Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

4 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Presentation
- Graph Cut Segment
- 05415666
- On Line Fabric Defect Detection in a Cicular Knitting Machine
- Detection of Glaucoma using Optic Disk and Incremental Cup Segmentation from Retinal Image
- Ijret - The Review on Automatic License Plate Recognition (Alpr)
- Image Segmentation and Recognition Using MATLAB
- 1-s2.0-S0262885609000675-main
- Image Segmentation
- Prem Josevin
- IJAIEM-2014-10-01-96
- iccv98
- A Pattern Recognition Approach to Image Segmentation
- ID 186
- Project PPT
- An Efficient Video Similarity Search Algorithm
- Sample
- Ip New Report
- Presentation Slides
- QPBOPI Roof Duality

You are on page 1of 10

org

ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)

Vol 3, No.3, 2012

78

Performance Evaluation of Geometric Active Contour (GAC) and

Enhanced Geometric Active Contour Segmentation Model (ENGAC)

for Medical Image Segmentation

Ajala Funmilola Alaba

*

, Emuoyibofarhe Justice O

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, LAUTECH Ogbomoso, Oyo state, Nigeria.

*E-mail of the corresponding author: funfaith2003@yahoo.co.uk.

Abstract

Segmentation is an aspect of computer vision that deals with partitioning of an image into homogeneneous region.

Medical image segmentation is an indispensable tool for medical image diagnoses. Geometric active contour (GAC) segmentation

is one of the outstanding model used in machine learning community to solve the problem of medical image segmentation.

However, It has problem of deviation from the true outline of the target feature and it generates spurious edge caused by noise that

normally stop the evolution of the surface to be extracted.

In this paper, enhanced Geometric active contour was formulated by using Kernel Principal Component Analysis(KPCA)

with the existing Geometric active contour segmentation model and performance evaluation of the formulated model was carried

out.

Keyword: Geometric active contour, Segmentation, Medical image, Kernel Principal Component Analysis.

1. Introduction

Image segmentation is an aspect of computer vision that deals with the partitioning an image into regions having homogeneous

meaning. It is used to separate an object from its background and extracts meaningful objects lying in images either by dividing

images into contiguous semantic regions, or by extracting one or more specific objects in images such as medical structures.

However, we have different types of image segmentation methods which are not suitable for medical images since medical images

are diverse, complex and vary from natural images.

Some of the methods used for medical image segmentation fall under deformable models. The use of deformable model was

popularized by Kass et al. (1990), snake model was used to develop active contour model that minimizes energy functional under

the influence of forces which are internal force, image force and external constraint force. Deformable models can be classified

into three categories which are Free-form, Parametric and Geometric active contour model.

Geometric active contour model

This make use of level set method that represent contour or surfaces as Zero level set of a higher dimensional function usually

called a level set function Chunming et al, (2011). Level set can handle topological changes in curve evolution which is not

possible with the classical active contour model. Osher and Sethian (1998) offer a natural and numerical implementation of curve

evolution equation using level set. Readers are refer to Neithammer and Tannenbum (2004) for some previous work on Geometric

active contour model. Xiao et al., (2003) gave the numeric scheme used for GAC model, which is describe in the following

equation.

Let x= (x, y) denote a point in a curve C which is a member in image domain and let the curve be represented by Lipchitz-

continuous function using signed distance function

.

A parameterized differentiable curve C is a differential map

| | | | ) ( ) ( ), ( , : p x p y p x b a C

T

= = O 9 c

(1)

Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems www.iiste.org

ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)

Vol 3, No.3, 2012

79

The rule that determine how each point C moves starting from initial curve C

o

is

( )

( ) ( ) t t P C v

dt

t P dC

, ,

,

=

(2)

Where V = vector field that refers to as speed, Ignoring C and V in equation 2 gives

v

dt

dC

=

(3)

Equation (2) gives a partial differential equation that determines how curve C evolves and often called flow. Minimized the energy

below

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2

,

2

) ( , x I T G x H T G H T

image

E

O

} = = | | |

(4)

Where

image

E is the energy that represents distance between the shape of the region defined by the interior of the curve C and the

shape G extracted from the image. Effective minimization of the energy in (4) amount to realizing a trade-off between segmented

object and the background.

Enhanced Geometric Active contour model

The enhanced model (ENGAC) was formulated using Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) and Geometric active

contour (GAC) segmentation model. KPCA was used to get shape variability within the Geometric active contour segmentation

model. The training set of MRI and CT scan of tran-axial medical images were gotten from University College Hospital, Ibadan,

Oyo state. The medical images were registered using appropriate registration method to pre-process the medical images. Figure 1

gives the overview of the enhanced geometric active contour segmentation model.

Figure 1: Overview of enhanced Geometric Active Contour model

The enhancement process started for the conventional Geometric active contour segmentation model by building Kernel Principal

Component Analysis (KPCA) feature space for medical shapes to be extracted and segmented. The steps involves were;

Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems www.iiste.org

ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)

Vol 3, No.3, 2012

80

(i) Get a training set of registered medical images

(ii) Represent the contour of the registered medical images with high dimensional function using signed distance function, such that

a point was represented by (X

i

,X

j

) where i = 1N and j = 1..N

(iii) Calculation of mean offset map represented by for the points using

( )

=

=

N

i

j

X

i

X

N 1

,

1

(5)

(iv) The centered kernel was formed for the points this equation

K (i,j)= ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

j

X

i

X K

j

X

i

X

j

X

i

X = = , ,

(6)

where

( ) ( ) =

i i

X X

(v) The centered kernel was decomposed by getting

(a) Diagonal matrix that represent Eigen values represented by (

1

n

)

(b) Orthonormal matrix that contain Eigen vectors represented by (M

i1

M

iN

)

(c) Covariance matrix calculated using

( ) ( )

T

j

X

i

X

N

i

j

X

i

X

N

C ,

1

,

1

=

=

(vi) The Eigenvector of Covariance matrix was computed for the decomposed kernel denoted by

( )

=

=

N

i

i

X

k

ki

M

k

V

1

o

(7)

(vii) Any subsequent projection of element X of the input space I on the KPCA space was denoted by

( )

X P '

and the co-

ordinate of

( ) X P '

on kth component

,

k

V

was calculated by

( )

=

=

N

i

i ki k

X X K U

k

B

1

,

1

(8)

(viii) The projection of

( ) X

onto the subspace spanned by the first l eigenvectors was calculated by

=

+ =

l

k

k k

V B P

1

'

(9)

(ix) The square distance

2

F

d

between

( ) X

and its projection on the KPCA space was denoted by

( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )

2

2

' ' , X P X X P X d

F

=

(10)

To hybridize GAC and Kernel PCA, these are the steps;

(i) Perform nonlinear PCA on the constraint SDF using Polynomial kernel function.

( )

c

j i

j i K

o

| | | |

, , =

(11)

From equation (11), when c = 2 and the square bracket is opened,

2 2

,

j i j i

c

j i

| | | | | | + =

(12)

where

c

=

variance parameter.

Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems www.iiste.org

ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)

Vol 3, No.3, 2012

81

2

j i

| |

= square distance between two SDFs i and j

o

(2) Minimize the energy functional equation below;

( ) ( )

i i

F

energy

x Z x x E |

'

, ) ( =

(13)

where

F

energy

E

denotes the facts that the shape knowledge is expressed as a distance in feature space.

x = test shape represented by Signed Distance Function (SDF).

using

u

V = V =

u

u

d

dx

E E

t

F

energy x

F

energy

.

o

o

(14)

where

( ) ( )

=

u

= V

N

i

c

j i o i

F

energy

k g E

1

,| | |

2. Methods of Performance Evaluation

The performance evaluations of the models were carried out using the following metrics by Lauren (2001). These metrics

were used to evaluate the performance of enhanced Phasewire image segmentation on Livewire image segmentation.

(a) Segmentation/Running time

This is the time taken to compute the segmentation including the running time of the algorithm or the time spent to

perform interactive segmentation. The research was implemented on Compaq Presario CQ60 notebook PC with AMD Athlon

Dual-core QL-62 2.00 GHz processor.

(b) Segmentation Accuracy

The accuracy of the segmentation algorithms is generally based on Volume measurement. This is the volume of

segmented feature in the image domain. It is calculated by multiplying number of voxel by the volume of each voxel.

(c) Hausdsorff distance

This evaluating metric measures the degree of mismatch between the initial constraint and the boundary of the

extracted feature. It identifies the point in one set that is the farthest from the other and outputs the distance to the nearest point

in the other set. For two sets of points

m

a a A ,.....,

1

= and

n

b b B ,.....,

1

= the hausdorff distance H(A,B) is defined as;

H ( A, B) = max( h( A, B), h(B, A))

Where h(A, B) = max min || a- b ||

a A bB

(d) Assessment by the Medical expert.

This is the evaluation based on Expert comment on the output of the system. The questionnaire and the system were made

available for the Medical expert on the ease of usage and segmentation quality of the output

3 Discussion of Results

Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems www.iiste.org

ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)

Vol 3, No.3, 2012

82

The training sets used for the evaluation were obtained from University College Hospital Ibadan (UCH). Trans-axial

Human Brain medical images for both Computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were used. Figure

2(a) is a MRI scan of a human brain that serves as the test image for the registration, while Figure 2(b) is a CT scan of a human

brain that was used as the refrence image for the registration. Figure 2(c) is a registered image for both CT and MRI

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Figure 2: Medical image Registration (a) MRI scan of trans-axial Human Brain (b) CT scan of trans-axial Human Brain (c)

Registered image (d) Region of interest for segmentation

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

(f) (g) (h) (i)

Figure 3: Segmentation Results for segmenting Caudate nucleus from trans-axial Human Brain

(GAC) (a) contour at iteration = 100 (b) contour at iteration = 250 (c) Final segmentation contour at iteration =350

(d) magnitude of Eigenvalue (e) 3D view of segmented area.

Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems www.iiste.org

ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)

Vol 3, No.3, 2012

83

(ENGAC) (f) contour at iteration = 100 (g) contour at iteration = 250 (h) Final segmentation contour at iteration =350

(i) 3D view of segmented area.

Figure 2(d) shows a region of interest or an initial constraint for the region to be segmented. The constraint then evolved according

to specified time steps (0.005s). During the process, embedding functions continues to change the topology little by little according

to the given time steps. The embedding function then reconstructed after each set of the time-steps using incremental solver in

GAC. The evolving energy stops when the initial constraint minimized the energy functional to reach the shape in kernel space in

ENGAC.

Figure 3(a) and (b) depict intermediate results of ENGAC Segmentation model at iteration equal 100 and 250 respectively. Figure

3(c) gives the final segmentation result at iteration equal 350. The caudate nucleus in trans-axial human brain was fully extracted

using the model. Figure 3(d) gives the magnitude of Eigen value and isovalues for ENGAC image segmentation that results in a

set of shape parameter vectors. From this set, the mean parameter vector and the covariance matrix as well as the Eigen vector and

Eigenvalues were interpreted as mode of shape variation. At different points in the feature space on the co-ordinates x and y, x

represents 0.002 and y represents 0.039. The nine (9) vectors found were represented as shown in the graph and the non-linearity

of these Eigen vectors was what kernel identifies by keeping the Eigen vectors higher than tolerance of 1e

-18

and by normalizing

these Eigen vectors to get the exact shape. Figure 3(e) gives the 3D view of the final segmentation of the specified region of

interest. This could help the physician to locate the position of caudate nucleus in the entire image domain.

Figure 3(f) and (g) depict intermediate results of GAC Segmentation model at iteration equal 100 and 250 respectively. Figure

3(h) gives the final segmentation result at iteration equal 350. The caudate nucleus in trans-axial human brain was fully extracted

using the model. Figure 3(e) is the 3D view of the final segmentation of the specified region of interest

4 Performance Evaluation

The results of the performance evaluation were given below;

Segmentation time

The segmentation time was evaluated for Geometric active contour (GAC) and enhanced Geometric active contour

(ENGAC). Table 1 gives the result for the evaluation. Figure 4 shows that as the number of iteration increases the segmentation

time increases for both segmentation methods but ENGAC modelsegmentation time is 16.03% slower to segmentation time in

Geometric Active Contour (GAC) model.

Table 1: Segmentation time for GAC model and ENGAC model for caudate nucleus segmentation in trans-axial Human Brain

No of

iteration

(ENGAC)

(GAC)

Segmentation

time(sec)

Segmentation

time(sec)

30 58.65 45.42

60 67.29 60.17

90 79.31 78.49

120 91.18 80.35

150 100.49 84.38

Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems www.iiste.org

ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)

Vol 3, No.3, 2012

84

Figure 4: Segmentation Time (ENGAC Vs GAC)

Segmentation accuracy

The segmented area volume that was used to measure the accuracy was calculated by multiplying number of voxel by the volume

of each voxel. Table 2 gives the results obtained for GAC and ENGAC segmentation model. In Figure 5, as the number of

iteration increases the volume area segmented decreases for both segmentation methods but ENGAC has 18.21% segmented area

volume decrement compare to GAC.

Table 2: Segmented volume area for GAC model and ENGAC model for caudate nucleus segmentation in trans-axial Human

Brain.

No of

iteration

(ENGAC)

(GAC)

Segmented area

volume(cm

3

)

Segmented

area

volume(cm

3

)

30 5.69 5.67

60 4.55 4.71

90 4.03 4.24

120 3.12 3.85

150 3.01 3.68

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

0 100 200

T

i

m

e

(

s

e

c

)

No of iteration

Segmentation time (ENGAC) Versus

Segmentation time (GAC)

Segmentation

time(sec)

ENGAC

Segmentation

time(sec) GAC

Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems www.iiste.org

ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)

Vol 3, No.3, 2012

85

Figure 5: Segmented area volume (ENGAC Vs GAC)

Haudsorff distance

Haudsorff distance before and after segmentation was also calculated for the segmented features. Table 3(a) and (b) show the result

of statistics used to quantify the nearness of the points in the initial constraint to the feature extracted. The hausdorff distance is

considerably reduced in ENGAC model by 2.75mm compared to GAC model.

Table 3: Haudorff distance Before and After segmentation (a) GAC (b) ENGAC

(a)

(GAC)

Before segmentation After

segmentation

Average Hausdorff

distance

27.74mm 23.83mm

(b)

(ENGAC)

Before segmentation After

segmentation

Average Hausdorff

distance

27.81mm 21.08mm

Medical Experts assessment

The system for ENGAC model was evaluated using likert method based on two formulated criteria which are System Ease of Use

(SEU) and System Segmentation Quality (SSQ). The scale was from 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest. The response means of the

methods were calculated Table 4 depicts the Medical experts assessment for the features segmented. Segmentation quality of the

ENGAC segmentation model was rated higher due to the smoothness of the contour generated at the boundary of the feature

extracted follow by GAC model.

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

0 100 200

S

e

g

m

e

n

t

e

d

v

o

l

u

m

e

a

r

e

a

(

c

m

3

No of iteration

Segmented area volume (ENGAC)

Versus Segmented area volume

(GAC)

Segmented

area

volume(cm3

) ENGAC

Segmented

area

volume(cm3

) GAC

Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems www.iiste.org

ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)

Vol 3, No.3, 2012

86

Table 4: Medical Experts assessment

Study

Model

Ease of use

response

mean

Segmentation Quality

response mean

Tran axial

CT image

GAC 3.40 3.53

ENGAC 3.42 4.25

5. Conclusion

Conclusively, GAC segmentation model is faster than ENGAC segmentation model in terms of segmentation time but ENGAC

model has optimal Segmentation accuracy and quality because of its higher decrement rate in the final segmented area volume and

hausdorff distance compared to Geometric active contour.

6. References

Chunming Li, Rui Huang, Zhaohua Ding, J. Chris Gatenby, Dimitris N. (2011). A Level Set Method for Image Segmentation in the Presence

of Intensity In homogeneities With Application to MRI IEEE transactions on image processing, vol. 20, no. 7.

Chen Y, Thiruenkadam S., Tagare H., Huang F., Wilson D., and Geiser E. (2001) On the incorporation of shape priors into geometric active

contours, in Proc. IEEE Workshop Variational and Level Set Methods, pp. 145152.

Wang Y. and Staib L. (1998) Boundary finding with correspondence using statistical shape models, IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and

Pattern Recognition, pp. 338345.

Dambreville S., Rathi Y., and Tannenbaum A. (2008) .A Framework for Image Segmentation Using Shape Models and Kernel Space Shape

Priors, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 30(8):138599,

Charpiat G., Faugeras O., and Keriven R. (2005) Approximations of Shape Metrics and Application to Shape Warping and Empirical Shape

Statistics, Foundations of Computational Mathematics, 5(1):158.

Leventon M., Grimson W., and Faugeras O. (2000) Statistical Shape Influence in Geodesic Active Contours. In Proc. IEEE CVPR.

Tsai A., Yezzi Jr A., Wells W., Tempany C., Tucker D., Fan A., Grimson W., and Willsky A. (2003) A Shape-Based Approach to the

Segmentation of Medical Imagery Using Level Sets. IEEE Trans. on Medical Imaging, 22(2):137154.

Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems www.iiste.org

ISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)

Vol 3, No.3, 2012

87

Osher S. and Sethian J.A. (1988) Fronts propagating with curvature dependent speed: algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulation,

Journal of Computer Physics, vol. (79): 12-49.

Niethammer T. and Allen Tannenbaum (2004) Dynamic Geodesic Snakes for Visual Tracking. Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Computer

Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition CVPR (4) : 660-667

Xiao Han, Chenyang Xu, and Jerry L. Prince, (2003) A Topology Preserving Level Set Method for Geometric Deformable Models IEEE

Transactions on Pattern analysis and Machine intelligence, 25(6):56-70.

- PresentationUploaded byshivurb
- Graph Cut SegmentUploaded bySHickson8
- 05415666Uploaded byKrishna Prasad
- On Line Fabric Defect Detection in a Cicular Knitting MachineUploaded byleosun halari
- Detection of Glaucoma using Optic Disk and Incremental Cup Segmentation from Retinal ImageUploaded bytheijes
- Ijret - The Review on Automatic License Plate Recognition (Alpr)Uploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Image Segmentation and Recognition Using MATLABUploaded byPrafful Somani
- 1-s2.0-S0262885609000675-mainUploaded bysongoloud
- Image SegmentationUploaded byIJSTE
- Prem JosevinUploaded byhkajai
- IJAIEM-2014-10-01-96Uploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- iccv98Uploaded bypacktlike
- A Pattern Recognition Approach to Image SegmentationUploaded byAl C Jr
- ID 186Uploaded byZellagui Energy
- Project PPTUploaded byRavi Raj
- An Efficient Video Similarity Search AlgorithmUploaded byJanani Sekar
- SampleUploaded bySrujana U Kumar
- Ip New ReportUploaded bysurajkr23
- Presentation SlidesUploaded bysharmikbk
- QPBOPI Roof DualityUploaded byquantack
- p9 RTMIC Rahnamayan MohamadUploaded byshom_abraham
- hypertensive retinopathy.docxUploaded byhillery
- An Improved Histogram-Based Image Hashing Scheme Using K-Means SegmentationUploaded bySughit_Nice_154
- ProencaAlexandreIrisSegmentationIEEUploaded byanon_447732652
- kplUploaded byKoratala Harsha
- Detecting the Optic Disc Boundary in Digital Fundus[1]Uploaded byBrenie Sekar
- Final Paper123Uploaded bysuhaspatel84
- InTech-Multimodal Microscopy for Ore CharacterizationUploaded byManuel Rosales
- 132Uploaded byMiguel Salinas
- An Adaptive Color Similarity Function Suitable for Image Segmentation and its Numerical EvaluationUploaded byMia Amalia

- Assessment and Characterization of Rhizo-Bacteria in Petroleum–Polluted Soil in South–East, NigeriaUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Asymptotic Properties of Bayes Factor in One- Way Repeated Measurements ModelUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Availability, Accessibility and Use of Information Resources and Services Among Information Seekers of Lafia Public Library in Nasarawa StateUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessment of the Skills Possessed by the Teachers of Metalwork in the Use of Computer Numerically Controlled Machine Tools in Technical Colleges in Oyo StateUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Applying Multiple Streams Theoretical Framework to College Matriculation Policy Reform for Children of Migrant Workers in ChinaUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessment of Factors Responsible for Organizational PoliticsUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessment of Teachers’ and Principals’ Opinion on Causes of LowUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessment of Some Micronutrient (Zn and Cu) Status of Fadama Soils Under Cultivation in Bauchi, NigeriaUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Barriers to Meeting the Primary Health Care Information NeedsUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Attitude of Muslim Female Students Towards Entrepreneurship - A Study on University Students in BangladeshUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessment of the Practicum Training Program of B.S. Tourism in Selected UniversitiesUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessment of Survivors’ Perceptions of Crises and Retrenchments in the Nigeria Banking SectorUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessment of Housing Conditions for a Developing Urban Slum Using Geospatial AnalysisUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Availability and Use of Instructional Materials and FacilitiesUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Concerning Food Safety Among Restaurant Workers in Putrajaya, MalaysiaUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessment of Relationships Between Students’ Counselling Needs,Uploaded byAlexander Decker
- Application of the Diagnostic Capability of SERVQUAL Model to an Estimation of Service Quality Gaps in Nigeria GSM IndustryUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Antibiotic Resistance and Molecular CharacterizationUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessment in Primary School Mathematics Classrooms in NigeriaUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Extracts of African Mistletoes (Loranthus Begwensis L.) From Kolanut and Breadfruit TreesUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Application of Panel Data to the Effect of Five (5) World Development Indicators (WDI) on GDP Per Capita of Twenty (20) African Union (AU) Countries (1981-2011)Uploaded byAlexander Decker
- Are Graduates From the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training in Kuwaiti Meeting Industrial RequirementsUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessment of Productive and Reproductive Performances of CrossUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessing the Effect of Liquidity on Profitability of Commercial Banks in KenyaUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Assessment for the Improvement of Teaching and Learning of Christian Religious Knowledge in Secondary Schools in Awgu Education Zone, Enugu State, NigeriaUploaded byAlexander Decker
- An Overview of the Environmental Policies to Ensure SafeUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Analysis of Frauds in Banks Nigeria’s ExperienceUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Antinutrient Profile of Three Mushroom Varieties Consumed in Amaifeke, Orlu, Imo StateUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Analysis of Blast Loading Effect on High Rise BuildingsUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Analysis the Performance of Life Insurance in Private InsuranceUploaded byAlexander Decker

- AFEM.Ch38Uploaded byAdnan Ahmed
- (Book) Contemporary Linear Algebra by Howard Anton, Robert C. BusbyUploaded byFelipe Camilo
- ASSOM_Uploaded byDiana Borsa
- Oliver Linton - Econometrics.pdfUploaded bysilvio de paula
- MODULE 2 LEARNING NOTES.docxUploaded bysamwel kiwale
- NewChina5Uploaded byya_laytani
- chapter 2 - Preskill "Quantum Computation"Uploaded by_nimble
- Chapter 9-Analytic Geometry in the SpaceUploaded byRicardo Reales
- Lecture 25 - Johnson Lindenstrauss LemmaUploaded bygdenunzio
- Vector Space DecompositionUploaded byLoboDemian
- MSc Tech Indus MathsUploaded byjayantbildani
- Fundamentals of Linear AlgebraUploaded byjamesjosephalexander
- Thomas Banchoff, John Wermer auth. Linear Algebra Through Geometry.pdfUploaded byanajau
- Operator SpaceUploaded byChowdaiah
- Math 1B03 ExamUploaded byPoulaElhamyMondyBasaly
- M AT H E M AT I C A L M E T H - O D S O F T H E O R E T I C A L P H Y S I C SUploaded byonkeleduard1
- statics_lambUploaded byspinks26
- M.A.-M.Sc-MathsUploaded byKishan Choudhary
- The Palgrave Handbook of Quantum Models in Social Science Applications and Grand ChallengesUploaded bycjmaura
- Gram MatrixUploaded bykenneth
- Linear Algebra Jin Ho KwakUploaded byRafael Solano Martinez
- Chapters 1 & 2 Linear & Multilinear Algebra 2014Uploaded byfabio ariasº
- 1hUploaded byShiningEntity
- Computational Physics Script CQP DistUploaded byursml12
- PastUploaded byVanidevi Mani
- SVD ChapterUploaded byjdmena227
- VonNeumann AlgebrasUploaded bySusan Coleman
- Projection TheoremUploaded byAnonymous Gd16J3n7
- Question of Life: How many dimensions do we live in?Uploaded bySamuel Ramna Lie
- 38582417-StaticsUploaded byGaurav Gyan