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Transfer function of the DC motor

**Transfer function of the DC motor
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The DC motor is a power actuator device that delivers energy to a load, as shown in figure below.

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**direct current (DC) electrical energy into rotational mechanical energy. A major fraction of the torque
**

The DC motor converts generated in the rotor (armature) of the motor is available to drive an external load. Because of features such as

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high torque, speed controllability over a wide range, portability, well-behaved speed-torque characteristics, and adaptability to various types of control methods,

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DC motors are widely used in numerous control applications, including

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robotic manipulators, tape transport mechanisms, disk drives, machine tools, and servovalve actuators.

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The transfer function of the DC motor will be developed for

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**1. a linear approximation to an actual motor, 2. and second-order effects, such as hysteresis and the
**

voltage drop across the brushes, will be neglected.

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3. The input voltage may be applied to the field or armature terminals. 4. The air-gap flux Φ of the motor is proportional to the field current, provided the field is unsaturated.

So that

1 4 ﻣﻦ

3/2/2012 10:01 PM

Transfer function of the DC motor (Yaser Rahmati) http://pecworld. This relation may be expressed as Where TL (s) is the load torque and Td(s) is the torque.zxq. the disturbance torque must be considered in systems subjected to external forces such as antenna wind-gust forces. one current must be maintained constant while the other current becomes the input current. to have a linear system. Then we have. The field current is related to field voltage as The motor torque Tm(s) is equal to torque delivered to the load. which provides a substantial power amplification. we shall consider the field current controlled motor. in Laplace transform notification. The torque developed by motor is assumed to be related linearly to Φ and the armature current as follows: It is clear from above equation that. disturbance However.. by rearranging equation. as shown in figure below is written as So. and km is defined as the motor constant . Field current controlled motor First. which is often negligible.net/Software/Matlab/Part_3/Details/11_dc_motor_tra.. Where ia=Ia is a constant armature current. The load torque for rotating inertia. we have 2 4 ﻣﻦ 3/2/2012 10:01 PM .

is: The block diagram model of the field-controlled DC motor is shown in figure below. The stator field can be established by armature current ia as 1. permeability of the magnetic The armature current is related to the input voltage applied to the armature by 3 4 ﻣﻦ 3/2/2012 10:01 PM . the transfer function may be written in terms of the time constants of the motor as Where τ f=Lf/Rf and τ L =J/b.zxq. a field coil and current or 2. When a constant field current is established in a field coil. Armature-controlled DC motor The armature-controlled DC motor uses the control variable. Alternatively.. a permanent magnet. Therefore..net/Software/Matlab/Part_3/Details/11_dc_motor_tra.Transfer function of the DC motor (Yaser Rahmati) http://pecworld. Typically. one finds that τ L >τ f and often the field time constant may be neglected. we have Where km is a function of the material. with T d(s)=0. the motor torque is when a permanent magnet is used. the transfer function of the motor-load combination.

This equality may be shown by considering the steady-state motor equation and the power balanced when the rotor resistance is neglected. Typical constants for a fractional horsepower motor are provided in table below. the time constant of the armature.zxq. 4 4 ﻣﻦ 3/2/2012 10:01 PM . since T=Kmia. we find that Kb=Km. Where Vb(s) is the back electromotive-force to the motor speed. is negligible.. (964)a=La/Ra. The power input to rotor is (Kb(969))ia. for many DC motors. and the power delivered to the shaft is T(969). we solve to obtain the transfer function However. therefore : Where the equivalent time constant (964)1=Raj/(Rab+KbKm).Transfer function of the DC motor (Yaser Rahmati) http://pecworld. Let Td(s)=0. Electric motors are used for moving loads when a rapid response is not required and for relatively low power requirements. Note that Km is equal to Kb. the power input is equal to the power delivered to the shaft so that (Kb(969))ia=T(969). In the steady-state condition.net/Software/Matlab/Part_3/Details/11_dc_motor_tra.. the load torque is The relations for the armature-controlled DC motor are shown schematically in figure below. we have voltage proportional Where ω(s)=sθ(s) is the transform of the angular speed and the armature current is So. Therefore.

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