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Your company has been awarded a contract of developing aand construction a new International air port 30 KM from a city.You have been appointed as Planning Engineer. Project is to be implemented in phases. In phase I, one strip of landing 100 m width is to be constructed in 100 days. The scope of work is as follows: (a) Cutting and dozing of 1,00,000 cum of earth. Average height is 0.75 m. (b) Transportation of 20,000 cum of surplus earth from site to dumping ground 3 KM away from site. Filling of 80,000cum of earth. (c) Bringing of 20,000 cum of sand from 20 KM (including of spreading and levelling). (d) Procurement of 1,50,000 litres of bitumen. Duration of work 30 days from the 60 th day of starting work. Lead time for the procurement of bitumen is 45 days. Storage facility of 50,000 litres at site. 2. Estimate total cost of work and your plan of: (a) Equipment planning – procurement and development. (b) Ordering and replenishing of Bitumen.
(b) Transportation of 20. The scope of Work in Phase I.50. Duration of work 30 days from the 60 th day of starting work. both these equipment are manufactured.000 cum of earth. Storage facility for bitumen is 50. There are basically two types of dozers they are tracked and wheeled. Filling 80. (c) (d) Levelling. D 80 A 12 has been considered for the said task it has the following salient characteristics: (i) Blade capacity . Average height is 0.000cum of earth. comprises of construction of one strip of landing 100 m width is to be constructed in 100 days.000 cum of sand from 20 KM (including of spreading and levelling). as the type of terrain has not been mentioned.50 cum/hour (iii) Diesel consumption . The scope of work is as follows: (a) Cutting and dozing of 1. Equipment Recommended Dozer D 80 A 12 Tippers / Dumpers Motor Graders Motor Grader. Lead time for the procurement of bitumen is 45 days. (b) Excavator (E JCB 3 DX). Description of the Equipment.8 cum (ii) Output .00.4.000 litres of bitumen. The work can be divided into various sub tasks. (d) Procurement of 1. This equipment is manufactured by Tata Engineering. manufactured by BEML India. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT CONSIDERED 2. Rollers Remarks 3. (a) Dozers. (b) Filling / disposal of earth.000 litres at site.75 m. Spreading of sand and Compaction. India and has the following salient characteristics: .18 litres/ hour (iv) Blade can move up and down and can be tilted side wards to give an angle cut.SCOPE OF WORK 1.000 cum of surplus earth from site to dumping ground 3 KM away from site. for each of the sub tasks different type of earth moving plant should be used as mentioned against each in the table given below: S Activity No (a) Area Clearance and Cutting of earth. tracked type of dozer has been considered as it has better traction and rolling resistance as compared to the wheeled dozer. (c) Bringing of 20.
The loaded material can be unloaded from the vehicle either by tilting the body if the vehicle backwards or to the sides. This equipment can be utilised for the transportation of construction material. India and has the following salient characteristics: (i) The equipment is predominantly used for levelling shaping. This is done by the help of tippers. CALCULATION OF WORK PER DAY 4. dozing. Assumptions. This equipment is manufactured by BEML Engineering. (d) Compaction Equipment.5 cum (ii) Output . Three working days. For a lead of 100 km. (c) Motor Grader. The motor grader has a capacity of 100 cum per hour. The surface of the roller has projections that help in exerting point pressure on the earth surface thereby enabling better compaction.1. The excavated earth has to be disposed off / transported to the filling sites in case it is beyond the economic haulage distance. (for dismantling. (a) Type of equipment. (e) Tippers. (ii) Tandem Rollers. The equipment comprises of one heavy roller that leading in front of the equipment and two smaller rollers that by virtue of its weight compact the loose earth. loading etc. (iii) Vibratory Roller. There are various types of compaction equipment in the market they are: (i) Smooth Wheel Rollers. The roller in addition toits self weight generates vibrations in static and dynamic mode that results in better compaction. hauling. grading etc It has a scarifier that loosens the earth before the blade levels the area. The equipment is similar to the smooth wheel roller except that the there are only two wheels of the same width that by virtue of its weight compact the loose earth. The following are assumed. . 10 hours per day and max of 60 per week. (iv) Sheep Foot Roller. After the area is levelled out the soil has to be compacted so as to prepare it for the laying of the wearing course this is achieved by the use of compaction equipment. reassembly testing). As considered in the paragraphs above. (c) Maintenance. (e) Break Down Period Considered. Four days per equipment. 10 hours per week per plant (one day per week) (d) Induction period. in certain tippers the material is discharged from the base of the tipper. transport.40cum/hour (iii) Diesel consumption – 07 litres/ hour (iv) The equipment is versatile and has many attachments and can perform many functions such as digging. (b) Working Hours. The roller that is being considered is of 10 ton capacity.(i) Bucket capacity .
(i) Plant operators are experienced are capable of achieving the planned out put.00 800.00 400.300.00. maintenance charges.000 cum (ii) Out put of dozer . (k) Plant / equipment as planned will be made available. (viii) Cost of Dozers =2* 55*10*2. 5. (i) Volume of earth to be shifted from site – 20.40 cum / hour (v) Out put per day .00 (ix) Cost of Excavator =2*55*10* 800= Rs 8.1.00 800.000.(f) Adequate spares and sub assemblies are available with trained maintenance staff.500 cum in one day (iv) Out put of Excavator . (j) No disruptions have been considered for reasons of inclement weather / other factors.50 cum/ hour. Cost of each Item of Work.00 6.000cum (ii) Capacity of Dumper 5 cum (iii) No of trips per day (aa) Dumping site total distance 6 Km (ab) Travelling time 20min (ac) Loading / Unloading time 10 min (ad) Trips per day 2* 10= 20 trips (ae) Volume of earth shifted per day 100 cum (af) Volume to be shifted in a day 364 cum (ag) Number of dumpers required 4 .000) (xi) Total for excavation Rs 38. (h) Work is being executed as per the mass diagram.200= Rs 24. The cost has been calculated based on the equipment cost (including interest. depreciation.20.00 (x) Additional requirement of plant due to days lost for maintenance – 10. (g) Mass diagram of the area has been prepared and the plant operators are familiar with the task at hand. (Rs 4.80.40.000.. (a) Cutting and Dozing.400 cum in one day (vi) Team of two dozers and Excavators – 1800 cum (vii) No of days required .00 (b) Transportation and Spreading of Earth.00 1. (i) Total earth cutting .55 days.60.200. 10 hrs per day (iii) Out put per day .00 1. Cost of Equipment Operation per Hour.500.000.80.000 for Dozer and Rs 1. operator charges and fuel and lubricants) S No (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Equipment Name D 80 A 12 E JCB Wheel Dozer Motor Grader Dumper Roller Cost of Operation Rs / hour 2.
00 (iv) Cost of Rolling. As a large number of manufacturers manufacture similar equipment.00 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT 7. . (iv) Easier repair and operation of equipment. (ii) Better understanding / liaison with the dealer. It is possible that similar equipment is held and is not being optimally utilised. it would be preferable that the equipment be procured from a single agency as the following advantages accrue: (i) Easy availability of spares. (ab) No of Days -55 (ac) Cost 2*55*1500 = Rs 1.000.65. (iii) Reduction in inventory. Selection of equipment for construction is based on many factors.000. these are designed for various types of jobs and have specialised attachments for meeting specific requirements. (d) Standardisation. It is possible that the equipment isnot suitable for the job at hand.000. (ab) No of Days -55 (ac) Cost 2*55*800 = Rs 88. This gives us an indication on the longevity of the equipment. then there would be no other option but to procure a suitable equipment. The parameters that are to be considered are: (i) Strength. even if this does not meet the specific requirement the equipment can be used. (v) The above will lead to reduced down times. The operational parameters of the equipment to a large extent plays an important role is the selection of the equipment. (c) Suitability of the Equipment for the Given Job. (b) Equipment held. this could help in reducing the cost of the work. It prevents the equipment from premature failure when acted upon by external emergency or accidental loads. the most important factor that require to be considered are: (a) Nature of Job.000 (iv) Cost of levelling. It is that property that enables the equipment to withstand specific loads / rigors of functioning in difficult conditions. (e) Technical Considerations.00 (c) Total Cost – Rs 42. (aa) Motor graders used two.(ah) Cost of Dumpers 4*400*55 = Rs 88.21. (aa) Rollers used two. There are large number of equipment in the market. Before the equipment is selected a detailed study of the available equipment in the market is required to be carried out and the most suitable one selected.
(ad) Thermal wear due to friction. (ab) Friction between various parts. The equipment in the normal course of its life would be subjected to various vibrations due to the functioning of the equipment as also due to accidental loads. The equipment should operate optimally in various conditions without any problems. These activities take time hence the planning is to be done in advance so as to ensure that the required material reaches the site in time and no delay is caused due to the lack of material. (vi) Reliability. stresses are experienced. There a host of factors that are required to be planned in detail such as identification of requirement. In the given situation there are a large number of plants and equipment operating. this is taken to be the lead time. move of material from the place of origin. bitumen etc. it takes 45 days for the material to reach the site. fuels oils. It is the ability of the equipment to withstand deformations due to various loads. The cost of maintenance should be low and also it should be easy to maintain. The heat would cause expansion and subsequently on cooling down. (ac) Corrosion – due to weather / chemical action. and other raw material like sand aggregate. The repeated expansion / cooling would cause cracks in the parts. Wear in the parts are induced due to friction due to (aa) abrasive wear leading to brittle surface failure. lubricants. (iv) Wear Resistance. We will consider the case in detail: . Deformations beyond a permissible value would affect the performance of the equipment. (ab) molecular / mechanical wear due to friction. When the equioment is fuctioning. The equipment should be so designed as to withstand this. it is dependant on the material selected. (v) Maintainability. The time taken for a supply to materialise from the time the requirement is felt is called lead time. (iii) Vibration Stability. MATERIAL MANAGEMEMT CONCEPTS 8. consequently the requirement of logistics would be considerable in terms of spares. receipt and finally reach the site. from the time the order is placed. placing orders.it gets heated up due to (aa) Heat of combustion in the engine. (v) Heat Resistance. Consider the case of bitumen. the order for the material is to be placed a minimum of 45 days before the requirement for use actually comes up. The equipment should withstand these loads or it would result in failure due to fatigue stress.(ii) Rigidity. Hence. The major factors that are required to be kept in mind when planning logistics are: (a) Lead Time.
(d) Economic Order Quantity. (xii) In the above case at every stage a safety stock of 10. (iv) Storage capacity 50. (vii) Material reaches site on 59th day of work. (Quantity/ Time)= (50000 litres /10 days) (viii) Second order for 40. (iv) Storage capacity 50. (v) No of orders being placed – Four. (i) Bitumen required from day 60 of work commencement. Assumptions: .50.000 litres bitumen. (Quantity/ Time)= (50000 litres /10 days) (viii) Second order to be placed on 24th day of work. In the above case a safety level can be incorporated by decreasing the order quantity and increasing the number of orders. A safety stock of 10. The above case was planned considering ideal conditions where there were no delays anticipated. hence certain safety levels are maintained to cater for emergencies.000 litres is available to cater for delay in supply. (ii) Lead time 45 days. To Calculate EOQ in above case. Consider the above case with changed order levels. (viii) Average rate of consumption of bitumen 5000 ltrs per day. (iii) Total Requirement 1.000 litres.000 litres. (xi) Work is completed on 90th day after commencement. (b) Safety Level. (ix) Order materialises on 69th day of work. (ix) Order materialises on 67th day of work. (x) Similarly third order to be placed on 34th day of work and order materialises on 79th day of work. (xi) Similarly fourth order is to be placed on 38th day of work and order materialises on 83rd day of work.(i) Bitumen required from day 60 of work commencement.000 litres of bitumen is present. (ii) Lead time 45 days. (x) Similarly third order to be placed on 30th day of work and order materialises on 75th day of work. the work would suffer. (xi) Work is completed on 90th day after commencement. (iii) Total Requirement 1. (vi) First order to be placed on – 14th day of work. (v) No of orders to be placed – minimum three each of 50.50.000 litres.000 litres to be placed on 22nd day of work. (viii) Average rate of consumption of bitumen 5000 ltrs per day. It is that quantity of order for which the sum of ordering cost and inventory holding cost is minimum. (vii) Material reaches site on 59th day of work. However in case of any delays in the supply chain.000 litres. (vi) First order to be placed on – 14th day of work for 50.000 litres.
00 Total Cost = Rs 2.000. (d) Well equipped and dedicated maintenance teamto be placed at site. (f) In the case where lead time was calculated (para 8 (b) above). the next order has to be placed to bring the stock level back to the EOQ level. with due consideration given to lead time.00 Inventory holding cost would be 50. The following recommendations are made: (a) Adequate serviceable equipment catered for.50. (d) Regular reviews to be carried out and corrective actions to be taken in case of delays.01% of Order cost. Hence in the above case EOQ is 50. Total ordering cost = 50.Consider a fixed cost of Rs 50.000 litres of bitumen. Cost of Case I : Three orders of 50.50.000 litres the order for the next consignment of bitumen was placed.000.00 It is assumed that the Inventory holding cost would remain same as the infrastructure for the holding of bitumen is already existing. Total ordering cost = 50.01 = Rs 500.000 * 3 = Rs1.500.000 litres each are placed.00 Inventory holding cost would be 50.000 litres of bitumen.00 Total Cost = Rs 1. (c) Dedicated staff to be placed for the monitoring of works.000 * 0. irrespective of order size. It is that level where quantity of stock held is such that. RECOMMENDATIONS 9.00.00.000 * 4 = Rs 2. ie when the holding of bitumen came down to 10. (e) Re order Level.00 Case II : Four orders are placed.01 = Rs 500.000 * 0. (b) Skilled staff to be employed. (f) Close watch to be kept on the placing of orders of various material required for the work. The lead time is considered so that there is adequate stock and the work is not affected due to want of stores. The work has to be planned and executed with this fact kept in mind. The work is time bound with no cushion provided to cater for delays. Inventory holding cost to be 0. (e) Maintenance schedule of equipment to be adhered to. BIBLOGRAPHY . the reorder level was maintained as 10.500.000 per order.
As recommended in assignment and material from internet. .