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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

C S THNH PH H CH MINH
-----------oOo----------




LUN VN TT NGHIP I HC
Ngnh: in t-Vin Thng H: Chnh quy
Nin kha: 2004-2009


t i :



M s ti: 08404160282





Gio vin hng dn : Thy H VN CU
Thy L CHU KHN
Sinh vin thc hin : V NH NG
LP : 04VTA1
MSSV : 404160022





Nm 2008


















































LI CM N


Sau nhiu nm c hc tp ti Hc Vin Bu Chnh Vin
Thng em c tip thu c rt nhiu kin thc qu bu t
pha cc thy c, bn b, c bit l cc thy c trong Khoa in
T - Vin Thng. n hm nay n l nn tng vng chc gip
em c t tin v ngh lc n chun b vo i.

hon thnh cun lun vn ny em xin chn thnh cm n
cc thy c Hc Vin Bu Chnh Vin Thng.
c bit hn c l Thy H Vn Cu v Thy L Chu Khn
tn tnh hng dn v gip cng nh cung cp ti liu em
hon thnh cun lun vn ny.
Cm n tt c cc bn b ca ti gip , ng h ti ht
mnh.
Xin by t lng bit n su sc n ba m, anh v em ti
quan tm, lo lng, ng vin ti trong sut qu trnh hc tp.


Xin chn thnh cm n !






H Ch Minh, 25 thng 11 nm 2008
V nh ng
MST: 08404160282 Li m u


LI M U

Hin nay, cng ngh vin thng tr thnh mt phn rt quan trng trong cuc
sng, cc h thng thng tin v tuyn m ra mt chiu hng mi v phng tin lin
lc. Con ngi c th lin lc vi nhau ti mi ni, mi lc. Cc h thng di ng th h
th 2, th 3 c th cung cp tc d liu t 9,6 kbps n 2 Mbps. Gn y, cc mng
LAN v tuyn theo chun IEEE 802.11 c th truyn thng ti tc khong 54 Mbps..
Trong vi nm na, 4G (th h di ng th t) s c chun ho. Mt s gii php trin
vng ci tin hiu sut ca h thng mt cch ng k c a ra. Mt trong cc
cng ngh truyn thng v tuyn di ng tng lai c trin vng nht l s dng nhiu
phn t anten ti my pht v my thu (Multi Input Multi Output).
H thng MIMO c th tng dung lng ln rt nhiu nn n gy c nhiu s
quan tm ca nhiu nh nghin cu v lnh vc v tuyn. Dung lng ca h thng
MIMO t l tuyn tnh vi s lng anten c s dng ti hai u cui. Tuy nhin, dung
lng ny thu c bng cch s dng cc k thut x l tn hiu phc tp c hai u
cui. Vi nm tr li y, cc nh nghin cu a ra m ha khng gian thi gian.
M ha khng gian thi gian l mt k thut x l tn hiu/ m ha s dng nhiu anten
pht v anten thu. K thut m ha ny cn c gi l k thut iu ch m ha hai
chiu v trong k thut ny tn hiu c m ha kt hp vi iu ch v phn tp khng
gian. K thut ny c nh gi l mt k thut cung cp tc truyn dn cao ng
thi li c th m bo tnh tin cy cho ng truyn v tuyn.
i song song vi vn nng cao dung lng ca h thng th vn sa li cng
c quan tm rt nhiu. Hin nay m Turbo l mt trong nhng loi m c kh nng sa
li gn tin ti gii hn Shannon.
Chnh v nhng vn trn, em la chn ti ca mnh l: Nghin cu k
thut MIMO v ng dng m Turbo trong m hnh h thng MIMO. ti tin
hnh nghin cu cc ni dung theo b cc 4 chng v chng trnh m phng:

Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trnh by mt cch tng quan v h thng MIMO, u v nhc im ca h thng.
Sau l xem xt dung lng ca h thng MIMO trong knh truyn v so snh vi cc
h thng SISO.MISO v SIMO.
Chng 2: Gii thiu v m ha khng gian thi gian
Gii thiu m khi khng gian thi gian v m Trellis khng gian thi gian. a
ra kt qu m phng v so snh kh nng thc thi ca hai loi m ha ny.
Chng 3: M Turbo
Trnh by v m Turbo v cc thut ton gii m lp.
Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo trong m hnh h thng MIMO
ng dng cc nguyn l m ha v gii m lp ca m Turbo vo trong m ha
khng gian thi gian, chng ta s c mt loi m ha kh mi l: Space Time
Turbo Trellis Code. V a ra kt qu so snh vi m Trellis khng gian thi gian.
MST: 08404160282 Li m u

Chng trnh m phng
Trnh by giao din chng trnh v kt qu m phng.

Nh s quan tm, gip v hng dn nhit tnh ca Thy H Vn Cu v Thy
L Chu Khn. Cng vi n lc ca bn thn, cun lun vn ny c hon tt vi mc
nht nh. V trnh v thi gian c hn nn cun lun vn ny chc chc khng
trnh khi nhng sai st. Rt mong c s ch dn ca cc thy c gio v cc kin
ng gp ca cc bn b.
Mt ln na xin t lng bit n n tt c cc thy c, gia nh v bn b gip em
hon thnh cun lun vn ny

Trn trng

V nh ng



MST: 08404160282 Mc lc
Trang 1
Mc lc


Mc lc cc hnh v ............................................................................................... 3
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN V H THNG MIMO
1.1 Gii thiu ......................................................................................................... 5
1.1.1 u im v nhc im ca h thng MIMO ......................................................... 7
1.2 H thng MIMO .............................................................................................................. 8
1.2.1 Dung lng h thng MIMO .................................................................................. 10
1.3.2 Dung lng MIMO khi my pht bit c CSI .................................................. 14
1.3.3 Dung lng MIMO khi my pht cha bit c CSI ......................................... 15
1.3.4 Cc trng hp c bit ......................................................................................... 16
1.3.4.a. Dung lng knh SIMO ................................................................................. 16
1.3.4.b. Dung lng knh MISO ................................................................................. 17
1.3.5 Dung lng ca knh ngu nhin .......................................................................... 18
1.3.5.b. Dung lng hao ht (outage) .......................................................................... 21
1.3.6 nh hng ca tng quan Fading trn dung lng MIMO ............................... 22
1.3.7 nh hng ca LOS trn dung lng knh MIMO.............................................. 25
1.3.8 nh hng ca XPD trn dung lng MIMO ...................................................... 26
1.4 Cc loi my thu s dng trong h thng MIMO ........................................................ 28
1.5 Cc phng php tng mc a dng ca ng truyn trong MIMO .................. 29
1.6 Tng kt ......................................................................................................................... 31
CHNG 2: M HA KHNG GIAN THI GIAN
2.1 Gii thiu ........................................................................................................32
2.2 M khi khng gian - thi gian STBC .......................................................................... 32
2.2.1 Gii thiu ................................................................................................................ 32
2.2.2 M khng gian- thi gian Alamouti ....................................................................... 32
2.2.2.a Gii m Maximum Likelihood ........................................................................ 34
2.2.2.b Kt hp t s ti a (MRC-Maximum Ratio Combining) .............................. 35
2.2.2.c Cht lng ca s Alamouti ....................................................................... 35
2.2.2.d Cc c im ca phng php Alamouti ...................................................... 36
2.2.3 Cu trc chung m khi khng gian thi gian STBC ........................................... 36
2.2.4 Kt qu m phng................................................................................................... 38
2.3 M Trellis khng gian thi gian STTC ...................................................................... 39
2.3.1 Gii thiu ................................................................................................................ 39
2.3.2 Cc h thng m khng gian thi gian .................................................................. 39
2.3.3 Tiu chun thit k t m khng gian-thi gian ................................................... 41
2.3.4 Xc sut li trong knh Fadinh chm .................................................................... 42
2.3.4.b Gii hn trn ca PEP khi rM
R
<4 .................................................................. 44
2.3.4.c Tiu chun thit k STTC trong knh Fading Rayleigh chm ....................... 45
2.3.5 Xc sut li trong knh Fading nhanh ................................................................... 49
2.3.5.a Gii hn trn ca PEP khi 4
H R
M o > ............................................................ 50
2.3.5.b Gii hn trn ca PEP khi 4
H R
M o < ............................................................ 51
2.3.5.c Tiu chun thit k STTC trong knh Fading Rayleigh nhanh ..................... 51
2.3.6 M ha/ gii m STTC trong cc knh Fading phng .......................................... 52
2.3.6.a Xy dng m cho cc knh Fading phng ...................................................... 53
MST: 08404160282 Mc lc
Trang 2
2.3.6.b V d s dng 4-PSK ....................................................................................... 54
2.3.7 Phn tch hot ng ca STTC trong knh Fading chm ..................................... 58
2.3.8 Phn tch hot ng ca STTC trong knh Fadinh nhanh ................................... 59
2.4 So snh STBC v STTC ................................................................................................ 59
2.4 Tng kt ......................................................................................................................... 60
CHNG 3: M HA TURBO
3.1 Gii thiu v m Turbo ................................................................................................. 61
3.2 B m ha xon h thng quy RSC.......................................................................... 62
3.2.1 M xon h thng quy RSC ............................................................................... 62
3.2.2 Cc b m ha xon quy v khng quy ........................................................ 63
3.2.3 Kt thc Trellis ....................................................................................................... 64
3.2.4 B gii m ng vo mm-ng ra mm SISO .......................................................... 65
3.2.4a. Quyt nh cng v quyt nh mm .............................................................. 65
3.3 B m ha Turbo ........................................................................................................... 66
3.3.1 B ghp xen ............................................................................................................. 67
3.3.1a. B ghp xen ma trn (b ghp xen chn khi) ................................................ 68
3.3.1.b. B ghp xen Helical ........................................................................................ 69
3.3.1c. B ghp xen gi ngu nhin ............................................................................. 69
3.4 B gii m Turbo ........................................................................................................... 69
3.4.1 Tng quan v cc thut ton gii m ..................................................................... 69
3.4.2 Gii thut MAP ...................................................................................................... 72
3.4.3 Nguyn l ca b gii m Viterbi ng ra mm ...................................................... 73
3.4.3.a tin cy ca b gii m SOVA tng qut .................................................... 74
3.4.3.b S khi ca b gii m SOVA .................................................................... 76
3.5 Tng kt ......................................................................................................................... 78
CHNG 4 : NG DNG M TURBO TRONG M HNH
H THNG MIMO
4.1 Gii thiu ....................................................................................................................... 79
4.2 Xy dng m STTC quy........................................................................................... 79
4.2.1 Hiu sut ca STTC quy.................................................................................... 82
4.3 Space Time Turbo Trellis Code .................................................................................... 83
4.3.1 S m ha Space Time Turbo Trellis Code ...................................................... 83
4.3.2 Thut ton gii m .................................................................................................. 84
4.3 Kt qu m phng ST Turbo TC .................................................................................. 87
4.3.1 So snh ST Turbo TC vi STTC ............................................................................ 88
4.3.2 Kh nng sa li ca s ln lp .............................................................................. 88
4.3.3 Hiu sut ca tng quan anten ............................................................................ 90
4.3.4 Hiu sut trong knh Fading nhanh ...................................................................... 90
4.4 Tng kt ......................................................................................................................... 91






MST: 08404160282 Mc lc cc hnh v
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Mc lc cc hnh v

Hnh 1.1: Knh v tuyn MIMO ................................................................................................. 6
Hnh 1.2: S pht trin ca h thng a anten.............................................................................. 7
Hnh 1.3: Cc cu hnh h thng v tuyn ................................................................................... 7
Hnh 1.4: S khi ca mt h thng MIMO ............................................................................ 8
Hnh 1.5: S khi ca mt knh MIMO tng ng vi M
T
>M
R
....................................... 12
Hnh 1.6: S khi ca mt knh MIMO tng ng vi M
R
>M
T
....................................... 12
Hnh 1.7: Biu din dung lng knh MIMO theo r = min(M
T
,M
R
) .......................................... 14
Hnh 1.8: S thut ton Water-filling ................................................................................ 15
Hnh 1.9: Dung lng h thng MIMO, SIMO v MISO .......................................................... 18
Hnh 1.10: Biu din tc Ergodic v non-Ergodic ................................................................. 19
Hnh 1.11: Dung lng Ergodic cho cc cu hnh anten khc nhau vi M
T
=M
R
=M ................... 20
Hnh 1.12: Dung lng Ergodic M = 4 vi s nhn bit v khng nhn bit knh ..................... 21
Hnh 1.13: 10% dung ln g outate t cu hnh cc anten khc nhau ......................................... 22
Hnh 1.14 Vn tng quan.................................................................................................... 23
Hnh 1.15: Dung lng ergodic vi thu tng quan cao v thp ................................................ 24
Hnh 1.16: Vn ng vi trong knh WLAN .......................................................................... 26
Hnh 1.17: Dung lng Ergodic vi cc h s trong knh MIMO .............................................. 26
Hnh 1.18: Dung lng ca 1 knh MIMO vi XPD hon ton v khng c XPD ..................... 28
Hnh 1.19: H thng MISO 2 anten pht v 1 anten thu. ............................................................ 30
Hnh 2.1: S khi ca b m ha khng gian-thi gian Alamouti ......................................... 33
Hnh 2.2: Mu phn tp pht hai anten ca Alamouti ................................................................ 34
Hnh 2.3: Kt hp t s ti a vi mt Tx v hai Rx .................................................................. 35
Hnh 2.4: B m ha STBC ....................................................................................................... 37
Hnh 2.5: So snh hot ng ca BER vi mu Alamouti 16QAM ............................................ 38
Hnh 2.6: S khi ca b m ha khng gian-thi gian ......................................................... 40
Hnh 2.7: M ha khng gian thi gian 4 trng thi QPSK vi 2 anten pht .............................. 48
Hnh 2.8: Bin gia tiu chun TSC v tiu chun tng ng cho .......................................... 49
Hnh 2.9: B m ha STTC cho 4-PSK s dng 2 anten truyn ................................................. 53
Hnh 2.10: M li khng gian thi gian hai anten pht ............................................................ 55
Hnh 2.11: Khi trng thi ca 4-PSK ...................................................................................... 56
Hnh 2.12: M ha khng gian- thi gian, 4-PSK, 8 trng thi, 2 bit/s/Hz .................................. 57
Hnh 2.13: So snh hot ng ca cc m 4-PSK da trn tiu chun hng ............................... 58
Hnh 2.14: So snh hot ng ca cc m 4-PSK da trn tiu chun tng ................................ 58
Hnh 2.15: Hot ng ca QPSK STTC trn cc knh Fading nhanh ......................................... 59
Hnh 3.1: Trnh by s kt ni ni tip ................................................................................ 61
Hnh 3.2: Trnh by s m kt ni song song ........................................................................ 61
Hnh 3.3: B m ha xon thng thng c r = v K=3 ........................................................ 62
Hnh 3.4: B m ha RSC ly t hnh 3.1 vi r = v K=3 ...................................................... 63
Hnh 3.5: B m xon khng quy r=1/2 v K=3 vi chui ng vo v ng ra........................ 63
Hnh 3.6: B m ha xon quy tng ng ca hnh trn G=[1, g
1
/g
0
] ................................ 63
Hnh 3.7: Biu trng thi ca b m ha khng quy ca hnh 3.5 ..................................... 64
Hnh 3.8: Trnh by biu trng thi ca b m quy ca hnh 3.6 ....................................... 64
Hnh 3.9: Cch thc kt thc trellis b m RSC...................................................................... 64
Hnh 3.10: S khi b m ha Turbo ................................................................................... 66
Hnh 3.11: B ghp xen lm tng trng s ca cc t m........................................................... 67
Hnh 3.12: V d minh ha kh nng lm tng trng s ca b ghp xen ................................... 68
MST: 08404160282 Mc lc cc hnh v
Trang 4
Hnh 3.13: B ghp xen ngu nhin (gi ngu nhin) vi L=8 ................................................... 69
Hnh 3.14: Cc h thut ton gii m da trn s Trellis....................................................... 70
Hnh 3.15: B gii m lp MAP ................................................................................................ 73
Hnh 3.16: B gii m SOVA kt ni ........................................................................................ 74
Hnh 3.17: Cc ng survivor v ng cnh tranh c on tin cy ............................. 75
Hnh 3.18: Vic gn tin cy bng cch s dng gi tr metric trc tip .................................. 76
Hnh 3.19: S khi b gii m SOVA .................................................................................. 77
Hnh 3.20: B gii m SOVA lp .............................................................................................. 77
Hnh 4.1: S ca ng feedforward ca m STTC iu ch QPSK ..................................... 80
Hnh 4.2: B m ha STTC quy iu ch QPSK ................................................................... 81
Hnh 4.3: B m ha STTC quy iu ch a mc M-ary ....................................................... 81
Hnh 4.4: So snh hiu sut ca 16-trng thi STTC quy ...................................................... 82
Hnh 4.5: B m ha dnh cho iu ch m Space Time Turbo Trellis Code ............................. 83
Hnh 4.6: B gii m Turbo TC vi parity symbol puncturing ................................................... 85
Hnh 4.7: Hiu sut FER so snh gia 4-trng thi QPSK STTC ............................................... 88
Hnh 4.8: Hiu sut FER ca 4-trng thi QPSK ST Turbo TC vi s ln lp thay i, 2x2 ....... 89
Hnh 4.9: Hiu sut ca FER so snh QPSK ST Turbo TC ........................................................ 89
Hnh 4.10: Hiu qu FER so snh gia 16-trng thi QPSK STTC ............................................ 90
Hnh 4.11: Hiu qu FER ca QPSK ST Turbo TC vi 4-trng thi .......................................... 91
MST: 08404160282 Cc t vit tt
Trang 4

Cc t vit tt

APP A posteriori probability
AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise Nhiu trng Gauss cng
BER Bit Error Rate Tc li bit
CSI Channel State Information Thng tin trng thi knh
MAP Maximum A Posteriori
MIMO Multi-input Multi-output a ng vo a ng ra
MISO Multi-input Single-output a ng vo mt ng ra
ML Maximum Likelihood Gn ging cc i
MMSE Minimum Mean-squares Li bnh phng trung bnh nh
error nht
LOS Light of sight ng truyn thng
Pdf Probability density function Hm mt xc sut
RSC Recursive systematic
convolutional
SOVA Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm
SIMO Single-input Multi-output Mt ng vo, a ng ra
SISO Single-input Single-output Mt ng vo mt ng ra
SISO Soft Input Soft Output B gii ng vo mm ng ra mm
SNR Signal Noise Ratio T s tn hiu trn nhiu
SM Spatial Multiplexing a hp khng gian
STC Space-Time Coding M ha khng gian thi gian
SVD Singular Value Decomposition Phn chia gi tr n







MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 5

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN V H THNG MIMO

1.1 Gii thiu
Do x hi ngy cng pht trin nn cc yu cu dch v trong h thng thng tin di
ng cng i hi dung lng tng cao. p ng c nhu cu dung lng ngy cng
tng th dung lng ca cc h thng cng phi tng. Tuy nhin ti nguyn v ph tn s
li b gii hn v dung lng ca h thng thng tin s khng p ng c nu khng c
s gia tng v mt hiu sut s dng ph tn. Cc phng php m ha mi c nghim
cu nh m Turbo, m LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) t c hiu sut sa li
gn ti gii hn Shannon trong cc h thng cc anten n. Cc ci tin c a ra v
hiu sut ph tn l tp trung vo vic tng s lng anten c pha pht v pha thu.
Mt h thng gm nhiu anten pht v anten thu c gi l h thng MIMO
(Multiple Input Multiple Output). H thng ny c nghin cu thng qua cc m phng
trn my tnh t thp k 80, do nhng u im m n mang li nn c rt nhiu ngi
quan tm v phn tch r hn. Hin nay th h thng MIMO ang c s dng trong h
thng 3G v c chun ha thnh chun IEEE 802.11.
H thng MIMO s dng nhiu anten pht v thu vi 2 mc ch chnh:
- Th nht: s dng nhiu anten thu c li phn tp cao
- Th hai: s dng nhiu anten truyn nhiu dng d liu song song tng dung
lng ca h thng.
H thng MIMO c th t c 3 li ch, l: to bp, phn tp khng gian v a hp
khng gian. [16]

Bng cch to bp, cc kiu bc x anten pht v thu c th tp trung theo mt
hng ring. Cc tn hiu t cc anten pht v thu c tng quan cng cao th hiu
qu to bp cng tt.
Khi cc tn hiu c truyn t nhiu hng khc nhau trong khng gian s to nn
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 6
s phn tp khng gian, phn tp khng gian s tng tin cy ca knh v tuyn. i
vi mt knh MIMO trng, c ngha l cc tn hiu hon ton khng tng quan, h s
phn tp b gii hn bi s anten pht v thu. S tng quan khng gian ca cc tn hiu
s gim h s phn tp v do y l mt c im knh quan trng.
K thut phn tp l mt phng php hiu qu chng hin tng Fading.
Cc k thut phn tp gm phn tp khng gian, tn s v thi gian. Phn tp khng gian
ph bin trong truyn thng vi ba, v tuyn v c chia lm 2 loi: phn tp pht v
phn tp thu.
Phn tp thu: c s dng trong cc knh c nhiu anten ti my thu. Gi thit cc
tn hiu thu yu dn c lp v c kt hp ti my thu sao cho tn hiu thu c c
Fading gim ng k. Phn tp thu c c trng ho bi s nhnh Fading c lp v n
bng s anten thu.
Phn tp pht: phn tp pht c th p dng cho cc knh c nhiu anten pht v h
s phn tp bng s anten pht, c bit nu cc anten pht c t cch xa nhau.
Thng tin c x l ti my pht v sau truyn trn nhiu anten pht.
Trong trng hp nhiu anten c u pht v u thu th vic s dng phn tp
yu cu kt hp phn tp pht v phn tp thu. H s phn tp b gii hn bi tch ca s
anten pht v thu.
a hp khng gian: Cc knh MIMO c th h tr cc lung d liu song song
bng cch pht v thu trn cc b lc khng gian trc giao (a hp khng gian). S cc
lung c ghp knh ph thuc vo hng ca ma trn knh tc thi H, ma trn ny ph
thuc vo cc c tnh khng gian ca mi trng v tuyn. li ghp knh khng gian
c th bng min(M
T
, M
R
) trong mi trng tn x ln.

Hnh 1.1: Knh v tuyn MIMO
Trc khi h thng MIMO ra i, cc h thng v tuyn trc y s dng m
hnh knh truyn SISO, SIMO v MISO.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 7
Single Input Single Output (SISO): ch s dng mt anten pha pht v mt anten
pha thu.
Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO): ch s dng mt anten pha pht v nhiu
hn mt anten pha pht.
Multiple Input Single Output (MISO): ch s dng mt anten pha thu v
nhiu hn mt anten pha pht
MIMO-MU (Multiuser: a ngi dng): h thng thay th cho cu hnh gm mt
trm gc v nhiu anten thu/pht cng hot ng vi nhiu ngi s dng, vi mt hoc
nhiu anten

Hnh 1.2: S pht trin ca h thng a anten

Hnh 1.3: Cc cu hnh h thng v tuyn
K thut MIMO l k thut s dng nhiu anten pht v nhiu anten thu truyn
v nhn d liu.Thc cht MIMO l mt h thng anten thng minh kt hp vi k thut
x l phn tp theo khng gian v thi gian trc khi truyn i.
1.1.1 u im v nhc im ca h thng MIMO
u im:
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 8
V dung lng: do s dng nhiu anten nhiu anten pht v thu nn c th truyn
nhiu ng d liu song song, nn dung lng tng theo s lng anten c trong h
thng.
V cht lng: tng phn tp ca h thng trong knh truyn Fading nn c th
gim c xc sut li (BER hoc FER) Ngoi ra vi k thut to bp, tn hiu c
truyn theo hng mong mun do cng sut pht ch tp trung vo hng truyn, do
gim cng sut pht ca cc thit b.
Nhc im:
Do h thng MIMO s dng nhiu anten pht v thu nn:
Nhiu anten nn gi thnh phn cng ca h thng MIMO phi ln hn so vi h
thng SISO.
phc tp ln v gii thut x l tn hiu phc tp hn.
Tng th tch ca cc thit b (v s lng anten va nhiu va phi m bo khong
cch gia cc anten cc knh khng tng quan) trong khi xu hng thit b cng ngy
cng nh.
1.2 H thng MIMO
Trong phn ny ta s m t mt cch tng qut v h thng MIMO v phn tch
dung lng ca h thng MIMO so vi h thng SISO, SIMO,MISO.
Gi s bng thng tn hiu pht l hp p ng tn s ca n c th c
xem nh l phng. Ni cch khc h thng MIMO hot ng trong knh Fading phng

Hnh 1.4: S khi ca mt h thng MIMO
Xt mt h thng MIMO vi M
T
anten pht v M
R
anten thu. Cc tn hiu pht
mi chu k symbol c din t bng 1 ma trn x kch thc M
T
x1 vi x
i
l thnh phn
th i, c truyn t anten th i. Gi s knh truyn l knh Gauss th cc yu t ca x
cng c bit n nh cc bin Gauss phn b ng nht c lp (i.i.d independent
identically distributed) c trung bnh bng 0. Ma trn covariance ca tn hiu pht l:
{ }
H
xx
R E xx = (1.1)
vi E{.} l k hiu cho k vng v ton t A
H
biu din Hermitian ca ma trn A, ngha
l chuyn v v lin hp phc tng thnh phn (component-wise) ca ma trn A. Tng
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 9
cng sut pht c n nh bi P, bt chp s lng anten pht M
T
c biu din nh
sau:
( )
xx
P tr R = (1.2)
vi tr(A) l k hiu ca trace ma trn A, t c bng tng ca cc phn t trn ng
cho ca ma trn A. Nu knh cha c bit ti my pht, gi s cc tn hiu c pht
t cc phn t anten ring l c cng sut bng nhau v bng P/M
T
. Ma
trn covariance ca tn hiu pht c vit li l:
T
xx M
T
P
R I
M
= (1.3)
vi I
MT
l ma trn ng nht M
T
xM
T.

Knh c m t bi mt ma trn phc M
R
xM
T
k hiu l H. Thnh phn th i,j
ca H k hiu bi h
i,j
, biu din cc h s Fading t anten pht th i n anten thu th j.
Gi s b qua suy hao v li anten th cng sut thu c cho tng anten thu bng
tng cng sut pht. Do ta c nhng iu kin chun cho cc thnh phn ca H, trn
mt knh xc nh vi cc h s c nh nh sau:

2
,
1
, 1, 2,...,
T
M
i j T R
j
h M i M
=
= =

(1.4)
Khi cc phn t ma trn knh l cc bin ngu nhin vic chun ha s c p
dng vo cc gi tr c mong mun ca biu thc trn.
Gi s ma trn knh s c bit my thu nhng khng c bit u pht. Ma
trn knh s c c lng ti my thu bng cch truyn i mt chui trainning. Thng
tin trng thi knh CSI c nh gi c th truyn n my pht thng qua mt knh
phn hi.
Cc phn t ca ma trn knh H c th l xc nh hoc ngu nhin. Ta s tp
trung vo cc v d thch hp vi truyn thng v tuyn bao gm cc phn b Rayleigh v
Rician ca cc phn t ma trn knh.
Nhiu ti u thu c biu din bi mt ma trn ct M
R
x1 k hiu l n. Cc thnh
phn ca n l cc bin Gauss phc c gi tr trung bnh 0 v c lp thng k. Ma trn
covariance ca nhiu u thu c cho bi:
{ }
H
nn
R E nn = (1.5)
Nu khng c tng quan gia cc thnh phn ca n th biu thc c vit li:

2
R
nn M
R I o = (1.6)
Mi nhnh thu M
R
c cng sut nhiu ng nht l
2
o . My thu s dng nguyn l
Maximum Likelihood trn M
R
anten thu. Cc tn hiu thu c biu din bng mt ma
trn ct M
R
x1 k hiu l r, trong mi thnh phn phc i din cho mt anten thu.
Cng sut trung bnh ti ng ra ca mi anten thu c k hiu l P
r
. T s SNR trung
bnh ti tng anten thu c nh ngha nh sau:
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 10
2
r
P

o
= (1.7)
V cng sut tng cng thu c trn mi anten th bng cng sut tng cng pht,
nn t s SNR bng t s gia tng cng sut pht v cng sut nhiu trn anten thu v n
c lp vi M
T
. Do SNR c biu din:
2
P

o
= (1.8)
Bng cch s dng m hnh tuyn tnh, vector thu c vit nh sau:
r = Hx + n (1.9)
Hay biu din di dng ma trn:
11 1
1 1 1
2 2 2
1
...............
. . . *
. . .
..........
T
R T T
R R T
M
M M M M M M
h h r x n
r x n
r x n h h
(
( ( (
(
( ( (
(
( ( (
(
( ( (
= +
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (



Ma trn covariance ca tn hiu thu c vit li l:
{ }
H H
rr xx
R E rr HR H = = (1.10)
Tng cng sut tn hiu thu c th c biu din bng tr(R
rr
).
1.2.1 Dung lng h thng MIMO
Dung lng ca h thng c nh ngha bng tc truyn ti a c th vi t l
li l rt nh.
Ban u, gi s ma trn knh truyn khng c bit my pht trong khi n c
bit hon ton ti my thu.
Da vo nh l phn tch gi tr ring SVD (Singular value decomposition) ma
trn knh truyn H kch thc M
R
xM
T
c th c vit li nh sau:
H=UDV
H
(1.11)
Trong , D l ma trn M
R
xM
T
cho v khng m, U v V l cc ma trn Unitary
M
R
xM
R
v M
T
xM
T
tng ng. Do
R
H
M
UU I = v
T
H
M
VV I = , vi
R
M
I v
T
M
I l cc ma
trn n v M
R
xM
R
v M
T
xM
T
tng ng. Cc phn t trn ng cho ca D l cc
nghim bnh phng khng m ca cc gi tr ring ca ma trn
H
HH . Cc gi tr ring
ca
H
HH , c k hiu bi , c nh ngha l:
H
HH y y = , 0 y = (1.12)
Vi y l vect M
R
x1 kt hp vi c gi l vect ring (eigenvector).
Cc nghim bnh phng khng m ca cc gi tr ring cng c nhc n nh
l cc gi tr ring ca H. Hn na, cc ct ca U l cc vect ring ca
H
HH v cc ct
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 11
ca V l cc vect ring ca
H
HH . Bng cch th (1.11) vo (1.9), vect thu r c vit
li nh sau:
H
r UDV x n = + (1.13)
Ta a vo cc bin i sau:
'
H
r U r =
'
H
x V x = (1.14)
'
H
n U n =
v U v V c th thay th cho nhau. R rng, php nhn ca cc vect r, x v n bng cc
ma trn tng ng c nh ngha trong (1.14) ch c kt qu t l. Vect n l mt bin
ngu nhin Gauss c trung bnh bng 0 vi cc phn thc v phc i.i.d. Do , knh gc
tng ng vi knh c m t nh sau:
' ' ' r Dx n = + (1.15)
S lng cc gi tr ring khc 0 ca ma trn HH
H
bng bc ca ma trn H, k
hiu l r . i vi ma trn H kch thc M
R
xM
T
, bc ca n l s ln nht ca m = min
(M
R
,M
T
) ngha l ti a m gi tr ring ca n l khc 0. Ta k hiu cc gi tr c bit ca
H bng
i
1, 2,..., i r = . Thay
i
vo (1.15), ta s c cc thnh phn tn hiu thu:

i i i i
r x n ' ' ' = + , 1, 2,..., i r =
i i
r n ' ' = , 1, 2,...,
R
i r r M = + + (1.16)
Cc thnh phn thu
i
r' khng ph thuc vo tn hiu pht, ngha l li knh
bng 0. Mt khc, cc thnh phn thu
i
r' , i vi 1, 2,..., i r = ch ph thuc vo thnh phn
pht
i
x' . Do , knh MIMO tng ng t (1.15) c th c xem nh r knh con song
song khng thnh cp. Mi knh con s c n nh bng mt gi tr ring ca ma trn
H, tng ng vi ln ca li knh. li cng sut knh do bng vi gi tr
ring ca ma trn HH
H
. V d, nu M
T
>M
R
, th bc ca ma trn H khng th ln hn M
R
,
ch c ti a M
R
knh con li khc 0 trong knh MIMO tng ng, nh hnh 1.5.
Nu M
R
>M
T
, s c ti a M
T
knh con li khc 0 trong knh MIMO tng
ng, nh hnh 1.5. Hnh nh gi tr ring l mt s m t knh MIMO ph hp vi s
c lng ca cc ng truyn tt nht.
Cc ma trn covariance v cc traces ca n i vi cc tn hiu r, x v n c th
nhn c t (1.14) nh sau:

' '
H
r r rr
R U R U =
' '
H
x x xx
R V R V = (1.17)

' '
H
n n nn
R U R U =

' '
( ) ( )
r r rr
tr R tr R =
' '
( ) ( )
x x xx
tr R tr R = (1.18)
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 12

' '
( ) ( )
n n nn
tr R tr R =

Hnh 1.5: S khi ca mt knh MIMO tng ng vi M
T
>M
R

Cc quan h trn ch ra rng cc ma trn covariance ca r, x v n c tng cc
phn t trn ng cho bng nhau v do cc cng sut cng bng nhau, nh i vi
cc tn hiu ban u r, x v n tng ng.

Hnh 1.6: S khi ca mt knh MIMO tng ng vi M
R
>M
T

MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 13
Trong m hnh knh MIMO tng ng c m t bi (1.16), cc knh con
khng c kt hp thnh cp v do dung lng ca chng s tng ln. Gi s cng
sut pht t mi anten trong m hnh knh MIMO tng ng l P/M
T
, ta c th c
lng c dung lng knh ton b, k hiu bi C, bng cch s dng cng thc dung
lng Shannon.
2 2
1
log 1
r
ri
i
P
C W
o
=
| |
= +
|
\ .

(1.19)
Trong , W l bng thng ca mi knh con v
ri
P l cng sut tn hiu thu c
knh con th i . N c cho bi cng thc sau:
i
ri
T
P
P
M

= (1.20)
Vi
i
l gi tr ring ca ma trn H nn dung lng knh c vit li:

2 2
1
log 1
r
i
i T
P
C W
M

o
=
| |
= +
|
\ .



2 2
1
log 1
r
i
i T
P
W
M

o
=
| |
= +
|
\ .
[
(1.21)
By gi chng ta s ch ra dung lng knh quan h nh th no vi ma trn knh
H. Gi s m = min (M
R
,M
T
) ng thc (1.12) biu din mi quan h gi tr ring - vect
ring (eigenvalue-eigenvector) c vit li nh sau:
( ) 0
m
I Q y = , y0 (1.22)
Vi Q l ma trn Wishart c nh ngha nh sau:
, M
, M
H
R T
H
R T
HH M
Q
H H M
<

=

>

(1.23)
l mt gi tr ring ca Q nu v ch nu
m
I Q l mt ma trn ring. Do ,
nh thc ca
m
I Q phi bng 0.
det( ) 0
m
I Q = (1.24)
Gi tr ring ca ma trn knh c th c tnh ton bng cch tm nghim ca
ng thc (1.24). Xt a thc c trng ( ) p v tri ca ng thc (1.24)
( ) det( )
m
p I Q = (1.25)
N c bc l m, v mi hng ca
m
I Q ng gp mt v ch mt cng sut ca
trong khai trin Laplace ca nh thc det( ) 0
m
I Q = bng thnh cc phn nh. V
mt a thc bc m vi cc h s phc c chnh xc m s 0, xem nh v s, ta c th vit
a thc c trng nh sau:
( ) ( )
1
m
i
i
p
=
=
[
(1.26)
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 14
Vi
i
l cc nghim ca a thc ( ) p , bng cc gi tr ring ca ma trn knh. ng
thc (1.24) c vit li l:
( )
1
0
m
i
i

=
=
[
(1.27)
Hay ( )
1
m
i
i

=

[
=det( )
m
I Q (1.28)
Thay
2
T
M
P
o
cho trong (1.28) ta c:
2 2
1
1 det
m
i
m
i
T T
P P
I Q
M M

o o
=
| | | |
+ = +
| |
\ . \ .
[
(1.29)
Gi th cng thc dung lng ca (1.21) c th c vit li nh sau
2 2
log det
m
T
P
C W I Q
M o
| |
= +
|
\ .
(1.30)
V cc gi tr ring khc 0 ca HH
H
v H
H
H l nh nhau, dung lng ca cc
knh vi cc ma trn H v H
H
l nh nhau. Ch nu h s knh l cc bin ngu nhin,
cng thc (1.21) v (1.30) m t cc dung lng nht thi hoc thng tin qua li.

Hnh 1.7: Biu din dung lng knh MIMO theo r = min(M
T
,M
R
)
Hnh 1.7 biu din dung lng knh MIMO tng tuyn tnh khi tng s lng anten
pht v anten thu.
1.3.2 Dung lng MIMO khi my pht bit c CSI
Gi s my thu cung cp thng tin trng thi knh CSI tr li my pht vi
tr bng 0. Khi my thu bit hon ton ma trn knh truyn, ton b cng sut P
T
c th
c phn b ti u gia M
T
anten truyn. Gii php ny thng c xem nh l:
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 15
Water-filling. Nguyn l Water-filling c th t c bng cch ti u ha dung lng
knh MIMO theo nguyn tc cng nhiu cng sut c ch nh n knh trong iu
kin tt v t (hay khng c) n cc knh km. Hnh 1.8 l s thut ton Water-filling.
S phn pht cng sut trn knh i c a bi cng thc:
2
i
i
P
o

+
| |
=
|
\ .
, i = 1,2,,r (1.31)
Vi
, 0
( )
0, 0
x x
x
x
+
>
=

<

v c chn tha mn:


1
r
i
i
P P
=
=


Chng ta coi phn tch gi tr ring SVD ca ma trn knh H. Do , cng sut thu
c ti tng knh con i trong knh MIMO tng ng c a bi:
2
( )
i
ri i
T
P
P
M

o
+
= = (1.32)
Thay cng sut tn hiu thu t (1.32) vo (1.21) ta c:
2
2 2
1
1
log 1 ( )
r
i
i
C W o
o
+
=
| |
= +
|
\ .

(1.33)
Ma trn covariance ca tn hiu truyn c vit li l:
1 2
( , ,..., )
T
H
xx M
R Vdiag P P P V = (1.34)

Hnh 1.8: S thut ton Water-filling
1.3.3 Dung lng MIMO khi my pht cha bit c CSI
Nu CSI khng c bit ti my pht, t [10] th tt c cc tn hiu c lp nhau
v cng sut c chia u gia cc anten pht:
T
xx M
T
P
R I
M
=
Dung lng t (1.30) trong trng hp ny l:
2 2
log det( )
R
H
M
T
P
C I HH
M o
| |
= +
|
\ .
(1.35)
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 16
Chng ta phn tch HH
H
=Q.Q
H
vi Q l ma trn M
R
xM
R
tha mn Q
H
Q=QQ
H
=I
MR

v
1 2
{ , ,..., }, 0
R
M i
diag . = > . T [11] cng thc trn c vit li
2 2
2 2
2 2
1
log det
log det
log
R
R
R
H
M
T
M
T
r
M i
i T
P
C I Q Q
M
P
I
M
P
I
M
o
o

o
=
| |
= + .
|
\ .
| |
= + .
|
\ .
| |
= +
|
\ .

(1.36)
S dng det(I
m
+ AB) = det(I
n
+ BA) cho cc ma trn A(mxn) v B(nxm). Vi r l
hng knh v ( 1, 2,... )
i R
i M = l gi tr ring tch cc ca HH
H
. ng thc (1.36) biu din
dung lng knh MIMO nh l tng cc dung lng ca r knh SISO, mi knh c mt
li cng sut ca ( 1, 2,... )
i
i r = v cng sut truyn P/M
T
.
Chng ta xc nh bnh phng chun ha Frobinius ca H, nh
2
( )
H
F
H Tr HH = =
2
1 1
,
R T
M M
i i
hi j
= =
. Tiu chun Frobinus gii thch li cng sut ton phn ca knh.
Ta cng c
2
1
R
M
i i
F
H
=
=

vi ( 1, 2,... )
i R
i M = l nhng gi tr ring ca HH
H
.
Chng ta c nh cng sut tng cng v th
2
F
H | = . Sau nu ma trn knh c
hng y nh M
T
=M
R
=M, dung lng C t (1.36) c ti a ha khi /
i j
M | = =
vi (i, j=1, 2,M). nhn c iu ny, ( / )
H H
M
QQ Q Q M I | = = (ma trn knh H
phi trc giao). Cho nn:
2 2 2
log 1
S
E
C M
M
|
o
| |
= +
|
\ .
(1.37)
Nu cc thnh phn ca H c cc thnh phn trn ng cho l 1 th
2
2
F
H M =
2 2
log 1
S
E
C M
o
| |
= +
|
\ .
(1.38)
Dung lng ca knh MIMO trc giao v th gp M ln dung lng knh v hng.
1.3.4 Cc trng hp c bit
1.3.4.a. Dung lng knh SIMO
Trong mt knh SIMO, M
T
=1 anten pht v c M
R
anten thu. Trong trng hp
ny ma trn knh l mt ma trn ct:
1 2
( , ,..., )
R
T
M
H h h h = (1.39)
Vi (.)
T
l ma trn chuyn v. V M
R
>M
T
c thay th bi:
2 2
log det
T
H S
M
T
E
C I H H
M o
| |
= +
|
\ .
(1.40)
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 17
By gi
2
1
R
M
H
i
i
H H h
=
=


V M
T
= 1. V th:

2
2 2
1
log det 1
R
M
S
i
i
E
C h
o
=
| |
= +
|
\ .

(1.41)
Nu cc thnh phn ma trn knh bng nhau v c chun ha:
2
2 2
1 2
... 1
R
M
h h h = = = (1.42)
Dung lng khi knh khng c nhn bit ti u pht l:
2 2
log det 1
S
R
E
C M
o
| |
= +
|
\ .
(1.43)
H thng nhn c mt li phn tp gp M
R
ln so vi trng hp SISO.
Dung lng trong knh SIMO s tng theo hm logarith v t l thun vi s tng anten
thu. S nhn bit knh ti u pht trong trng hp ny khng cung cp thm mt thun
li no.
1.3.4.b. Dung lng knh MISO
Cc knh MISO, M
R
=1 anten thu v M
T
anten pht. V M
T
>M
R
. Chng ta s dng
(1.35). Knh c thay th bng ma trn hng nh sau:
1 2
( ... )
T
M
H h h h =
V
2
1
T
M
H
j
j
HH h
=
=

nn t (1.35) chng ta thu c:


2
2 2
1
log 1
T
M
S
j
j T
E
C h
M o
=
| |
= +
|
\ .

(1.44)
Nu h s knh bng nhau v c chun ha nh
2
1
T
M
j T
j
h M
=
=

, khi dung lng cho


trng hp MISO nh sau:
2 2
log 1
S
E
C
o
| |
= +
|
\ .
(1.45)
Ch (1.45) tng ng vi trng hp SISO (dung lng khng tng ln vi s
lng anten). y l trong trng hp knh khng c nhn bit ti u pht. L do ca
kt qu ny l khng c li mng v u pht khng bit c cc tham s knh.
li mng l s tng trung bnh trong t s SNR ti u thu m n xut hin do nh hng
kt hp coherent ca nhiu anten ti u thu hay u pht hay c hai. Nu knh c bit
n u pht, u pht s lm gia tng vic truyn vi cc trng s ph thuc vo cc h
s knh. V th c s kt hp coherent ti u pht (trng hp MISO). Nu ta xt trng
hp khi knh c bit ti u pht, chng ta p dng (1.33). V ma trn knh c hng l
1, ch c 1 s hng trong tng trong (1.33) v ch c 1 gi tr ring khc 0 c cho bi:
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 18
2
1
T
M
j
j
h
=
=

(1.46)
V th, dung lng l:

2
2 2
1
log 1
T
M
S
j
j
E
C h
o
=
| |
= +
|
\ .

(1.47)
Nu cc h s knh l bng nhau v c chun ha nh
2
1
T
M
j T
j
h M
=
=



2 2
log 1
S
T
E
C M
o
| |
= +
|
\ .
(1.48)

Hnh 1.9: Dung lng h thng MIMO, SIMO v MISO
1.3.5 Dung lng ca knh ngu nhin
Trong thc t ma trn knh truyn H l cc bin ngu nhin. Ngha l H l ma trn
ngu nhin v c lp ca r v x. Cc thnh phn ca ma trn H l cc bin Gauss phn
b ng nht c lp c trung bnh bng 0
Dung lng ca knh ngu nhin c chia thnh 2 loi (da trn ma trn knh
truyn) nh biu din hnh 1.10:
Ma trn H l ngu nhin v mi knh tng quan nhau thy r s c lp
(ergodic)
Ma trn H a ra l ngu nhin ti lc bt u v sau gi khng i cho tt c
cc knh s dng (non-ergodic).
1.3.5.a. Dung lng Ergodic
Dung lng Ergodic ca knh MIMO l trung bnh ton b tc thng tin c
phn b trn cc thnh phn ca ma trn knh H. N l dung lng ca knh khi tng ma
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 19
trn knh H l mt s phn tch c lp (ngha l n khng c mi lin h no vi ma trn
trc nhng l in hnh i din cho lp (Ergodic))..
V m hnh x l l Ergodic, ngha l m ha c thc hin trn mt khong cch
u n xc nh. V th l dung lng Shannon ca knh.v c biu din nh sau:
2 2
log det , / /
R
H S
M
T
E
C E I HH bits s Hz
M o
( | |

= +
` ( |
\ . )
(1.49)

Hnh 1.10: Biu din tc Ergodic v non-Ergodic
iu c mong i nht trong trng hp ny l knh truyn l ngu nhin. V H
l ngu nhin, tc thng tin c kt hp vi n cng ngu nhin.
Trng hp SNR thp: dung lng ca knh c xc nh [14]
2 2
( )
2 2
1
2
2 2
2 2 ,
,
log det
log 1
log 1 ,
R
H S
M
T
r H
S
k
k T
S
F F i j
i j
T
E
C E I HH
M
E
E
M
E
E H H H
M
o

o
o
=
( | |

= +
` ( |
\ . )
( | |

= +
` ( |
\ . )
| |

= + =
` |
\ . )
[

(1.50)
Trng hp SNR cao: dung lng ca knh c xc nh [14]
2 2
( )
2 2
1
( )
2 2
1
( )
2 2 2
1
log det
log 1
log
( ) log log ( )
R
H S
M
T
r H
S
k
k T
r H
S
k
k T
r H
S
k
k
T
E
C E I HH
M
E
E
M
E
E
M
E
r H E
M
o

o
=
=
=
( | |

= +
` ( |
\ . )
( | |

= +
` ( |
\ . )
( | |

~
` ( |
\ . )
| |
= +
` |
) \ .
[
[

(1.51)
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 20

Hnh 1.11: Dung lng Ergodic cho cc cu hnh anten khc nhau vi M
T
=M
R
=M
Dung lng Ergodic khi knh c bit n u pht c da trn thut ton
Water-filling. T hnh 1.11 cho thy dung lng Ergodic trn cc cu hnh h thng
khc nhau l mt hm ca
2
S
E

o
= , dung lng Ergodic tng khi v M
T
,M
R
tng:
2 2
1
log 1
r
S i
i
i T
E
C E
M


o
=
| |

= +
` |
\ . )

(1.52)
ng thc trn l trung bnh ton b dung lng nhn c khi ti u ha theo
nguyn l Water-filling c thc hin cho tng phn tch ca H.
Hnh 1.12 l s so snh hot ng dung lng Ergodic ca mt knh MIMO vi
M
T
= M
R
= 4 khi knh khng c bit n u pht, knh c bit ti u pht v knh
l Rayleigh i.i.d.
Dung lng knh ergodic khi knh c bit n u pht lun cao hn khi khng
c bit. V dung lng ny s gim khi SNR cao. l khi SNR cao cng thc (1.52)
tr thnh (1.53), tt c cc knh ring hot ng nh nhau (khng c s khc bit v cht
lng gia chng). V th, dung lng trong tt c cc trng hp u bng nhau.

MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 21

Hnh 1.12: Dung lng Ergodic M = 4 vi s nhn bit v khng nhn bit knh
1.3.5.b. Dung lng hao ht (outage)
Khi truyn d liu th chiu di khi xc nh. c bit l trong truyn tn hiu
thoi. Trong nhng trng hp ny, chng ta nhc n dung lng outage. Dung lng
outage l dung lng m bo vi mt tin cy chc chn. Ta xc nh dung lng
outage p% khi tc thng tin bo m cho (100-p) % knh thc hin, P(CC
out
) = p %.
Trong hnh 1.13 ch ra 10% dung lng outage cho vi trng hp MIMO, khi
knh l i.i.d v khng c nhn bit ti u pht. Chng ta ch khi SNR tng, dung
lng tng v khi s lng anten tng, dung lng cng tng.
p dng (1.35) cho trng hp khi M
T
= M
R
= M v knh l i.i.d
1
H
w w M
H H I khi M
M

V th
2
log (1 ) C M = + (1.53)
Vi l SNR Tim cn trong M, dung lng trong knh MIMO trng tr nn gii
hn v tng tuyn tnh vi M cho SNR c nh. Khi tng SNR tng 3dB, chng ta t
mc tng M bit/s/Hz trong dung lng cho mt knh MIMO, so snh vi 1 bit/s/Hz trong
mt knh SISO. Dung lung outage chng minh kt lun ny, nu knh c nhn bit ti
u pht.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 22

Hnh 1.13: 10% dung ln g outate t cu hnh cc anten khc nhau. Dung lng
outgate c ci thin khi M
T
=M
R
=M
1.3.6 nh hng ca tng quan Fading trn dung lng MIMO
Trong thc t, knh khng tht s l Rayleigh i.i.d. C rt nhiu yu t dn n
iu ny, v kt qu lm gim gi tr hot ng ca cc h thng MIMO. Mt trong
nhng yu t l s tng quan. Vn tng quan xut hin bi v khong cch ri
rc gia cc thnh phn anten trong mt trm gc. Thng thng khong cch ri rc ny
c chia theo vi centimeter, trong khi khong cch gia in thoi di ng v trm gc
c cch nhau vi Km.
V th, tn hiu n ti trm gc t mt u thu thng rt gn nhau, xut hin do
tng quan gia chng. N xy ra v tt c cc thnh phn anten thu cng mt tn hiu,
bi v tnh hnh hc ca hin tng ny. Mc ging nhau xc nh h s tng quan
vi 1 khi tng quan ln nht v 0 khi khng c tng quan. iu ny s c khc phc
trong mt trm gc bi:
- S dng cc anten lng cc c lp nhau c cch bit bi 1 khong cch D
thc hin khong cch coherent cho knh .
- S dng hai mng anten c lp c cch bit bi mt khong cch D thc hin
khong cch coherent cho knh .
Chng ta c th trin khai cc anten song hng c lp ln nhau hay cc mng
anten c lp ln nhau. Trong hnh 1.14, c trng hp (a) v (b) u kh thi. Khong
cch D thng thng phn theo 10 n 6 bc sng cho mt trm gc, bi v n l im
u th cao v xa vi cc u thu di ng. Vn khng ch phc v cho vi in thoi di
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 23
ng bi v chng c nh v mt cch bin thin trong mi trng tn x mnh. Trong
nhng trng hp ny, khong cch tch bit thng l 2 n 3 bc sng. Trong tng
quan, cc thnh phn ca ma trn knh th khng tng quan v c th m hnh ha nh
sau:
1
2
( ) ( )
w
vec H R vec H = (1.54)
Vi
w
H l mt ma trn knh Gauss vi i.i.d Rayleigh c kch thc M
R
xM
T
v R
l ma trn hip bin M
R
M
T
xM
T
M
R
c xc nh nh sau:
{ }
( ) ( )
H
R E vec H vec H = (1.55)

(a)

(b)
Hnh 1.14 Vn tng quan
R l ma trn Hermitian bn xc nh tch cc. Nu R l hng y (tc l R=
I
MTMR
), nh trong trng hp H=H
w
. tng v m hnh ny m t sinh ng mt cch
nh hng hiu qu nh hng tng quan trong knh. thc hin iu ny rt phc
tp, bng cch s dng mt m hnh tng qut ha hn nh sau:
1 1
2 2
r w t
H R H R = (1.56)
Vi R
t
l ma trn hip bin pht M
T
xM
T
, R
r
l ma trn hip bin thu M
R
xM
R
. C
R
t
, R
r
u l ma trn Hermitian bn xc nh tch cc.(1.56) c gii thch l:
Tn hiu c pht khi n u thu, th c tng quan bi c im hnh hc ti
u thu (R
r
). Knh trn giy c m t nh Rayleigh i.i.d (H
w
)
Tn hiu c pht th tng quan vi chnh u pht bi v c im ti u pht
(R
t
) hay do gc tri nh.
R, R
t
v R
r
th tng quan bi
T
t r
R R R = vi xc nh tch Kronecker.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 24
Ch
w
H l hng trn giy (rank per sec) y , nhng hng nh hng ca H b
gim bi s tng quan ti u pht hay u thu hay c hai v nh hng ny c biu
din nh l min(r(R
r
),r(R
t
)) vi r(A) xc nh hng ca A.
Gi s c ma trn R
r
v R
t
c chun ha khi chng c cc gi tr duy nht
trn ng cho ca chng, iu ny t n
2
,
{ } 1
i j
E h = . Dung lng ca knh MIMO
trong tng quan Fading khng gian khng c nhn bit knh ti u pht nh (1.35)

1
2 2
2
log det
R
H
H
M r w t w r
T
C I R H R H R
M
| |
= +
|
\ .
(1.57)
Gi s M
T
= M
R
= M, cc ma trn tng quan ca u pht v u thu c hng y
. Khi SNR cao, dung lng c th xp x vi:
( ) ( )
2 2 2
log det log det log det
H
w w r t
T
C H H R R
M
| |
~ + +
|
\ .
(1.58)
Ch t (1.58) cc ma trn tng quan c cng nh hng n dung lng knh. By gi
chng ta kho st iu kin R
r
ti a ha dung lng.

1
det( ) ( ) 1
M
r i r
i
R R
=
= s
[
(1.59)

Hnh 1.15: Dung lng ergodic vi thu tng quan cao v thp. S suy hao dung
lng Ergodic khong 2.47 bit/s/Hz v h s tng quan 0.8
Ch rng s gii hn cng sut trong
1
( )
M
i r
i
R M
=
=

. iu ny c ngha l
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 25
2
log det( ) 0
r
R s N ch c th bng 0 nu tt c cc gi tr ring ca R
r
bng nhau (R
r
=I
M
).
V th, tng quan tn hiu Fading lm gim s lng gi tr ring do gim dung lng
knh MIMO. N gim dung lng ergodic hay dung lng outage c cho bi
( ) ( )
2 2
log det log det
r t
R R + bit/s/Hz.
Gi s mt knh trc giao vi M
T
= M
R
= 2 v hn na gi thit rng ch c tng
quan ti u thu, khi chng ta chn ma trn tng quan thu nh sau:
1
* 1
r
r
r
R

(
=
(

(1.60)
Ch hnh 1.15 c s suy hao 2.47 bit/s/Hz khi t s SNR cao c so snh vi
trng hp khng c tng quan. y l suy hao do thnh phn
2
log det( )
r
R . Nu h s
tng quan ca R
r
v R
t
l duy nht, khi ma trn H s tr thnh hng 1. N ging nh
mt knh SISO. V th tng quan khng phi l iu tt.
1.3.7 nh hng ca LOS trn dung lng knh MIMO.
By gi chng ta kho st mt kha cnh khc, n lm mt knh lch khi
Rayleigh i.i.d. n y chng ta mi ch xem xt mt knh i.i.d. iu ny cn xa thc t.
M t mt knh trong thc t nh sau:
1 1
2 2
Ric r w t
H H R H R = + (1.61)
Vi H
ric
l thnh phn Rician hay tn hiu thng (line of sight_LOS). LOS l mt
thnh phn tn ti bi c tnh truyn thng ca knh gia u pht vi u thu, c
xem nh l ng thng ca tng cp anten, LOS (1.61) c th c xem nh l tng cc
thnh phn c nh v thnh phn tn x nh sau:
1
1 1
w
K
H H H
K K
= +
+ +
(1.62)
Vi
1
K
H
K +
l thnh phn LOS ca knh v
1
1
w
H
K +
l thnh phn Fading vi gi thit
rng Fading khng tng quan. Cc thnh phn ca H c gi thit l c mt cng sut
duy nht. K trong (1.62) l Rician K ca h thng v l h s cng sut trong thnh phn
LOS ca knh n cng sut trong thnh phn Fading. K=0 tng ng vi knh c
Raylegh i.i.d, vi K= ng vi knh khng Fading. Thnh phn LOS xut hin trong 2
trng hp sau:
- Khong cch cch bit gia cc anten nh cp trn.
- Thnh phn LOS c to ra bi v mi trng tn x km. Nh trong hnh 1.16
Trong hnh 1.16, xt 2 trng hp mi trng v tuyn trong nh, nh l mi
trng WAN. Chng ta c laptop vi 2 anten thu. Trong mi trng tn x km chng ta
gp phi trng hp nh bn tri hnh. Bi v cc anten ng v, chng ta c thnh phn
LOS. Trong mi trng tn x mnh cc anten khng xy ra ng v (hnh bn phi). Mi
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 26
trng ny rt gn vi Rayleigh i.i.d v l m hnh c mong i.
M hnh a ra xut hin thnh phn LOS. V th, chng ta ch rng hin tng
LOS c th xut hin trong c cc mi trng trong nh v bn ngoi.
Trong c hai trng hp, v kt qu cui cng ging nh trong trng hp tng
quan. Chng ta c ma trn
1 0.8
0.8 1
H
(
=
(

(1.63)

Hnh 1.16: Vn ng vi trong knh WLAN

Hnh 1.17: Dung lng Ergodic vi cc h s trong knh MIMO
1.3.8 nh hng ca XPD trn dung lng MIMO
Cc m hnh knh cp trc y vi gi thit rng cc anten ti trm gc v
ti cc u thu c phn cc ng nht. Hiu qu ca cc anten vi phn cc trc giao ti
u pht v u thu dn n mt li (hay cng sut) v cn bng tng quan gia cc
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 27
thnh phn ca H. Cc phn cc ny thng l +/-45 hay ngang/dc (0/90 ). V c bn,
chng cn c trc giao ln nhau. iu ny m bo (ghp zero) zero coupling gia cc
anten. V th, cc tn hiu c phn cc ng. V d: cc tn hiu c truyn bi mt
tp hp cc anten v c thu bi mt tp hp cc anten phn cc ng khc. Cc phn
cc ny trc giao ln nhau, tn hiu th khng bit ln nhau (trng hp l tng). Thc
t th mt phn tn hiu l ra vi ci khc v ngc li. Chng ta gii thiu XPD v phn
cc cho (XPC). M hnh ch cho chng ta lm th no mt anten phn bit phn cc ca
n t cc anten khc. Phn sau m t vic ghp gia cc phn cc trong qu trnh lan
truyn ca chng qua knh v c gy ra bi mi trng tn x mnh. Nhng hin
tng ny c xc nh bng hng s (0 1) o o s s ca XPC, 0 c ngha l khi chng ta
c XPD tt (cc anten phn bit phn cc ln nhau). iu ny c chng minh ti
khong cch 2.6 Km v 1 o = , do mi trng t nhin tn x mnh. Gi s nng lng
trong tng thnh phn knh ring l l:
{ } { }
2 2
1,1 2,2
1 E h E h = = (1.64)
{ } { }
2 2
1,2 2,1
E h E h o = = (1.65)
Gi s vi mt knh Rayleigh i.i.d, knh H vi cc anten c phn cc cho c
thay th nh sau:
1 1
2 2
( )
r w t
H R H R | = (1.66)
Vi
1
1
o
|
o
(
= (
(

(1.67)
V thay th cho tch Hardamard (A=B C th [A]
i,j
=[B]
i,j
.[C]
i,j
). Ma trn hip
bin R
r
v R
t
m t v mi tng quan hin c ti u thu v u pht r rng. V cng
bao gm XPD, XPC v khng gian anten nh l cc yu t nh hng n cu trc ca
chng. Hin tng XPC xut hin trong mi trng tn x. Nu tn hiu lan truyn qua
mi trng khng b tn x, nn H=| .
Gi s mi trng khng tn x v dung lng cho h thng 2x2 c cho bi:

2
( 0) 2log (1 )
2
C

o = = + (1.68)

2
( 1) log (1 2 ) C o = = + (1.69)
Vi l SNR. Trong (1.69) ma trn H c cc thnh phn l 1, t gi tr ring 0 v 4.
Vi t s SNR thp (<<1) s dng:
2 2
log (1 ) log x x e + ~ vi x<<1
Ta c:
2
( 0) log C e o = ~ (1.70)

2
( 1) 2 log C e o = ~ (1.71)
V th, XPD tt lm bt li n dung lng khi SNR thp
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 28
Ti iu kin SNR cao (>>1)

2
( 0) 2log ( )
2
C

o = = (1.72)

2
( 1) log (2 ) C o = = (1.73)
V th, khi iu kin SNR cao, XPD tt ( o =0) hot ng tt hn khi XPD km,
m chnh xc l tri ngc vi trng hp SNRs thp. Hnh 1.18 m t hot ng m
hnh knh 2x2.

Hnh 1.18: Dung lng ca 1 knh MIMO vi XPD hon ton v khng c XPD
1.4 Cc loi my thu s dng trong h thng MIMO
truyn c thng tin th c nhiu phng php truyn dn khc nhau v nhiu
loi my thu. Chng c s dng ph thuc vo vic bit cc tham s knh MIMO tc
thi ti my pht. Nu thng tin trng thi knh (CSI) khng c bit ti my pht, th
a hp khng gian (Spatial Multiplexing-SM) hoc m ha khng gian thi gian (STC) c
th c s dng cho truyn dn. Nu my pht c CSI, to bp c s dng pht
mt lung d liu n qua lin kt v tuyn. Theo , hiu qu ph v tnh linh hot ca
h thng c th c ci tin. Tht kh quyt nh phng php truyn dn no l tt
nht. C th kt lun rng vic la chn m hnh truyn dn ph thuc vo: tc bit,
phc tp ca h thng v tin cy. STC c phc tp thp v c th phn tp cao
nhng tc bit b hn ch. SM cung cp tc bit cao nhng tin cy thp. To bp
khai thc li mng ln, nhng n yu cu CSI.
Trong hu ht cc trng hp, phc tp ca x l tn hiu ti my pht l rt
thp v phn chnh ca x l tn hiu c thc hin ti my thu. My thu phi ly li cc
symbol pht t cc symbol thu hn tp. Mt s my thu c s dng l:
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 29
My thu kh nng ging cc i (ML): ML t c hiu sut h thng tt nht
(t c phn tp ti a v t s li bit (BER) thp nht) nhng yu cu thut ton tch
sng phc tp nht. My thu ML tnh mi tn hiu thu khng c nhiu bng cch truyn
mi tn hiu pht bi ma trn truyn t knh MIMO bit. Sau n tm tn hiu c
tnh theo u im ti thiu ha khong cch Euclide cho tn hiu thu thc t.
Cc my thu l tng: my thu ZF v MMSE thuc nhm cc my thu l tng.
My thu ZF: v hiu ha hon ton nh hng ca cc tn hiu n t cc anten
pht khc v tch sng ring l mi lung d liu. Nhc im ca my thu ny l do loi
b nh hng ca cc tn hiu n t cc anten pht khc, nhiu cng c th tng mnh v
do hiu sut gim mnh. V x l ring tng lung d liu, nn phc
tp ca thut ton ny thp hn nhiu my thu ML.
My thu MMSE: tho hip gia s lm tng thm nhiu v nhiu tn hiu, ti thiu
ho li bnh phng trung bnh gia symbol pht v symbol tch sng. Do kt qu ca
cn bng MMSE l cc lung d liu pht cng vi nhiu d v nhiu. Sau khi cn bng
MMSE mi lung d liu c tch sng (lng t ho) ring r ging vi trng hp
my thu ZF. Trong thc t rt kh thu c cc gi tr tham s chnh xc ca nhiu cn
cho tch sng tn hiu ti u. Do my thu ny t c s dng trong thc t.
My thu BLAST xa v a v khng: cc my thu ny thc hin thut ton xo
v a v khng da vo chin lc hi tip quyt nh. My thu ny hot ng tng t
nh phng php xo v a v khng c s dng cho cc b tch sng a ngi s
dng hoc cc b cn bng hi tip quyt nh trong cc knh fading SISO la chn tn
s. V nguyn l, tt c cc tn hiu thu c cn bng theo phng php ZF (a v
khng) v sau tn hiu c SNR cao nht (c th d dng tnh c khi c thng tin ca
knh MIMO) c tch sng bng quyt nh li. Symbol tch sng c gi thit l
chnh xc v nh hng ca n i vi vect symbol thu c b (xa). Hiu sut ca
my thu xo v a v khng nh hn hiu sut ca my thu ML v ln hn hiu sut ca
my thu tuyn tnh (ZF, MMSE).
1.5 Cc phng php tng mc a dng ca ng truyn trong MIMO
Tng a dng ca ng truyn s lm tng tin cy cng nh kh nng
truyn dn. Nu c tt c N ng truyn t u pht n u thu v chng ta tn dng
c c N ng truyn th tc l t c h s li phn tp bng N. Nh vy ti
u thu tn hiu s l s tng hp ca N ng truyn, ni cch khc ti u thu tn hiu
s mnh gp N ln so vi trng hp h s li phn tp bng 1. Ni cch khc tin
cy ca ng truyn s tng ln N ln. Ngoi ra nu h s li phn tp bng N, ta
c th s dng truyn N tn hiu cng lc, nh vy tc truyn dn ca h thng s
tng ln gp N ln. C cc phng php sau tng mc a dng ca ng truyn
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 30
l: thay i tn hiu pht u thu v s dng m ha khng gian thi gian (Space Time
Code - STC).
Trong phn ny ta s gii thiu v k thut Transmit Beamforming (to bp). Cn
m ha khng gian thi gian th s c gii thiu chng 2.
K thut Transmit Beamforming
Phng php Transmit Beamforming da trn nguyn tc l ti u thu ta c th
bit c cc tham s ca ng truyn CSI. Khi ti u thu thay v truyn tn hiu
nh thng thng, ta thay i tn hiu u pht sao cho khi kt hp vi cc
tham s ca ng truyn, tn hiu ti u thu s ti u.
Xt h thng MISO 2 anten pht v 1 anten thu nh hnh 1.20
Trong h
1
,h
2
l cc h s Fading ca ng truyn, thng c cc s phc (a +
jb), gi tr ca h
1
v h
2
c xc nh ti u pht. Thng thng nu hai tn hiu x
1
v x
2

c truyn i v khng s dng k thut Beamforming th ti u thu ta c:
R = h
1
x
1
+ h
2
x
2
+n
= (a
1
+ jb
1
)x
1
+ (a
2
+ jb
2
)x
2
+ n (1.74)
Trong a
1
v a
2
, b
1
v b
2
l cc gi tr ngu nhin

Hnh 1.19: H thng MISO 2 anten pht v 1 anten thu.
Do nu a
1
= -a
2
, b
1
= - b
2
v s
1
= s
2
(trng hp truyn hai tn hiu lin tip ging
nhau) khi r = n ngha l ti u thu ch nhn c tn hiu ngu nhin. C ngha l h
thng khng tn dng c ht tnh a dng ca knh MIMO
Nu s dng k thut Beamforming ti u pht, ngha l thay v vic truyn tn
hiu x
1
v x
2
, truyn hai tn hiu h
1
*x
1
v h
2
*s2 y h
1
* (h
1
* = a
1
- jb
1
), h
2
*(h
2
*=a
1
- jb
2
)
l cc s lin hp phc ca h
1
v h
2
. Ti u thu ta c:

2 2
2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2
( ) ( ) R h x h x n a b x a b x n = + + = + + + + (1.75)
Ni cch khc bng cch dng k thut Beamforming ta c th t c phn tp
y ti u thu (tn dng c tn hiu t c hai ng truyn 1 v 2). s dng
c k thut Beamforming, ti u pht phi bit c CSI h
1
v h
2
. Tuy nhin, khng
phi lc no cng xc nh c CSI ti u thu. Trng hp khng xc nh c CSI
ti u thu chng ta c th s dng phng php m ha khng gian thi gian STC
t c phn tp y ti u thu.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO
Trang 31
K thut ny mang li nhng hiu qu sau: li cng sut, li mng (anten
li cao), gim nhiu, li phn tp.
1.6 Tng kt
Nhng phn trnh by trong chng 1, gip chng ta phn no hiu mt khi qut
nht v h thng MIMO. c bit l v mt dung lng trong knh truyn v tuyn v
cc k thut s dng trong h thng MIMO t c hiu qu cao nht.
Chng 2 ca ti ny s gii thiu mt phng php lm tng mc a dng
ca ng truyn trong MIMO. l m ha khng gian thi gian (Space Time Code
STC).


MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 32

CHNG 2: M HA KHNG GIAN THI GIAN

2.1 Gii thiu
K thut m ha khng gian thi gian (STC) va s dng nhiu anten pht v thu
va dng k thut truyn lp tn hiu trn nhng khe thi gian khc nhau. im pht trin
quan trng ca STC bt u di dng m li, m li i hi thut ton Viterbi a
chiu ti pha thu cho gii m. Nhng t m c ch ra l cung cp li phn tp bng
s lng anten pht thm vo li m iu ny ph thuc vo phc tp ca m,
khng lm mt mt hiu sut ca bng thng. Sau s thng dng ca m STC tht s
b cun ht vi s pht hin ca m khi khng gian - thi gian (Space Time Block Code
STBC). iu ny da trn thc t l cu trc ca STBC c th c gii m bng phng
php x l tuyn tnh n gin ti pha thu. Mc d STBC a ra li phn tp nh m
Trellis khng gian thi gian (Spcae Time Trellis Code STTC) vi cng mt s lng cc
anten pht, nhng STBC khng mang li li m.
Phng php m ho khng gian thi gian ca Tarokh trng tm t vo m ho,
iu ch, v phn tp thu, pht. M STBC x l mt khi tn hiu vo thnh mt ma trn
u ra, m ct ca ma trn theo thi gian cn hng ca ma trn theo khng gian hay
chnh l cc anten. Nu m STBC c truyn ch bng mt anten trn knh truyn
AWGN, th m STBC khng th to ra c mt li m tr khi n c kt hp vi
mt phng php m ho ngoi (m knh truyn chng hn). Ci hay ca STBC chnh l
s n gin trong qu trnh x l gii m m phng php STTC khng th no cnh
tranh c. Trong khi , m STTC x l chui tn hiu u vo mt thi im to
ra mt chui nhng vector tn hiu u ra m chiu di ca chui ny chnh bng vi s
anten thc hin. Ging nh m hnh m ho Trellis ( TCM) truyn thng dng cho knh
truyn ch c duy nht mt anten th STTC cng thc hin vi phng php tng t v
to ra li m hn c li m t STBC.
2.2 M khi khng gian - thi gian STBC
2.2.1 Gii thiu
M STBC l mt k thut phn tp pht n gin trong cng ngh MIMO. u
tin ta s phn tch v m Alamouti. V cn bn, m ny to ra mt phng php cho h
thng 2x2 nhm t c li phn tp y vi mt thut ton gii m Maximum
Likelihood (ML) n gin. Sau ta s gii thiu khi qut v cu trc chung ca m
STBC.
2.2.2 M khng gian- thi gian Alamouti
M hnh m khi khng gian-thi gian c m t nh hnh 2.1
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 33
y cc bit thng tin c iu ch theo kiu iu ch a mc. B m ha sau
ly mt khi hai k t iu ch x
1
v x
2
trong mi ln m ha v a ra anten pht theo
ma trn m sau:
*
1 2
*
2 1
x x
X
x x
(
=
(

(2.1)

Hnh 2.1: S khi ca b m ha khng gian-thi gian Alamouti
Trong ma trn X, ct u tin i din cho chu k pht u tin v ct th 2 i
din cho chu k th hai. Hng u tin ng vi cc symbol c pht t anten u tin v
hng th 2 ng vi cc symbol c pht t anten th 2. Trong chu k truyn k t th
nht, anten u tin truyn x
1
v anten th hai truyn x
2
. Trong chu k truyn k t th 2,
anten u tin truyn
*
2
x v anten th hai truyn
*
1
x l lin hip phc ca x
1
.
iu ny cho thy ta pht i c v khng gian (trn 2 anten) v thi gian (2
khong thi gian truyn). y gi l m khng gian- thi gian. Xt phng trnh:
1 *
1 2
2 *
2 1
[ , ]
[ , ]
x x x
x x x
=
=
(2.2)
Vi x
1
l chui thng tin t anten th nht v x
2
l chui thng tin t anten th hai.
Hai chui thng tin trn trc giao vi nhau (do tch ca chng bng 0).
1 2 * *
1 2 2 1
. 0 x x x x x x = = (2.3)
Ma trn m c th biu din nh sau:
2 2
2 2 1 2
1 2 2
2 2
1 2
0
. ( )I
0
H
x x
X X x x
x x
(
+
( = = +
( +

(2.4)
vi I
2
l ma trn 2x2


Gi s ch c mt anten ti my thu, th cc tn hiu nhn c biu din nh hnh
2.2.Gi h s Fading ca anten 1 v 2 l h
1
(t) v h
2
(t) ti thi im t. Gi s cc h s ny
khng thay i trong cc chu k truyn k t, th:
1
2
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
j
j
h t h t T h h e
h t h t T h h e
u
u
= + = =
= + = =
(2.5)
Vi
i
h v
i
u , i=1,2 l li bin v dch pha khi truyn t anten pht i n
anten thu v T l thi gian truyn k t.
Ti my thu, tn hiu sau khi truyn trn knh c th c biu din nh sau:
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 34

1 1 1 2 2 1
* *
2 1 2 2 2 2
r h x h x n
r h x h x n
= + +
= + +
(2.6)
Vi n
1
v n
2
l nhiu Gauss ti thi im t v t+T. n
1
v n
2
c lp nhau c trung bnh
bng 0 v hm mt ph cng sut l N
0
/2 mi chiu, i din cho nhiu Gauss ti thi
im t v t+T.

Hnh 2.2: Mu phn tp pht hai anten ca Alamouti
2.2.2.a Gii m Maximum Likelihood
Gi s cc h s knh h
1
v h
2
c th c khi phc hon ton ti my thu. Ta
dng cc h s ny nh l thng tin trng thi knh CSI. B kt hp s kt hp cc tn
hiu nhn c nh sau:

* * 2 2 * *
1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2
* * * 2 2 * *
2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1
( )
( )
x h r h r x h n h n
x h r h r x h n h n
o o
o o
= + = + + +
= = + +
(2.7)
Vi cp tn hiu (

1
x ;

2
x ) c chn t chm sao tn hiu iu ch khong cch metric
ti thiu V gi chng n b pht hin ML, ti y n s ti gin nh thc quyt nh:


2
2
* *
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1
r h x h x r h x h x + + (2.8)
vi mi gi tr ca (

1
x ;

2
x ). Khai trin v loi b c c thnh phn c lp vi cc t m ta
c nh thc sau:



2
2
* * 2 2
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1
( 1) h r h r x x o o + + + (2.9)
pht hin x
1
v nh thc sau pht hin x
2
:


2
2
* * * 2 2
2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2
( 1) h r h r x x o o + + (2.10)
Mt cch khc, nu ta dng cng thc d
2
(x,y) = (x-y)(x*-y*) = |x-y|
2
th quy lut
quyt nh cho mi tn hiu kt hp

j
x , j=1,2 s tr thnh: Tm x
i
vi:


2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2
( 1) ( , ) ( 1) ( , ) ,
i j i k j k
x d x x x d x x i k o o o o + + s + + = (2.11)
i vi tn hiu PSK, bt ng thc trn tr thnh:
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 35

2 2
( , ) ( , ) ,
j i j k
d x x d x x i k s = (2.12)
2.2.2.b Kt hp t s ti a (MRC-Maximum Ratio Combining)
Trong trng hp kt hp t s ti a, tn hiu nhn c s nh sau:
r
1
= h
1
x
0
+n
1


r
2
= - h
2
x
0
+n
2


V tn hiu kt hp s l:

* * 2 2 * *
0 1 1 2 2 1 2 0 1 1 2 2
( ) x h r h r x h n h n o o = + = + + + (2.13)
B pht hin ML s quyt nh tn hiu x
i
s dng quy lut nh cp trn.

Hnh 2.3: Kt hp t s ti a vi mt Tx v hai Rx
Ch rng tn hiu MRC

0
x trn bng vi kt qu kt hp tn hiu thu trong cng
thc (2.15) ngoi tr s khc v pha trong cc thnh phn nhiu, nhng iu ny khng
tc ng n SNR hiu dng.Kt qu ny cho thy bc phn tp ca s phn tp pht
hai anten do Alamouti xut ging nh MRC hai nhnh
2.2.2.c Cht lng ca s Alamouti
S truyn tn hiu trong phng php Alamouti l trc giao. iu ny cho thy
rng anten thu s thy c hai lung tn hiu trc giao vi nhau. Do t c phn
tp y M
T
=2. Xt hai chui m khc nhau X v

X c to ra bi u vo (x
1
,x
2
)
v

1 2
( , ) x x vi

1 2 1 2
( , ) ( , ) x x x x = . Ma trn sai bit t m c cho bi:



*
*
2
1 1 2
*
*
2 1
2 1
( , )
x x x x
B X X
x x x x
(
+
(
=
(


(2.14)
Do cc hng ca ma trn m l trc giao vi nhau nn cc hng ca ma trn sai
bit cng trc giao vi nhau. Ma trn khong cch ca t m c cho bi:



2 2
2
1 1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
( , ) ( , ) ( , )
0
0
H
A X X B X X B X X
x x x x
x x x x
=
(
+
(
=
(
(
+
(

(2.15)
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 36
Do

1 2 1 2
( , ) ( , ) x x x x = nn ma trn khong cch ca bt c hai t m khc nhau no
u c hng bng 2. Ni cch khc, mu Alamouti cho ta s phn tp pht vi M
T
=2.
nh thc ca ma trn

( , ) A X X c cho bi:

2
2 2
2
1 1 2
det( ( , )) A X X x x x x
| |
= +
|
\ .
(2.16)
Ma trn khong cch t m trong (2.15) c hai gi tr ring ng nht. Gi tr ring
nh nht bng khong cch Eucidian trong gin sao. Do khong cch ti thiu gia
2 chui m pht i bt k ging nhau nh trong h thng cha m ha. iu ny cho tht
rng li m bng 1:
( )

1
2
1 2
2
1
( , )
c
E
G
d X X

= =
Vi

2
( , )
E
d X X l khong cch Euclidian ca chui X v

X .
2.2.2.d Cc c im ca phng php Alamouti
- Khng cn s hi tip t my thu v my pht yu cu CSI t c s phn tp
y .
- Khng yu cu m rng bng thng (v phn thng tin d c a vo khng gian
gia cc anten, ch khng a vo phn tn s hay thi gian).
- Cc b gii m c phc tp thp.
- Cho cht lng tng ng MRC nu nh tng nng lng bc x gp i so vi
trng hp MRC, ngoi ra nu gi mc cng sut pht nh MRC th s ny thua
3dB
- tin cy c tng cng v s c ch hng hc mm vn thu c tn hiu
pht vi cht lng thp ngay c trong trng hp li phn tp b mt.
- Khng cn sa li ton b thit k cc h thng hin hnh phi hp vi phng
php ny.
2.2.3 Cu trc chung m khi khng gian thi gian STBC
S Alamouti to ra s pht trin trong cc h thng a anten bng cch to ra s
phn tp y ti my pht m khng cn gi i CSI v gii m ML n gin ti my
thu. Cc b gii m ML to ra li phn tp y M
R
ti my thu. Do , 1 h thng
nh vy bo m li phn tp ton b l 2M
R
m khng cn n CSI ti my pht.
iu ny c to ra do s trc giao gia cc chui to ra ti hai anten ca my pht. Do
nhng nguyn nhn , s ny cho php s dng mt s lng bt k anten pht bng
cch p dng l thuyt thit k trc giao. S tng qut ny c gi l m STBC. Cc
m ny c th to ra phn tp pht y M
T
M
R
v s dng mt thut ton gii m
ML n gin da trn qu trnh x l tuyn tnh ti my thu.
Gi M
T
l s lng anten pht v p l s chu k truyn mt khi k t m
ha. Gi s gin hnh sao tn hiu gm 2
m
im. Do mi hot ng nh x mt khi
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 37
km bit thng tin vo gin sao tn hiu chn k tn hiu iu ch x
1
, x
2
,..,x
k
vi mi
nhm m bit chn mt tn hiu sao. k tn hiu iu ch ny sau c m ha bi mt
b m ha khng thi gian to ra M
T
chui tn hiu song song c chiu di p nh
hnh 2.4. iu ny to ra s thay i kch thc ca ma trn pht X thnh M
T
xp. Cc
chui ny c pht qua M
T
anten ng thi trong p chu k thi gian. Do s lng cc
k t m b gii m s dng lm ng vo trong mi hot ng m ha bng k. S lng
cc chu k cn thit pht ton b ma trn X l p.Tc ca m STBC l t s gia s
lng k t b m s dng u vo v s lng m khng gian-thi gian pht t mi
anten. Tc l:
k
R
p
= (2.18)
Hiu qu s dng ph ca m khng gian-thi gian c cho bi:
/ /
b S
S
r r mR km
bit s Hz
B r p
q = = = (2.19)
vi r
b
v r
S
l tc bit v tc k t cn B l bng thng.
Cc thnh phn ca ma trn X c chn sao cho chng l s kt hp tuyn tnh
ca k k t iu ch x
1
, x
2
,..,x
k
v lin hip phc ca chng x
1
*, x
2
*,.., x
k
*. Ma trn X
c thit lp da trn s trc giao nh sau:

2 2 2
1 2
. (| | | | ... | | )
T
H
k M
X X c s s s I = + + (2.20)
vi c l hng s, M
T
l s anten pht, X
H
l ma trn Hermitian ca X v I
MT
l ma trn
ng nht M
T
xM
T
. iu ny to ra s phn tp M
T
mc. Cc ma trn truyn m ny c
chn sao cho cc hng v ct ca mi ma trn l trc giao vi nhau.

Hnh 2.4: B m ha STBC
Nu tha mn iu kin th (2.20) cng tha mn v ta c s phn tp y M
T
.
Xt vn ny theo phng php t i s tuyn tnh, nu cc hng ca ma trn trc giao
(tch chp ca chng bng 0), khi cc hng ca ma trn c lp vi nhau. Ngha l
tng hng ng gp mt gi tr ring (ma trn hng y ). V th phn tp pht y x
nhn c khi tng anten ng gp n tng hng ca ma trn. Tc m s ty thuc
vo ma trn c thit k. Da vo (2.18) ta c R=1 l m c tc y ngha l n
khng i hi tng bng thng. Tuy nhin vi m c tc R<1 th h s tng bng thng
l 1/R. S c trnh by trong phn tc m tiu chun (ton tc) t c mt cch
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 38
thc s d dng nu ma trn thc, nhng s la chn cc m ton tc b gii hn nhiu
hn nu ma trn l phc. T (2.20) tnh trc giao t c trong mi trng hp cho php
ta nhn c phn tp pht y .
i vi cc s sao tn hiu thc (chng hn nh PAM), vic bit trc ny
nhm cung cp tc truyn cao nht theo l thuyt STC [1]. i vi biu sao phc,
STBC c th c xy dng vi s anten pht bt k v chng cho phn tp khng gian
y v t tc bng mt na so vi l thuyt STC
2.2.4 Kt qu m phng
y ta s m t cc kt qu m phng lin quan n hot ng ca STBC trn cc
knh Fading Rayleigh. Gi s my thu c CSI hon ton v Fading gia cc anten pht v
thu c lp nhau
Gi s tng cng sut pht t hai anten ca s Alamouti bng cng sut pht
ca mt anten trong h thng s dng s phn tp my thu MRC. Knh SISO c m
t d so snh. S Alamouti 2x1 v s MRC 1x2 c cng mc phn tp l 2. iu
ny c chng minh qua hnh 2.5 v 2 ng cong c dc bng nh nhau. Nhng s
Alamouti c li nh hn s MRC. Nguyn nhn l do cng sut pht ca s
Alamouti c chia u cho cc anten pht. S Alamouti 2x2 hot ng tt hn cc s
khc v mc phn tp trong trng hp ny l M
T
M
R
=2x2=4.

Hnh 2.5: So snh hot ng ca BER vi mu Alamouti 16QAM vi s
anten khc nhau trong knh Fading Rayleigh chm.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 39
S Alamouti trong kt qu m phng khng bit CSI nn n khng to ra li
mng ti my pht nhng s to ra li phn tp ti my pht bi v cc lung d liu l
trc giao. Ngc li MRC khng th to ra li phn tp ti my pht v n ch c mt
anten pht nhng n li to ra li mng ti my thu v n x l CSI ti my thu. Ta suy
ra rng s Alamouti 2x2 s c cng sut pht nh hn 3 dB so vi s MRC 1x4 bi
v c 2 s c cng mc phn tp nhng do gim 3 dB ti my pht ca s Alamouti
do phi chia u cng sut cho cc anten pht. Ta cp n 3 li:
li m: l li to ra bi cc m thi gian, nh m chp hoc m khi.
li mng: l tng trung bnh t s SNR ti my thu do hiu ng kt hp ca
nhiu anten pht ti my thu hoc my pht. li ny c to ra bi CSI, vic nhn
bit knh c thc hin bng cch gn trng s ph hp cho cc tn hiu trong tng knh
da vo trng thi knh c nhn bit. MRC ti my thu l mt v d
li phn tp: l li c to ra do s phn tp khng gian qua cc knh, ti
pha pht hoc thu hoc c hai chng Fading. Thng thng cc h thng cn CSI
t c li phn tp nhng phng php Alamouti khng cn CSI vn c th t
li phn tp v n da trn cc lung d liu tc cao. Mc phn tp bng tch ca s
lng anten pht v anten thu.
2.3 M Trellis khng gian thi gian STTC
2.3.1 Gii thiu
phn trc ta tm hiu v cc m STBC. M ny to ra s phn tp y
vi cc thut ton gii m n gin. Tuy nhin cc m ny khng to ra li m v cc
m khng ton tc lm tri rng ph tn hiu. Do ta cn xem xt n vic kt hp m
sa li, iu ch, phn tp pht v thu pht trin mt mu tn hiu hiu qu gi l m
Trellis khng gian - thi gian (STTC) vi kh nng chng Fading, STTC c kh nng to
ra li m v hiu qu s dng ph trn cc knh Fading.
Ta s phn tch l thuyt thit k STTC s dng iu ch M-PSK cho s lng
anten pht v hiu qu ph khc nhau trong mi trng knh Fading nhanh v chm.
2.3.2 Cc h thng m khng gian thi gian
Xt mt h thng m khng gian-thi gian bng tn gc vi M
T
anten pht v M
R

anten thu.Vi chui d liu pht c a vo b m ha khng gian-thi gian STC. Ti
mi thi im t, m k t nh phn c a vo mt b m ha khng gian thi gian
c biu din l:

1 2
( , ,..., )
m
t t t t
c c c c =
B m ha s nh x chui d liu ny thnh cc k t iu ch M
T
t mt tp hp
tn hiu M=2
m
im. Sau c a n b chuyn i ni tip-song song to ra M
T

chui k t song song to thnh mt vector ct M
T
x1:
1 2
( , ,..., )
T
M T
t t t t
x x x x = (2.21)
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 40
vi (.)
T
l ma trn chuyn v, M
T
ng ra c pht ng thi t M
T
anten vi tng k t x
t
i

1 i M
T
c pht i t anten i v cng thi gian T. Vector x
t
c gi l k t khng
gian thi gian. Hiu qu s dng ph ca h thng:
/ /
b
r
m bit s Hz
B
q = = (2.22)
vi r
b
l tc d liu v B l bng thng knh. H s hiu qu s dng ph ca STC
bng h s hiu qu s dng ph ca mt h thng khng m ha vi mt anten pht.

Hnh 2.6: S khi ca b m ha khng gian-thi gian
Cc anten pha pht v thu to nn mt knh MIMO. Gi s gia mi anten pht
v thu tn ti Fading phng v knh truyn khng c nh.
Ma trn knh ti thi im t c cho bi:

1,1 1,2 1,
2,1 2,2 1,
,1 ,2 ,
...
...
. ... .
. ... .
...
T
T
R R R T
t t t
M
t t t
M
t
t t t
M M M M
h h h
h h h
H
h h h
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(

(2.23)
vi h
t
i,j
l h s suy hao Fading t anten pht th i n anten thu th j. Cc h s trong ma
trn trn gi s l c phn b Gauss. Phn tch hai trng hp:
- Gi s knh truyn l knh Fading chm (tc l h s Fading l khng i trong mt
khung v thay i t khung ny sang khung khc).
- Gi s knh truyn l knh Fading nhanh (tc l h s Fading khng i trong mi
chu k k t v thay i t k t ny sang k t khc).
Ti my thu ta thy tn hiu ti mi anten l tn hiu pht ca M
T
anten cng vi
nhiu v b suy gim bi Fading. Ti thi im tn hiu thu ti anten j vi j = 1, 2,M
R
,
k hiu bi r
j
t
c cho bi:
,
1
.
T
M
j t i j
t j t t t
i
r h x n
=
= +

(2.24)
Vi n
j
t
l thnh phn nhiu ca anten thu j ti thi im t v cng c phn b Gauss
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 41
Ta t:
1 2
( , ,..., )
T
M
t t t t
r r r r = (2.25)
V:
1 2
( , ,..., )
R
M
t t t t
n n n n = (2.26)
Do vector tn hiu thu c c th c biu din nh sau:
r
t
= H
t
.x
t
+ n
t
(2.27)
B gii m s dng thut ton ML c on chui thng tin c pht i v gi
s my thu bit y cc thng tin v knh. Tuy nhin my pht li khng c thng tin
g v knh truyn. nh thc quyn nh c tnh ton da trn bnh phng khong
cch Euclide gia chui thu c theo tnh ton v chui thu c thc t nh sau:
2
,
1 1
R T
M M
j t i
t j i t
t j i
r h x
= =



B gii m chn mt t m vi gi tr quyt nh nh nht lm chui c gii m.
B gii m ny c xem nh l mt b gii m Viterbi.
2.3.3 Tiu chun thit k t m khng gian-thi gian
Gi s chiu di khung d liu pht i l L symbol vi mi anten. T ta c ma
trn t m khng gian-thi gian M
T
xL:
1 1 1
1 2
2 2 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
...
...
[ , , ..., ] . . . .
. . . .
T T T
L
L
L
M M M
L
x x x
x x x
X x x x
x x x
(
(
(
(
= =
(
(
(

(2.29)
vi mi hng tng ng vi chui d liu pht t mi anten v mi ct l symbol khng
gian-thi gian ti thi im t.
Xc sut li cp (PEP:Pairwise Error Probability) l xc sut m b gii m ML
chn tn hiu c on ca n
1 2 1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
... , ... ,..
T T
M M
E e e e e e e = trong khi trn thc t tn hiu
1 2 1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
... , ... ,..
T T
M M
X x x x x x x = c pht i. iu ny xut hin nu tng cc symbol, anten v
chu k thi gian
2 2
, ,
1 1 1 1 1 1
R T R T
M M M M L L
j t i j t i
t i j t t i j t
t j i t j i
r h x r h e
= = = = = =
>

(2.30)
c th vit li nh sau:
2
, ,
1 1 1 1 1 1
2Re ( ) * ( ) ( )
R T R T
M M M M L L
j t i i t i i
t i j t t i j t t
t j i t j i
h e x h e x q
= = = = = =

>
`
)

(2.31)
vi Re{.} l thnh phn thc ca s phc.
Gi s my thu bit y thng tin ca knh, th i vi mt khong cch cho
trc ca li tuyn knh {h
i,j
}, v phi ca bt ng thc trn l mt hng s
2
( , )
h
d X E (khong cch Euclidie gia 2 ma trn t m khng gian thi gian X v E) c
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 42
biu din nh sau:
2
2
2
,
1 1 1
( , ) .( )
( )
R T
M M L
t i i
i j t t
t j i
d X E H E X
h e x
= = =
=
=

(2.32)
v v tri l bin ngu nhin Gauss c trung bnh bng khng vi sai bit
2 2
4 ( , ) d X E o .
Do PEP trong iu kin c {hi,j} c cho bi:
2 2
,
0 0
1
( | , 1,.. , 1,.. ) ( , ) exp ( , )
2 2 4
s s
i j T R h h
E E
P X E h i M j M Q d X E d X E
N N
| | | |
= = = s
| |
|
\ . \ .
(2.33)
vi Q(x) l hm sai b c cho bi:
2
2
1
( )
2
t
x
Q x e dt
t

=
}
v
2
/ 2
1
( ) , 0
2
x
Q x e x

s >
2.3.4 Xc sut li trong knh Fadinh chm
Trong knh Fading chm, h s Fading trong mi khung l c nh. V th chng
ta c th khng cn n h s Fading trn:
1 2
,1 ,1 ,1 ,1
... ; 1, 2,.., , 1, 2,..,
L
j j j j T R
h h h h i M j M = = = = = = (2.34)
Chng ta nh ngha ma trn sai bit ( , ) B X E l:
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
...
...
( , ) . . ... .
. . ... .
...
T T T T T T
L L
L L
M M M M M M
L L
e x e x e x
e x e x e x
B X E
e x e x e x
| |
|

|
|
=
|
|
|

\ .
(2.35)
Chng ta c th xy dng 1 ma trn khong cch t m M
T
xM
T
, nh ngha nh sau:
( , ) ( , ) ( , )
H
A X E B X E B X E = (2.36)
Vi H l ma trn Hermitian nn tn ti duy nht mt ma trn unitary V v mt ma
trn ng cho thc A:
( , )
H
VA X E V = A (2.37)
Cc hng ca V, {v
1
, v
2
,,v
MT
} l cc vector ring ca ( , ) A X E v to thnh 1 h trc giao
hon ton ca mt khng gian vector M
T
chiu. Cc thnh phn ng cho ca Al cc
gi tr ring 0, 1, 2,..,
i T
i M > = ca ( , ) A X E ma trn ng cho Ac th vit nh sau:
1
2
0 ... 0
0 ... 0
. . . .
. . . .
0 0 ...
T
M

(
(
(
(
A =
(
(
(

(2.38)
n gin, chng ta gi s rng
1 2
... 0
T
M
> > > >
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 43
,1 ,2 ,
( , ,..., )
T
j j j j M
h h h h = (2.39)
Phng trnh (2.35) c th c vit li nh sau:
2
1
2
,
1 1
( , ) ( , )
R
R T
M
H
h j j
j
M M
i j i
j i
d X E h A X E h
|
=
= =
=
=

(2.40)
Thay
.
.
j i j i
h v | = (2.41) vo (2.40) ta c:
2
,
1 1 0
1
( , | ) exp
2 4
R T
M M
s
i j i
j i
E
P X E H
N
|
= =
| |
s
|
\ .

(2.42)
Bt ng thc (2.42) c gii hn trn trong iu kin PEP biu din l mt hm ca
, j i
| , khi m ngu nhin c
, j i
h . Sau y, ta xc nh s phn b ca
, j i
| khi bit
, j i
h
Ch
, j i
h l bin ngu nhin Gauss phc vi trung bnh
, j i
h
v phng sai
mi chiu v {v
1
, v
2
, ,v
MT
} l to thnh mt h trc giao hon ton ca khng gian M
T

chiu. R rng
, j i
| trong (2.42) l bin ngu nhin c lp Gauss phc vi phng sai l
mi chiu v trung bnh
, j i
|
vi:

, , ,1 ,2
[ ]. [ ] [ , ,..., ].
T
j M j i j j
j i h h h i
E h E v v
|
= = (2.43)
E[.] l k vng.
2
, , j i j i
K
|
= v
, j i
| c 1 phn b Rician vi hm mt xc sut pdf [6]
2
, ,
, , , 0 ,
( ) 2 exp( ) (2 )
j i j i
j i j i j i j i
p K I K | | | | = (2.44)
Chng ta s chia thnh 2 trng hp, ph thuc vo gi tr ca rM
R
.
2.3.4.a Gii hn trn ca PEP khi rM
R
>4
Khi
, j i
| c phn b Rician th
2
, , j i j i
S K
|
= = . Gi tr trung bnh v phng sai ca
2
, j i
| ln lt c cho bi
2
,
,
1
j i
j i
K
|
= + v
2
,
2 ,
1 2
j i
j i
K
|
o = + .
V phi ca ng thc (2.42), l rM
R
bin ngu nhin c lp c phn b chi
bnh phng. Vi gi tr rM
R
4 tng ng s lng ln cc knh con c lp, theo nh
l gii hn trung tm [5], biu thc:
2
,
1 1
R T
M M
i j i
j i
|
= =

(2.45)
Gn bng mt bin ngu nhin Gauss D vi trung bnh
,
1 1
(1 )
R T
M M
j i
D i
j i
K
= =
= +

(2.46)
v phng sai
2 2 ,
1 1
(1 2 )
R T
M M
j i
D i
j i
K o
= =
= +

(2.47)
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 44
Xc sut li cp c gii hn trn l:
0
0
1
( , ) exp ( )
2 4
s
D
E
P X E D p D dD
N
+
=
| |
s
|
\ .
}
(2.48)
Vi p(D) l hm pdf ca bin ngu nhin Gauss D. S dng ng thc
2
2 2
0
1
exp( ) ( ) exp , 0
2
D D
D D
D
D
D p D dD Q
o
o
o
+
=
| | | |
= >
| |
\ .
\ .
}
(2.49)
Gii hn trn ca (2.48) c th c vit li l:
2
2
0 0 0
1 1
( , ) exp
2 2 4 4 4
s s s D
D D D
D
E E E
P X E Q
N N N

o o
o
| |
| | | |
| s
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .
(2.50)
y l trng hp c bit ca Fading Rayleigh. Do
,
0
j i
a
= v v th
,
0
j i
K = .
Gi tr trung bnh v phng sai ca bin ngu nhin Gauss D tr thnh:
1
r
D R i
i
M
=
=

(2.51)
2 2
1
r
D R i
i
M o
=
=

(2.52)
Thay th (2.51) v (2.52) vo (2.50) ta c gii hn trn ca PEP trong knh Fading
Rayleigh l:
2
2 2 1
2
1 1 1 0 0 0
1
1 1
( , ) exp
2 2 4 4 4
r
r r r
i
s s s i
R i R i R i
r
i i i
i
i
MR
E E E
P X E M M Q M
N N N

=
= = =
=
| |
| |
| |
|
| s
|
|
|
| \ .
\ .
\ .

(2.53)
2.3.4.b Gii hn trn ca PEP khi rM
R
<4
Khi rM
R
<4, gi s knh Gauss khng c gi tr na v PEP c vit l:
,
1,1 1,2 , 1,1 1,2 ,
( , ) ... ( , | ) ( ) ( )... ( ). ...
R T R T
j i
M M M M
P X E P X E H p p p d d d
|
| | | | | |

s
} }
(2.54)
Vi
, j i
| l bin ngu nhin phn b c lp ngu nhin Rician vi pdf trong
(2.44). Thay th (2.44) vo (2.54) ta c:
,
0
1 1
0 0
4 1
( , ) exp
1 1
4 4
j i s
i
MR MT
s s j i
i i
E
K
N
P X E
E E
N N


= =
| | | |
| |
| | s
| |
+ +
| |
\ . \ .
[ [
(2.55)
Trong trng hp Fading Rayleigh, gii hn trn ca PEP tr thnh:
1
0
1
( , )
1
4
R
T
M
M
s i
i
P X E
E
N

=
| |
|
| s
|
+
|
\ .
[
(2.56)
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 45
Vi SNR cao
0 0
1
4 4
s s
i i
E E
N N
+ ~ cng thc trn c th c biu din l:
1
1 1 0 0
( , )
4 4
R R R R
rM rM M rM
r r
s s r
i i
i i
E E
P X E
N N


= =
| | | | | | | |
s s
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
[ [
(2.57)
Vi r hin th hng v
1 2
, ,...,
r
l gi tr ring khng bng 0 ca ma trn A(X,E)
Nh vy ta t c li phn tp rM
R
v li m
( )
1
1 2
2
, ,...,
r
r
c
u
G
d

= vi
2
u
d
l khong cch Euclide ca h thng cha m ha. Ch c hai li phn tp v li
m t c nh ti thiu rM
R
v ( )
1
1 2
, ,...,
r
r
trn tt c cc cp ca t m khc bit.
li phn tp gn bng gii hn ca li cng sut ca h thng vi phn tp khng
gian trn h thng khng c phn tp ti cng xc sut li. li m nh gi li cng
sut ca h thng m ha trn h thng cha m ha vi cng li phn tp, ti cng
xc sut li.
2.3.4.c Tiu chun thit k STTC trong knh Fading Rayleigh chm
y nh ngha cc tiu chun thit k cho STTC trong knh Fading Rayleigh chm:
Tiu chun hng: c c s phn tp ti a ta cn phi ti a hng nh nht r ca
ma trn B trn tt c cp t m khc nhau. Khi ta t li phn tp l rM
R

Tiu chun nh thc: chn rM
R
l li phn tp mong mun. Khi mc tiu thit
k l ti a nh thc nh nht
1
r
i
i

=
[
ca ma trn A vi cc cp t m khc nhau vi
hng nh nht .
Cc tiu chun ny c gi l tiu chun hng v tiu chun nh thc. N cn
c gi l cc tiu chun TSC. Ti a gi tr ti thiu ca hng r ca ma trn B ngha l
ta cn phi tm mt m khng gian thi gian m c th t c hng y ca ma trn
B (tc l M
T
). iu ny khng phi lc no cng thc hin c do s hn ch ca cu
trc m li. i vi mt m li khng gian thi gian vi mc nh l v, chiu di ca
mt s kin li L c th c bin di nh sau:
L [v/2]+1
i vi mt ng truyn s kin li c chiu di L trong li, B(x,e) l mt ma
trn kch thc M
T
xL, l kt qu ca vic ti a hng ca min(M
T
,L). iu ny cho ta
bin trn l min(M
T
,[v/2]+1). Bin trn ca cc gi tr hng ca STTC vi s lng anten
pht v mc nh khc nhau c cho trong bng 2.1.
Ta thy rng hng y trong STTC ch c c trong trng hp s dng 2
anten pht. Trong trng hp ny ba v bn anten pht, ta cn b m ha c mc nh nh
nht ln lt l 4 v 6 c c hng y . T (2.31) ta suy ra gi tr PEP vi iu
kin bit {h
i,j
} c cho bi:
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 46

2
, 2
1
( , ) ( , )
( | , 1,..., , 1,..., ) exp
2 4
R
M
s
i j T R
j
d x e E d x e
P x e h i M j M Q
o o
=
| | | |
= = = s
| |
\ .
\ .
[
(2.58)

Bng 2.1: Cc gi tr hng trong STTC
T (2.40) ta c:
2
2
,
1 1
( , )
R T
M M
i j i
j i
d x e |
= =
=

(2.59)
Th vo (2.58) v s dng bt ng thc:
2
/ 2
1
( ) , 0
2
x
Q x e x

s >
2
, 2
1 1
1
( | ) exp
2 4
R T
M M
s
i j i
j i
E
P x e H |
o
= =
| |
s
|
\ .

(2.60)
y l bin trn ca PEP l mt hm ca
, j i
| . Ta bit rng
2
, j i
| c phn b chi-
square vi gi tr trung bnh v phng sai ln lt:
2
,
1
j i
|
= v
2
,
2
1
j i
|
o = . i vi gi tri
rM
R
ln (>3) theo nh l gii hn trung tm, biu thc:
2
,
1 1
R T
M M
i j i
j i
|
= =

(2.61)
tin n bin ngu nhin Gauss D vi gi tr trung bnh:
1
T
M
R i
i
D M
=
=

v phng sai
2 2
1
T
M
D R i
i
M o
=
=


Do PEP khng iu kin c th c gii hn trn nh sau:
2
0
1
( ) exp ( )
2 4
s
D
E
P X E D p D dD
o
+
=
| |
s
|
\ .
}
(2.62)
V ta c:
2
2
2
2
2 2
1 1
4
( ) exp
2 2 4 4
s
D
s s
D
D
E
D
E E
P X E D Q
o
o
o
o o o
| |

| | |
| |
s |
|
|
|
\ .
| \ .
\ .
(2.63)
Dng bt ng thc
2
/ 2
1
( ) , 0
2
x
Q x e x

s >
Suy ra:
2
1
1
( ) exp
4 4
T
M
s
R i
i
E
P X E M
o
=
| |
s
|
\ .

(2.64)
ti thiu PEP, tng cc gi tr ring ca ma trn A(X,E) vi A(X,E)= B(X,E)
B*(X,E) phi t gi tr ti a. i vi mt ma trn vung, tng cc gi tr ring bng
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 47
tng cc thnh phn trn ng cho ca n, k hiu tr(v). V th ta c:
1 1
( )
T T
M M
i ii
i i
tr v A
= =
= =

(2.65)
Vi A
i,i
l cc thnh phn trn ng cho chnh ca ma trn A(X,E). Trace ca ma trn
A(X,E) c biu din nh sau:
2
1 1
( )
T
M L
i i
j j
i i
tr v e x
= =
=

(2.66)
Theo (2.66) tng cc thnh phn trn ng cho ca ma trn A(X,E) bng vi
khong cch Euclide gia cc t m X v E trn tt c cc anten pht. Ni cch khc, PEP
t gi tr nh nht nu khong cch Euclide l ln nht.
Tng qut, nu rM
R
>3 hot ng ca STTC ph thuc vo gi tr nh nht tng
ng cho ca A(X,E) tnh trn tt c cc cp t m x v e khc nhau. Do li m
l ti a nu gi tr nh nht tng ng cho A(X,E) i vi tt c cc cp t m l ln
nht. Quy tc ny c gi l tiu chun tng ng cho.
Vn quan trng phi ch l iu kin ca tiu chun tng ng cho (rM
R
>3)
c tha tha mn vi hu ht s kt hp ca s lng anten pht v anten thu. Trong
hu ht cc trng hp, iu kin rM
R
>3 c th thay bng M
T
M
R
>3. Khi M
T
=2 iu quan
trng l A(x,e) phi c hng y l r=2. Khi M
T
4, iu kin hng y khng cn
n vn c th t gi tr PEP nh nht. Nguyn nhn v trong nhng trng hp nh vy,
gi tr ln ca tng ng cho nh nht quyt nh hot ng ca b m.
Khi rM
R
nh (<4) biu thc (2.61) s khng tin n phn b Gauss. Trong trng
hp ny ta c th s dng tiu chun TSC. Ch gi tr ring y l 4. i vi (2.61),
gi tr bin ny c nh bi s lng cc bin ngu nhin rM
R
tha mn nh l gii
hn trung tm. iu ny da trn quy tc i vi cc bin ngu nhin c hm phn b xc
sut (PDF) phng (smooth) th nh l gii hn trung tm c th p dng nu s lng cc
bin ngu nhin ln hn 4. Kt qu m phng cho ta thy r iu ny, tc l khi rM
R
4
m tt nht theo tiu chun tng ng cho hot ng tt hn m tt nht theo tiu
chun TSC.

Bng 2.2: Cc tham s ca m trong m hnh hai anten pht
Xt 3 m s dng iu ch QPSK. y l cc m 4 trng thi vi 2 anten pht.
Gi cc m ny l A,B,C. Cc m ny c cng h s hiu qu s dng ph l 2 bps/Hz.
Hng nh nht, nh thc v tng ng cho c cho trong bng 2.2. Ta thy m A v
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 48
B c hng y v c cng nh thc l 4, trong khi m C khng c hng y v c
nh thc l 0. Ni cch khc gi tr tng ng cho nh nht ca cc m B v C l 10
trong khi i vi m A l 4. Hot ng ca m ny vi s lng cc anten thu khc nhau
trong cc knh Fading Rayleigh chm c nh gi bng m phng. Chiu di khung l
130 k t. T s khung li FER theo SNR trn mi anten thu (chng hn SNR=2xE
S
/N
0
)
c cho trong hnh 2.7.

Hnh 2.7: M ha khng gian thi gian 4 trng thi QPSK vi 2 anten pht
T hnh 2.7 ta thy hot ng ca m A v B tt hn m C trong trng hp dng
1 anten thu. L do nh sau: khi s lng cc knh con c lp M
T
M
R
nh, hng nh nht
ca m quyt nh hot ng ca m. Bi v c 2 m A v B u c hng y (r=2)
trong khi m C th khng (r=1) nn m A v B hot ng tt hn m C. Ta cng thy
ng con biu din hot ng ca A v B c ng tim cn h s -2 trong khi i vi
m C l -1, ph hp vi mc phn tp l 2 vi m A,B v 1 vi m C. Ti FER=10
-2
cc
m A v B hot ng tt hn m C khong chng 5dB do c mc phn tp ln hn. Ta
thy r rng hng nh nht c vai tr quan trng quyt nh hot ng ca m i vi cc
h s c s lng cc knh con c lp nh.
Khi s lng anten thu l 4, m C hot ng tt hn A, ngha l m c hng y
khng tt bng cc m c hng nh hn. iu ny xy ra khi li phn tp trong trng
hp ny ln lt l 8 v 4 i vi cc m A v C. Theo tiu chun tng ng cho m C
tt hn m A v c gi tr tng ng cho ln hn. Ti FER=10
-2
, m C tri hn m A
khong 1.3dB.Ta thy m B tri hn C khong 0.8dB ti FER l 10
-2
d chng c cng
gi tr tng ng cho nh nht. Nguyn nhn v m B c hng ln hn m C. Do m
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 49
B c th t c phn tp ln hn v c dc ng cong t s li ln hn so vi m C.
Ta bit gi tr rM
R
s quyt nh vic s dng tiu chun TSC hoc tiu chun tng
ng cho. Tuy nhin trong thit kt STTC s lng cc anten thu khng c chn lm
thng s thit k. Vic xt mi quan h gia hng ti a, s lng anten pht v mc nh
ca STTC nh trong bng 2.1 ta c th bit c cn s dng tiu chun nh thc no
trong tng trng hp no. Bin gia tiu chun hng, tiu chun nh thc v tiu chun
tng ng cho c cho trong hnh 2.8.

Hnh 2.8: Bin gia tiu chun TSC v tiu chun tng ng cho
Cc im nm trong hnh ch nht tng ng vi cc trng hp s dng tiu
chun hng v nh thc. Tiu chun tng ng cho c th c s dng cho tt c cc
trng hp khc. Cc tiu chun hng v nh thc ch nn dng trong cc h thng mt
anten thu.
2.3.5 Xc sut li trong knh Fading nhanh
Cc phn tch trong knh Fading chm trong phn trn c th p dng vo trong
knh Fading nhanh. Ti mi thi im t, ta nh ngha vector sai bit k t l
1 1 2 2
( , ) , ,...,
T T
T
M M
t t t t t t
F X E x e x e x e ( =

(2.67)
Xt ma trn M
T
xM
T
, C(X,E) c nh ngha l: C(X,E)=F(X,E).F
H
(X,E). Vi
C(X,E) l ma trn Hermitian nn tn ti duy nht 1 ma trn unitary V
t
v 1 ma trn cho
thc D
t
sao cho:
. ( , ).
H
t t t
V C X E V D = (2.68)
Cc thnh phn trn ng cho D
t
,{D
i
t
vi i=1,2,..,M
T
} l cc gi tr ring ca
ma trn C, cc hng ca V
t

1 2
{ , ,..., }
T
M
t t t
v v v l cc vector ring ca C, to nn mt h trc
giao y ca mt khng gian vector N chiu.
Nu X E = th C(X,E) l ma trn c tt c bng 0 v tt c cc gi tr ring ca
, 1, 2,...,
i
t T
D i M = l 0. Nu X E = th ma trn C(X,E) ch c 1 gi tr khng bng 0 v M
T
-1
gi tr ring khc bng 0.
1
t
D l cc thnh phn gi tr ring khng bng 0 v bng bnh
phng khong cch Euclide gia 2 k t x
t
v e
t
.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 50
2
2
1
1
T
M
i i
t t t t t
i
D x e x e
=
= =

(2.69)
Vector ring ca C(X,E) tng ng vi gi tr ring khc 0.
1
t
D k hiu l:
1
t
v
Vi
,1 ,2 ,
( , ,..., )
T
j t t t
t j j j M
h h h h =
V
,
.
t j i
j i t t
h v | = . ng thc (2.40) c th c vit li l:
2
2
,1
1 1 1
( , ) .
R T
M M L
t i
h j t
t j i
d X E D |
= = =
=

(2.70)
V ti mi thi im t c duy nht mt gi tr ring khc 0,
1
t
D biu thc (2.70) l:

2 2
2
2 1
,1 ,1
( , ) 1 ( , ) 1
( , ) . .
R R
M M
t t
h j t j t t
t X E j t X E j
d X E D x e

| |
e = e =
= =

(2.71)
Vi ( , ) X E l tp hp cc thi im t = 1,2,..,L vi |x
t
- e
t
| = 0.Thay (2.71) vo (2.58)
2
2
,1
( , ) 1 0
1
( , | ) exp
2 4
MR
t s
j t t
t X E j
E
P X E H x e
N

|
e =
| |
s
|
\ .

(2.72)
Do
,1
t
j
| l cc bin ngu nhin Gauss phc c lp vi phng sai mi chiu v vi
2
, ,1 ,1 ,2 1
[ , ,..., ].
T
t t t
j M j j j
t h h h t
K v = th
,1
t
j
| theo phn b Rician vi hm pdf l:
( ) ( )
2
,1 ,1
,1 ,1 ,1 0 ,1
( ) 2 exp 2
t t t j t j
j j j t j t
p K I K | | | | =
Nu ta nh ngha
H
o l s k t khng gian thi gian cho 2 t m X v E khc
nhau th ti v phi ca biu thc (2.72) cha cc bin ngu nhin c lp
H R
M o . Chng
ta s chia ra 2 trng hp phn tch, ph thuc vo gi tr ca
H R
M o
2.3.5.a Gii hn trn ca PEP khi 4
H R
M o >
Khi 4
H R
M o > theo nh l gii hn trung tm
2
( , )
h
d X E trong (2.71) c th xp x
bng mt bin ngu nhin Gauss c trung bnh v phng sai ln lt l:
2
,1
( , ) 1
(1 )
R
M
j
d t t t
t X E j
x e K

e =
= +

v
4
2 ,1
( , ) 1
(1 2 )
R
M
j
d t t t
t X E j
x e K

o
e =
= +


Ly trung bnh (2.72) theo bin ngu nhin Gauss v s dng ng thc:
2
2
0 0 0
1 1
( , ) exp
2 2 4 4 4
s s s d
d d d
d
E E E
P X E Q
N N N

o o
o
| |
| | | |
| s
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

Vi knh Fading Rayleigh, gii hn di ca PEP xp x bng
2
2
4 2 4
4
0 0 0
1 1
( , ) exp
2 2 4 4 4
R E s s s
R R E R
M d E E E
P X E M D M d Q M D
N N N
D
| |
| |
| |
| s |
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
\ .
(2.73)
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 51
Vi
2
E
d l khong cch Euclide bnh phng tch ly gia 2 chui k t khng gian thi
gian, c a bi:
2
2
( , )
E t t
t X E
d x e
e
=


V D
4
c nh ngha l
4
4
( , )
t t
t X E
D x e
e
=


2.3.5.b Gii hn trn ca PEP khi 4
H R
M o <
Khi 4
H R
M o < ta khng th s dng nh l gii hn trung tm v gi tr trung bnh
ca PEP c biu din nh sau:

,1
1 1 1 1
1,1 2,1 ,1 1,1 2,1 ,1
( , ) ... ( , | ) ( ) ( )... ( ) ( ) ( )... ( )
t
R R
j
L L
M M
P X E P X E H p p p d d d
|
| | | | | |

s
} }
(2.74)
vi
,1
t
j
| , t=1,2,..,L v j=1,2,..,M
R
l bin ngu nhin c lp c phn b Rayleigh gii
hn di ca PEP ti SNR cao tr thnh:
( )
2
2
( , ) 0
0
1
( , )
4
1
4
R
H R
R
M
M
M
s
p
s t X E
t t
E
P X E d
E
N
x e
N
o

e
| |
|
| |
| s s
|
|
\ .
+
|
\ .
[
(2.75)
Vi
2
p
d l tch cc khong cch Euclide bnh phng gia 2 chui k t khng gian thi
gian, c a bi:
2
2
( , )
p t t
t X E
d x e
e
=
[
(2.76)
Vi SNR cao t s li khung c quyt nh bi PEP vi gi tr nh nht ca
H R
M o .
H R
M o c gi l li phn tp trong knh Fading nhanh v:
1
2
2
( )
H
P
c
u
d
G
d
o
= l
li m trong cc knh Fading nhanh, vi
2
u
d l bnh phng khong cch Euclide ca mt
h thng khng m ha. Ch l c li phn tp v li m u c tnh vi trng
hp
H R
M o v
1
2
( )
H
P
d
o
l nh nht trn tt c cc cp t m khc nhau v l trng hp
xu nht.
2.3.5.c Tiu chun thit k STTC trong knh Fading Rayleigh nhanh
By gi ta nh ngha cc tiu chun thit k trong trng hp knh Fading nhanh:
o Khi 4
H R
M o < :
- Ti a khong cch Hamming ti thiu gia cc k t (
H
o ) vi tt c cc cp t m
- Ti a tch khong cch nh nht (
2
p
d ) theo tuyn c khong cch Hamming ti
thiu
H
o
o Khi 4
H R
M o > : PEP c gii hn trn theo (2.73). Trong trng hp SNR cao th:
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Trang 52
2
4
0
4
s E
E d
N D
> vi
2
E
d v
4
D ln lt nh trn. S dng bt ng thc
2
/ 2
1
( ) , 0
2
x
Q x e x

s >
(4.48) c th c xp x bng
2
2
1 1 0 0
( ) exp exp
4 4
T
M L
s s
t t R E
t i
E E
P X E MR x e M d
N N
= =
| | | |
s =
| |
\ . \ .

(2.77)
T (2.77) ta thy rng t s khung li SNR ln c quyt nh bi PEP vi bnh
phng khong cch Euclide ti thiu. ti thiu PEP trn cc knh Fading cc m phi
tha mn cc tiu chun sau:
- Tch
H R
M o phi ln (ln hn hoc bng 4)
- Ti a khong cch Euclide ti thiu gia tt c cc cp t m khc nhau
- Cc tiu chun ny tng t nh tiu chun tng ng cho trong trng hp
knh Fading chm
2.3.6 M ha/ gii m STTC trong cc knh Fading phng
Vic m ha STTC cng tng t nh iu ch m li (TCM) ngoi tr vic ti
u v cui ca mi khung, b m ha phi tr v trng thi 0. Ti mi thi im t, ty
thuc vo trng thi ca b m ha v cc bit ng vo m mt nhnh no s c
chn. Nu nhn ca nhnh l
1 2
, ,...,
T
M
t t t
x x x th anten i c s dng gi cc k t hnh
sao
i
t
x vi i=1,2,,M
T
song song vi nhau. V d trn hnh 4.4 l mt b m ha STTC
cho iu ch 4-PSK vi 2 anten pht.
Cc h s ca b m:
1 1 1
0,1 0,2 0, 1,1 1,2 1, ,1 ,2 ,
[( , ,..., ), ( , ,..., ),..., ( , ,..., )]
T T T
i i i i i i i i i i
M M v v v M
g g g g g g g g g g = (2.78)
thng c ghi cnh s mt li. Mi h s
,
i
L k
g l mt thnh phn ca tp k t
hnh sao 4-PSK {0,1,2,3} v v
i
l mc nh ca thanh ghi dch th i. Cc ng ra ca b
nhn c cng modulo 4.
Hnh 2.9 l s m ha trong dng a thc sinh. Chui bit a vo thanh ghi dch
ph trn ca b m ha c th c biu din nh sau:
1 1 1 1 2 1 3
0 1 2 3
( ) ... u D u u D u D u D = + + + + (2.79)
Tng t chui bit a vo thanh ghi dch pha trc c biu din nh sau:

1 2 2 2 2 2 3
0 1 2 3
( ) ... u D u u D u D u D = + + + + (2.80)
Vi ( 0,1, 2, 3; 1, 2)
k
j
u j k = = l cc bit (0,1). a thc sinh cho b m ha pha trn v
anten th i vi i=1,2 c th c biu din nh sau:
1
1
1 1 1 1 2 1
0, 1, 2, ,
( ) ...
v
i i i i v i
G D g g D g D g D = + + + + (2.81)
Vi
1
, 1
, 0,1,..,
j i
g j v = l cc h s c th ly gi tr gin sao, chng hn vi 4-
PSK l 1,-j,-1,j v v
1
l mc nh ca b m ha pha trn. Mt cch tng t, a thc
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 53
sinh ca b m ha pha di v anten i vi i=1,2 c th biu din nh sau:
1
1
1 1 1 1 2 1
0, 1, 2, ,
( ) ...
v
i i i i v i
G D g g D g D g D = + + + + (2.82)

Hnh 2.9: B m ha STTC cho 4-PSK s dng 2 anten truyn
Vi
2
, 2
, 0,1,..,
j i
g j v = l cc h s c th ly gi tr t gin sao, chng hn vi 4-
PSK l 1, -j, -1, j v v
2
l mc nh ca b m ha pha di. Chui k t m ha pht t
anten i c cho bi:

1 1 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) mod 4
i
i i
x D u D G D u D G D = + (2.83)
Ta c th biu din chui ny nh sau:
1
1 2
2
( )
( ) [ ( ) ( )] mod 4
( )
i i
i
G D
x D u D u D
G D
(
=
(

(2.84)
Gi s rng
j
t
r l tn hiu thu c ti anten j ti thi im t, biu thc nhnh c
cho bi (2.85)
,
1 1
R T
M M
j i
t i j t
j i
r h q
= =


(2.85)
Thut ton Viterbi c s dng tnh ton tuyn vi biu thc nhnh thp nht.
Do khng c CSI nn ta c on CSI da trn cc k t hun luyn.
2.3.6.a Xy dng m cho cc knh Fading phng
Nu mt STTC bo m li phn tp r cho m hnh knh Fading phng (cho mt
anten thu) th c gi l r-STTC.
di bt buc ca mt r-STTC t nht l r-1.
Nu li phn tp l M
T
M
R
th tc truyn dn ln nht b bit/s/Hz vi 2b l s
im hnh sao. Nh vy 4-PSK, 8-PSK v 16-QAM ln lc c bin trn l 2,3,4 bit/s/Hz.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 54
Nu b l tc truyn th phc tp ca li nh nht l 2
Mt STTC ng nht v hnh hc v cht lng ca n c lp vi t m c pht.
2.3.6.b V d s dng 4-PSK
Cc STTC l s m rng ca m xon trong cc h thng a anten. Cc m ny
dng t c li phn tp v li m s dng cc tiu chun gii thiu. Mi
STTC c th c m t bi mt s li (trellis). S lng node trong mt s li
tng ng vi s trng thi trong li. Hnh 2.10 l mt s li cho 4-PSK, STTC 4
trng thi, M
T
=2 v tc 2 bit/s/Hz.
Li ny c 4 node ng vi 4 trng thi. C 4 nhm k t bn tri mi node v
ng vo c 4 trng hp (4-PSK). Mi nhm c 2 thnh phn tng ng vi cc k t
c a n 2 anten pht. trn cng ca s ta c cc bit ng vo iu khin cc k
t a ra anten pht. Cc k t ny i tng cp vi nhau (i vi my pht 2 anten) trong
s u tin tng ng vi k t c pht t anten 1 v s th 2 t anten 2. B m ha
phi c a v trng thi 0, nu cc bit ng vo l 10, b m ha a ra 0 anten 1 v
2 anten 2 v chuyn sang trng thi 2. Sau n ch trng thi 2 cho cc bit ng vo
tip theo. Nu cc bit ng vo tip theo l 01, b m ha a ra 2 anten 1 v 1 anten 2
v chuyn n trng thi 1 v c tip tc nh th.
V mt ton hc nu (b
t
,a
t
) l chui bit ng vo, cp tn hiu ng ra
1 2
t t
x x ti thi
im t c cho bi:

1 2 1 1
1 1
( , ) (2, 0) (1, 0) (0, 2) (0,1) mod 4
((2 ) mod 4, (2 ) mod 4)
t t
t t t t
t t t t
x x b a b a
b a b a
+

= + + +
= + +
(2.86)
li phn tp l 2, hng ca B(x,e) phi l 2. iu ny c th thy (2.86) v
nu cc ng truyn tng ng vi cc t m x v e phn ra ti thi im t
1
v gp li ti
thi im t
2
th cc vector
1 1 1 1
1 1 2 2
( , )
t t t t
e x e x v
2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
( , )
t t t t
e x e x l c lp tuyn tnh vi
nhau v vi
1 1
1 1
t t
e x =
1 1
2 2
t t
e x =0 v
1 1
1 1
0
t t
e x = v
1 1
2 2
0
t t
e x = .
tnh li m ta cn tm cc t m x v e sao cho nh thc sau l nh nht. S
dng nh l m l ng nht v hnh hc ta c th gi s ta bt u vi t m 0.
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
1
det ( , ) ( , )
L
t t t t t t t t
t
e x e x e x e x
+
=
| |

|
\ .

(2.87)
Ta c th biu din cc nhn bin (x
1
x
2
) di dng s phc
1 2
( , )
x x
j j vi 1 j = .
Th vo (2.87) ta c:
1 2 * 1 2
1
det ( 1, 1) ( 1, 1)
L
x x x x
t
j j j j
=
| |

|
\ .

(2.88)
V mt t m 0 nh x n
0
1 j < > . Do :
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 55
1
1 2
2
1
1
det ( 1, 1)
1
x
L
x x
x
t
j
j j
j

=
| | | |

| |
|

\ . \ .

(2.89)
v dn n tch trong c dng:
1 1 1 2
2 1 2 2
( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1)
( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1)
x x x x
x x x x
j j j j
j j j j


| |
|

\ .
(2.90)
Nu ta chuyn v ma trn ny (khng nh hng n gi tr ca nh thc) ta c:

1 1 2 1
1 2 2 2
( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1)
( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1)
x x x x
x x x x
j j j j
j j j j


| |
|

\ .
(2.91)

Hnh 2.10: M li khng gian thi gian hai anten pht vi 4 trng thi (gin
sao 4-PSK) vi hiu qu s dng ph 2 bit/s/Hz
Xt trng hp chuyn trng thi t 0 sang 2, gi s cc bit a vo l 10. Khi
x
1
=0 v x
2
=2. Thay cc gi tr ny vo (2.91) ta c:
0 0
0 4
(
(


iu ny c th thy r trong s trng thi hnh 2.11
Do , s phn ra t trng thi 0 to nn ma trn c dng:
0 0
0 t
(
(


v gp li ti trng thi 0 to nn ma trn c dng:
0
0 0
x (
(


vi s,t 2 iu ny c th thy trong s li ca b m knh trn hnh 4.6. Khi
chuyn t trng thi 2 v trng thi 0 cn c x
1
=2 v x
2
=0 khi cc bit ng vo l 00. V ta
c c ma trn:
4 0
0 0
(
(


MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 56

Hnh 2.11: Khi trng thi ca 4-PSK
Mt cch tng t gi s rng ta ang trng thi 1 v cc bit ng vo l 11. Khi
x
1
=1 v x
2
=1, v ta c ma trn:

2 2
2 2
(
(


v trng thi vn l 1. y l vng lp nm gc di tri ca s trng thi. Cc ma
trn khc hon ton tng t. Nh vy (2.87) c th vit li nh sau:
0
det
0
a b s
t
b d
| | | |
| |
+ | |
|
|
\ .
\ . \ .

Vi a,d 0,
2
b ad s . Nh vy nh thc nh nht l 4. Cho rng li phn tp l rM
R

ta cn phi ti a nh thc nh nht ny. Ta bit gi tr nh thc nh nht l 4. Hng ca
ma trn B l hng y (r=2). Nu ta mun s phn tp y M
T
M
R
th iu quan
trng l tiu chun hng phi c tha mn. Khi nh thc nh nht s l 4. Nu n
nh hn 4 th m ny khng th s dng c. Nh li rng gi tr nh nht ca nh thc
quyt nh li m. Gi tr ny cng ln th li m cng ln. Do ta mun gi tr
ny cng ln cng tt.
Cc quy tc thit k bo m li phn tp cho cc m 4-PSK v 8-PSK nh sau:
Cc chuyn tip phn ra t mt trng thi s khc nhau k t th 2
Cc chuyn tip n cng mt trng thi s khc nhau k t u tin.
S dng (2.84) v (2.86) c th biu din nh sau:
1 1 2
2
(02), (20)
[ ] [ ]
(01), (10)
t t t t
g
x x b a b a
g
( (
= =
( (


Vi g
1
v g
2
l cc a thc sinh.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 57

Bng 2.2: Cc chui pht cho m hnh anten pht khc nhau da trn hng v
tiu chun nh thc

Bng 2.3: Cc chui pht cho m hnh hai anten da trn tiu chun tng cc
thnh phn trn ng cho ca ma trn

Hnh 2.12: M ha khng gian- thi gian, 4-PSK, 8 trng thi, 2 bit/s/Hz
Ct th 2 ca ma trn trn l trng thi -1. Nu ta khai trin ma trn th (2.86) tr thnh
1 2 1 1
( , ) (2, 0) (1, 0) (0, 2) (0,1) mod 4
t t
t t t t
x x b a b a

= + + +
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 58
Phng php biu din m theo a thc sinh rt hiu qu, n gin v c s
dng rng ri.
Cc bng 2.3 cho thy mt s a thc sinh thng dng s dng cc tiu chun
hng, nh thc cng nh tiu chun tng ng cho.
2.3.7 Phn tch hot ng ca STTC trong knh Fading chm
Trong cc kt qu m phng nh trng hp knh Fading nhanh v chm cc tiu
chun hng v nh thc c s dng nu s lng anten thu l 1 v tiu chun tng
ng cho c s dng cho cc trng hp cn li.

Hnh 2.13: So snh hot ng ca cc m 4-PSK da trn tiu chun hng v nh
thc trong cc knh Fading chm vi 2 anten pht v 1 anten thu

Hnh 2.14: So snh hot ng ca cc m 4-PSK da trn tiu chun tng cc thnh
phn trn ng cho trong knh Fading chm vi h thng 2x2 v 4x4
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 59
Hnh 2.13 cho thy tt c cc m u c mc phn tp l 2 v c cng dng ng
cong FER. Hot ng ca m c tng cng bng cch tng s trng thi.
Hnh 2.14 cho thy mi quan h gia cc m 4-PSK 4 trng thi v 8-PSK 8 trng
thi vi M
T
=M
R
=2 v M
T
=M
R
=4. Ta thy vic tng s lng anten pht ng thi cng
tng li m, do M
T
M
R
quyt nh li m. Mt cch tng t nu ta gi M
T
c nh
v tng M
R
ta cng c kt qu tng t. Ngoi ra mc phn tp ca h thng khi M
T
=4 v
M
R
=2 gp i so vi M
T
=M
R
=2. Cui cng trong trng hp c mt s lng ln anten
thu vic tng s lng anten pht khng lm tng hot ng ca m bao nhiu
2.3.8 Phn tch hot ng ca STTC trong knh Fadinh nhanh

Hnh 2.15: Hot ng ca QPSK STTC trn cc knh Fading nhanh vi 2
anten pht v 1 anten thu.
Hnh 2.15 cho thy hot ng ca m STTC QPSK vi hiu qu s dng bng thng
2 bit/s/Hz trong knh Rayleigh. S lng anten thu l 1. Ta c th thy rng cc m
QPSK 16 trng thi tt hn cc m 4 trng thi khong 5.9 dB ti FER 10
-2
vi 2 anten
pht. Khi s lng trng thi tng ln th li m cng tng ln v hot ng ca m
cng tng theo. Cc ng cong t s li ca cc m song song vi nhau do cng gi
tr
H
o . Cc gi tr khc nhau ca
2
p
d dn n s khc nhau v li m, nh ta thy
ng cong FER s c nng ln mt mc no .
Hnh 4.15 phn tch trng hp 3 anten pht. Ch rng cc m QPSK 16 trng thi
tt hn 4 trng thi 6.8 dB ti FER 10
-2
. Ta c th kt lun rng khi s lng anten pht
tng ln s tng cng hot ng t s tng s lng trng thi cng ln hn.
2.4 So snh STBC v STTC
STBC v STTC l cc s phn tp pht khc nhau. STBC c xy dng trn cc
thit k trc giao bit, to ra s phn tp y v d gii m bi thut ton ML thng
MST: 08404160282 Chng 2: M ha khng gian thi gian
Trang 60
qua cc qu trnh tuyn tnh my thu, nhng khng to c li m. Ngc li
STTC to ra c s phn tp v li m nhng kh gii m v thit k.
Mt cu hi quan trng l so snh hot ng ca STBC v STTC. Trong trng hp
ta nn s dng STBC rng buc v n vn khng to ra li m. Cc m rng buc
c s dng hin nay gm cc m li AWGN hoc m Turbo.
Ni chung bt c m khngg ian - thi gian no u c th c phn tch ging
nh STTC s dng li phn tp v li m. C hai li ny u c nh hng n
ng cong hot ng khc nhau. li phn tp nh hng n dc ca ng cong
FER theo SNR v thay i theo kiu li phn tp cng ln th h s cng m. li
m nng ng cong hot ng ln: li m cng ln th dc th cng dch nhiu
v bn tri.
phn tch v li m, xt mt h thng c SNR ln (4dB n 18dB). u tin
ta ly logarithm ca PEP trong (2.57) cho m th k. Nh vy ta c: log( )
k
P PEP =
T R k T R k
M M x M M c ~ vi M
T
M
R
l li phn tp y ,
0
log
4
s
k
E
x
N
| |
=
|
\ .
l SNR v
1
1
log
T
T
M
M
k i
t
c
=
| |
=
|
\ .
[
li m. Nu ta t
p k L
P P o = ,
c k L
c c o = v
x k L
x x o = vi m k
v L, th khi :
p T R x T R c
M M M M o o o =
Nu m k tt hn th 0
c
o > . Vi SNR cho trc, 0
x
o = v PEP cho m k nh hn
m L bi h s
c T R c
M M o o ~ . R rng l s khc bit ny tng theo M
R
. Nh vy nh
hng ca li m tng ln khi s lng anten thu tng ln.
2.4 Tng kt
Vi nhng vn xt trong chng ny, chng ta c th thy m ha khng gian
thi gian c thit k tn dng cc u im ca ng truyn MIMO nh a
dng ca ng truyn t lm tng kh nng cng nh tin cy ca truyn dn.




MST: 08404160282 Chng 3: M ha Turbo
Trang 61

CHNG 3: M HA TURBO

3.1 Gii thiu v m Turbo
M Turbo l s kt ni gm hai hay nhiu b m ring bit to ra mt m c
kh nng sa li tt hn. M hnh ghp ni m u tin c Forney nghin cu to ra
mt loi m c xc sut li gim theo hm m ti tc nh hn dung lng knh trong
khi phc tp ch tng theo hm i s. M hnh ny gm s kt ni ni tip mt b m
trong v mt b m ngoi. Forney s dng mt b m khi ngn hoc mt b m tch
chp vi gii thut gii m Viterbi xc sut ln nht lm b m trong v mt b m Reed-
Solomon di khng nh phn tc cao vi thut ton gii m sa li i s lm b m
ngoi.
C hai kiu kt ni c bn l kt ni ni tip v song song. Ngoi ra cn c mt
m hnh kt ni hn hp, tc l va ghp ni ni tip va ghp song song.

Hnh 3.1: Trnh by s kt ni ni tip
B m ha 1 gi l b m ngoi, cn b m ha 2 gi l b m trong. i vi m
kt ni ni tip, tc m ha tng cng bng tch ca hai tc m ring bit:
1 2
12
1 2
k k
r
n n
= (3.1)

Hnh 3.2: Trnh by s m kt ni song song
i vi m kt ni song song, tc m ha tng cng c cng thc nh sau:
12
1 2
k
r
n n
=
+
(3.2)
y l hai m hnh kt ni song song v ni tip Tuy nhin ci thin kh nng
sa sai ta cn phi s dng thm cc b ghp xen gia cc b m ha.
M hnh ca Forney a ra l m hnh kt ni ni tip b m ha xon vi m
Reed-Solomom. n nm 1993, Claude Berrou, Alain Glavieux v Punja Thitimajshima
cng vit tc phm Near Shannon limit error correcting coding anh decoding : Turbo
MST: 08404160282 Chng 3: M ha Turbo
Trang 62
Codes nh du mt bc tin vt bc trong vic nghim cu m sa sai. Loi m m
h gii thiu, c gi l m Turbo, thc cht l s kt ni song song cc b m xon h
thng quy cng vi cc b ghp xen.
Cu hnh ny gi l Kt ni song song cc m xon (Parallel concatenated
convolutional code-PCCC). Ngoi ra cn dng Kt ni ni tip cc m xon (Serial
Concatenated Convolutional Code-SCCC) v dng hn hp Kt ni hn hp cc b m
xon (Hybird Concatenated Convolutional Code-PCCC).
Trong cun lun n ch gii thiu v loi m Turbo c cu hnh l PCCC nn khi ta
ni n m Turbo th ta hiu l cu hnh PCCC.
3.2 B m ha xon h thng quy RSC
3.2.1 M xon h thng quy RSC
Trong m Turbo ta s s dng mt b m xon h thng quy (Recursive
Systematic Convolutional -RSC) da trn b m xon truyn thng. Sau y ta s i tm
hiu mt s vn :
Tnh h thng c ngha l u vo ca b m ha cng l mt phn ca ng ra. V
th, mt bit trong n bit ng ra ca mt vng lp m ha n l mt bit trong thng
ip i vo b m ha.
Tnh quy c ngha l c s hi tip t ng ra b m ha v ng vo.
M xon h thng quy c ly t b m ha xon thng thng bng cch hi
tip mt trong nhng ng ra m ha thnh ng vo ca n.
Mt b m ha xon thng c biu din qua cc chui g
0
=[111] v g
1
=[101] v
c th c vit l G = [g
0
,g
1
]. B m ha RSC tng ng vi b m ha xon thng
thng c biu din l G = [1,g
1
/g
0
] trong ng ra u tin (biu din bi g
0
) c
hi tip v ng vo. Theo biu din trn, g
0
l ng ra h thng, g
1
l ng ra feedforward,
v g
0
hi tip v ng vo ca b m ha RSC.
Chui bit d liu u vo c a ngay ti u ra gi l chui bit systematic
(Systematic Output). Chui bit parity l cc bit kim tra chn l.
g
0
g
1
D liu
u vo

Hnh 3.3: B m ha xon thng thng c r = v K=3
MST: 08404160282 Chng 3: M ha Turbo
Trang 63
3.2.2 Cc b m ha xon quy v khng quy
hiu r hn v cc m xon quy ta s i tm hiu v phn tch li ch ca b
m ny.
kim tra xem mt b m ha xon quy hay khng ta xt v d sau.Hnh 3.5
trnh by mt b m xon khng quy n gin c ma trn sinh g
0
= [11] v g
1
= [10]

Hnh 3.4: B m ha RSC ly t hnh 3.1 vi r = v K=3

Hnh 3.5: B m xon khng quy r=1/2 v K=3 vi chui ng vo v ng ra
Hnh 3.6 l mt b m ha xon quy tng ng ca hnh trn G=[1, g
1
/g
0
]

Hnh 3.6: B m ha xon quy tng ng ca hnh trn G=[1, g
1
/g
0
]
T 2 hnh trn ta nhn thy i vi cng mt chui ng vo, b m ha khng
quy cho t m ng ra c trng s 3 v b m ha quy cho ra t m c trong s 5. Vy,
b m ha xon quy c khuynh hng cho ra cc t m c trng s tng so vi b m
MST: 08404160282 Chng 3: M ha Turbo
Trang 64
khng quy. Ngha l b m xon quy cho ra t t m c trng s thp v cng dn
n vic thc hin sa sai tt hn.
Trnh by biu trng thi ca b m xon quy v khng quy:

Hnh 3.7: Biu trng thi ca b m ha khng quy ca hnh 3.5

Hnh 3.8: Trnh by biu trng thi ca b m quy ca hnh 3.6
Ta thy biu trng thi ca chng l tng t nhau. Hm truyn cho c hai b m
ha ging ht nhau cng l :
3
( )
1
D
T D
D
=

3
( )
1
D
T D
D
=

(3.3)
Trong b qua N v J. Hn na chng c cng khong cch t do ti thiu v c
th c m t bng cng cu trc trellis. V vy cc m c cng xc sut li s kin u
tin, tuy hai m ny c mc li bit cao (BER) khc nhau. iu ny do BER ph thuc
vo s tng ng ng vo - ng ra ca b m ha. BER ca m xon h thng quy th
thp hn BER ca m xon khng quy tng ng vi cng t s tn hiu trn nhiu.
3.2.3 Kt thc Trellis

Hnh 3.9: Cch thc kt thc trellis b m RSC
i vi b m xon thng thng, trellis c kt thc trng thi m = K-1 cc bit
zero thm vo sau chui ng vo. Cc bit thm vo ny lm cho b m xon thng thung
n trng thi tt c zero (trng thi kt thc trellis). Tuy nhin cch ny khng th p
dng cho b m ha RSC do c qu trnh hi tip. Cc bit thm vo kt thc cho b m
ha RSC ph thuc vo trng thi ca b m ha v rt kh d on. Hn na, ngay c
khi tm c cc bit kt thc cho mt trong cc b m ho thnh phn th b m ha thnh
phn khc c th khng c li n trng thi tt c zero vi cng cc bit kt thc do c
MST: 08404160282 Chng 3: M ha Turbo
Trang 65
s hin din ca b ghp xen gia cc b m ha thnh phn. Hnh 4.9 minh ha mt
cch n gin gii quyt vn ny.
m ha chui ng vo, kha chuyn bt n v tr A, kt thc trellis th
chuyn bt n v tr B.
3.2.4 B gii m ng vo mm-ng ra mm SISO
Trong b nhn thng tin thng thng, b gii iu ch thng c thit k to
ra nhng quyt nh mm v ri c truyn ti b gii m. Vic ci thin cht lng xc
sut li s dng h thng nh quyt nh mm so snh vi quyt nh cng c nh gi
gn 2 dB trong AWGN. B gii m SISO (Soft Input Soft Output) l do qu trnh gii m
cui cng li ra ca b gii m phi kt thc trong cc bit (cc quyt nh cng). Vi
m Turbo, do s dng 2 hay nhiu m thnh phn v vic gii m bao hm vic ly li ra
t mt b gii m l li vo mt b gii m khc bng cch lp, b gii m li ra cng s
khng thch hp. l nguyn nhn cc quyt nh cng trong b gii m lm gim bt
cht lng h thng (so snh vi cc quyt nh mm). Do , nhng g cn thit cho vic
gii m ca cc m Turbo l b gii m SISO.B gii m SISO l thnh phn quan trng
nht ca b gii m Turbo.
3.2.4a. Quyt nh cng v quyt nh mm
Chui thng tin sau khi truyn qua knh truyn c gii iu ch v a n b
gii m. Tn hiu ti ng ra ca b gii iu ch v ng vo ca b gii m s quyt nh
qu trnh gii m l cng hay mm.
Mt tn hiu n b gii iu ch v c b gii iu ch ra quyt nh tng bit l
bit 0 hay 1 th gi l quyt nh cng. V d xt mt h thng s dng tn hiu ng dy
l bipolar NRZ vi bin 1V. Nu gi tr nhn c l 0.8 V hoc 0.03 V th u
c quyt nh l bit 1. Cn nu gi tr nhn c l -0.7V hoc -0.02V th u c
quyt nh l bit 0. Nh vy ta nhn thy sai st ca phng php quyn nh cng l d
0.8V hay 0.03V th b gii m cng nhn c bit 1 d gi tr 0.8V c xc sut ng l
bit 1 cao hn nhiu so vi 0.03V. Do , b gii m s khng c mt thng tin no v
chnh xc ca quyt nh t b gii iu ch. Vic ny lm cho cht lng ca vic gii
m khng ch ph thuc vo b gii m m cn ph thuc vo b gii iu ch v cht
lng khng cao. Tuy nhin quyt nh cng d dng hn cho vic gii m.
Nu b gii iu ch khng quyt nh xem gi tr mu nhn c l bit 0 hay bit 1
m a thng cho b gii m b gii m c y thng tin v bit sau khi qua knh
truyn th vi cu trc ph hp b gii m s cho cc quyt nh chnh xc hn, tc l
cht lng cao hn. B gii m s tnh ton cc gi tr xt tin cy ca tng gi tr v
cui cng mi quyt nh. iu ny lm gim kh nng c th xy ra li v li m
tng cng c th tng ti 2.5 dB so vi gii m cng i vi mi trng SNR thp. Tuy
nhin, t c li m ny th b gii m mm s c phc tp cao hn rt nhiu
MST: 08404160282 Chng 3: M ha Turbo
Trang 66
so vi b gii m cng.
3.3 B m ha Turbo
B m ha Turbo gm t nht hai b m ha xon h thng hi quy RSC1 v RSC2
c kt ni song song kt hp vi mt b ghp xen bn trong.
Tc m ha ca b m ha Turbo l:
k
r
n
= (3.4)
Mi bit thng tin ng vo s tr thnh mt phn ca t m ng ra ( tnh h thng) v
s c km theo bng 1/r-1 bit (gi l bit parity ) sa li.
Nu r cng nh tc l s bit parity i km s ln v dn n kh nng sa li cao
hn rt nhiu tuy nhin tc truyn gim i, s bit truyn nhiu hn c ngha l bng
thng ln hn v tr tng ln. Theo khuyn co ca cc t chc nh chun th gi tr r
ch nn ti thiu l 1/6.

Hnh 3.10: S khi b m ha Turbo
B m ha RSC1 nhn d liu mt cch trc tip b
k
, trong khi b m ha RSC2
nhn d liu b
k
, sau khi d liu i qua b ghp xen v vy b
k

= (b
k
). B ghp xen
c th l kiu gi ngu nhin hay khi,vv.. v n thc hin vic ghp xen theo tng khi
M bit. V c hai b m ha u nhn cng mt tp d liu, ch c mt ng ra chui bit
systematic x
1
c pht i cng vi hai ng ra parity t hai b m ha RSC p
1
,p
2
. Tuy
nhin thng tin chui d liu ca b
k
b hon v bi b ghp xen thnh b
k

nn bit parity p
1

v p
2
s khc nhau.
Khi hai b m ha RSC1 v RSC2 u c tc l th chui systematic x
1
v hai
chui bit parity p
1
, p
2
c truyn i l [x
1.1
,p
1.1
,p
2.1
,x
1.2
,p
1.2
,p
2.2
, ..., x
1.N
,p
1.N
,p
2.N
] nn tc
ca b m ha Turbo l 1/3. Tuy nhin, tc ca m Turbo c th t c cao hn
bng cc lp quy lut pht bit parity (k thut puncture). Chng hn, khi ch pht cc bit
parity chn t RSC1 v bit parity l t RSC2 cng vi cc bit systematic [x
1.1
, p
1.1
, x
1.2
,
p
2.2
, x
1.3
, p
1.3
, x
1.4
, p
2.4
....] th tc m Turbo l r=
Khi b gii m nhn c chui bit n th n s thm vo chui ny cc bit 0 ti
nhng ch b xa bt. Nh vy c th lm sai lch bit parity nn gim cht lng.

MST: 08404160282 Chng 3: M ha Turbo
Trang 67
3.3.1 B ghp xen
B ghp xen (Iterleaver: k hiu l ) l mt qu trnh thc hin hon v trt t
sp xp ca chui gc theo mt quan h xc nh mt-mt.
i vi m Turbo, c th c mt hay nhiu b chn c s dng gia cc b m
ha thnh phn. B ghp xen ng vai tr rt ln trong vic nng cao kh nng sa li ca
m, n c s dng rng ri trong cc s m knh khi trn knh truyn thng xy ra
li cm, v d knh pha inh a ng K thut ghp xen c thc hin ngay gia
khi m knh v knh truyn vi mc ch lm thay i trt t sp xp ca chui u vo
to ra mt chui mi c trt t sp xp khc i truyn trn knh N hon v tt c
cc chui ng vo xu (cc chui ny c cc t m c trng s thp) thnh chui m
c m ha cho ra c cc t m c trng s cao v ngc li m bo rng vi mt
chui ng vo th ng ra ca mt b m ha s cho t m c trng s cao cn b kia s
cho ra t m trng s thp. y l vic lm tng khong cch t do ti thiu.
B ghp xen khng nhng c s dng ti b m ha m n cng vi cc b
gii ghp xen c trong b gii m ng vai tr rt quan trng. Mt b ghp xen tt s lm
cho cc ng vo ca b gii m SISO t tng quan vi nhau tc l mc hi t ca
thut ton gii m lp tng ln, ng ngha vi vic gii m chnh xc hn.
V d b ghp xen s dng tng trng s ca cc t m nh hnh sau:

Hnh 3.11: B ghp xen lm tng trng s ca cc t m
T hnh trn, i vi b m ha RSC1 th chui ng vo b
k
cho ra chui m tch
chp quy c trng s thp p
1
. trnh b m ha RSC2 cho ra chui ng ra quy
khc cng c trng s thp, b chn hon v chui ng vo b
k
thnh mt chui mi hi
vng cho ra chui m tch chp quy c trng s cao p
2
. V vy, trng s m ca m
Turbo l va phi, n c kt hp t t m trng s thp ca b m ha 1 v t m trng
s cao ca b m ha 2.
Theo hnh 3.12 chui ng vo b
k.1
cho ra cc chui ng ra x
1.N
v p
1.N
tng ng.
Cc chui ng vo b
k.2
v b
k.3
l cc chui hon v khc nhau ca b
k.1
. Bng 3.12 trnh by
kt qu ca cc t m v trng s ca cc t m.
T bng 3.1 cho thy trng s ca t m c th tng bng cch s dng b chn.
B ghp xen nh hng n vic thc hin m v n nh hng trc tip n c
tnh khong cch ca m. Bng cch trnh cc t m c trng s thp, BER ca m Turbo
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Trang 68
c ci thin ng k. V vy c nhiu b chn khc nhau c nghim cu thit k.
Sau y l mt s b ghp xen in hnh nh bng 3.1.

Hnh 3.12: V d minh ha kh nng lm tng trng s ca b ghp xen
Chui ng vo
b
k

Chui ng ra
x
1.N

Chui ng ra
p
1.N

Trng s ca
t m N
N=0 1100 1100 1000 3
N=1 1010 1010 1100 4
N=2 1001 1001 1110 5
Bng 3.1 Cc chui ng vo v chui ng ra trong hnh
3.3.1a. B ghp xen ma trn (b ghp xen chn khi)
B ghp xen ma trn l b chn thng c s dng nht trong cc h thng lin
lc. N vit vo theo ct t trn xung di, t tri sang phi v c ra theo hng t tri
sang phi v t trn xung di. Hoc c th vit ra theo hng v dc theo ct.
Hnh sau trnh by mt b ghp xen ma trn
x
1
x
8
x
15

x
2
x
9
x
16

x
3
x
10
x
17

x
4
x
11
x
18

x
5
x
12
x
19

x
6
x
13
x
20

x
7
x
14
x
21



Vi chui vo (x1,x2,,x21) dng ma trn b ghp xen 7x3 trn th chui ra l:
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Trang 69
x
1
x
8
x
15
x
2
x
9
x
16
x
3
x
10
. . x
7
x
14
x
21

3.3.1.b. B ghp xen Helical
Tng t b ghp xen ma trn (hng ct), b ghp xen Helical cng ghi vo theo
hng (hoc thep ct) nhng li c ra theo ng cho.
V d trn th cc gi tr c ra ln lt l:
x
7
x
13
x
19
x
4
x
10
x
16
x
1
x
14
x
20
x
5
x
3
x
9
x
15

Mt iu kin bt buc l ma trn b ghp xen Helical khng c l ma trn vung ( tc
l s hng phi khc s ct).
3.3.1c. B ghp xen gi ngu nhin
B ghp xen gi ngu nhin s dng tnh ngu nhin c nh tc l sp xp cc
chui ng vo theo mt th t hon v. Gi thit di ca chui ng vo l L.

Hnh 3.13: B ghp xen ngu nhin (gi ngu nhin) vi L=8
Php hon v [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8] chuyn thnh [1,3,6,8,2,7,4,5]
B ghp xen c vit [01101001] v c ra [01011001]
3.4 B gii m Turbo
Ti my thu, tn hiu nhn c sau gii ghp xen v my thu RAKE l [x1,p
1
,p
2
]
c a vo b gii m Turbo. Ti b gii m, b tch knh s tch ra cc bit h thng
v kim tra tng ng vi cc b gii m lp.V cc chui bit ny s b li do knh
truyn.
Gi s chui bit u vo l b
k
th b m ha s cho ra bit systematic x v hai chui
bit parity l p
1
,p
2
. Chui bit systematic v chui bit parity thu c qua knh truyn l

x ,

1
p ,

2
p .
Do u pht s dng b ghp xen, nn trong b gii m c cc b ghp xen ging
ht u pht v cc b gii ghp xen tng ng.
3.4.1 Tng quan v cc thut ton gii m
Ngoi s kt ni cc b m tch chp cng vic s dng mt thnh phn c bit l
cc b chn, cn mt thnh phn khc quyt nh cht lng ca m Turbo l qui trnh
gii m mm c thc hin lp i lp li v phc tp ch tng tuyn tnh theo kch
thc khung. M PCCC c cu trc m ha kt ni song song tuy nhin qu trnh gii m
MST: 08404160282 Chng 3: M ha Turbo
Trang 70
PCCC li da trn s gii m kt ni ni tip. M Turbo s dng b gii m kt ni
ni tip v s kt ni ni tip c kh nng chia s thng tin gia cc b gii m kt ni,
trong khi cc b gii m c kt ni song song ch yu gii m c lp nhau.Cc thng
tin ny nh c tnh mm, c trao i, khai thc nhiu ln qua cc vng lp s tng
ng k cht lng gii m.
Trong khi thc hin cht lng vng lp gii m cc thng tin mm c trao i
gia cc m thnh phn, Forney chng minh c rng ng ra mm ti u cho b gii
m phi l xc sut a posteriori (APP) l xc sut ca mt bit no c truyn da trn
tn hiu nhn c. V phc tp ca cc m Turbo ch yu l do b gii m lp nn
iu cn thit trc nht l tm hiu cc thut ton gii m v tm ra
cch tt nht gii m m khng lm gim cht lng.

Hnh 3.14: Cc h thut ton gii m da trn s Trellis
H th nht l h cc thut ton MAP cn gi l thut ton BCJR (Bahl-Cocke-
Jelinek-Raviv, tn bn ngi tm ra thut ton ny). Thut ton ny lin quan n cc
thut ton gii m kh nng xy ra ln nht (Maximum Likelihood) nhm gim ti a xc
sut li bit. H ny bao gm cc thut ton symbol-by-symbol MAP, l phng php ti
u tnh cc thng tin APP, y l thut ton dng tch, phc tp rt cao. Trong h
ny cn c hai loi thut ton l gn ng thut ton MAP tr thnh thut ton dng
tng phc tp t hn m cht lng gii m gn nh tng ng l Log-MAP v
phin bn gn ng ca Log-MAP l Max-Log-MAP. Mt h thut ton gii m khc l
mt h thut ton da trn vic sa i thut ton Viterbi (VA) c s dng thm metric
b sung v VA truyn thng khng tnh cc bit thng tin APP, metric b sung lm iu
. H thut ton gii m ny gm thut ton ni ting l thut ton Viterbi ng ra mm
(SOVA).
Tuy cng l cc thut ton ng ra mm da trn s Trellis nhng khc vi VA
l mt thut ton gii m Trellis ML v gim thiu xc sut li t m, thut ton MAP li
MST: 08404160282 Chng 3: M ha Turbo
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nhm ti gim ti a xc sut li bit. MAP l mt phng php ti u c on cc
trng thi v ng ra ca cc qu trnh Markov trong iu kin nhiu trng. Tuy nhin
MAP t kh nng c ng dng thc t bi cc kh khn v s hc lin quan n vic
biu din xc sut, cc hm phi tuyn cng mt s cc php nhn v cng khi tnh ton
cc gi tr ny.
Log-MAP l mt bin th ca MAP, cht lng gn nh tng ng m khng
gp tr ngi trong vic ng dng trong thc t. Log-MAP c thc hin hon ton trong
min logarit, nh php nhn chuyn thnh php cng v ta c c mt hm tng i
d thc hin hn.
Max-log-MAP v SOVA l thut ton gn ti u dng gim bt phc tp
tnh ton nhng trong knh nhiu Gauss th cht lng hai loi ny cng khng cao, c
bit trong vng SNR thp. Max-log-MAP hu nh ging vi Log-MAP ch c duy nht
mt im khc l s dng mt hm n gin hn rt nhiu. Cc nghim cu cho thy
Max-log-MAP lm gim cht lng khong 0.5 dB so vi MAP/Log-MAP trong knh
nhiu Gauss.
S khc bit ca vic thc hin gia cc thut ton gii m ny c th gip gii
thch c s khc bit v cht lng. Ti mi bc th k trong mt trellis, MAP/Log-
MAP chia tt c cc ng ra thnh hai tp: mt tp cc ng khi bit thng tin ng vo
bng 1 v mt tp cc ng khi bit thng tin ng vo bng 0. MAP/Log-MAP s tnh t
s Log Likelihood (LLR) ca hai tp con ny theo cng thc. Ngc li Max-log-MAP s
tm tt c cc ng chn cc ng thch hp, mt ng c kh nng ln nht cho
bit thng tin ng vo bng 0. Ng ra mm ca Max-log-MAP l LLR ca hai ng ny.
Cn SOVA th b sung vo VA mt s gi tr thc v lu tr. Thut ton ny ch
tm ng tn ti v mt ng cnh tranh vi ng tn ti . V bn cht, SOVA s
dng cng mt loi metric v c quyt nh cng nh Max-log-MAP. Mc
d, SOVA lun tm ng c kh nng ln nht nhng ng cnh tranh tt nht c
th b loi ra trc khi kt hp vi ng ML. Kt qu l ng ra mm ca SOVA c th
b sai ng so vi ng ra mm ca Max-log-MAP v cht lng ca b gii m lp
SOVA km hn Max-log-MAP.
Thut ton gii m SOVA v MAP c bn khc nhau v ch tiu ti u. Thut ton
gii m SOVA l thut ton tm kim chui trng thi c kh nng ln nht s

vi chui
tn hiu thu y
arg{max [ | ]}
s
s P s y =

(3.5)
Thut ton gii m MAP khc vi thut ton VA l xc nh tng trng thi i s

c
th kh nng ln nht ca chui tn hiu thu y
arg{max [ | ]}
i
i
i
s
s P s y =

(3.6)
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im khc nhau v bn cht gia chng l trng thi c c lng bi thut
ton VA phi c dng tuyn c kt ni qua li, trong khi trng thi c c lng
bi thut ton MAP th khng cn phi kt ni thnh tuyn.
Khi ng dng vo cc h thng truyn dn s, thut ton VA cho php cc tiu xc
sut li khung FER. Trong khi thut ton MAP cho php cc tiu xc sut li bit BER.
Mc d thut ton MAP tt hn thut ton SOVA nhng n c cu trc phn cng
v qu trnh tnh ton gii m li phc tp hn nhiu.
3.4.2 Gii thut MAP
B gii m l s kt hp ca nhiu b gii m (thng l hai b gii m) v gii m
lp (interatively). Phn ln tp trung gii thut Viterbi cung cp gi tr ra mm ( Soft
output or reliability information) cho mt b so snh gi tr ra mm c dng quyt
nh bit ng ra. Mt gii thut khc cng c quan tm l symbol-by-symbol Maximum
A Posteriori (MAP) ca Balh c cng b.
Gii m lp MAP
T s LLR ca mi bit thng tin c nh ngha l t s logorith gia 2 xc sut a
posteriori nh sau:
{ 1| }
( | ) ln
{ 1| }
k
k
k
P u y
L u y
P u y
=
=
=
(3.7)
Vi y l chui thu. Thut ton BCJR tnh ton L(u
k
) theo cc xc sut ph. V ( )
k
s o
l xc sut trng thi trc (forward), ( )
k
s | l xc sut trng thi sau (backward) v
( , ')
k
s s l xc sut ca nhnh ti thi im t. S dng cng thc Markov ta c cng thc:
[1, ]
1
( ', )
( ) { , }
( ', ). ( ')
k k k
k k
s s
s P S a y
s s s
|
o
_ o

= =
=

(3.8)
[ 1, ]
1 1
( , ')
( ) { | }
( '). ( , ')
B
k k N t
k k
s s
s P y S s
s s s
|


+
+ +
= =
=

(3.9)
1
( ', ) { , | '}
k k k k
s s P S a y S a

= = = (3.10)
1
1
{ | } { ', | }
1
{ ', , }
{ }
k k k
s
k k
s
P u u y P S s S s y
P S s S s y
P y

= = = =
= = =

(3.11)
Thay (3.8), (3.9) v (3.10) vo (3.11) ta c:
1
[ 1, ] 1 [1, ] 1 1 1 [1, 1]
1
{ ', , }
{ | , , }. { , | ', }. { ', }
( ). ( ', ). ( ')
B
k t
k N k k k k k k k k k
k k k
P S s S s y
P y S S y P S s y S s y P S s y
s s s s | o

= =
= = = =
=
(3.12)
Thay (3.12) vo (3.7) ta c:
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Trang 73
1
1
( ). ( ', ). ( ')
( | ) ln
( ). ( ', ). ( ')
k k k
s
k
k k k
s
s s s s
L u y
s s s s
| o
| o
+

| |
|
=
|
|
\ .

(3.14)

( ) / 2 ( ) / 2
1
( ) / 2 ( ) / 2
1
( ). ( '). ( ', ). .
ln
( ). ( '). ( ', ). .
k c ks
k c ks
L u L y
k k k
s
L u L y
k k k
s
s s s s e e
s s s s e e
| o
| o
+

+ +

| |
|
=
|
|
\ .



1
1
( ). ( '). ( ', )
( ) ln
( ). ( '). ( ', )
k k k
s
k c ks
k k k
s
s s s s
L u L y
s s s s
| o
| o
+

| |
|
= + +
|
|
\ .


( ) ( )
k c ks e k
L u L y L u = + + (3.15)
Vi
1
1
( ). ( '). ( ', )
( ) ln
( ). ( '). ( ', )
k k k
s
e k
k k k
s
s s s s
L u
s s s s
| o
| o
+

| |
|
=
|
|
\ .

(3.16)
Trong phng trnh (3.15) th thnh phn th nht l thng tin a priori ca u
k
c
cung cp bi b gii m trc, thnh phn th hai gi l gi tr knh v thnh phn th ba
l thng tin extrinsic truyn n b gii m sau. S b gii m lp MAP nh hnh 3.15

Hnh 3.15: B gii m lp MAP
3.4.3 Nguyn l ca b gii m Viterbi ng ra mm
i vi cc m tch chp th thut ton Viterbi cho ra chui ng ra ML. Cn i
vi cc m Turbo, chng ta gp hai tr ngi khi s dng cc b gii m Viterbi thng
thng. th nht, b gii m Viterbi bn trong cho ra mt lot li bit lm gim i vic
thc hin ca cc b gii m Viterbi bn ngoi. Th hai, b gii m Viterbi bn trong cho
ra cc ng ra quyt nh cng lm ngn chn b gii m Viterbi bn ngoi nhn c cc
im li ca cc quyt nh mm. c hai tr ngi ny c th khc phc v vic thc hin
gii m c th c ci tin mt cch ng k nu cc b gii m Viterbi tip sau v
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c xem nh l mt thng tin u tin nhm ci tin vic thc hin gii m. B gii
m Viterbi b sung ny c tham kho nh l b gii m thut ton Viterbi ng ra mm
(SOVA) hnh 3.16.

Hnh 3.16: B gii m SOVA kt ni
Trong hnh trn y biu din cc gi tr knh nhn c, u biu din cc gi tr ng
ra quyt nh cng, L biu din cc gi tr tin cy lin kt.
3.4.3.a tin cy ca b gii m SOVA tng qut
tin cy ca b m SOVA c tnh ton t biu trellis nh hnh v.
Hnh trn trnh by biu trellis bn trng thi. ng lin nt ch ra ng
survivor (gi thit y l mt phn ca con ng ML) v ng t nt ch ra ng
cnh tranh (xy ra ng thi) ti thi im t i vi trng thi 1. n gin th cc
ng survivor v cc ng cnh tranh cho cc nt khc 0 c v ra. Nhn S
1,t
biu
din trng thi 1 ti thi im t. V th cc {0,1} c vit trn mi ng ch ra quyt
nh nh phn c c on cho cc ng. Mt metric tch ly V
s
(S
1,t
) gn cho cc gi
tr cnh tranh i vi mi nt. Thng tin c bn cho vic gn gi tr tin cy L(t) n
ng survivor ca nt S
1,t
l gi tr tuyt i ca 2 metric tch ly
L(t) = | V
s
(S
1,t
) V
c
(S
1,t
) |
Gi tr ny cng ln th ng survivor cng ng tin cy. tnh ton tin cy
ny, gi thit metric tch ly ca survivor th lun lun tt hn metric tch ly ca cnh
tranh. Hn na, gim phc tp, cc gi tr tin cy ch cn c tnh cho ng
survivor ML v khng cn thit tnh cho cc ng survivor khc bi v chng cng b b
qua sau ny.
minh ha r hn khc nim tin cy, hai v d sau c a ra. Trong cc v
d ny, thut ton Viterbi chn ng survivor nh l ng c metric tch ly nh nht.
Trong v d u tin, gi thit ti nt S
1,t
c metric survivor tch ly l V
c
(S
1,t
)=50 v
metric cnh tranh tch ly l V
s
(S
1,t
) =100. Gi tr tin cy lin kt n vic chn ng
survivor ny l L(t) = |50 - 100| = 50. Trong v d th hai, gi thit metric survivor tch
ly khng i V
c
(S
1,t
)=50 v metric cnh tranh tch ly l V
s
(S
1,t
) =75. Kt qu gi tr tin
cy l L(t) = |50 - 75| = 25. Mc d trong c hai v d ny, ng survivor c cng metric
tch ly nhng gi tr tin cy c lin kt vi ng survivor th khc nhau. Gi tr tin
cy trong v d u tin c nhiu tin tng hn (gp 2 ln) trong vic chn ng
survivor hn l gi tr trong v d th hai. Hnh 3.17 minh ha vn s dng tr tuyt i
gia cc metric survivor v cnh tranh tch ly nh l php o tin cy ca quyt nh.
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Hnh 3.17: Cc ng survivor v ng cnh tranh c on tin cy
Trong hnh, cc ng survivor v cc ng cnh tranh ti S
1,t
tch ra ti thi
im t-5. Cc ng survivor v cc ng cnh tranh cho ra quyt nh nh phn c
on i lp ti cc thi im t, t-2 v t-4 nh cc ch in m trong hnh. minh ha,
chng ta gi thit metric tch ly ca survivor v cnh tranh ti S
1,t
l bng nhau. V
s
(S
1,t
)=
V
c
(S
1,t
)=100. iu ny c ngha l c hai ng surivor v ng cnh tranh c cng xc
sut l ng ML. Hn na chng ta gi thit l metric tch ly survivor th tt hn metric
tch ly cnh tranh ti thi im t-2 v t-4 c trnh by trong hnh. gim bt phc
tp ca hnh v, cc ng cnh tranh ny ti cc thi im t-2 v t-4 khng a ra. T
gi thit ny, chng ta thy rng gi tr tin cy gn cho ng survivor ti thi im t l
L(t)=0, iu ny c ngha l khng c tin cy lin kt vi vic chn ng survivor.
Ti cc thi im t-2 v t-4 cc gi tr tin cy gn cho ng survivor th ln hn 0 (L(t-
2)=25 v L(t-4)=10) ngha l kt qu cc metric tch ly tt hn cho ng survivor.
Tuy nhin ti thi im t, ng cnh tranh cng c th l ng survivor. Tuy nhin ti
thi im t ng cnh tranh cng c cc quyt nh nh phn c c on tri ngc
nhau ti cc thi im t, t-2 v t-4 m khng lm gim cc gi tr tin cy lin kt sut dc
theo ng survivor.
ci tin cc gi tr tin cy ca ng survivor, mt php tnh truy ngc cp
nht cc gi tr tin cy c gi thit. Th tc cp nht ny c tch hp vo trong thut
ton Viterbi nh sau:
i vi nt S
k,1
trong biu trellis (p ng n trng thi k ti thi im t) lu
L(t) = |V
s
(S
1,t
) V
c
(S
1,t
)| ( k hiu bng A cc trang sau).
Nu c nhiu hn mt ng cnh tranh, th sau nhiu gi tr tin cy phi c
tnh v gi tr tin cy nh nht c ly l L(t).
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Trang 76
Khi to gi tr tin cy S
k,1
bng + (tin cy nht)
So snh cc con ng survivor v cnh tranh ti S
k,1
v lu li cc cp nh
(MEM) trong cc quyt nh nh phn c c on ca 2 con ng l khc nhau)

Hnh 3.18: Vic gn tin cy bng cch s dng gi tr metric trc tip
Cp nht cc gi tr tin cy ti cc MEM ny vi th tc nh sau:
Tm MEM thp nht ln hn 0, coi nh l MEM
low
m gi tr tin cy ca n khng
c cp nht.
Cp nht gi tr tin cy ca MEM
low
L(t- MEM
low
) bng cch gn gi tr tin cy thp
nht gia MEM=0 v MEM=MEM
low
.
3.4.3.b S khi ca b gii m SOVA
B gii m SOVA c th thc hin theo nhiu cch khc nhau. Nhng c l khuynh
hng tnh ton th d dng thc hin b gii m SOVA cho cc m c chiu di bt buc
K ln v kch thc khung di bi v s cn thit cp nht tt c cc ng survivor. Do
th tc cp nht ch c ngha cho ng ML, nn vic thc hin ca b gii m SOVA
ch thc hin th tc cp nht i vi ng ML c trnh by nh sau:
B gii m SOVA ly ng vo l L(u) v L
c
y l gi tr tin cy v gi tr nhn
c qua cn bng tng ng, v cho ra u v L(u), tng ng l cc quyt nh bit
c on v cc thng tin a posteriori L(u). Vic thc hin b gii m SOVA ny bao
gm hai b gii m SOVA ring bit. B gii m SOVA u tin ch tnh cc metric ca
ng ML v khng tnh (gi li) cc gi tr tin cy. Cc thanh ghi dch c s dng
m cho cc ng vo trong khi b gii m SOVA u tin ang x l ng ML. B gii
m SOVA th hai (c thng tin ng ML) tnh li ng ML v cng tnh cp nht cc
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Trang 77
gi tr tin cy. Ta thy rng phng php thc hin ny lm gim phc tp trong tin
trnh cp nht. Thay v truy ngc v cp nht 2
m
ng survivor, th ch c ng ML
cn c x l.

Hnh 3.19: S khi b gii m SOVA
B gii m x l cc bit knh nhn c trn mt khung c bn. Nh c trnh
by trong hnh trn, cc bit knh nhn c tch thnh dng bit h thng y
1
v 2 dng bit
parity y
2
v y
3
t cc b m ha 1 v 2 tng ng. Cc bit ny c cn bng bi gi tr
tin cy knh v c ly ra qua cc thanh ghi CS. Cc thanh ghi trnh by trong hnh c
s dng nh cc b m lu tr cc chui cho n khi chng ta cn. Cc kha chuyn
c t v tr m nhm ngn nga cc bit t cc khung k tip i x l cho n khi
khung hin hnh c x l xong.

Hnh 3.20: B gii m SOVA lp
B gii m thnh phn SOVA cho ra thng tin a posterori L(u
t
) v bit c c
on u
t
( thi im t). Thng tin a posteriori L(u
t
) c phn tch thnh ba s hng:
L(u
t
) = L(u
t
) + L
c
y
1,t
+ L
e
(u
t
)
L(u
t
) l cc gi tr a priorti v c sinh ra bi b gii m thnh phn SOVA trc .
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Trang 78
L
c
y
1,t
l gi tr knh h thng nhn c qua cn bng
L
e
(u
t
) l gi tr extrinsic c sinh ra bi b gii m thnh phn SOVA hin ti.
Tin tc xuyn qua gia cc b gii m thnh phn SOVA l gi tr extrinsic.
L(u
t
) = L(u
t
) - L
c
y
t,1
- L(u
t
)
Gi tr a priori L(u
t
) c tr i t s b tr l thng tin a prosteriori L(u
t
) ngn nga
tin tc i ngc li b gii m m t sinh ra n. Cng vy, gi tr knh h thng nhn
c qua cn bng L
c
y
t,l
c tr i nhm xa cc bit tin tc thng thng trong
cc b gii m thnh phn SOVA. Hnh 3.19 trnh by b gii m PCCC l s kt ni
theo th t vng kn ca cc b gii m thnh phn SOVA.
Trong s gii m vng kn ny, mt b gii m thnh phn SOVA c on
chui tin bng cch s dng dng bit parity qua cn bng. Hn na, b gii m PCCC
thc hin gii m lp nhm cho ra cc c ona priori/ tin cy ng tin tng hn t
hai dng bt parity qua cn bng khc nhau, vi hi vng thc hin gii m tt hn.
Thut ton gii m Turbo vi ln lp th n nh sau:
1. B gii m SOVA1 c ng vo l cc chui L
c
y
1
(h thng), L
c
y
2
(parity) v cho ra
chui L
e2
(u). i vi ln lp u tin, chui L
e2
(u) = 0 bi v khng c gi tr a priori
(khng c gi tr extrinsic t SOVA2). Thng tin extrinsic t SOVA1 c tnh bng :
L
e1
(u)= L
1
(u) - L
e2
(u) - L
c
y
1

Trong :
0
4
b
c
E
L
N rate
=


2. Cc chui L
c
y
1
v L
e1
(u) c chn v l I{L
c
y
1
} v I{L
e1
(u)}
3. B gii m SOVA2 c ng vo l cc chui L
c
y
1
(h thng) v I{L
c
y
3
} (parity c
chn b gii m) v I{L
e1
(u)} (thng tin a priori) v cho ra cc chui I{L
2
(u)} v I{u}
4. Thng tin extrinsic t SOVA2 c ly l :
I{L
e2
(u)}= I{L
2
(u)} - I{L
e1
(u)} - I{L
c
y
1
}
Cc chui I{L
e2
(u)} v I{u} c gii chn v l L
e2
(u) v u
5. L
e2
(u) c hi tip v SOVA1 nh l thng tin a priori cho ln lp k tip v u l
ng ra ca cc bit c c on cho ln lp th n.
3.5 Tng kt
Sau khi tm hiu v m Turbo. Chng ta thy rng b gii m Turbo l mt cha
kha tng hiu qu sa li ca m Turbo. M Turbo c kh nng ci thin rt nhiu
kh nng sa li trong AWGN. Tuy nhin do b gii m kh phc tp nn m Turbo
to ra tr ln hn m xon, v vy khng thch hp vi cc dch v thi gian thc.
V th m Turbo thch hp cho cc dch v s liu tc cao v tr cho php t 20-
30ms. Ngoi ra ta cng c th ng dng cc nguyn l ca m Turbo ng dng vo
trong h thng MIMO.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
Trang 79

CHNG 4: NG DNG M TURBO TRONG M HNH
H THNG MIMO

4.1 Gii thiu
chng 3 ta bit m Turbo vi b gii m lp cung cp hiu qu sa li gn
tin n gii hn Shannon vi kch thc b ghp xen ln. Gn y cng ngh STC c
a ra t c c li phn tp v li m trong knh Fading ca h thng MIMO
bng k thut phn tp pht v m sa li.
ci thin hiu sut sa li ca STC trong knh Fading ca h thng MIMO,
ngi ta kt hp nhng nguyn l ca m Turbo vo STC. V th ngi ta a ra
loi m ST Turbo Trellis Code.
Trong chng ny, chng ta coi m Space-Time Turbo trellis l s kt hp li
m ca m Turbo vi li phn tp ca m Space-Time v hiu qu bng thng ca b
m ha. Hiu qu bng thng ca Space Time Turbo Trellis codes c th c xy dng
bi s xen k cc bit parity bng k thut puncturing v ghp xen. Trong m Turbo nh
phn, s kt hp hiu qu bng thng m ST, STTC quy c s dng nh s kt hp
m theo kiu khc t c mt li ghp xen.
Chng ta tm hiu cu trc v nh gi hiu sut ca cc h thng ST Turbo TC.
u tin ta s tm hiu STTC quy v ng feedforward STTC. Sau s i tm hiu
cu trc ca m ST Turbo TC v nghin cu thut ton gii m lp. V so snh s khc
nhau ca cc h thng trn c s hiu sut v phc tp vi kt qu m phng.
4.2 Xy dng m STTC quy
Phn ny chng ta s xy dng cu trc m STTC quy h thng v khng h
thng
Xt ng feedforward ca b m ha STTC iu ch QPSK vi 2 anten, c
biu din nh trong hnh 4.1 vi phn t nh l v = v
1
+v
2
(v v
2
) v
1
2
i
v i
v
+ (
=
(

i=1,2.
Chui k t m ha c truyn t anten i c biu din bi:
1 1 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) mod 4
i
i i
x D c D G D c D G D = + (4.1)
Mi quan h trong (4.1) c th c vit di dng sau:
1
1 2
2
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
i i
i
G D
x D c D c D
G D
(
=
(

(4.2)
Ma trn pht ra feedforward t (4.2):
1
2
( )
( )
( )
i
i
i
G D
G D
G D
(
=
(

(4.3)
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
Trang 80
C th chuyn thnh ma trn quy tng ng vi s phn chia bi 1 a
thc nh phn q(D) ca 1 bc bng hoc thp hn v
1
. Tuy nhin, nu ta chn q(D) l a
thc gc, th m quy s c khong cch ti thiu cao. a thc sinh dnh cho anten i
c vit l:
1
2
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
i
i
i
G D
q D
G D
G D
q D
(
(
(
=
(
(


Vi q(D) = q
0
+ q
1
D + q
2
D
2
++ q
v1
D
v1
v q
j
, j = 0,1,2,v
1
, h s nh phn l (0,1). Mt
m STTC h thng quy c th biu din nh sau:
2
( )
1
i
G D
(
=
(


ngha l ng ra ca anten u tin c l nh x thng thnh chui ng vo c
1
v c
2
ca
chui QPSK. S ca b m ha STTC quy iu ch QPSK vi M
T
anten c hin
th trong hnh 4.2

Hnh 4.1: S ca ng feedforward ca m STTC iu ch QPSK
C th p dng cho iu ch M-PSK theo cu trc trn. S khi ca mt b m
STTC quy iu ch M-PSK c biu din trong hnh 4.3
Trong h thng thng tin i ng, knh truyn bin i t chm sang nhanh ph
thuc vo tc ca thit b u cui. Khi r.n
R
4 v . 4
H R
n o > l tiu chun thit k ca
STTC trong khi truyn trn knh Fading chm v Fading nhanh. Vi iu kin ny th xc
sut li xy ra l nh nht khi khong cch Euclide
2
E
d ca m l ti a. H s
feedforward quay v phn t nh ni m
2
E
d ti a l ging nh ng feedforward tng
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
Trang 81
ng ca STTC. H s quy c chn l q
j
=1, j=1,2,3,,v
1
.
Bng 4.1 v 4.2 danh sch cc ng feedforward s dng cho QPSK v 8-PSK
STTC quy vi 2 anten truyn tt nht khi truyn trong knh Fading chm v Fading
nhanh, vi n
R
2. Mi m trong c hai bng c v tr ti thiu l r = 2 v khong cch
Hamming nh nht l 2
H
o > .N duy tr khong cch Euclide v hiu sut khi chuyn sang
dng quy. c th a cho bt k phn t nh no STTC tt nht c rng
2
E
d .

Hnh 4.2: B m ha STTC quy iu ch QPSK

Hnh 4.3: B m ha STTC quy iu ch a mc M-ary
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
Trang 82
4.2.1 Hiu sut ca STTC quy
Phn ny, ta so snh hiu sut ca STTC quy vi ng feedforward ca m
STTC tng ng.
STTC quy c FER tng ng vi feedforward STTC nh gii thch trong v
d trong hnh 4.4: 16-trng thi STTC trong kng fading chm. Tuynhin, feedforward
STTC c mc BER thp hn so vi STTC quy nh hnh 4.5 trong cng dng knh
truyn. Tng t khi truyn trong knh Fading nhanh.

Hnh 4.4: So snh hiu sut ca 16-trng thi STTC quy v ng feedforward
trong knh Fading chm.

Bng 4.1: Gii hn QPSK STTC vi 2 anten truyn dnh cho knh
Fading chm da vo tiu chun trace
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
Trang 83

Bng 4.2: Gii hn 8-PSK STTC vi 2 anten truyn dnh cho knh Fading
chm da vo tiu chun trace
4.3 Space Time Turbo Trellis Code
4.3.1 S m ha Space Time Turbo Trellis Code

Hnh 4.5: B m ha dnh cho iu ch m Space Time Turbo Trellis Code
Hnh 4.5 biu din cu trc ca b m ha ca mt ST turbo TC vi M
T
anten
truyn, gm 2 b m ha STTC quy (mt nhnh pha trn v mt nhnh pha di) ni
lin nhau thng qua mt b ghp xen. Mi b m ha hot ng trong 1 bn tin khi ca
L phn ca m bit thng tin (vi L l kch thc b ghp xen). Chui tin c l c = (c
1
, c
2
, ,
c
t
,,c
L
) vi c
t
l mt phn ca m bit thng tin ti thi im t, biu din l c
t
= (c
t,0
,c
t,1
,,c
t,m-1
).
B m ha STTC quy trn ca hnh 4.5 l chui ng ra trong M
T
dng ca L
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
Trang 84
k t M-PSK:
1 2
1 1 1
, ,...,
T
M
x x x vi
1 1,1 1,2 1,
( , ,..., )
i i i i
L
x x x x = , ie{1,2,...,M
T
} v M= 2
m
. Cn b m
ha di, bit thng tin c ghp xen bi mt b ghp xen. B ghp xen k t hot
ng trong cc k t ca m bit thay th tng bit ring l.
B m ha pha di mc d a ra M
T
dng L k t M-PSK. Mi dng c gii
ghp xen trc khi c puncturing v ghp knh. Dng gii ghp xen c biu din l
1 2
2 2 2
, ,...,
T
M
x x x vi
2 2,1 2,2 2,
( , ,..., )
i i i i
L
x x x x = , ie{1,2,...,M
T
}. Cc dng k t pht ra bi cc b m
ha pha trn v pha di l
1
i
x v
2
i
x c puncture ln lt.
V vy ng ra ca b m ha c kt ni n M
T
anten cho k t ti thi gian t.
V d mt h thng vi 2 anten truyn, nu ng ra t b m ha u tin v th hai trong
thi gian 3 k t u l
1 2 1 2 1 2
1,1 1,1 1,2 1,2 1,3 1,3
, , , , , x x x x x x v
1 2 1 2 1 2
2,1 2,1 2,2 2,2 2,3 2,3
, , , , , x x x x x x , k thut puncture
truyn chui k t i l
1 2 1 2 1 2
1,1 1,1 2,2 2,2 1,3 1,3
, , , , , x x x x x x . Hiu sut s dng ph ca s kt hp ny
l m bit/s/Hz.
Nu chui thng tin ng vo khng c m ha, khng cn thit phi ghp xen.
Trong phn pht, ng ra ca b m ha c th ch c ghp knh, khng puncture cho
hiu qu ph l
2
m
bit/s/Hz. Trong trng hp ny th khng cn thit ghp xen v gii
ghp xen k t nhnh di.
4.3.2 Thut ton gii m
S khi b gii m ca b m ha t hnh 4.5 l hnh 4.6
Ti thi im t, tn hiu nhn bi anten j vi j=1,2,,M
R
, c miu t nh sau:
, ,
1
nT
j i t i
t p t t i j
i
r h x n
=
= +


Vi
,
i
p t
x l ng ra ca b m ha p ti thi im t, p=1khi t l v p=2 khi t chn.
Chui nhn c ti mi anten j, j=1,2,M
R
uc gii ghp knh thnh hai vector,
biu din l
1
j
r v
2
j
r , c to ra bi b m ha pha trn v pha di. Cc vector ny
c a ln lt vo b gii m th nht v th hai. Khi b gii m nhn c
1
j
r v
2
j
r n th n s thm vo cc bit 0 nh sau:
1 1 3 5
( , 0, , 0, ,..., )
j j j j
r r r r =
2 2 4
(0, , 0, ,..., )
j j j
r r r =
Vector
1
j
r c a vo b gii m th nht trc tip, cn
2
j
r c a vo b gii
m th hai thng qua b ghp xen, ging nh trong b m ha.Vic gii m th ging gii
m m nh phn Turbo ngoi tr xc sut k t c s dng nh thng tin extrinsic ng
hn so vi xc sut bit. Thut ton gii m MAP dnh cho m khng nh phn
(nonbinary) trellis gi l thut ton symbol-by-symbol MAP.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
Trang 85

Hnh 4.6: B gii m Turbo TC vi parity symbol puncturing
B gii m MAP tnh ton cc t s LLR log-likelihood ca mi nhm thng tin
bit
t
c i = . Ng ra mm ( )
t
c i . = c biu din nh sau:
{ | }
( ) log
{ 0 | }
t
t
t
P c i r
c i
P c r
=
. = =
=


0
1
( ', )
0
1
( ', )
( ') ( ', ) ( )
log
( ') ( ', ) ( )
i
t
t
i
t t t
l l B
t t t
l l B
l l l l
l l l l
o |
o |

e
=

0
1
( ', )
0
1
( ', )
( ') ( ', ) ( )
log
( ') ( ', ) ( )
i
t
t
i
t t t
l l B
t t t
l l B
l l l l
l l l l
o |
o |

e
=


Vi i l 1 nhm thng tin t tp hp {0,1,2,,2
m
-1}, r l chui nhn,
i
t
B l tp hp
ca s chuyn sang trng thi khc nh S
t-1
= l S
t
= l, l nguyn nhn bi k t ng
vo i, khi S
t
l mt trng thi trellis ti thi gian t v c xc sut ( )
t
l o , ( )
t
l | v ( ', )
t
l l c
th c tnh ton quy. K t i vi rng t s LLR vo trong ( )
t
c i . = ,
ie{0,1,2,,2
m
-1}, c chn nh quyt nh cng ca ng ra.
B gii m hot ng trong mt trellis vi M
S
trng thi. S thay i ca ng
forward qui c th tnh nh sau:
1 2 1
1
' 0 0
( ) ( ') ( ', )
m
S
M
i
t t t
l i
l l l l o o

= =
=

l = 0,1,,M
S
- 1
Vi iu kin ban u l:
0
(0) 1 o =
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
Trang 86

0
( ) 0 l o = l = 0
V s thay i ng backward quy c th tnh nh sau:

1 2 1
1 1
' 0 0
( ) ( ') ( , ')
m
S
M
i
t t t
l i
l l l l | |

+ +
= =
=

l = 0,1,, M
S
-1
Vi iu kin ban u l:
(0) 1
t
| =
( ) 0, l
t
| = l = 0
Xc sut chuyn trng thi nhnh ti thi im t biu din l ( ', )
i
t
l l c tnh nh sau:
2
,
1 1
2
( )
exp ( ', )
(0) 2 ( ', )
0, c
R T
n n
j n
t j n t
j n i t
t i
t t
r h x
p i
khi l l B
p l l
kh
o
= =
| |
|
|
e

|
=

|

|
\ .



vi
j
t
r l tn hiu nhn t anten j ti t,
, j n
h l suy hao knh truyn gia anten truyn n n
anten nhn j,
n
t
x l k t iu ch ti thi im t truyn t anten n v kt hp vi vic
chuyn trng thi S
t-1
= l thnh S
t
= l v p
t
(i) l xc sut a priori ca c
t
= i.
B gii m lp theo thut ton symbol-by-symbol MAP dnh cho ST Turbo TC th
tng t b gii m Turbo nh phn.Tuy nhin trong b gii m Turbo nh phn mt ng
ra mm b tch ra thnh ba loi thng tin: thng tin a priori ly t b gii m trc, thng
tin systematic ly t chui thng tin k t v thng tin extrinsic c ly t cc chui
parity.Thng tin extrinsic th c lp vi thng tin a priori v systematic. Thng tin
extrinsic c trao i gia hai b gii m. Cn ST Turbo TC khng ch ti m l
systematic hay nonsystematic, khng nh hng n thng tin ring l v bit parity trong
mt k t nhn, nh k t truyn t cc anten khc nhau nh hng n cc anten khc.
Thng tin systematic v thng tin extrinsic khng c lp nhau. V c thng tin systematic
v thng tin exstrinsic s c trao i thng qua thnh phn ca 2 b gii m. ni
thng tin systematic v thng tin exstrinsic ca b gii m MAP u tin, biu din
nh
1,
( )
t es
c i . = c tnh nh sau:
1, 1
( )
( ) ( ) log
(0)
t
t t es
t
p i
c i c i
p
. = = . =
Ch ni thng tin systematic v thng tin exstrinsic
1,
( )
t es
c i . = c dng nh
gi t s xc sut a priori ti trng thi gii m k tip. Sau ghp xen, n c vit l
2,
( )
t es
c i . = . Ch ni thng tin systematic v thng tin exstrinsic ca b gii m th hai
c biu din l:
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
Trang 87
2, 2 1,
( ) ( ) ( )
t t t es es
c i c i c i . = = . = . =
Trong ln lp k tip t s xc sut a priori trong (5.7) c thay th bi b gii
ghp xen v ch ni thng tin systematic v thng tin exstrinsic t trng thi gii m th
hai biu din l
2,
( )
t es
c i . =
Ch : Mi b gii m u nhn nhiu ti ng ra ca chnh b m ha n v b m
ha khc. iu ny l k t parity trong mi tn hiu nhn th hai thuc v b m ha
khc v xem nh l punctured
Trong v d, ta coi nh b gii m u tin nhn tn hiu l, b gii m hot ng
bt u ging m Turbo nh phn systemaitc khi b gii m nhn c k t pht ra ca
chnh b m ha n, tr thng tin exstrinsic c thay bi ch ni thng tin exstrinsic v
systematic. Tuy nhin, khi nhn tn hiu chn, b gii m nhn c cc k t punctured
ti ni cc parity kt hp c pht bi b m ha khc. B gii m trong trng hp ny
khng nhn ra k t ny bi quyt nh chuyn trng thi nhnh metric l 0. Ch c ng
vo ti bc ny trong trellis l thnh phn ca a priori c ly t b gii m khc.
Thnh phn ny gm thng tin systematic.
Khi ghp xen bit, b gii m c th ly ra bng cch chuyn i ch ni thng tin
h thng v extrinsic tnh ton dnh cho mt k t thnh mt mc bit, t khi chuyn i
thng tin gia b gii m l trong 1 mc bit. Sau khi qua b ghp xen/gii ghp xen, xc
sut a priori cn c chuyn thnh 1 mc symbol t khi n c s dng vo vic tnh
ton xc xut trng thi nhnh.
Xt chui k t ca m bit thng tin c hin th nh sau:
c = ( c
0
,c
1
,,c
m-1
)
vi c
j
= 0,1 , j = 0,1,2,,m-1.Biu din thng tin extrinsic ca chui c l: ( )
e
c . th thng
tin ngoi lai ca bit th j c vit nh sau:
( )
: 1
( )
: 0
( ) log
e
j
e
j
c
c c
e j c
c c
e
c
e
.
=
.
=
. =


Sau khi qua b ghp xen/gii ghp xen, xc sut a priori ca vi k t c th c
vit di dng sau:
. ( )
1
0 1 1 ( )
0
( ( , ,..., ))
1
e j j
e j
c c
m
m c
j
e
P c c c c
e
.

.
=
= =
+
[


4.3 Kt qu m phng ST Turbo TC
Trong phn ny nh gi m phng ca ST Turbo TC trong knh Fading phng
Rayleigh nhanh v chm vi cc tham s ca h thng. S dng iu ch l QPSK hoc
8-PSK, my thu c 2 anten v kiu ghp xen l S-ngu nhin. Kch thc ca b ghp xen
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
Trang 88
ging nh chiu di khi v 10 ln lp m phng trong b gii m ST turbo TC. Hiu qu
bng thng l 2 bit/s/Hz cho QPSK v 3 bit/s/Hz cho 8-PSK.
4.3.1 So snh ST Turbo TC vi STTC
Hnh 4.7 biu din FER ca mt ST Turbo TC vi 4 trng thi vi hai anten truyn
trong knh Fading chm vi kch thc khi l 130 k t, cng vi FER ca mt STTC 4
trng thi. H s feedforward ca m ly t bng 4.5 v h s feedback q
j
= 1, j =
1,2,,v
1
. ST Turbo TC tt hn STTC gn 2 dB ti FER 10
-3
.

Hnh 4.7: Hiu sut FER so snh gia 4-trng thi QPSK STTC v 4-trng thi QPSK
ST Turbo TC vi 2 anten truyn v 2 anten nhn v kch
thc b ghp xen l 130 trn knh Fading chm.
4.3.2 Kh nng sa li ca s ln lp
Hiu qu ca s ln lp trong hiu sut m c minh ha trong hnh 4.8. Kh
nng sa li ln khi ca s ln lp t 1 n 6, Kh nng sa li ln khi ca s ln lp t 6
n 10. N khng hiu qu khi s ln lp ln hn 10, vi kch thc khung l 130
symbol. S ln lp ti ni m tc li bo ha th quy m hn dnh cho kch thc b
ghp xen cao hn.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
Trang 89

Hnh 4.8: Hiu sut FER ca 4-trng thi QPSK ST Turbo TC vi s ln lp thay
i, 2x2 anten truyn v nhn vi kch thc b ghp xen 130 symbol trn knh Fading
chm.

Hnh 4.9: Hiu sut ca FER so snh QPSK ST Turbo TC vi 4-trng thi hp
thnh m t bng 4.5, vi khng tng quan v tng quan anten nhn trong h
thng vi 2x2 anten truyn v nhn, kch thc b ghp xen l 130 symbol trn knh
Fading chm.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
Trang 90
4.3.3 Hiu sut ca tng quan anten
S kt hp ST Turbo TC tng i s tng quan gia cc anten thu c minh
ha trong hnh 4.9. Hiu qu ca ST Turbo TC vi 4-trng thi hp thnh m v 2 anten
truyn th ch lm gim st trong knh Fading chm dnh cho tha s tng quan l 0.5.
v tha s tng quan l 0.75, FER gim i khong 2 dB so vi trng hp khng tng
quan anten.
4.3.4 Hiu sut trong knh Fading nhanh
Hnh 4.10 biu din s so snh hiu qu FER ca 16-trng thi QPSK STTC hin
th trong bng 4.1 v 16-trng thi QPSK ST Turbo TC trong knh Fading nhanh. 16-
trng thi quy QPSK STTC t bng 4.1 l cu to m trong trng thi ST Turbo TC.
Hiu sut ng cong hin th rng trng thi ST Turbo TC a ra ci thin ng k. Ti
FER 10
-3
, vi 10 ln lp v kch thc b ghp xen l 1024, n t c li nhiu hn
7 dB so vi STTC. Ti cng FER, li nhiu hn khong 0.2 dB trong knh Fading
nhanh so snh vi ST Turbo TC vi thnh phn m ca b nh khc nhau tng t.
S tng quan gia cc thnh phn anten th khng tc dng nhiu trong hiu sut
ca ST Turbo TC trong knh Fading nhanh nh m t trong hnh 4.11. Vi tha s tng
quan l 0.75 dB gia cc anten nhn, s suy hao lin quan n s khng tng quan anten
l thp hn 0.5dB.

Hnh 4.10: Hiu qu FER so snh gia 16-trng thi QPSK STTC v 16-trng thi
QPSK ST Turbo TC vi kch thc b ghp xen 130 trong knh Fading nhanh.
MST: 08404160282 Chng 4: ng dng m Turbo vo trong h thng MIMO
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.
Hnh 4.11: Hiu qu FER ca QPSK ST Turbo TC vi 4-trng thi hp thnh m t
bng 4.5, trong h thng 2 anten truyn v 2 anten nhn, vi kch thc b ghp xen
130 symbol trong tng quan knh Fading nhanh
4.4 Tng kt
M ST Turbo Trellis c kh nng sa sai tt hn STTC nhng c cng li phn
tp. Tuy nhin b gii m ca ST Turbo Trellis gii m kh phc tp v i hi cao trong
vic tnh ton.
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CHNG TRNH M PHNG

Giao din chng trnh
Chng trnh m phng nh gi kh nng sa li ca b gii m lp Turbo
sau n ln lp
Giao din chng trnh m phng m ha v gii m Turbo:


Hnh: Giao din chnh ca chng trnh m phng
Do hn ch v thi gian nn trong ti ch chn a thc sinh l:
g = [ 1 1 1 1 1 ; 1 0 0 0 1] v kiu ghp xen l kiu ngu nhin.
Thut ton gii m: chn thut ton gii m SOVA hoc Log_MAP
Kch thc khung: l kch thc khung truyn i, gm cc bit thng tin v cc bit
ui.
Puncture: c 2 ch l puncture v unpuncture. Trong b m ha ta c dng k
thut puncture hay khng. Nu puncture th tc m l 1/2, ngc li tc m l 1/3.
S ln lp: s ln lp li vic gii m tn hiu thu c.
S lng khung li tnh cho vic dng: do thut ton s dng l truyn nhiu
khung tnh BER nn phi hn ch khung truyn i.
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AWGN: nhiu AWGN
Gi tr EbNo (dB): nhp gi tr EbNo


Hnh: Giao din chy m phng














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Kt qu m phng


Hnh 1: Mi quan h gia BER v EbNo trong knh AWGN, kch thc khung
400, thut ton gii m Log_MAP, khng s dng k thut puncture
Hnh 1: biu din mi quan h gia BER v EbNo trong knh AWGN c dng m
ha v gii m Turbo nh sau:
- B m ha Turbo c kch thc khung 400, dng k thut puncture, a thc sinh
m ha Turbo l: g = [ 1 1 1 1 1 ; 1 0 0 0 1] v truyn trong knh AWGN.
- B gii m Turbo s dng thut ton gii m Log_MAP. Hnh trn biu din kh
nng sa li sau 5 ln lp ca b gii m.








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Hnh 2: Mi quan h gia BER v EbNo trong knh AWGN, kch thc khung
400, thut ton gii m SOVA , khng s dng k thut puncture

Hnh 2: biu din mi quan h gia BER v EbNo trong knh AWGN c dng m
ha v gii m Turbo nh sau:
- B m ha Turbo c kch thc khung 400, dng k thut puncture, a thc sinh
m ha Turbo l: g = [ 1 1 1 1 1 ; 1 0 0 0 1] v truyn trong knh AWGN.
- B gii m Turbo s dng thut ton gii m SOVA. Hnh trn biu din kh nng
sa li sau 5 ln lp ca b gii m.









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Hnh 3: Mi quan h gia BER v EbNo trong knh AWGN, kch thc khung
100, thut ton gii m Log_MAP, khng s dng k thut puncture

Hnh 3: biu din mi quan h gia BER v EbNo trong knh AWGN c dng m
ha v gii m Turbo nh sau:
- B m ha Turbo c kch thc khung 100, dng k thut puncture, a thc sinh
m ha Turbo l: g = [ 1 1 1 1 1 ; 1 0 0 0 1] v truyn trong knh AWGN.
- B gii m Turbo s dng thut ton gii m Log-MAP. Hnh trn biu din kh
nng sa li sau 5 ln lp ca b gii m.









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Hnh 4: Mi quan h gia BER v EbNo trong knh AWGN, kch thc khung
100, thut ton gii m Log_MAP v s dng k thut puncture

Hnh 4: biu din mi quan h gia BER v EbNo trong knh AWGN c dng m
ha v gii m Turbo nh sau:
- B m ha Turbo c kch thc khung 100, dng k thut puncture, a thc sinh
m ha Turbo l: g = [ 1 1 1 1 1 ; 1 0 0 0 1] v truyn trong knh AWGN.
- B gii m Turbo s dng thut ton gii m Log-MAP. Hnh trn biu din kh
nng sa li sau 5 ln lp ca b gii m.







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Nhn xt v kt lun

T hnh 1 v hnh 3. Khi cng a thc sinh,thut ton gii m v khng s dng
puncture. Ta thy khi tng kch thc khung truyn th kh nng sa li cng tt. Nh khi
tng kch thc khung t 100 ln 400 th c kh nng sa li t 4.599.10
-5
ln 7.8668.10
-6
ti EbNo = 4 dB.
T ta nh gi: khi tng kch thc khung truyn th b gii m Turbo c
kh nng sa li tt hn.

T hnh 1 v hnh 2. Khi cng a thc sinh, cng kch thc khung truyn v khng
s dng puncture. Khi kch thc khung l 400 ta thy khi s dng thut ton gii m
SOVA hay Log-MAP kh nng sa li ca 2 thut ton ny gn tng ng nhau.
V thi gian c hn nn trong ny khng th cho kch thc khung ln hn.
Chnh v th khng th nh gi kh nng sa li ca thut ton SOVA hn thut ton
Log-MAP khi kch thc khung ln

T hnh 3 v hnh 4. Khi cng a thc sinh, kch thc khung truyn v cng thut
ton gii m Log-MAP. Trong hnh 3 khng c s dng puncture v hnh 4 s dng
puncture. Kh nng sa li ca b gii m Turbo khi b m ha Turbo khng dng k
thut puncture (tc r = 1/3) tt hn so vi b m ha Turbo dng k thut puncture t
4.599.10
-5
so vi 6.2004.10
-6
ti EbNo = 4 dB.

T ta c th xc nh: khi khng dng k thut puncture b m ha Turbo th
b gii m s cho hiu qu sa li tt hn. Tuy nhin khi khng dng k thut puncture
th tc l r = 1/3. Nhng iu ny li khng mang li hiu qu s dng ph.




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KT LUN

Sau khi xem xong cun lun n ny, ta c th thy r rng m ha khng gian thi
gian l mt trong nhng k thut hiu qu nht p ng nhng yu cu v tc
truyn cng nh cht lng truyn ca cc ng truyn v tuyn trong cc h thng
thng tin di ng 3G, 4G v th h sau na. p dng nhng nguyn l ca m Turbo l
m ha v gii m lp to loi m mi l: Space Time Turbo Trellis. C kh nng sa
li tt hn m Trellis khng gian thi gian nhng c cng li phn tp ging nhau.

Hng m ca ti: v vic ng dng m Turbo vo trong m hnh h thng
MIMO. Chng ta c th ly b m ha Turbo lm b m ngoi trc khi a vo m ha
khng gian thi gian. c bit l p dng cho m STBC. V m STBC ch mang li li
phn tp m khng mang li li m. Chnh v th ta c th p dng kiu kt hp nh
cp trn nng cao li m ca h thng.
Hn ch ca ti: c th ni, s hn ch nhiu v kinh nghim v thi gian gy
nn nhiu thiu st khng th trnh khi chnh l hn ch u tin ca ti ny.
o V mt l thuyt: ch gii thiu chung chung v nguyn l ca h thng MIMO,
STBC, STTC, m Turbo v Space Time Turbo Trellis Code.
o V mt m phng: ch mi a ra c kh nng sa li ca Turbo sau n ln lp. V
cha m phng c qua iu ch v knh truyn.

Trn y l nhng hng m v hn ch ca cun lun vn ny. Rt mong nhn
c nhng kin ng gp qu bu t pha cc thy c v bn b ti c hon
thin hn.












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TI LIU THAM KHO

[1] Gio trnh Thng tin di ng th h ba TS.Nguyn Phm Anh Dng-2004-Nh xut
bn Bu in
[2] Gio trnh truyn dn Vi ba s TS.Nguyn Phm Anh Dng-2000-Nh xut bn
Bu in
[3] Space-Time Block Coding for Wireless Communications: Performance Results.
IEEE Journal on Select Areas in Communications, vol. 17, pp. 451460, 1999. V.
Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, and A. R. Calderbank
[4] MIMO OFDM for Wireless LANs Albert van Zelst
[5] Space-Time Coding Branka Vucetic & Jinhong Yuan, 2003
[6] Nghin cu m Turbo trong h thng CDMA SVTH: Nguyn Thanh Hng,
GVHD: Nguyn Huy Hng. Trng i hc DL K Thut Cng Ngh
[7] M ha thi gian khng gian trong MIMO SVTH Nguyn Thin Tho, GVHD
Nguyn Quc Cng , HVCNBCVT
[8] Space-Time Block Coding from Orthogonal Designs. IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory , vol. 45,
pp. 14561467, 1999. V.Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, and A. R. Calderbank
[9] MIMO Space Time Processing for MIMO communication A.B. Gershman anh
N.D.Sidiropoulos,Wiley 2005
[10] The Turbo Principle in Wireless Communications Joanchim Hagenauer, 2004
[11]: Space-Time Codes for High Data Rates Wireless Communications: Performance
Criterion and Code Construction IEEE Trans.Inform. Theory, vol.44, pp.744-765,1998.
V.Tarokh, N.Seshadri, and A.R.Calderbank
[12] Space Time Codes for MIMO Systems: Quasi-Orthogonal Design and
Concatenation von Diplom-Ingenieur Aydin Sezgin aus Kemah, 2005
[13]On MIMO systems and adaptive arrays for wireless communication Mattias
Wenntrom, 2002
[14] An Introduction to the Turbo Principle in Commiunication Systems Chung-Hsuan
Wang
[15] The MIMO radio channel, Ernst Bonek, Technische Universitt Wien, Vienna,
Austria
[16] The Soft Output MAlgorithm And Its Applicatons Kitty Kar Yan Wong,
August 2006