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# AMPLIFIERS AND SICNAL

PROCESSINC

John

G.

Webster

Most bioelectric signals are small and require amplification. Ampliflers are also used for interfacing sensors that sense body motions, temperature, and chemical concentrations. In addition to simple amplification, the amplifier may also modify the signal to produce frequency flltering or nonlinear effects. This chapter emphasizes Íhe operational amplifier (op amp), which has revolutionized electronic circuit design. Most circuit design was formeÍly performed with discrete components, requiring laborious calculations, many components, and large expense. Now a2}-cenÍop amp, a few resistors, and knowledge of Ohm's law are all that is needed.

3.1

IDEAL OP AMPS

**An op amp is a high-gain dc differential amplifier. It is normally used in circuits
**

that have characteristics determined by external negative-feedback networks. The best way to approach the design of a circuit that uses op amps is first to assume that the op amp is ideal. After the initial design, the circuit is checked to determine whether the nonideal characteristics of the op amp are important. If they are not, the design is complete; if they are, another design check is made, which may require additional components.

IDEAL CHARACTERISTICS

Figure 3.1 shows the equivalent circuit for a nonideal op amp. It is a dc differential amplifier, which means that any differential voltage, ua : (u2 - u1), is multiplied

by the very high gain A to produce the output voltage uo' To simplify calculations, we assume the following characteristics for an ideal op amp:

**1. A: x (gain is infinity) 2. uo : 0, when t1 : az (no offset voltage)
**

91

92

3 AMPLIFIERS AND SIONAL PROCESSINC

5.1 Op-amp equivalent circuit The two inputs áre e and u2. A differential voltage between them causes current flow through the differential resistance Ra. The differential voltage is multiplied by,4, the gain of the op amp, to generate the output-voltage source. Any current flowing to the output terminal oo must pass through the output resistance Ro.

Figure

3. 4. 5.

R6 Ro

**: m (input impedance is inflnity) :0 (output impedance is zero)
**

oo

Bandwidth =

(no frequency-response limitations) and no phase shift

Later in the chapter we shall examine the effect on the circuit of characteristics that are not ideal. Figure 3.2 shows the op-amp circuit symbol, which includes two differential input terminals and one output terminal. All these voltages are measured with respect to the ground shown. Power supplies, usually +15 V, must be connected to terminals indicated on the manufacturer's specification sheet (Jung, 1986; Horowitz and Hill, 1989).

**TWO BASIC RULES
**

Throughout this chapter we shall use two basic rules (or input terminal restrictions) that are very helpful in designing op-amp circuits.

RULE

1

when the op-amp output is in its linear range, the two input terminals are at lhe same voltage.

This is true because if the two input terminals were not at the same voltage, the differential input voltage would be multiptied by the infinite gain to yield an inÍnite output voltage. This is absurd; most op amps use a power supply of *15 V, so uo is restricted to this range. Actually the op-amp specifications guarantee a

H

Figure

!

:

Op-amp circuit symbol A voltage at ,i.r1, the inverting input, is greatly amplified and inverted to yield uo. A voltage aÍ, u2, the noninverting input, is greatly amplified to yield an in-phase output aÍ uo.

3.2

3.2

INVERTINC AMPLIFIERS

95

linear output range of only +10 V, although some saturate at about +13 V. A single supply is adequate with some op amps, such as the LM358 (Horowitz and

Hill,

1989).

RULE

2

No current flows into either input terminal of the op amp.

This is true because we assume that the input impedance is infinity, and no current flows into an infinite impedance. Even if the input impedance were finite, Rule 1 tells us that there is no voltage drop across Ra! so therefore, no current flows.

3.2

INVERTINC AMPLIFIERS

CIRCUIT Figure 3.3(a) shows the basic inverting-amplifier circuit. It is widely used in instrumentation. Note that a portion of tro is fed back via R1 to the negative input of the op amp. This provides the inverting amplifier with the many advantages associated with the use of negative feedback-increased bandwidth, lower output impedance, and so forth. If oo is ever fed back to the positive input of the op amp, examine the circuit carefully. Either there is a mistake, or the circuit is one of the rare ones in which a regenerative action is

desired.

EQUATION Note that the positive input of the op amp is at 0 V. Therefore, by Rule 1, the negative input of the op amp is also at 0 V. Thus no matter what happens to the rest of the circuit, the negative input of the op amp remains at 0 V, a condition known as a virtual ground. Because the right side of Ri, is at 0 V and the left side is u1, by Ohm's law the current I through Ri, is I : utlR,. By Rule 2, no current can enter the op amp;

therefore I must also flow through R1. This produces a voltage drop across l-rRi. Because the left end of R1 is at 0 V, the right end must be

R1

of

uo

=_'&:-,*: or ï:+

.Ri.

(3.1)

Thus the circuit inverts, and the inverting-amplifier gain (not the op-amp gain)

is given by the ratio of Ri to

LEVER ANALOGY Figure 3.3(b) shows an easy way to visualize the circuit's behavior. A lever is formed with arm lengths proportional to resistance values. Because the

OUTPUT C HARACTERISTIC .3(c) shows that the circuit is linear only over a limited range of a1. so ui controls i. When 'uo exceeds about t13 Y. as shown. (b) A lever with arm lengths proportional to resistance values enables the viewer to visualize the input-output characteristics easily. The cuÍÍent I through Rl is o1lR1.3 (a) An inverting amplifier.r1 Figure 3. The linear swing of oo is about 4 V less than the difference in power-supply voltages. I N PUT. and further increases in produce no change in the output. Although op amps usually have . as shown. Current sources are useful in electrical impedance plethysmography for passing a fixed current through the body (Section 8.R1 also flows through the feedback resistor Rt. Current flowing through the input resistor . If Ri is three times Ri.R1 (Jung.r1 results in a three-times-bigger variation of uo. (c) The input-output plot shows a slope of -&lRi in the central portion. the fulcrum is placed at 0 V. any variation of r.7). 1986). The circuit inFigure 3. negative input is at 0 V.3(a) is a voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) for any load .r. but the output saturates at about +13 V. it saturates (limits).94 3 AMPLIFIERS AND SICNAL PROCESSINC I R" _'T Figure 3.

1 The output of a biopotential preamplifler that measures the electro-oculogram (EOG) (Section 4. . EXAMPLE 5. Each input voltagc ui1. l!*l!:o R. is zero. reduced power-supply voltages may be used. Design a circuit that will balance the dc voltage lo zeto and provide a gain of -10 for the desired signal without saturating the op amp. The undesired voltage aÍ ui:5 V.1(a) shows the design. . the balancing voltage available from the 5kO potentiometer.3. (ui+ w12). We assume that tr6. . Therefore the sum of the currents through R1 and R6. SUMMING AMPLIFIER The inverting amplifier may be extended to form a circuit that yields the weighted sum of several input voltages.1). the amplified output voltage. Thus the output voltage ?ro can be set to zero even when ui has a nonzero dc component. with a desired signal of t1 V superimposed. If o1 were directly amplifled. Rr' : -ïÏ Rf 100 -1041-10) : 2 x loao ko -10 (al (b) Figure E5. 'n11 iS connected to the negative input of the op amp by an individual resistor the conductance of which (llRro) is proportional to the desired weighting. the current through Ài is zero. For oo : 0.)i plus one-half of the balancing voltage t6. is *10V. with a corresponding reduction in the saturation voltages and the linear swing of oo. o. the balanced-out voltage..í (a) This circuit sums the input voltage ?. the op amp would saturate. (b) The three waveforms show ui.7) is an undesired dc voltage of *5 V due to electrode half-cell potentials (Section 5. the input voltage.2 INVERTINCAMPLIFIERS power-supply voltages set at f15 V. and tro.'ui7. ANSWER Figure E3. .

. 3. oo_l(rRr+Ri) _Rr*Ri ut iRi (3. We can then calculate a" : l(Rr * Ri) and solve for the sain. At first glance it seems nothing is gained by using this circuit. By Rule 1. un\ ^.^/ +. Rr) -rv\ui . as shown by Figure E3.4(a) shows the circuit for a unity-gain follower.2) R1 We note that the circuit gain (not the op-amp gain) is positive.: 100kO. This causes current i : uilRi. However.. r. The fulcrum is placed at the left end. The circuit ^ -'r '" 'uo: .1 appears between the two resistors. 'u1 appears at the negative input of the op amp. by Rule 1 ?ri rÍruSt also exist at the negative input. But oo is also connected to the negative input.P-l /u. Because ?i exists at the positive input of the op amp. Therefore 1)o : 't)i. the output is the same as the input. or the output voltage follows the input voltage. \R. Írone of I can come from the negative input. and therefore the source resistance in the external circuit is not loaded at all.4(c) shows how a lever makes possible an easy visualization of the input-output characteristics.4(b) shows how the follower circuit can be modified to produce gain. equation is orRr. always greater than or equal to 1. because R.a@).Rl/R1.o uo.uo travels through an output excursion determined by the lever arms. IIere we have selected resistors of 10 kO to 100 kO from the common resistors used in electronic circuits that have values between 10 O and 22MA. By Rule 2.\ uo: . no current flows into the positive input.1(b).1) requires. . the circuit is very useful as a buffer. By Rule 2.96 3 AMPLIFIERS AND SICNAL PROCESSINC For a gain of -10. to prevent a high source resistance from being loaded down by a low-resistance load. is grounded at the left end. (3. NONINVERTINC AMPLIFIER Figure 3.^</ui ru"\l0o*1^100. the circuit reduces to Figure 3.3 NONINVERTINO AMPLIFIERS FOLLOWER Figure 3. Figure 3. therefore all must flow through R. and that if Ri = co (open circuit).. so it provides an input at the central part of the diagram. .: 10. to flow to ground.uu\ ) The potentiometer can balance out any undesired voltage in the range t5 V.

OP.5(a) shows a simple one-op-amp differential amplifier.jrï]rt"r."* amplifier. Hence R3 and R4.AMP DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER The right side of Figure 3. which is unaffected by having the op amp attached or by any other changes in the circuit. no current flows into the positive input of the op amp.ZA DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS 97 . producing a current through R1 that also flows through R1. àct as a simple voltagedivider attenuator.. but the output saturates across R1. whatever voltage appears at the positive input also appears at the negative input. Figure 3. 3. (d) The input-output plot shows a positive slope of (Rr + Rr)/Ri in the central portion.5(b) by the single lever that is attached to the fulcrum (ground)..4(d). Again saturation is evident. ui appears A lever with arm lengths proportional to resistance values makes possible an easy visualization of input-output characteristics.4 DIFFERENTIALAMPLIFIERS ONE. By Rule 1. The voltages in this part of the circuit are visualized in Figure 3. By Rule 2. the top half of the circuit . Once this voltage is fixed. the input-output characteristic. (c) at about +13 V. shows that a one-op-amp circuit can have a positive amplifier gain. Current flows from rra through R3 and Àa to ground.

3) . àr'd the points ate at ao and 0 V.5 (a) The right side shows a one-op-amp differential amplifier. For other values of u4.5(b) by noting that the two levers behave like a pair of scissors. two levers with arm lengths proportional to resistance values make possible an easy visualization of input-output characteristics.if ua is 0 V. We solve for the gain by flnding tr5. behaves like an inverting amplifier. For example. aqR+ u)- R:-|Rq (3. the positive input of the op amp is 0 V and the u3-uo circuit behaves exactly like an inverting amplifier. The relationship can be visualized in Figure 3. (b) For the one-op-amp differential amplifier. but it has low input impedance. an inverting relation is obtained about some voltage intermediate between aa and 0 V. The left side shows how two additional op amps can provide high input impedance and gain. The thumb and finger holes are aa and u3.98 3 AMPLIFIERS AND SICNAL PROCÊSSINO (b) Figure 3.

solving for the current in the top half.5(a) right side. In Figure 3.5) is equal to RqlRt. Then Ra : : Aoo 1333. EXAMPLE 3. Equation (3. 0.3). 0o :0. then the common-mode voltage o. The differential amplifier-circuit (not op-amp) common-mode gain G.000 for a high-quality biopotential amplifier.6). Gain:201 A.3) into (3. Then the Thevenin source impedance O. THREE. Ra/R3.6) This factor may be lower than 100 for some oscilloscope differential amplifiers and higher than 10.4) yields vo_ - q)Ra (3. each arm changes resistance by +0.2 A blood-pressure sensor uses a four-active-arm Wheatstone strain gage bridge excited with 5 V dc.RlR:5V(0.5(b) by noting that as the scissors open.3%. such as strain-gage Wheatstone bridges (Section 2. Use the minimal number of components.)o is geometrically related to (oa . No differential amplifier perfectly rejects the common-mode voltage. with respect to ground. If on the other hand uz*uq. imagine the scissors to be closed. To quantify this imperfection.OP.4 DIFFERENTIALAMPLIFIERS 99 Then.003) :0. then the differential voltage (rq- or) produces an amplifier-circuit (not op-amp) differential gain G6 that from (3.5(b). ?.o3) in the same ratio as the lever arms. At full scale. No matter how the inputs are varied. is 0. Use this to replace R3 of Figure 3. we get . If the two inputs are hooked together and driven by a common source. Assume .R : : 120 R3(gain) :60 'C)(1333) :80kO. we use the term common-mode reiection ratio (CMRR). This result can be visualized in Figure 3.s) Rg This is the equation for a differential amplifier. ANSWER From (2. (ua u5 Ra uo í3 4\ Substituting (3.AMP DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER The one-op-amp differential amplifier is quite satisfactory for low-resistance sources. which is defined as CMRR: Ê (3.015 :60 qL.015V. But the input .3. Design an amplifier that will provide a full-scale output over the op amp's full range of linear operation. is u3 : ua.5) shows that the ideal output is 0. '- u3-u5 R.

5(a). By Rule 2. the CMRR is equal to the Ga. assume lhat uy . Hence current through Rr is 0. we can also obtain gain from these buffering amplifiers by using a noninverting amplifier.7) Since the G" is 1. - Rr + Rz) whereas the input voltage u1 -u2:illt The differential sain is then " u3-u4 2R2+Rl ur-uz R1 (3. and a gain that can be changed by adjusting R1. this solution amplifies the common-mode voltage.4(a) to each input. This causes a current to flow through R1 that also flows through the resistor string.100 3 AMPLIFIERS AND SICNAL PROCESSINC resistance is too low for high-resistance sources. This provides the required buffering. This places the same voltage atboth ends of R1 . as the negative input of the op amp passes through 0 V. Because this solution uses two additional op amps. Hence the output voltage u3 . Rz. 5. appears at both negative inputs to the op amps. which is usually much greater than 1. because it rejects the large 60 Hz common-mode voltage that exists on the body. Hence the current through both R2's is 0. The comparator's output flips from one saturation limit to the other.uz appears across R1.5(a) are combined. To examine the effects of common-mode voltage.7). When the left and right halves of Figure 3.uq i(R.It has high input impedance. For ?. uo : -13 V. BY Rule 1.R2.4(b). no current can flow from the op-amp inputs. For ui less than the comparison level.i greater than the comparison level. This circuit finds wide use in measuring biopotentials (Section 6. To examine the effects when o1 f u2.uz. we note that at . Rt. Our first recourse is to add the simple follower shown in Figure 3. The result is shown on the left side of Figure 3. I{owever. as shown in Figure 3. so there is no improvement in CMRR. . A superior solution is achieved by hooking together the two R1's of the noninverting amplifiers and eliminating the connection to ground. u1. so tr1 appearc at both op-amp outputs and the G" is 1. a high CMRR. the resulting three-op-amp amplifler circuit is frequently called an instrumentation amplifier. as well as the differential voltage.5 COMPARATORS SIMPLE A comparator is a circuit that compares the input voltage with some reference voltage.

5 COMPARATORS 1O1 . Thus this circuit performs the same function as a Schmitt trigger. first assume that o. as shown in Figure 3. This requires 'ui to be raised to +7 V. Noise on ui cannot cause uo to flip back. if 'r."1. As o1 is lowered.6(b) shows that the comparator flips when ur : -'t)reï. because the op amp inverts and saturates. causing the positive input to change to +1 V. oo: -13V. at which level the circuit can flip back to its original state. At this point. we can connect 'u.. To analyze this circuit. we can add hysteresis to the comparator by adding R2 and R3. When negative comparison levels are desired. The input circuit may be expanded by adding the two R1 resistors shown in Figure 3. . This provides a known input resistance for the circuit and minimizes overdriving the op-amp input.. uo : *13 V. The effect of this positive feedback is illustrated by the input-output characteristics shown in Figure 3. zro indicates whether (t1 + t.2. as shown in. which detects an analog voltage level and yields a logic level output. because the negative input must be raised to +1 V to cause the next flip. ês shown in Figure 3. oo flips to *13 V. the comparator does not flip until u1 reaches f3 V. The simplest comparator is the op amp itself. say. -1 V.3.. (b) the input-output characteristic.6(a). The inputs may be interchanged to invert the output. then uo fluctuates wildly. is at the comparison level and there is noise on ui. which makes the negative input equal to the positive input. the comparator has hysteresis. the circuit is complete. we see that the width of the hysteresis is four times as great as the magnitude of the voltage across R3.6(a). WITH HYSTERESIS For a simple comparator."1 : -5V and o1 : f10V.1) is greater or less than 0 V.6(b). Then.^ '{n-rxt>ut LOV Wirhhvsteresis hysteresis -10 (b) v ta) Figure 3-6 (a) Comparator.. When R: : 0.If a reference voltage is connected to the positive input and r. The width of the hysteresis loop can be varied by replacing R3 by a potentiometer.I|| ttv-. To avoid building a separate power supply for tr. When R3 is larger. Figure 3. From this example. Divide uoby R2 and R3 so that the positive input is at. -1 V.ri is connected to the negative input. To prevent this.1 to the -15 V power supply and adjust the values of the input resistors so that the negative input of the op amp is at 0 V when u1 is at the desired positive comparison level. urer is connected to the +15 V power supply.

making oo ) 0.) (c) One-op-amp full-wave rectifier. (Reprinted with permission fuom Electronics Magazine. This problem can be overcome by placing the diode within the feedback loop of an op amp.1.974. Figure 3. the op amp disconnects and the passive resistor chain yields a gain of +0.u1 > 0. making Publishing. (b) Input-output characteristics show saturation when oo > +13 V. For u1 < 0.ri ) 0. because the voltage is not sufflcient to overcome the forward voltage drop of the diode. the circuit behaves like the inverting amplif. Circuit gain may be adjusted with a single pot.7 fier at the top is active.5. where x is a fraction corresponding to the potentiometer setting. Inc. the noninverting amplitro ) 0.7 V. . whereas D1 and Daare reverse-biased.102 3 AMPLIFIERS AND SIGNAL PROCESSINC 3.5. The top op amp is a noninverting amplifier with a gain of llx. the inverting amplifier at the bottom is active. Because Da is not conducting. For u1 < 0. the lower op amp does not contribute to the output. Penton Figure 3. thus reducing the voltage limitation by a factor equal to the gain of the op amp. 1974b). D2andD3 conduct. *'Av Dt xRl(l-x)R -' D^ "z (b) Ri=2kQ Rr= i kO uo 3ko (c) (a) Full-wave precision rectifier. For r.7(a) shows the circuit for a full-wave precision rectifier (Graeme.6 RECTIFIERS Simple resistor-diode rectifiers do not work well for voltages below 0.er rectifier with a gain of *0. For o1 > 0. copyright O December 12. For .

3. The perfect rectifier is frequently used with an integrator to quantify the amplitude of electromyographic signals (Section 6. and to linearize the output of devices with logarithmic or exponential input-output relations. so larger ranges of uo are sometimes obtained by the alternate switch position shown in Figure 3. or raise it to a poweÍ. 1986).173) is that the gain can be varied with a single potentiometer and the input resistance is very high.8) over the approximate range 10-7 A ( 19 ( 10 2 A. Figure 3.7 For LOCARITHMICAMPLIFIERS 103 < 0. At the i. 'uo : lrilxl. the upper op amp does not contribute to the output. These log and antilog circuits are used to multiply a variable. The resistor network feeds back only a fraction of oo in order to boost uo and uses the same principle as that used in the noninverting amplifier.ri seïveS as the input to the lower op-amp inverting amplifler. because the gain is a function of load.8(b) shows the input-output characteristics for each of these circuits. while D2and D3 are reverse-biased. u1 potentiometer wiper 'Webster. either the noninverting amplifier or the inverting amplifier can be used separately.7 LOGARITHMIC AMPLIFIERS The logarithmic amplifier makes use of the nonlinear volt-ampere relation of the silicon planar transistor (Jung. p. D1 and Da conduct. in which 16 .8).8(a).8) : 1c : Is : base - emitter voltage collectorcurrent reversesaturationcurrent. Then the output ao : Vnn is logarithmically related to tri as given by (3.36 to -0. 10-l3A af27"C The transistor is placed in the transdiode configuration shown in Figure : uilRi. The advantage of this circuit over other full-wave rectifier circuits (Wait.66 V.8(a). which has a gain of -1. Because semiconductors are temperature sensitive. Unlike other full-wave rectifiers. thus requiring only one op amp.3. 1975. divide it. Figure 3. The approximate range of tr" is -0. Vsp: o 060r"s(f) where Vsp (3. And because the polarity of the gain switches with the polarity of ui.f x. to compress large dynamic ranges into small ones. accurate circuits require temperature compensation.7(c) shows a one-op-amp full-wave rectifier (Tompkins and 1988). In the photometer 3.Because D2 is not conducting. it requires the load to remain constant. Antilog (exponential) circuits are made by interchanging the resistor and semiconductor. If only a half-wave rectifier is needed.

the circuit holds o^ constant. 3. Now let us consider circuits that have a deliberate change in gain with frequency. With the switch thrown in the alternate position. making possible a leisurely readout. we have considered only circuits with a flat gain-versus- frequency characteristic. the dc inverting amplifier.1). Thus ao : ?ric àrld uo Qan be set to any desired initial condition.8 INTECRATORS So far in this chapter.Figue3. the circuit integrates. (Section 11. Figure A three-mode as an 3. x1 and x10 gains are indicated.9 integrator With 51 open and 52 closed. (b) Input-output characteristics show that the logarithmic relation is obtained for only one polarity.8 (a) A logarithmic amplifier makes use of the fact that a transistor's VsB is related to the logarithm of its collector current. The first such circuit isÍhe integrator.104 3 AMPLIFIERS AND SICNAL PROCESSINC (a) (b) Figure 3. With both switches open. With 51 closed and 52 open. the logarithmic converter can be used to convert transmittance to absorbance. the circuit gain is increased by 10.9 circuit behaves .

a means must be provided to restore 'rro to any desired initial condition. This dc circuit then acts as an inverting amplifier. as technicians do when they calculate cardiac output (Section 8.1.ro is equal to the negative integral of . which makes uo : nic.1. Equation (3. The frequency response of an integrator is easily analyzed because the formula for the inverting amplifler gain (3.10) This shows that r. uidt + uic (3. Thus 7f4 -RCJ.o : 0 V is desired. both switches may be opened to hold the output at the final calculated value.11) shows that the circuit gain decreases as R increases. the input current i : uil R flows through C in a direction to cause uo to move in a negative direction.9. After the integration.u. Thus for Figure 3.1) can be generalized to any input and feedback impedances.(b) may be fed 3-3 ANSWER lsn :0. 51 is closed and 52 open. oo integrator eventually drifts into saturation. During integration. : -oi after an integration time equal to RC. 2. 1"6 Hence long cables may be used without changing sensor sensitivity or : .o:2trf . and/= frequency. the voltage due to the initial condition.3. and (3.:llo".2.10 shows the frequency response. 51 is opened and 52 closed... Analyze the circuit of this charge amplifier and discuss its advantages. Because any real V.(jr) :Zt : _ rljaC Vi(j.2). shows the circuit for an integrator..8 INTECRATORS 105 51.) Zi R 11 joRC (3. Figure 3. thus permitting time for a readout. (3. For more versatility.e) where I is the current through C and /1 is the integration time. For the integrator.11) shows that the circuit gain is 1 when @r :7.9. a simple switch to short out C is sufficient. scaled by the faetor Ll RC and added to u. EXAMPLE The output of the piezoelectric sensor shown in Figure directly into the negative input of the integrator shown in Figure 3.11) jrot where t:RC. as shown in Figure 83. for ui positive.a. Because the FET-op-amp negative input is a virtual ground. If an initial condition of ?. which is obtained by closing switch voltage across an initially uncharged capacitor is given by The . The circuit is useful for computing the area under a curve. with 51 closed. For oo :0 and ui : constant.

which shows that uo is proportional to r. curcenÍ generated by the sensor.10). 2. 100 10 100 í" J" Frequency. all flows into C. we find : uo:-u-eI f" Kdx o. time constant. 1. d.2. that uo is as is the case with voltage amplifiers. low-pass. the charge amplifier slowly drifts with time because of bias dq"ldr=i"=Kdr/dt E3. 3 section (pole). bandpass (BP). Like the integrator. Hz Figure 3. From Figure 83. and bandpass filters. low pass (LP). differentiator (D). for high-pass.kX c J.106 3 AMPLIFIERS AND SIONAL PROCESSINC .íO Bode plot (gain versus frequency) for various filters Integrator (I). Figure . high pass (HP). i" K dx ldt. Corner frequencies /.:. so.2 The charge amplifier transfers charge generated from a piezoelectric sensor to the op-amp feedback capacitor C. even down to dc. using (3.

(jr) _ _Zr Vi(jr) Z.. Common capacitor values are 10 pF to 1 pF. Unless specific preventive steps are taken.12) dui I dt is positive. V. .11. The output also tends to be noisy.:llQIRC) and has no frequency-response improvement over the voltage amplifier. . 3. A differentiator followed by a comparator is useful for detecting Figure 3. Thus C+ clt (3.-nC* dt (3.10 shows the frequency response.9 DIFFERENTIATORS Interchanging the integrator's R and C yields the differentiator shown in Figure 3. because the circuit emphasizes high frequencies. with a time constanÍ t : RC. lljaC : _ jLDRC: jm (3.3.Iï then responds only to frequencies above f.13) The frequency response of a differentiator is given by the ratio of feedback to input impedance.1í Adifferentiator The dashed lines indicate that a small capacitor must usually be added across the feedback resistor to prevent oscillation. the circuit tends to oscillate. Figure 3. This causes the circuit to behave as a high-pass filter. A large feedback resistance R must therefore be added to prevent saturation.14) shows that the circuit gain increases as/increases and that it is equal to unity when ar : 1. I flows through R in a direction such that it yields a negative u.14) Equation (3. The current through a capacitor is given by i: If u^.9 DIFFERENTIATORS currents required by the op-amp input.

(b) A high-pass filter attenuates low frequencies and blocks dc.12 Active filters (a) A low-pass filter attenuates high frequencies. .9(a) shows a low-pass filter that is useful for attenuating highfrequency noise. The advantages of this circuit are that (c) Figure 3. 3.10 ACTIVE FITTERS LOW. detection of the R wave in an electrocardiosram.12(a).PASS FILTER Figure 1. A low-pass active filter can be obtained by using the oneop-amp circuit shown in Figure 3. (c) A bandpass filter attenuates both low and high frequencies.108 3 AMPLIFIERS AND SICNAL PROCESSING an event the slope of which exceeds a given value-for example.

t .12(b) shows a one-op-amp high-pass filter. HIGH. For ot))1. which is defined by the intersection of the two asymptotes shown.3). the circuit behaves as an inverting amplifier (Figure 3.PASS FILTER Figure 3. because the impedance of R1 is large compared with that of Ci. For ro ( 1.15) has the same form as (1.f t.1O ACTIVE FILTERS 109 it is capable of gain and that it has a very low output impedance. Note that (3. the circuit behaves as an inverting amplifier. This circuit is useful for bandpass .11). V"(ia):_Zt__ Vi( jat) Zi R1 (tuljcoC) l(1ljac1) + R1l . because the impedance of C1 is large compared with R1.RrCi _ _Rt jr'.3.1s) where r : RrCt.8(d). because C1. Íhe circuit behaves as a differentiator (Figure 3. For a111f r. is given by the relation ar :2nf. is given by the relation ar :Znf.12(a). but only to add the correct size Cl to the existing wide-band amplifier. Figure 3.23).r : 1.10 shows the frequency response. because C: is the dominant input impedance. because C1 is the dominant feedback impedance. BANDPASS FILTER A series combination of the low-pass filter and the high-pass filter results in a filter. The frequency response is given by the ratio of feedback to input impedance. the circuit behaves as an integrator (Figure 3.r __ 1+ j@CiRi RiL + jrot (3.9). it is not necessary to add a separate stage. For at)t1-f r. Figure 3. blocks the dc.R1 Rr1 RiL (1 + ioRrcr)Ri + jatt (3.l.16) where r : RiCi. which is similar to that shown in Figure 1. The corner frequency /". as shown in Figure 3. which is defined by the intersection of the two asymptotes shown. Such a circuit is useful for amplifying a small ac voltage that rides on top of a large dc voltage.10 shows the frequency response. The corner frequency/". The frequency-response equation is V"(jr)__Zt:_ Rt Vi(ja) Zi Ll joCi + Rt jr'. When a designer wishes to limit the frequency of a wide-bandwideband amplifier.10 shows the frequency response.f r. Figure 3.which amplifies frequencies over a desired range and attenuates higher and lower frequencies. Figure 3. The corner frequencies are defined by the same relations as those for the low-pass and the high-pass filters.12(c) shows that the bandpass function can be achieved with a one-op-amp circuit.

1k 100 10 Amplifier circuit gain I 10 100 1k rOk 100k 1M tOM Frequency. is compensated intemally. had a gain greater than 1 when the phase shift was equal to -180'. and each has a -90' phase shift. the phase shift is limited to -90". the loop gain on this log-log plot is the difference between the op-amp gain and the amplifier--circuit gain. A popular op amp. as shown by the dashed curve in Figure 3. OPEN. reaches a slope of -3. and therefore oscillated unless compensation was added externally.LOOP CAIN Because the op amp requires very high gain. such heart sounds or the electrocardiosram. When feedback resistors are added to build an amplifier circuit. At high frequencies.11 FREQUENCYRESPONSE Up until now.13. Thus a three-stage op amp. so for a gain greater than 1. . Now we shall examine the effects of several nonideal characteristics. the 41L. required for recording 3. it has several stages. Hz Figure 3. we have found it useful to consider the op amp as ideal. such as type 709. each stage has a -1 slope on a log-log plot of gain versus frequency. starting with that of frequency response. Each of these stages has stray or junction capacitance that limits its high-frequency response in the same way that a simple RC low-pass fllter reduces high-frequency gain. 1M Op-amp gain Uncompensated 100 k 10k \Ë 6 (.11O 3 AMpLrFlERSANDSroNALpRocEssrNc as those amplifying a certain band of frequencies.í3 Op-ampfrequency characteristics Early op amps (such as the 709) were uncompensated.

We find this an advantage of using negative feedback. This is done with an internal capacitor in the 411. resulting in a slope of -1 and a maximal phase shift of -90". At low frequencies. . and measuring the gain around the loop. an amplifier circuit is never built using the op-amp open loop.3(a)]. At high frequencies. the loop gain is high and the closed-loop amplifier-circuit characteristics are determined by the feedback resistors. so we shall therefore discuss only the circuit closed-loop response. This op amp does not oscillate for any amplifier we have described. and is then amplified by the op-amp gain.13. if we build an amplif. because its gain is reduced for frequencies above 40 Hz. The amplifier-circuit gain is 10. as shown in Figure 3. because the feedback resistors can be made much more stable than the op-amp characteristics. the loop gain is low and the amplifier-circuit characteristics follow the op-amp characteristics. but the gain is progressively reduced at higher frequencies. because feedback is not employed. On the log-log plot.11 FREQUENCY RESPONSE 111 The phase shift reaches -270".13. in a unity-gain follower [Figure 3. in that the frequency response is greatly extended. the difference between the opamp gain and the amplifier-circuit gain is the loop gain. High loop gain is good for accuracy and stability. until it is only I at 4 MHz. Therefore. Thus the loop gain is equal to (op-amp gain)12. injecting a signal.13 shows the loop-gain concept for a noninverting amplifier. if the gain is greater than 1 when the phase shift is equal to -180' (the closed-loop condition for oscillation).3.er circuit with a gain of 10. the frequency Íesponse is flat up to 400 kHz and is reduced above that frequency only because the amplifier-circuit gain can never exceed the op-amp gain. which is quite satisfactory for a comparator.LOOP OAIN It might appear that the op amp has very poor frequency response.a@)l we break the feedback loop and then the injected signal enters the negative input. the loop gain equals the op-amp gain. This compensates the uncompensated op amp. there is undesirable oscillation. LOOP GAIN The loop gain for an amplifier circuit is obtained by breaking the feedback loop at any point in the loop. assume that the amplifier-circuit input is grounded. To measure loop gain in an inverting amplifier with a gain of *L [Figure 3. For example. CLOSED. For example. This op amp has very high dc gain. after which it is amplified by the op-amp gain. The injected signal is divided by 2 by the attenuator formed of R1 and Ri. For an amplifier. Figure 3. F{owever. COMPENSATION Adding an external capacitor to the terminals indicated on the specification sheet moves one of the RC filter corner frequencies to a very low frequency. resulting in the solid curve shown in Figure 3.

.0. so that we can obtain ?o . 2nVo. is the rated output voltage (usually 10 V). an uncompensated op amp can be used. the gain-bandwidth product is still constant.112 s AMpLrFrERsANDsrcNALpRocESSrNo OAIN-BANDWIDTH PRODUCT The gain-bandwidth product of the op amp is equal to the product of gain and bandwidth at a particular frequency. high-frequency sine wave. The change in voltage across the capacitor is then limited. This offset voltage is usually not important when oi is 1 to -10 V. Jp: t s. When rapid changes in output are demanded. and du"f dt is limited to a maximal slew rate (15V/ps for the 4II). (3. distortion occurs. The two op-amp inputs drive the bases of transistors.r) must be a few millivolts. Thus.17) where lzo. the voltage (r.13. a typical value for op amps. SLEW RATE Small-signal response follows the amplifier-circuit frequency response predicted by Figure 3. If the slew rate is too slow for fast switching of a comparator.12 OFFSET VOLTAOE Another nonideal characteristic is that of offset voltage. for any amplifier circuit. at 4 MHz. the offset voltage must be considered. because comparators do not contain the negative-feedback path that may cause oscillations. and the base-to-emitter voltage drop may be slightly different for each. Thus in Figure 3. For large signals there is an additional limitation. oÍ maximal frequency for rated output.. But when oi is on the order of millivolts..13 the unity-gainbandwidth product is 4 MHz. du ldt : I^u*lC. is exceeded by a large-amplitude. Note that along the entire curve with a slope of -1. For higherfrequency applications. the capacitor added for compensation must be charged up from an internal source that has limited current capability 1-u.If this slew rate S. Thus. op amps such as the OP-37E are available with gainbandwidth products of 60 MHz. Adjustment of this pot . we can obtain its bandwidth by dividing the gain-bandwidth product by the amplifier-circuit gain. Thus there is a limitation on the sine-wave full-power resDonse. as when amplifying the output from thermocouples or strain gages. NUTLINO The offset voltage may be reduced to zero by adding an external nulling pot to the terminals indicated on the specification sheet. 3.

If the drift of an inexpensive op amp is too high for a given application. is in series with the input and cannot be reduced.1pV/'C) are available with temperature-controlled chips. These can be modeled as shown in Figure 3. Temperature changes that affect the base-to-emitter voltages may be due to either environmental changes or to variations in the dissipation of power in the chip that result from fluctuating output voltage. which limits the detection of small signals.12 OFFSET VOLTAOE 113 increases emitter current through one of the input transistors and lowers it through the other. Figure . The noise is random. tighter speciflcations (0. An alternative technique modulates the dc as in chopper-stabilized and varactor op amps (Tobey et a1. For example. DRIFT Even though the offset voltage may be set to 0 at25'C. L97I). NOISE All semiconductor junctions generate noise. Op amps have transistor input junctions. it does not remain there if temperature is not constant.. The noise added by the noisecurrent sources in can be minimized by using small external resistances. 5. For low source impedances. The effects of temperature may be specified as a maximal offset voltage change in volts per degree Celsius or a maximal offset voltage change over a given temperature range.í4 Noise sources in an op amp The noise-voltage source tr. at low rl . say -25'C to +85 "C. only the noise voltage tr' is important. it is large compared with the I.3.R drop caused by the current noise ln.ot lF ft--. but the amplitude varies with frequency. which generate both noisevoltage sources and noise-current sources. This alters the base-to-emitter voltage of the two transistors until the offset voltage is reduced to zero.14.

in series with the positive input. DIFFERENTIAL BIAS CURRENT The difference between the two input bias currents is much smaller than either of the bias currents alone.ln addition. the noise is lower and can be specified in root-mean-square (rms) units ofY. a compensation resistor the value of which is equal to the parallel combination of R1 and R1. are normally used. This is called bias current.18) . This bias current must flow through the feedback network. but it is now determined by the difference in bias current.114 3 AMpLTFTERSANDSTcNALpRocESSTNc frequencies the noise power density varies as [lf (flicker noise). which for the 411 is about 200 pA. DRIFT The input bias currents are transistor base or gate currents.14 shows how variations in bias current contribute to overall noise. There still is an error. does not exceed the op-amp output current raling (20 mA for the 411). so they are temperature sensitive. called popcorn noise (Wait et a1. However.1975). such as those with resistances of 10 kO. To minirnize these errors. base or gate current must flow all the time to keep the transistors turned on. so the additional compensation resistor that we have described minimizes the problem. 3. plus the current flowing through all load resistors.. A degree of cancellation of the effects of bias current can be achieved by having each bias current flow through the same equivalent resistance. It causes errors proportional to feedback-element resistances. The noise currents flow through the external equivalent resistances so that the total rms noise voltage is .13 BIAS CURRENT Because the two op-amp inputs drive transistors. the changes in gain of the two transistors tend to track together. small feedback resistors. At the midfrequencies. NOISE Figure 3. Smaller values should be used only after a check to determine that the current flowing through the feedback resistor.- {fui + (1. so a large amount of noise is present at low frequencies.Hz-rlz. This is accomplished for the inverting amplifier and the noninverting amplifier by adding.R)z i 4rcTR1* 4rcTR2lBW}Uz (3.R1)2 + U. because transistor gain varies with temperature. some silicon planar-diffused bipolar integrated-circuit op amps exhibit bursts of noise.

bipolar-transistor op amps yield the lowest noise. 3. For ac amplifiers. (sometimes ul and ll). low-input-current amplifiers such as the field-effect transistor (FET) input stage are best because of their lower current noise. This is accomplished by inserting a transformer with turns ratio 1 : N.1e) D -' - -"t A.Azo Aui (1 -l_ tln. assume a change in input voltage ui.tt air - (Á+1)ÀdoARa .15.14 INPUTANDOUTPUTRESISTANCE 115 where R1 and R2 : on : jn equivalent source resistances Ín€êrl value of the rms noise voltage. 1986). F{owever. For the FET-input 4II. it is about 2 }dA.r _ Ra Au1 & . For larger source resistances.3. inY'Hz-r 12. Luo: 46uo : A(Lui ALui Auo) A+1 Aoo -. Hz The specification sheet provides values of uo and l. (3. Consider the follower shown in Figure 3.rt is 1TO. In order to calculate the amplifier-circuit input resistance Ru1. thus making it possible to compare different op amps.14 INPUT AND OUTPUT RESISTANCE INPUT RESISTANCE The op-amp differential-input resistance R6 is shown in Figures 3. the lowest noise is obtained by calculating the characteristic noise resistance -R' : unlin and setting it equal to the equivalent source resistance R2 (for the noninverting amplifier).1 and 3. whereas for BJT-input op amps. Because this is a follower. A Hz 1 across the frequency range of interest : Ítre&n vàlue of the rms noise current' in across the frequency range of interest /2. where Vtr : (R"lR2)'/'. which is comparable to the value of some feedback resistors used. we shall see that its value is usually not important because of the benefits of feedback.15. r: Boltzmann's constant (Appendix) T: BW: temperature. If the source resistances are 10 k'f). Ary (1977) presents design factors and performance specifications for a low-noise amplifier. between the source and the op amp (Jung. K noisebandwidth.

which is equal to R6 times the loop gain. because surface leakage paths in the opamp socket lower it considerably. This value cannot be achieved in practice. For large source resistances. is about (10s) x (2 MO) 200 GO. the input resistor. In general.4+1)Ao.20) ^. Thus the amplifier-cícuit input resistance Ru. Because lo flows through Ro.15 The amplifier input impedance is much higher than the op-amp input impedance R6.21) .:AloRo n"^ - AL.uo +AioRo !g: -4al" AII = R^tA (3. there is an additional voltage drop AloRo.1 and 3.15. all noninverting amplifiers have a very high input resistance. Consider the follower shown in Figure 3. the inverting amplifier has small input OUTPUT RESISTANCE The op-amp output resistance Ro is shown in Figures 3. In order to calculate the amplifiercircuit output resistance Ruo. : ^^r: resistance. However. which may seem large for some applications. FET op amps such as the 411 are helpful. assume that load resistor R1 is attached to the output.15. its value is usually not important because of the benefits of feedback. because the bias current usually causes much larger problems than the amplifier-circuit input impedance. -L. ff: (3. causing a change in output current Alo. Because R1 is usually a small value. It is about 40 O for the typical op amp. Because the negative input of the op amp is a virtual ground. The input resistance of an inverting amplifier is easy to determine. This is not to say that very large souÍce resistances can be used. The amplifler output impedance is much smaller than the op-amp output impedance Ro. Thus the amplifier-circuit input resistance Rui is equal to Ài.ua: Aoo (.116 3 AMPLIFIERS AND SICNAL PROCESSINC Figure 5.ua|_ AloRo: -AL.

22) The Ro-C. Then the output current '. The sine wave in Figure 3.o is about 40lI}s a value negligible : 0.7 shows that a linear variable differential transformer requires a phase-sensitive demodulator to yield a useful output signal.15 PHASE. This maximal current output must also be considered when driving large capacitances Ca at a high slew rate.16(a).16(i) is demodulated to the wave shown in Figure 3. u2.16(h) averages Ío zero when passed through a low-pass filter and is rejected. Then we can use the entire circuit as an op amp by connecting terminals u1.SENSITIVE DEMODULATORS Figure 2. Amplifier stray capacitance may cause an undesirable quadrature voltage that is shifted 90'.0004 O. The dc signal shown in Figure 3. In effect. Any frequency component not locked to the . This places the booster section within the feedback loop and keeps distortion low. because the maximal current output for a typical op amp is 20 mA. combination also acts as a low-pass filter. lÍtd uo Ío external feedback networks.16 shows the functional operation of a phase-sensitive demodulator.15 is smaller than 500 O. but it changes sign when the phase shifts by 180'. This is not to say that very small load resistances can be driven by the output. Figure 3.16(e) is 180' out of phase.16(c) is demodulated by this switch to yield the full-wave-rectified positive signal in Figure 3.3. The in-phase sine wave in Figure 3. so it yields the negative signal in Figure 3. In general.15 PHASE-SENSITIVE DEMODULATORS 117 Thus the amplifier-circuit output resistance R. The cure is to add a small resistor between uo and C1. this multiplies the input signal zr1 by the switching function shown in Figure 3.16(a) shows a switching function that is derived from a carrier oscillator and causes the double-pole double-throw switch in Figure 3.16(b) to be in the upper position for *1 and in the lower position for -1. Figure 3. lhe current booster is used. To achieve larger current outputs. thus isolating Ca from the feedback loop. in most circuits.16(9). The demodulated signal in Figure 3. An ordinary op amp drives high-power transistors (on heat sinks if required). A phase-sensitive demodulator does not measure phase but yields a full-wave-rectified output of the in-phase component of a sine wave.160) and is rejected.rr# (3. Its output is proportional to the amplitude of the input.. all noninverting and inverting amplifiers have an output resistance that is equal to R" divided by the loop gain. If R1 shown in Figure 3. the op amp saturates internally.16(f). which introduces additional phase shift around the loop and can cause oscillation.16(d). as shown in Figure 3. 3.

í6 Functional operation of a phase-sensitive demodulator (a) Switching function. .í\r -l (e.118 3 AMpLTFTERsANDSTcNALpRocESSTNc (a. ("). (d). The noise-rejection capability may be improved by placing a tuned amplifier before the phase-sensitive demodulator. . (i) Several several input voltages. carrier frequency is similarly rejected. (d) tc. ... (f). (g). A carrier system and phase-sensitive demodulator are also essential for operation of the electromagnetic blood flowmeter (Section 8. it is frequently used to demodulate the suppressed-carrier waveforms obtained from linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) and the ac-excited strain-gage Wheatstone bridge (Section 2. (h). -l ''t /^ (0 \-AJ I €)0 -1 V h \l\ c) (i) -1 -l-r Figure 5.3). (c). (b) Switchswitch. Because the phase-sensitive demodulator has excellent noise-rejection capabilities. (b) -t '--i__. thus forming a lock-in amplifier (Aronson.\. (j) Corresponding corresponding output voltages. 1977).3)..

By symmetry. assume that the carrier frequency is 3 kHz.. Also. By symmetry.o is a full-wave-rectified waveform. Thus t. The reversed polarity of 'u.17 A ring demodulator This phase-sensitive detector produces a full-wave-rectified output oo that is positive when the input voltage T. 1)i. . 1)g. which appears at T.17. During the second half of the cycle.17. us. is positive at the black dot. If the input waveform u1. diodes D3 and Da are forward-biased and D1 and D2 are reverse-biased.16(e). oo changes polarity. A practical phase-sensitive demodulator is shown in Figure 3. The ring demodulator has the advantage of having no moving parts. this transforms to a voltage ops that appears at oo. 1986) makes it possible to eliminate the bulky transformers but requires more care in biasing ai. If u1. yields a positive Trp6. The availability of type 1.15 PHASE-SENSITIVE DEMODULATORS 119 Figure 3.16(d).495 solid-state double-balanced demodulators on a single chip (Jung. points A and B are at the same voltage. points A and C are at the same potential.This ring demodulator operates with the following action. because transformer coupling is used. Use (b) a one-section active filter. provided that u" is more than twice tri If the carrier waveform 'u. changes phase by 180'. as shown in Figure 3. is positive at the black dot.3. diodes D1 and D2 are forward-biased and D3 and Da are reverse-biased. EXAMPLE 3.ri is in phase with the carrier voltage u" and negative when 'ui is 180' out of phase with u. To eliminate ripple. Design the RC output low-pass filter to have a corner frequency of 20Hz and a reasonable value capacitor (100 nF). àÍrd uo at different dc levels. àïrd uc can all be referenced to different dc levels. the output is usually low-pass flltered by a filter the corner frequency of which is about onetenth of the carrier frequency. as shown in the first half of Figure 3.ro.4 (a) For Figure 3.

This pattern of alternating high and low cycles continuously repeats.í8 A square wave of period ? oscillates between two values.0000001) : 2rfRC L 80ko (b) See Figure 3.18. there is often a need to generate signals that repeat at regular intervals. 21.1pF.24) For example. there Th TT Ítl -. The total period of the square wave. is thus T:Tn*Tt (3.72(a) Cr :0.16 TIMERS In elqctronic 3. Digital systems use square waves with 50% duty cycles as clocks to synchronize digital logic.12O 3 AMpLTFTERSANDSTcNALpRocESSTNc See Figure 1. design.. Rr : 80kO 3.-v-t T Figure 3. Thus Dutycycle -+ " (100%) (3. . then it drops to a lower voltage for a length of time fi. shown in Figure The voltage of a square wave is high for a fixed amount of time. Ri : 80kO. a square wave in which cycle.6(a) ANSWER (a) R: :7 7(2nfC) : l Qnz} x 0. thus. One type of signai is the square wave. the time it takes to repeat. - Zr is said to have a 50% duty There are many ways to generate square waves. fi.23) The duty cycle of a square wave is deflned as the percentage of the time that the square wave is at its higher output voltage.

(b) A popular circuit that utilizes a 555 timer and four external components creates a squale wave with duty cycle ) 50o/o. Note that the duty cycle of this circuit is always greater than 50% because Ru must be nonzero. One popular configuration is shown in Figure 3. To get square waves with duty cycles less than 50%. the output of this circuit may be fed into an inverting amplifier or logic inverter. Figure 3. however. alternately charging and discharging capacitor C. we want to generate square waves with duty cycles other than 50%.5 Fisure 3.íe rn" slï tit". (c) The output from the 555 timer circuit shown in (b). . The 555 timer is an S-pin integrated circuit. The 555 timers form the core of many different kinds of timing circuits.19(a).3. Many times. as shown in Figure 3. Ground Vcc 1 Trigger Discharge Output Threshold 6 Reset Control 2 (a) Zr' = -In(0 5XRa+Ru)C 0v_ In(0. A popular means of doing this is with a 555 timer. (a) Pinout for the 555 timer IC.19(c) shows the output of the circuit.19(b). this circuit oscillates internally. When powered.16 TIMERS are many commercially available clock generator chips that yield square \ilaves with 50% duty cycles.

s 3. EXAMPLE p. data storage. by connecting the instrument to a computer.19(b). limiter. this additional processing was handled either by using relatively simple digital-electronic circuits or. and control and/or feedback capability. differentiator. integrator.F) : 2886 C) -2886+50ms/(0. Using typical off-the-shelf components. But from the point of view of medical instrumentation. The circuit of Figure 3. phase-sensitive demodulator The development of microcomputers has led to the combining of a medical instrument with a signal-processing capability sufficient to perform functions normally done by an operator or a computer.F) :717 ktl. 3. 2005). and in software (Tompkins. Rr. The use of a microcomputer generally results in fewer IC packages. which allows fine-tuning of the time constants. logarithmic amplifler. it is more instructive to view the microcomputer as a microcontroller. *5 V for 3.693 x 0. Ritter et al.: &+Tnl( ln(0.19(b). Microcomputers can frequently replace analog circuits by performing the signal-processing functions of comparator.1p. Using variable resistances for Ru and R6. 1993. because of the difflculty of creating precision capacitors.5)c: = Tt l? ln(0.17 MICROCOMPUTERS IN MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION The electronic devices that we have described so far in this chapter are useful for acquiring a medical signal and performing some initial processing.122 3 AMpLTFTERSANDSTcNALpRocESSTNc a This method of generating square waves is simple and requires only small integrated circuit (IC) and four external components.5)C : 200 ps/(0 . however.693 x 0. if a significant amount of processing was required.. This computing function can certainly be implemented. is not very useful for precision timing applications.1 p. such as flltering or demodulation.19(c) ANSWER Use the circuit shown in Figure 3. Traditionally. together with the capability for self-calibration and .1 also indicates additional signal processing. The generalized instrumentation system shown in Figure 1.5)R6C Ra : -ln(0. can minimize this. Use 7404 TTL chip or 4049 CMOS chip logic gate inverter ro yield 200 u. active filter.)C.s.5)(Rr + Rr. This reduced complexity. From Figure Tt Zr' 1n(0. rectifier.5 Design a timer for a nerve stimulator that stimulates for 200 every 50 ms. the period may vary by as much as25"/" from the nominal values.

1 (a) Design an inverting ampliÍier with an input resistance of 20 kO and a gain of 10. Design a dccoupled one-op-amp circuit that will amplify the 100 mV to 50 mV input range to have the maximal gain possible without exceeding the typical guaranteed linear output range. Further development has resulted in chip-based systems. Plot the input output characteristics for both the circuit output and the op-amp output. For instance digital filters are now directly hard coded onto dedicated chips which result in significant computational savings The LabVIEW PCbased system provides modular software-based instruments for data acquisition. Tompkins and Webster.1 to design a dc-coupled one-op-amp circuit that will amplify the f 100 pV EOG to have the maximal gain possible without exceeding the typical guaranteed linear output range. enhances the reliability of the instrument. (http://www. 1988.1. and sex for calculating expected or normal performance.6 Design a three-op-amp differential amplifier having a differential gain of 5 in the first stage and 6 in the second stage. Thus the LabVIEW developed software can be used in many new medical instruments after the purchase of one LabVIEW system that includes the Microprocessor SDK toolkit. 3.com/labview/. (c) Design a summing amplifier such that o" : -(10u1 *2u2 10.7 Design a comparator with hysteresis in which the hysteresis width extends from0to2V. It permits graphical system design of embedded applications for microprocessor and microcontroller devices.ni. Give all numerical values. 3. 3. Microcomputers can provide self-calibration for measurement systems. The most useful applications of microcomputers for medical instrumentation involve this controller function. 2001). Include a control that can balance (remove) series electrode offset potentials up to f 300 mV. . 3. 3.2 The axon action potential (AAP) is shown in Figure 4. each having a tolerance of L5oÁ. automatic sequencing of events. All these functions are made possible by the basic structure of the microcomputer system.5 An op-amp differential amplifier is built using four identical resistors.5u3). Include a resistor to compensate for bias current. 3. Tompkins and Webster.4(b) equal to 20 kO.PROBLEMS 123 detection of errors. Carr and Brown. and an easy way to enter such patient data as height. weight.3 Use the circuit shown in Figure E3.8 For an inverting half-wave perfect rectifier.4 Design a noninverting amplifier having a gain of 10 and Rl of Figure 3. which are not the same point as in most op-amp circuits. PROBLEMS 3. Calculate the worst possible CMRR. 1981. (b) Include a resistor to compensate for bias current. sketch the circuit. 3.

3.21 For maximal current output (20 mA)? 3. what is the loop gain at 100 Hz? the differentiator shown in Figure 3. 3.cant location. break the feedback loop at any point.17.10. calculate the amplifier input and output resistances at 100 Hz. what is the current through R? How long will it take for uo to drift from 0 V to saturation? Explain how to cure this drift problem. and a corner frequency of 10 Hz.8.14 Design a one-section high-pass filter with a gain of 20 and a corner frequency of 0.22 For Problem 3. Calculate its response to a step input of I mV. 3. explain how an amplifier with a gain of 100 and a bandwidth of 100 kHz can be designed.1-9 Using 411 op amps.13 Design a differentiator for which r. what is the maximal capacitive load Ca that can be connected Lo a4ll without degrading the normal slew rate (15V/ps) at the 3. Design a one-op-amp active bandpass filter that has a midband input impedance of approximately l0 kC). if bias current is 200 pA. 3. . 3.9 Using the principle 3.I2 In Problem 3. design a signal compressor for which an input-voltage range of *10 V yields an output-voltage range of +4 V. a high-frequency input impedance of l0 MO.10 Design an integrator with an input resistance of I MO. and a frequency response from I to 10 kHz (corner frequencies). 1 3.16 Find Iz"(iro) lvt(ioo) for the bandpass filter shown in Figlre 3. 3. Sketch waveforms at each signif. design (show the circuit diagram for) an LVDT. If the amplifier gain is 1 000. Explain why the circuit tends to oscillate. what change occurs in oo? 3. Select the capacitor such that when u1 : +10 V..16 shows the maximal single-peak signal and frequency range of the EMG. 3. 3. 3.16 shows that the frequency range of the AAP is 110 to 10kHz. if the forward drop of D1 is l0% higher than that of the other diodes. if oi:0 and offset voltage equals 5 mV.15 Design a one-op-amp high-pass active filter with a high-frequency gain of 10 (not 10). oo travels from 0 to 10 V in 0.17 Figure 6. a midband gain of approximately 1.10.24 For Figure 3.11 In Problem 3. for inverting and noninverting amplifiers.25 Given an oscillator block.o : -10V when dqf dt: 100V/s. 3. Design a one-op-amp bandpass filter circuit that will amplify the EMG to have the maximal gain possible without exceeding the typical guaranteed linear output range and will pass the range offrequencies shown.12(c).1 s. and determine the phase shift in each section. phase-sensitive demodulator and a first-order low-pass filter with a corner frequency of 100 Hz. 3.18 Figure 6.124 3 AMPLIFIËRS AND SIGNAL PROCESSINC shown in Figure 3.20 Refer to Figure 3.05 Hz. 3.21. how long will it take for uo to drift from 0 V to saturation? Explain how to cure this drift problem. 3. ground the input.23 For Figure 3.11.15.

4th ed. variable gain. 2nd ed. 1986.. Tompkins. 45(25). G.3rd ed. Data. 5.-24. Aug. . A. 1975.. M. J. Horowitz. Brown.Dec' 12. 1981. NJ: Prentice Hall. Tobey.). New York: McGraw-Hill.107-109. P. W. Jung. Ifill..82-92. G. and J. Wait. F. Design of Microcomputer-Based Medical Instrumerxtation. J. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Biomedical Engineering Principles. Eng. Reisman. Short cuts to network design. Indianapolis: Howard W' Sams.8(3). J. 2002. Michniak.. Ary.. J. "A head-mounted 24-channel evoked potential preamplifier employing low-noise operational amplifiers. Tompkins. R. and W.. Cambridge. L.. Tompkins. 42(17). J. Introduction to Operational Amplifier Theory and Applications. 1974.).1917. S. and J. 1993. Biomed. 18' 1969. P. Englewood Cliffs. M. W. G. lC Op-Amp Cookbook. Webster (eds.. The Art of Electronics. 1971. 7977.." Med.Interfacíng Sensors to the IBM PC. Graeme. and L. Electron. Design with operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated circuits. V. J. H.. "Active filters: Part 1-2. J. Biomedical Digital sígnal Processing: C-Language Examples and Lahoratory Experiments for the IBM PC. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs. E. New York: McGraw-Hill. J. CI-C16.rrglevt ood Cliffs. w.3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Ritter. Huelsman. W. Boca Raton: CRC Press. England: Cambridge University Press. 2001.. Shepard. (ed. A.." Electron.. Korn. and J." Electron.. P. 1988. NJ: Prentice-Hall.. 2005.REFERENCES 125 REFERENCES Aronson. BMF. Webster (eds. G. Upper Saddle River. Graeme. G. ." IEEE Trans. 1989. Franco. Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology. and B. Operational Amplifiers: Desígn and Application. "Rectifying wide-range signals with precision..).. P.. 8. J. 293-297 Carr. and G. "Lock-in and carrier amplifiers. Huelsman. G. R. B.