 1, JANUARY 1993

**Complex Eigenfilter Design of Arbitrary Complex Coefficient FIR Digital Filters
**

Pei, Senior Member, IEEE, and Jong-Jy Shyu, Member, IEEE

Abstract-The real eigenfilter approach is extended to complex cases for designing arbitrary complex FIR filters. By minimizing a quadratic measure of the error in the passband and stopband, a complex eigenvector of an appropriate complex, Hermitian symmetric, and positive-definite matrix is computed to get the filter coefficients. Several arbitrary magnitude and phase FIR filters, such as multiple passband complex filters and staircasedelay allpass phase equalizers, can be easily designed by this approach. This method can be easily extended to design 2-D complex FIR filters. Also, if an appropriate iterative process is used, equiripple filters in the complex Chebyshev sense can be obtained. Several numerical design examples are presented, which demonstrate the usefulness of the approach.

I. INTRODUCTION AIDYANATHAN and Nguyen have recently introduced the eigenfilter approach for designing linear phase real FIR filters [l]. Comparison to the well-known McClellan-Parks algorithm for minimax equiripple filters shows that both are optimal in the sense of different minimum norms of the error function. The equiripple filters are optimal in the minimax sense, in which the maximum of the errors is smallest for a given set of specifications,and the eigenfilters are optimal in the least squares sense that the total quadratic error in the passband and stopband is the minimum. The unique advantage of the eigenfilter approach over the McClellan-Parks algorithm is that it is general enough to incorporate both time- and frequency-domain constraints. Compared to the weighting least squares method [2], the eigen-approach needs to compute the eigenvalue; however, large matrix inversion is necessary for the weighting least squares approach. Both methods have their respective features. The eigenfilter method involves minimizing a quadratic measure of the error in which a real eigenvector of an appropriate matrix is computed to get the filter coefficients. Pei and Shyu have extended the eigen-approach to the design of FIR Hilbert transformers and differentiators [31, high-order digital differentiators [4], and 2D FIR filters [5]. All the above filters deal with real filter coefficient cases. Recently, Nguyen considered the design of complex-coefficient linear-phase and arbitrary-phase FIR eigenfilters with arbitrary magnitude responses [6], [7]. In

Manuscript received August 21, 1991; revised August 7, 1992 and October 27, 1992. This work was supported by the National Science Council of the Republic of China under Grant NSC 804404-EOO2-14. This paper was recommended by Associate Editor Y. C. Lim. S.-C. Pei is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. J.-J. Shyu is with the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Tatung Institute of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. IEEE Log Number 9206248.

V

[7], he converted the complex-coefficient design problem into the real-coefficient design problem. However, this real design problem formulation will become twice as large as the complex design problem presented in this paper. Therefore, the matrix elements and the eigenvector computation will increase due to its doubled matrix size [7]. In this paper, we propose a new eigen-approach to designing arbitrary complex FIR filters directly in the complex domain. By minimizing a quadratic measure of the error in the passband and stopband, a complex eigenvector of an appropriate complex, Hermitian symmetric, and positive-definite matrix is computed to get the complex-valued filter coefficients. This complex matrix size is the same as the real case; the only difference is that the matrix elements and the eigenvector are complex valued. In Section I1 we formulate the new approach for the design of 1-D complex filters, and include several arbitrary magnitude and phase FIR filter design examples. In Section 111, we extend the new approach to design 2D complex filters; and in Section IV we present a method for designing the equiripple complex eigenfilters in which the complex errors are equiripple both in the passbands and stopbands. Finally, in Section V we give a summary. 11. EIGENFILTER FORMULATION THE DESIGN FOR OF 1-D COMPLEX FIR DIGITAL FILTERS For a complex coefficient FIR digital filter, its frequency response can be characterized by

N-l

~ ( w= Ca(n)e-jnw )

(1) are (2)

n=O

where N is the filter length, and the filter coefficients a(.) complex valued. Defining the column vectors

A = [a(O),~ ( l a(2),-..,a(N), 1)It

and

C(W)

= [I, e - J w , e--jZw,..., e

-j(N-1)w

1t >

(3)

then we can rewrite (1) as

H ( w ) = AtC(w) = C t ( w ) A

(4)

where t is the vector transpose operation. Now we wish to use (4) to approximate the following desired frequency response:

~ ( w= M ( u ) e j P ( w ) )

(5)

where M ( w ) and P ( w ) are the desired filter magnitude and phase responses, respectively. As in the real eigen-approach

1057-7130/93$03.OO 0 1993 IEEE

But these frequencies are not known in advance. . The true least squares error is 3. ..19. + P2Qs2 + . = 1.187~ and 0 . 0.. 0. Assume there are K passbands and L stopbands in the desired filter. 15 N . then the total error measure to be minimized is in the passband with cutoff frequencies wp. ..1 51. Hence.(lc. . + P L Q . U C * ( ~ ) C t ( ~ ) dw I and H denotes the Hermitian conjugate transpose operator. in general. + PLQ. Q ~ ~ + PzQs2 + .. and these are tabulated in Table I.e. . respectively. the total least squares eigenfilter errors are also minimum with respect to the other frequencies. L are the Q = aiQpl+ a2Qpz+ .05. this computation can be done efficiently by the gradient technique [9] or the iterative power method [ 101.5. -0. 2 ) = l : : Y e j k W e . 1 illustrates the total least square error curve with respect to the different reference frequency wo which varies within the passband. . A Example 1: Design o a Single-Passband Complex Filter f In this example..285 x It is observed that when the reference frequency wo is chosen just at the locations in which the local minimum absolute errors occur for the true least squares approach.1. 0. the elements of matrix Q p and Q. .. and (7) becomes E. . Equation (6) can be reformulated into E = a i E p l azEP. .82 = 2 are used for weighting in the passband and stopband. The passband and stopband error functions become and q. . (13). ( 15) Notice that Q is an N x N complex. However. A l::’ { [ A t C ( w ) ] * [ C t ( w ) dw A] dw A 1 D ( w )= where Q. .. are found to coincide with the above 10 local minimum reference frequencies in the eigenapproach. * P L E ~ L = A H [ a i Q p l wQpz . Fig. . and almost equal to the true least squares error. 3 ~ -T 5 w 5-0.and in the stopband with cutoff frequencies w. and wpu. As to the choice of the reference frequency W O . =A ~ Q .. and a constant group delay 16 in the passband. and w. i.PE1 AND SHYU: COMPLEX EIGENFILTER DESIGN 33 [4]. The 10 local minimum eigenfilter errors are almost equal to 3.IA + + + + + + + + * + ~ =A ~ Q A i. 1 ~5 w 5 0 . ~ K . Hermitian symmetric and positive-definite matrix (instead of a 2N x 2N real positive definite-matrix as in Nguyen’s cases [6]) and can be computed by numerical integration using (12) and (13). we will make a detailed discussion in Example 1..0 .j ‘ w dw 0 5 IC. 14) where a%. [0. = ~ Y .&Esl~ E PZESZ .. we choose the reference frequency at the center of the passband in our eigenfilter approach [4]. K and i weighting constants.29 x Compared to the true least squares solution [ 111. .51. we consider the design of a length N = 41 single-passband complex filter with passband [-0. and Pi.091. stopbands [-0. the frequency locations. . are given by (16) When a1 = 1 and P1 = . . = =AH [:C*(w)b(w) =A ~ Q . a normalized factor H(wo)/D(wo) added to D ( w ) such is that the actual frequency response at the reference frequency W O is approximately equal to the desired value [4]. in which the local minimum absolute complex errors occur for the true least squares approach.i = 1. 3 8 ~ w 5 5 T. 2 . + ~ K Q ~ ~ +Pi&. Since we are interested in only one eigenvector. Once Q is found. ~ . . . + Q ~ K + Pi&. so we generally choose the central { e-j16~ .. respectively. This means that the proposed eigenfilter method can be used to design filters with truly least squares errors at these local minimum reference frequency points. 2 . . the solution vector is the complex eigenvector corresponding to the smallest eigenvalue of matrix Q in view of the wellknown Rayleigh’s principle [8].

TABLE I THE FREQUENCY LOCATIONSWHICH THE LOCAL MINIMUM &SOLUTE AT COMPLEX ERRORS OCCUR FOR THE TRULY LEAST SQUARES APPROACH.017 O I 5 1 2 3 I I -0. NO.AL_1lt (19) A length N = 39 allpass filter has the following desired group delay to be designed by the eigenfilter approach: 18.126 0. VOL. COINCIDE WITH THE LOCAL MINIMUM REFERENCE FREQUENCIESTHE EIGEN-APPROACH IN 25 5 U 2o 15 ' a 0 a approach -0. peak group delay error. its frequency response can be characterized as For simplicity. 7 = 16. 2(a) and (b). The frequency magnitude response and group-delay response are shown in Fig. 3.016 0. DESIGN 2-D COMPLEX FIR DIGITAL OF FILTERS The design method described in Section I1 for 1-D complex filters can be extended to 2-D complex filter design. -T 5 w 5 . 2. 1. while the trace of complex errors in the passband and stopband are shown in Fig. (b) group delay response. frequency of the passband as the reference frequency due to its performance (the total least squares eigenfilter error is 3.34 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS-I1 ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING.4 x is satisfactory and good enough. 1 ~ 19. 9 2 5 ~ < 18.044 -0. 2(c) and (d).084 0. etc.. The resultant magnitude response. 1. 9 2 5 ~ w 5 T . (a) Magnitude response in decibels. let Nl = N2 = N . are tabulated in Table I11 accompanying those of the other examples.0 0. 2 ~ w 5 0 .0 .127 0. and where . 7 ~< w 5 .106 0.5 -0. 0 . For a 2-D complex FIR digital filter.5 NORMALIZED FREQUENCY 0.144 Fig.061 0.04 -8. . Defining A = [Ah. The complex filter coefficients are given in Table 11.026 -0.2T (17) < 22. -0.A:.005 0. Total least squares error curve with respect to several different reference frequencies for the eigen-approach.0 .105 0. 7 ~ 16. 0 .0 .. Example 2: Design o a Staircase-Delay f Allpass Phase Equalizer 111. 40. respectively.25 0.144 0. and the related results.062 0.lT < w 5 0. JANUARY 1993 I 15 NORMALIZED FREQUENCY NORMALIZED REFERENCE FREQUENCY (a) 30 Fig.027 -0. and trace of the complex error are all given in Fig..083 0.044 -0.*.039 0.25 0.006 0. Example I: Design of single-passband complex FIR filter with N = 41. group-delay response. such as peak magnitude of the complex error.

3n2T.151. [ D(wl' w 2 ) D ( W l 0 . Vaidyanathan and Nguyen have proposed that (24) the error responses at the kth iteration are composed to be the weighting function for the (IC + 1)th iteration [l]. (22) Then ( 1 8) can be rewritten as Il(w1.j ( ~ . frequencyshift method limits the shapes of the complex coefficient filters that can be designed.19. 0 525N . I v . when the desired response D(w1.0 Circular-Passband Complex Filter f In this example.i ) ~ t .05. = IW'" WQ1 W ( w ) C * ( w ) C t ( wdw. Comparing this approach to the frequency-shift method by multiplying the 2-D lowpass filter the coefficients by a sequence e-j0.(U)]) D w O [ * = A t C ( w l .2n1Tej0. A For uniform weighting.. The resulting weighting is larger near the band edges than the other frequencies. w z ) C t ( w l . which will lead to the eigenformulation E = AtQA in which the matrix Q is Q = oQp+ PQ.A in the passband. 4(b) shows the magnitude response and Fig. Fig. 4(a).91). wp)A.w 2 ) =A ~ Q . (d) trace of complex error in the stopband 10. the eigenfilter's errors are usually large A near the band edges and tend to fall off at points away from the band edges. wzo) =A~Q.-. -3- I -& ' ' ' ' ' -3 REAL V I I ' 7 '0 ' ' " IJ ' 1 Example 3: Design o a 2 .and wp-axis. C*(wl. Fig. where CY (26) z and P are the weighting constants. If fk = P = 1 are used. and often results in overconstraint and overdesigning [121. In order to achieve an optimal equiripple complex FIR filter in the complex Chebyshev sense.PE1 AND SHYU COMPLEX EIGENFILTER DESIGN 35 E %- N 3 : - + < t 4 0- - stopband region. and the error tends to get equalized. 0. . A (25) serious drawback to the Vaidyanathan and Nguyen algorithm . ) (29) . the error function is and Q. The design specification is illustrated in Fig. (conrinued) (c) Trace of complex error in the passband [-0. we can also use the eigen-approach iteratively by incorporating a ~ suitable nonuniform weighting function W ( w ) into the integrands as follows: Qp t 4 -21 REAL PART 3 10**(-2) 1 Id\ . wp) is to be approximated by H ( w 1 . frequency point in the passband. w20) c(wlo. DESIGN 1-D EQUIRIPPLE OF COMPLEX EIGENFILTEKS The eigenfilters described in Sections I1 and 111 are all optimal in the least squares sense subject to the chosen reference frequency constraint. w2)= [e-jzwl. the peak errors do not change any bpA more with further iterations and we can stop the iteration. and E. 4(c) and (d) show the group delay response along w1. we consider the design of an 11 x 11 2-D filter with the desired response ' ' I ' 6 PART 10**(-2) N " 2 0. 0. and ( ~ 1 0 wpo) is the reference . e-ji~l.5T. ~ 2 = WPl W w ) ~ ( C) ( W . wg). respectively. respectively. and c i ( w 1 . = A H { Jw I ..1. Once the errors become equiripple. 2. This enables us to write the total error E as a quadratic in A. ) (23) Similarly. u p ) = C t ( w l . e-ji~le-j~2 7 .

68730963-03 8. } .-4.37990473-03 1.63775443-03 +j 4.67052393-02 +j -5.06 172 0 1 : 3. S 6 .46935453-02 +j 4.07846523-03 -1. VOL..46755443-03 +j -5.].30646863-02 1.32608223-03 3.99433483-03 +j -1.40146413-02 +j -3.92498133-03 8.63401613-03 +j -6..77064503-03 +j -2.70173783-02 0.49193253-03 +j 4.36924463-02 +j 4. .74-22.NO.91521833-05 -9. .44632353-03 5.96035073-02 2.14138903-02 2.21333303-03 +j 4.05758213-03 +j -9.70706703-03 +j -6.24605783-03 1.69511203-02 0.80455673-02 0.96508803-02 -9.90285423-02 +j 1.43) 0. and p.48483943-03 -3.92753043-03 -8. .axis : 4 16 Peak magnitude of complex error in passband (stouband) 0.01137) 306 6 is that if the errors at certain frequencies vanish after some iterations.00794443-03 -2.87572293-03 +j -2.2383711 +] 6.23) Design time in seconds on VAX 8700 Figure 1.75251253-02 1.72692703-02 +j -2.23673673-02 +j 3.20212053-03 i .I I 36 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS-11: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING.7021395E-02 +j -4. Step 3: Search for r p .55133403-04 -2.08833163-03 +j 1.\thinspace \thinspace r.31628363-02 4.78846443-03 -9-04520883-03 +j -6.86179663-04 +j -6.2005258 0.74561923-03 -9.13247373-07 -2.2104345 +] 9.22217263-02 -5.91033933-02 3.~ .pp.63001463-02 +j 5.53859913-05 -2.23 ( 1.44586913-03 +j -7.59457363-03 3. The proposed iterative method for single-passband filter design is illustrated in Fig. 18 w1 .29820923-02 9.72921273-08 +j -3. .74552073-03 1.51021923-03 TABLE 111 ARBITRARY COMPLEX FILTER FIR DESIGN EXAMPLES Example Type of filter (length) Desired group delay in passband 1 Single-passband (41) S taircase-delay allpass (39) 2-D circular passband (1 1 x 11) Equiripple single passband (41) 16 18.45 W 2 : 3.02833063-02 4.39119343-02 +j -7.07402673-03 +j 9. T. : the ith absolute complex error ripple in the stopband with ripple interval (w. JANUARY 1993 TABLE I1 FILTER COEFFICIENTSEXAMPLE AND 4 IN 1 n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 EXAMPLE 1 -1.02520423-02 0.24105453-02 +j 4.05758 (0. 40.93657333-04 -2. Before describing the modified algorithm.84606533-02 4.80630383-02 -1.10923813-02 +j -8.77426083-03 -2.44892193-03 -1.92884443-02 1.28689023-02 +j 3.47575653-07 +j 1. } .53489093-03 -i.03420 (0.01879763-03 5.78.04040523-03 + -3. 22.90557123-03 +j 3.2381226 +] -3. 5 and is described in detail below.97111573-03 +j 1. w. R2 = w E stopband (30) where R is the desired passband to stopband ripple error ratio.82258483-03 1.73708333-04 7.83741943-02 0.52630243-03 7.36 ( 1.25269003-03 +j 4.51658213-03 +j 7.69200323-02 +j 2. 2) 6.87902173-03 +j -1.08774 (0..69713663-02 +j -6. some modifications [13] are needed to improve the above algorithm.39627833-02 +j -3. .06524853-02 3.]. then the weights at those frequencies will become zero at subsequent iterations.01974663-03 +j -4.77.23281103-07 4.93966143-03 +j 1.82207353-02 0.78883493-03 -4.29040743-03 +j -3.68177383-06 +j 1.13321763-02 +3 7.74253753-02 -3.57793883-02 0.46098733-08 + -6.a x i s : 4 w2 .1335258 5. Step 1: Initiate the weighting function W(w) = { 1 1 w E passband (%)2.77169143-04 +j -3.12 0.15046763-03 +j 5.: ith absolute complex error ripple in the passband the with ripple interval ( w ~ .41270013-03 -6.34126803-03 +j -1.61139563-02 +j -4.10857943-02 3.16712933-03 -2.52023653-02 1.04672653-03 +j -5.43954043-02 1.08084333-02 i 2.02688523-08 +j 2.00722523-03 EXAMPLE 4 -3.56109333-02 6.: max { T ~ % } .09671) 15.72142633-03 +j -3.50307623-02 2.43987093-02 +j -7.: max { T ~ .08930323-03 -2.46625233-03 4.84221703-06 0.52114353-03 + -1.54481923-02 1. .1242412 +j -6.31647593-03 -1. Hence. which will induce large errors and lead to divergence afterwards.12798763-08 -8.97167083-06 +j 2.19734653-02 4.05945623-03 +j -2.99956583-03 -1.13552273-06 +j -3.93759453-03 +j -2.27636273-03 +j -1.12005743-02 +j -8.52918513-05 2.46293013-02 +j -9. 5) p s : min { T ~ ~ } .59661923-02 -2. 1..77573783-04 +j 1.43537553-03 1.2024797 +] 9.88967503-03 +j 1. 16.0367 1) 0. Step 2: Find the coefficient vector A using the eigenapproach.19.93864683-03 1.10892943-03 +j -1. some notations are defined as below: 1) rP. 4) 6.13038953-02 +j -3.51547543-02 0.34191193-03 2.84755253-02 +j 2.90403843-03 6.11984533-03 9.02928693-03 +j -1.72504993-06 +j -1.44 Actual group delay in passband (peak delay error) 15.68 55.02949603-03 +j -6.38-17.78988363-03 +j 8.w...84835063-08 +j 6.9100901E-02 +j 1.64-17.1211845 +] -6.-4.22963333-02 +j 7.2099234 +j 9.1334420 5.44648943-02 +j -6.56413593-03 -1.29971543-03 +j -1. 3) P p : min { T p .-~. 2.80608873-03 4.64 525 15.

19.18 in each band. 3 ~and group delays ~~1 = 4. Example 2: Design of stair-case-delay allpass phase equalizer with five different group delays: T = 18. Step 4: Check whether the complex error is nearly equiripPle by where Ep and ES are the Preassigned VerY small Positive constants. @) group delay response.Z = 4.0 .1 NORMALIZED FREQUENCY (b) I- 6 n -4 O (9 (b) Fig. I V I and Fig. (a) Magnitude response in dB. 3 OF -2 -4 i n a -= --e 0. m ! e 6 3 z 4 0 P6i UII W" L* wr. Step 5: Compute the unnormalized weighting function 6 . T. 4. (c) trace of complex error.PP 6. (b) magnitude response. . Example 3: Design of 2-D circular-passband complex FIR filter with the center at ( .21 NORMALIZED FREQUENCY I 0. and then go to Step 6.PE1 AND SHYU: COMPLEX EIGENFILTER DESIGN 31 . (a) Design ) specification. . I Ep . otherwise go to the next step. If the condition is satisfied.0 . 3. 2 ~ . 16.22. then the largest error ripples are almost equal to the smallest error ripples in both the passband and stopband.

1. w w E E passband R. (continued) (c) Group delay along wl-axis. (34) (35) R = ($)'(?)'R. Bp3 6s Update W(w) using (36). VOL. Step 6: Check whether the actual absolute complex error ripple is nearly the same as R by (37) where t is also a predetermined very small positive constant. w 6ws = m a x { @ ( w ) . NO . I\ R = R A . and find its maximum and minimum value S . Flowchart for the design of equiripple single-passband complex filter.= max { @ ( w ) . and the ripple error ratio R = 32 is required. (4 Fig. = E = 0. 40. 4. r Fig. 5. and go to Step 5. Then update the weighting function by w E passband w E stopband. When e p = 6 . otherwise update the value of R by R = R where where I. stopband Find A using eigen-approach Search for rpi. the design takes nine iterations to converge. (d) group delay along wz-axis.02 are used. 6(a) and (b) shows the magnitude RW(w)/6ws and go to Step 2. If the condition is met. respectively. JANUARY 1993 Initialize Weighting Function w 1. Example 4: Design of an Equiripple Single-Passband Complex Filter (36) The specification of the single-passband filter is the same as Example 1. w E stopband}.38 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS-11: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING. w E passband). rsi. . and I. are the number of ripples in the passband and stopband. Fig. NO. then stop the process.

vol. [3] S. 1977. Chou. [2] Y. respectively. Q. Dec.” in Proc. 577-580. Matrix Theory.5 0. 1990. 1992. “Tbe design of arbitrary FIR digital filters using the eigenfilter method. Circuits Syst. J. C. T. Speech. Circuits Syst. (continued) (c) Trace of equiripple complex error in the passband 1-0. 2 4 3 4 Jan. while the traces of the complex errors in the passband and stopband are shown in Fig. “Effective adaptive Pisarenko spectrum u estimate. 1988. z 0 -7 - -8. pp.. Acoust. [8] B. Q. pp.” IEEE Trans. [9] Y. M. Applied Linear Algebra.” IEEE Trans. “Eigenfilter design of higher order digital differentiators. and positive-definite matrix.151. [5] -. IEEE Int. IEEE Int. Q 0- -4 I 1 U 1 0 LI1 5 . -J& ‘ ‘-b!Zb‘ ’ b!o’ ’ ’ 0 . T..5 NORMALIZED FREQUENCY (b) Fig. Mar.911. have been presented to show the effectiveness of this approach. Jan. Several design examples. pp. Englewood Cliffs. 2 5 ’ ’ 0 . NJ: Prentice-Hall. pp. R = 3. Pei and J. Circuits Syst. Notice that the trace curves are all equiripple in the complex Chebyshev sense. J. IEEE Int. REFERENCES [I] P. allpass phase equalizers. [lo] J. 1987. “The eigenfilter for the design of linear-phase filters with arbitrary magnitude response. pp. Signal Processing. H.0 -2. 0. 37. Signal Processing. Vaidyanathan and T. Circuits Syst.” IEEE Trans. Example 4: Equiripple single-passband complex FIR filter with N = 41. Hermitian symmetric. H and P. SignaE Processing.25 0. Shyu. C.PE1 AND SHYU:COMPLEX EIGENFILTER DESIGN 39 . Apr. CAS-35. 6.. Franklin.25 0. Pei and J. CONCLUSIONS In this paper. 1978. Y. arbitrary complex coefficient FIR digital filters have been designed by the eigen-approach in the optimal least squares sense subject to the chosen reference frequency constraint. (a) Magnitude response in decibels.” IEEE Trans.” in Proc.05. Kou. “Eigenfilter: A new approach to least-squares FIR filter design and applications including Nyquist filters. H. CAS-25.. 1103-1105. [7] . vol..6 -0. [ l l ] S. Modem Spectral Estimation. “Design of digital FIR filters with complex conjugate pulse response. Lee. Englewood Cliffs. r l: k a 0 I S 5 t . Con$ Acoust. Mccallig. Englewood Cliffs. “Design of FIR Hilbert transformers and differentiators by eigenfilters.19. and R. Nguyen. Speech. Nobel and J. H. Daniel. Shyu. Con$ Acoust. K. . This method is based on the computation of an eigenvector of an N x N complex. 168-171. pp. 7 = 16. vol.” IEEE Trans.. “A new self-initiated optimum WLS approximation method for the design of linear phase FIR digital filters. [13] C. 505-511. and 1-Dequiripple complex FIR filters. June 1991. (d) trace of equiripple complex error in the stopband [0.0 0. vol. @) group delay response. vol. N J Prentice-Hall. Yang. C. Circuits Syst. pp. C.. Ch. m U -7 0 a W c I t. pp. 40.” in Proc. 6. 1989. 1988. 1986. V. Apr. Symp. 2-D complex FIR filters. Chi and Y. The resultant complex eigenvector corresponding to the smallest eigenvalue is the desired filter coefficients. Nguyen.” IEEE Trans. NOV. pp.0 2 . 1981-1984. Speech.0 NORMALIZED FREQUENCY R E A L PART 1 O** (-2) 2s 3 0 5 ” . K. Lim. response and group delay response. [12] M. Chen. “A weighted least squares algorithm for quasi-equiripple FIR and W digital filter design. Fig. ASSP-37. vol. [6] T. P. “2-D FIR eigenfilters: A least-squares approach. 1968. 0. May 1991. 551-558. Kay. J. 6(c) and (d). Signal Processing. 3. 1457-1461. CAS-34. Signal Processing. NJ: Prentice-Hall. to appear. W. 5 ’ ‘ ‘ ’ -549. 5 5. N. including constant group-delay complex FIR filters.” IEEE Trans. [4] S... 11-23.

S. digital picture processing. His research interests include digital signal processing. He was Professor and Chairman in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Tatung Institute of Technology from 1981 to 1983. Pei is a member of Eta Keppa Nu and the Optical Society of America. in 1983 and the M.Soo-Chang Pei (SM’90) received the B. He was an Engineering Officer in the Chinese Navy Shipyard at Peng Fu Island from 1970 to 1971. Taipei. Santa Barbara. optical information processing. digital signal processmg. and Ph.D. Taipei. degree from National Taiwan University in 1970 and the M. He was a Research Assistant at the National Taiwan University. He is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering. from 1971 to 1975. Tatung Inresearch interests stitute of Technology. and image processing. in 1988 and 1992. . from 1986 to 1991. Tapei.S.S. degree from the Tatung Institute of Technology. laser. and Ph. HIS include filter design. Taiwan.S. respectively. all in electrical engineering. degrees from the University of Califomia. respectively. Santa Barbara. He is now a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at National Taiwan University. Jong-Jy S h y (S’88-M’93) received the B. and holography.D. in 1972 and 1975. all in electrical engineering. Dr. Taipei. and a Research Assistant at the University of Califomia. degrees from the National Taiwan University.

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