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Alternate Path Discovery in the Internet

Dr Sameer Qazi, Asst Prof, PNEC NUST

IEEE-PNEC SPARKLE TALKS-DR SAMEER QAZI

Why Alternate Paths Help

Alternate path between two hosts offering better QoS

Fetching content from a nearby server C

A Reaching host B behind a firewall that blocks incoming connections from host A but not host C

Sending redundant packets over multiple paths

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Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)


AS G AS H AS J

AS B AS A src AS E

AS C AS D AS F 213.145.13.12 dst

Destination prefix 213.145.13.0/24 AS path/s: B C D (primary) EFD GHJD

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BGP is QoS unaware


BGP definition: Path connects two points Does not answer: How much delay, latency,connection throughput, packet loss rates

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BGP recovers lazily from faults!


On detecting failure try alternate paths one by one Source

BGP speakers

Destination

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Modification to BGP to speed it up!


Routes invalidated by failure (dashed) Route Withdrawal messages, appended with causeof-failure tags

Source

BGP speakers

Destination

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Multi-Homing
IP Prefix, {AS path} 30.0.0.0/8, {AS 30} 20.0.120.0/24, {AS 30 AS 20} IP Prefix, {AS path} 40.0.0.0/8, {AS 40} 20.0.120.0/24, {AS 40 AS 20}

AS 30 30.0.0.0/8

AS 40 40.0.0.0/8

Inflates size of BGP routing tables BGP accepts only large block, deletes small blocks would prefer 20.0.0.0/16 over 20.0.120.0/24

AS 20 20.0.120.0/24

Only offers last hop alternate path solution

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Alternate Path discovery through overlay/ p2p networks


Triangle Inequality is violated!

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This Solution has its costs!


ss et lo at ut, L ughp Thro rate, ency

Monitor Paths!

Pa ck

D is s

em

al l i n a te

re eas u

m en

ts

Share Measurements!

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Drafting Approaches
Select overlay node near a server preferred by Akamai-to serve content

Direct Internet Path suffers from outage/ service degradation One-hop Indirection using an overlay node near a server preferred by Akamai,- to serve content

Servers preferred by Akamai

Servers NOT preferred by Akamai Overlay nodes

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Time Based Vs Space Based?


Alternate Path diverges earliest from direct path

AS P

AS Q

AS R

AS S

AS A Source

AS B

AS C

AS D

AS E Destination

Default Internet Path

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Overlay Network: Global Impact :~

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Multi-Domain Path Negotiation

W. Xu and J. Rexford, "MIRO: multi-path interdomain routing," in SIGCOMM '06: Proceedings of the 2006 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications, 2006, pp. 171-182.

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Multi-Domain Path Set up

W. Xu and J. Rexford, "MIRO: multi-path interdomain routing," in SIGCOMM '06: Proceedings of the 2006 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications, 2006, pp. 171-182.

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MPLS path construction


TED PCE TED PCE TED PCE dst PCC PCC src Head end nodes PCC

LSRs

PCC=path computation client PCE=path computation element

TED=Traffic Engineering Databse LSR=Label Switching Router

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