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E6126:WirelessMultiple

AccessCommunications
l Instructor:DrTonyQ.S.Quek*
qsquek@ntu.edu.sg
l Office:S1-B1b-71
l OfficeHours:Byapptthroughemail

l LectureNotesandAssignments:Availableat
www.edventure.edu.sg
l Pre-requisites:
l Digitalcommunications,probability,FourierandZ-
transform,matrices.
*Otherinstructor:A/ProfErryGunawan
1
TextBook&References
l Textbook(highlyrecommended)
l A.Goldsmith,WirelessCommunications,
CambridgeUniversityPress,2005.
l References
l J.Proakis,DigitalCommunications,4
th

edition,McGrawHill,2001.
l T.S.Rappaport,WirelessCommunications,
2
nd
edition,Prentice-Hall,2002.
2
E6126:Outline(PartI)
l OverviewofWirelessCommunicationsSystems
l WirelessChannels
l PathLoss,Shadowing,andFadingModels
l CapacityofWirelessChannels
l DigitalModulation
l PerformanceinFadingChannels
l Diversity
l MIMOSystems
l Equalization
l MulticarrierModulation
3
WirelessChannels
l PathLoss(includesaverageshadowing)
l Shadowing(duetoobstructions)
l MultipathFading
P
r
/P
t
d=vt

P
r
P
t
d=vt

v

Very slow
Slow
Fast
4
DigitalModulation
EQ2310 Digital Communications
Lecture 4
Lars K. Rasmussen
Communications Theory Laboratory
KTH - Royal Institute of Technology
ACCESS Linneaus Center
Stockholm, Sweden
3 November 2010
1. Signal space concepts
Reading assignment: Textbook 94102
Modulation
source
source encoder channel encoder modulator
demodulator
discrete
channel
user source decoder channel decoder
channel
Modulation: Convert digital data into a signal waveform to be transmitted over
the channel. . .
Baseband modulation: Transmitted signal at low frequencies
e.g. cables, hard-disks, . . .
Carrier/bandpass modulation: Transmitted signal at high frequencies
e.g. radio channels, . . .
EQ2310 Digital Communications - Lecture 4 - 3 November 2010
c 2010 Lars K. Rasmussen
1
Signal Waveforms and Modulation
A signal is an information-carrying function of time (discrete or continuous time)
A waveform is a continuous-time signal
Modulation: Map a discrete data variable I {0, . . . , M 1} into a waveform
s
I
(t) S
S = {s
0
(t), . . . , s
M1
(t)} is the modulation signal set of size M
modulator
{s
i
(t)}
I s
I
(t)
Demodulation: Map the received waveform into a sufcient statistics
Detector : Decide which one out of the M possible signals was transmitted. . .
EQ2310 Digital Communications - Lecture 4 - 3 November 2010
c 2010 Lars K. Rasmussen
2
The Geometry of a Signal Set
t t
t t
A A
A A
T
T
T
T
s
0
(t) s
1
(t)
s
2
(t) s
3
(t)
signal set
t t
T
T

1
(t)
2
(t)

2
T

2
T
basis waveforms
Note that we can write
s
i
(t) = s
i1

1
(t) + s
i2

2
(t)
with
s
i1
=

T
0
s
i
(t)
1
(t)dt = s
i
,
1
, s
i2
=

T
0
s
i
(t)
2
(t)dt = s
i
,
2

EQ2310 Digital Communications - Lecture 4 - 3 November 2010


c 2010 Lars K. Rasmussen
3
Diversity
l BasicIdea
l Sendsamebitsoverindependentfadingpaths
Independentfadingpathsobtainedbytime,space,
frequency,orpolarizationdiversity
l Combinepathstomitigatefadingeffects
T
b
t
Multiplepathsunlikelytofadesimultaneously
MIMOSystems
Lecture Course, Darmstadt April 2005
SIMO case:
Tx Rx
N
1 antenna antennas
MISO case:
Tx Rx
N
antennas 1 antenna
MIMO case:
Tx Rx
N
M
antennas antennas
channel
TU Darmstadt
Nachrichtensysteme
7
Equalization
Lecture 1
Channel Equalization
Ragnar Thobaben
CommTh/EES/KTH
Channel Model
Receiver Front End
Eye Diagrams
Nyquist Criterion
Maximum Likelihood
Sequence Estimation
Receiver Front End
Channel lter
g
C
(t)
Transmit lter
g
T
(t)
Rate 1/T
{b[n]}
n(t)
Equivalent pulse p(t) = (g
T
g
C
)(t)
y(t)
Matched lter
p
MF
(t) = p

(t)
z[n]
Sampling, t = nT
Theorem (Optimality of the Matched Filter)
The optimal receiver lter is matched to the equivalent pulse p(t) and is
specied in the time and frequency domain as follows:
g
R,opt
(t) = p
MF
(t) = p

(t)
G
R,opt
(f ) = P
MF
(f ) = P

(f ).
In terms of a decision on the symbol sequence {b[n]}, there is no loss of
relevant information by restricting attention to symbol rate samples of
the matched lter output given by
z[n] = (y p
MF
)(nT) =
Z
y(t)p
MF
(nT t)dt =
Z
y(t)p

(t nT)dt.
[U. Madhow, Fundamentals of Dig. Comm., 2008]
5 / 14
Lecture 1
Channel Equalization
Ragnar Thobaben
CommTh/EES/KTH
Channel Model
Receiver Front End
Eye Diagrams
Nyquist Criterion
Maximum Likelihood
Sequence Estimation
Eye Diagrams
Visualization of the eect of ISI (for the noise-free case)
Received signal (noise free): r (t) =
P
n
b[n]x(t nT)
Eective impulse response: x(t) = (g
T
g
C
g
R
)(t)
(incl. transmit, channel, and receive lter)
Eye diagram
superimpose the waveforms {r (t kT), k = 1, 2, . . .}
Example
(a) BPSK signal with ISI free pulse in (open eye);
(b) BPSK signal with ISI (closed eye).
[U. Madhow, Fundamentals of Dig. Comm., 2008]
6 / 14
Notes
Notes
MulticarrierModulation
l BreaksdataintoNsubstreams
l Substreammodulatedontoseparatecarriers
l SubstreambandwidthisB/NforBtotalbandwidth
l B/N<B
c
impliesflatfadingoneachsubcarrier(noISI)
x
cos(2f
0
t)
x
cos(2f
N
t)

Rbps
R/Nbps
R/Nbps
QAM
Modulator
QAM
Modulator
Serial
To
Parallel
Converter
OverviewofWirelessCommunications
10
WirelessHistory
l Radioinventedinthe1880sbyMarconi
l Manysophisticatedmilitaryradiosystemswere
developedduringandafterWW2
l Cellularhasenjoyedexponentialgrowthsince
1988,withalmost3billionusersworldwide
today
l Ignitedthewirelessrevolution
l Voice,data,andmultimediabecomingubiquitous
l Useinthirdworldcountriesgrowingrapidly
11
EvolutionofCurrentSystems
l Wirelesssystemstoday
l 3GCellular:~200-300Kbps.
l WLANs&Wimax:~450Mbps(andgrowing).
l NextGenerationisintheworks
l 4GCellular:LikelyOFDM/MIMO,LTE
l 4GWLANs:Wideopen,3Gjustbeingfinalized
l TechnologyEnhancements
l Hardware:Betterbatteries.Bettercircuits/processors.
l Link:Antennas,modulation,coding,adaptivity,BW.
l Network:NWcoding,Co-operativecommunications
l Application:SoftandadaptiveQoS.
12
DesignChallenges
l Wirelesschannelsareadifficultandcapacity-
limitedbroadcastcommunicationsmedium
l Trafficpatterns,userlocations,andnetwork
conditionsareconstantlychanging
l Applicationsareheterogeneouswithhard
constraintsthatmustbemetbythenetwork
l Energyanddelayconstraintschangedesign
principlesacrossalllayersoftheprotocolstack
13
FutureGenerations
Rate
Mobility
2G
3G
4G
802.11b WLAN
2G Cellular
Other Tradeoffs:
Rate vs. Coverage
Rate vs. Delay
Rate vs. Cost
Rate vs. Energy
FundamentalDesignBreakthroughsNeeded
14
MultimediaRequirements
Voice Video Data
Delay
Packet Loss
BER
Data Rate
Traffic
<100ms - <100ms
<1% 0 <1%
10
-3
10
-6
10
-6
8-32 Kbps

1-100 Mbps

1-20 Mbps

Continuous

Bursty

Continuous

One-size-fits-all protocols and design do not work well
Wired networks use this approach, with poor results
15
CrosslayerDesign
l Application
l Network

l ChannelAccess
l Link
l Hardware
Delay Constraints
Rate Constraints
Energy Constraints
Adapt across design layers
Reduce uncertainty through scheduling
Provide robustness via diversity
16
CurrentWirelessSystems
l CellularSystems
l WirelessLANs
l SatelliteSystems
l PagingSystems
l Bluetooth
l Ultrawidebandradios
l Zigbeeradios
17
3GCellularDesign:
VoiceandData
l Dataisbursty,whereasvoiceiscontinuous
l Typicallyrequiredifferentaccessandroutingstrategies
l 3Gwidensthedatapipe:
l 384Kbps(802.11nhas100sofMbps).
l StandardbasedonwidebandCDMA
l Packet-basedswitchingforbothvoiceanddata
l 3GcellularpopularinAsiaandEurope
l EvolutionofexistingsystemsinUS(2.5G++)
GSM+EDGE,IS-95(CDMA)+HDR
100Kbpsmaybeenough
Dualphone(2/3G+Wifi)usegrowing(iPhone,
Google)
l Whatisbeyond3G?
The trillion dollar question
18
Wireless Local Area
Networks (WLANs)
l WLANsconnectlocalcomputers(100mrange)
l Breaksdataintopackets
l Channelaccessisshared(randomaccess)
l BackboneInternetprovidesbest-effortservice
l Poorperformanceinsomeapps(e.g.video)
01011011
Internet
Access
Point
0101
1011
19
WirelessLANStandards
l 802.11b(Old1990s)
l Standardfor2.4GHzISMband(80MHz)
l Directsequencespreadspectrum(DSSS)
l Speedsof11Mbps,approx.500ftrange
l 802.11a/g(MiddleAgemid-late1990s)
l Standardfor5GHzNIIband(300MHz)
l OFDMin20MHzwithadaptiverate/codes
l Speedsof54Mbps,approx.100-200ftrange
l 802.11n(Hotstuff,standardclosetofinalization)
l Standardin2.4GHzand5GHzband
l AdaptiveOFDM/MIMOin20/40MHz(2-4antennas)
l Speedsupto600Mbps,approx.200ftrange
l Otheradvancesinpacketization,antennause,etc.
ManyWLAN
cardshave
all3(a/b/g)
20
SatelliteSystems
l Coververylargeareas
l Differentorbitheights
l GEOs(39000Km)versusLEOs(2000Km)
l Optimizedforone-waytransmission
l Radio(XM,DAB)andmovie(SatTV)broadcasting
l Mosttwo-waysystemsstrugglingorbankrupt
l Expensivealternativetoterrestrialsystem
l Afewambitioussystemsonthehorizon
PagingSystems
l Broadcoverageforshortmessaging
l Messagebroadcastfromallbase
stations
l Simpleterminals
l Optimizedfor1-waytransmission
l Answer-backhard
l Overtakenbycellular
8C32810.61-Cimini-7/98
Bluetooth
l CablereplacementRFtechnology(low
cost)
l Shortrange(10m,extendableto100m)
l 2.4GHzband(crowded)
l 1Data(700Kbps)and3voicechannels
l Widelysupportedbytelecommunications,
PC,andconsumerelectronicscompanies
l Fewapplicationsbeyondcable
replacement
UltrawidebandRadio
(UWB)
l UWBisanimpulseradio:sendspulsesoftens
ofpicoseconds(10
-12
)tonanoseconds(10
-9
)
l Dutycycleofonlyafractionofapercent
l Acarrierisnotnecessarilyneeded
l Usesalotofbandwidth(GHz)
l Lowprobabilityofdetection
l Excellentrangingcapability
l Multipathhighlyresolvable:goodandbad
l CanuseOFDMtogetaroundmultipathproblem.

IEEE802.15.4/ZigBee
Radios
l Low-RateWPAN
l Dataratesof20,40,250kbps
l Starclustersorpeer-to-peeroperation
l Supportforlowlatencydevices
l CSMA-CAchannelaccess
l Verylowpowerconsumption
l FrequencyofoperationinISMbands
Tradeoffs
ZigBee
Bluetooth
802.11b
802.11g/a
3G
UWB
Range
Rate
Power
802.11n
26
FutureWirelessNetworks
WirelessInternetaccess
NextgenerationCellular
WirelessAdHoc
Networks
SmartGrid
Smarthomes/spaces
WirelessMultimedia
SmartHomes/Spaces
AutomatedHighways
Allthisandmore
Ubiquitous Communication Among People and Devices
27
TechnicalChallenges
28
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Spectral Reuse
Due to its scarcity, spectrum is reused
BS
In licensed bands
Cellular, Wimax
Wifi, BT, UWB,
and unlicensed bands
Reuse introduces interference
Interference: Friend or Foe?
l If treated as noise: Foe



l If decodable (MUD): Neither friend nor foe
l If exploited via cooperation and cognition:
Friend (especially in a network setting)
I N
P
SNR
+
=
Increases BER
Reduces capacity
Multiuser Detection
Signal 1
Demod
Signal 2
Demod
-
=
Signal 1
- =
Signal 2
Code properties of CDMA allow the signal separation and subtraction
MIMO in Cellular:
Performance Benefits
l Antenna gain extended battery life,
extended range, and higher throughput
l Diversity gain improved reliability, more
robust operation of services
l Multiplexing gain higher data rates
l Interference suppression (TXBF)
improved quality, reliability, robustness
l Reduced interference to other systems
Network MIMO
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y W
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$$$
Intelligencebeyond
Cooperation:Cognition
l Cognitive radios can support new wireless users in
existing crowded spectrum
l Without degrading performance of existing users
l Utilize advanced communication and signal
processing techniques
l Coupled with novel spectrum allocation policies
l Technology could
l Revolutionize the way spectrum is allocated worldwide
l Provide sufficient bandwidth to support higher quality
and higher data rate products and services
Cognitive Radio Paradigms
l Underlay
l Cognitive radios constrained to cause minimal
interference to noncognitive radios
l Interweave
l Cognitive radios find and exploit spectral holes
to avoid interfering with noncognitive radios
l Overlay
l Cognitive radios overhear and enhance
noncognitive radio transmissions
Knowledge
and
Complexity
Underlay Systems
l Cognitive radios determine the interference their
transmission causes to noncognitive nodes
l Transmit if interference below a given threshold
l The interference constraint may be met
l Via wideband signalling to maintain interference
below the noise floor (spread spectrum or UWB)
l Via multiple antennas and beamforming
NCR
I
P
NCR
CR
CR
Interweave Systems
l Measurements indicate that even crowded spectrum
is not used across all time, space, and frequencies
l Original motivation for cognitive radios (Mitola00)

l These holes can be used for communication
l Interweave CRs periodically monitor spectrum for holes
l Hole location must be agreed upon between TX and RX
l Hole is then used for opportunistic communication with
minimal interference to noncognitive users
Green Communications
'E
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CO2 Annual Emissions
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Energy ~2TWh ~60TWh ~3.5TWh ~10TWh
CO
2
~1Mt ~30Mt <2Mt ~5Mt
*1Mt CO2 = 2TWh
Base Stations consume ~80% of energy in cellular networks use.
correspond to
25 million
household
average
yearly
consumption
3 billion
subscribers
4 million Radio
Stations
20,000 Radio
Controllers
Other
elements
Traffic-Revenue Divide-end
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Heterogeneous Networks
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Device Challenges
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Difference of M2M
ITG Zukunft der Netze 2011
What is the issue?
Cellular mobile networks are designed for human communication
z Interactive communication between humans (voice, video)
z Data communication involving humans (web browsing, file downloads,
etc).
z Communication is connection-centric

Cellular mobile networks are optimized for traffic characteristics of
human-based communication applications
z Communication with a certain length (sessions) and data volume
z Communication with a certain interaction frequency and patterns (talk-
listen, download-reading, etc.)

But: M2M communication is different
M2M: Smart Grid
ITG Zukunft der Netze 2011
Example: Smart Grid/Smart Metering
Control and reading of metering/infrastructure
Smart Elec.
Smart
Water
Appliances
Temperature
Light
Wind Turbine
Solar Panel
Smart
Gas
Meters Coms
Home displays
TV, Computer
In-Home
Energy
Display
Breaker Valves
Gateway
Data
Center
Wan
Communication
Image source: ETSI
Small message sizes
Low to medium frequent communication
Relaxed delay requirements
High requirements on energy efficiency?
Large number of devices
"AIarm" scenarios

M2M: Intelligent Transport System
ITG Zukunft der Netze 2011
Example: Intelligent Transport Systems
Image source: ETSI
Very high
mobility/latency
requirements
High speed
mobility
Car-to-X:
High mobility
High speed
Very low latency
Security
M2M Challenges
ITG Zukunft der Netze 2011
Conclusion and Outlook
M2M is an enabler of the Internet of Things.
M2M is challenging for today's and future cellular networks:
z Interworking between M2M operator and mobile operator.
z Diverse traffic characteristics and requirements on QoS, energy efficiency, .

Efforts in Standards: "Fix existing systems by adding as much as
necessary, as less as possible.

Research needs to think beyond this approach
z M2M applications imply novel network performance metrics
z Flexible MAC, low-overhead protocols, virtualization, energy efficiency,
hierarchical networks, .
z First step: M2M traffic models for popular use cases (e.g. smart meters)!
z Talk to industries and users of M2M communications.

Summary
50
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