Seminar Report ’03

Digital Watermarking

In recent years, the distribution of works of art, including pictures, music, video and textual documents, has become easier. With the widespread and increasing use of the Internet, digital forms of these media (still images, audio, video, text) are easily accessible. This is clearly advantageous, in that it is easier to market and sell one's works of art. However, this same property threatens copyright protection. Digital documents are easy to copy and distribute, allowing for pirating. There are a number of methods for protecting ownership. One of these is known as digital watermarking. Digital watermarking is the process of inserting a digital signal or pattern (indicative of the owner of the content) into digital content. The signal, known as a watermark, can be used later to identify the owner of the work, to authenticate the content, and to trace illegal copies of the work. Watermarks of varying degrees of obtrusiveness are added to presentation media as a guarantee of authenticity, quality, ownership, and source.
Dept. of IT 1 MESCE, Kuttippuram

Seminar Report ’03

Digital Watermarking

To be effective in its purpose, a watermark should adhere to a few requirements. In particular, it should be robust, and transparent. Robustness requires that it be able to survive any alterations or distortions that the watermarked content may undergo, including intentional attacks to remove the watermark, and common signal processing alterations used to make the data more efficient to store and transmit. This is so that afterwards, the owner can still be identified. Transparency requires a watermark to be imperceptible so that it does not affect the quality of the content, and makes detection, and therefore removal, by pirates less possible. The media of focus in this paper is the still image. There are a variety of image watermarking techniques, falling into 2 main categories, depending on in which domain the watermark is constructed: the spatial domain (producing spatial watermarks) and the frequency domain (producing spectral watermarks). The effectiveness of a watermark is improved when the technique exploits known properties of the human visual system. These are known as perceptually based watermarking techniques. Within this category, the class of image-adaptive watermarks proves most effective.

Dept. of IT


MESCE, Kuttippuram

Why do we need to embed such information in digital content using digital watermark technology? The Internet boom is one of the reasons. Kuttippuram . It has become easy to connect to the Internet from home computers and obtain or provide various information using the World Wide Web (WWW). The digital content could be a still image. or some form of digital data that the creator or owner would like to protect. The main purpose of the watermark is to identify who the owner of the digital data is. information for protecting copyrights and proving the validity of data is embedded as a watermark. Dept. image watermarking techniques that take advantage of properties of the human visual system.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking In conclusion. a text document. 1. and the characteristics of the image create the most robust and transparent watermarks. In general. an audio clip. a video clip. A digital watermark is a digital signal or pattern inserted into digital content.1 THE DIGITAL WATERMARK Digital watermarking is a technology for embedding various types of information in digital content. but it can also identify the intended recipient. of IT 3 MESCE.

Such digital content can be easily copied in a way that makes the new file indistinguishable from the original. Dept. Kuttippuram . if paper bank notes or stock certificates could be easily copied and used. resulting in a big loss. thereby protecting copyright. A watermark also discourages piracy by silently and psychologically deterring criminals from making illegal copies. this method is useless in the digital world.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking All the information handled on the Internet is provided as digital content. Watermarked content can prove its origin. of IT 4 MESCE. Principle of digital watermarks A watermark on a bank note has a different transparency than the rest of the note when a light is shined on it. To prevent this. These watermarks are one of the methods for preventing counterfeit and illegal use. trust in their authenticity would greatly be reduced. Then the content can be reproduced in large quantities. currencies and stock certificates contain watermarks. However. For example. Digital watermarks apply a similar method to digital content.

and audio data. Digital watermarks are added to images or audio data in such a way that they are invisible or inaudible Ñ unidentifiable by human eye or ear. Materials suitable for watermarking Digital watermarking is applicable to any type of digital content.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking Currently there are various techniques for embedding digital watermarks. however. Dept. It is easy to embed watermarks in material that has a comparatively high redundancy level ("wasted"). and audio data. such as black-and-white still images. including still images. Embedding a watermark should not result in a significant increase or reduction in the original data. of IT 5 MESCE. Basically. they can be embedded in content with a variety of file formats. it is difficult to embed watermarks in material with a low redundancy level. animation. such as color still images. Furthermore. animation. Digital watermarking is the content protection method for the multimedia era. Kuttippuram . they all digitally write desired information directly onto images or audio data in such a manner that the images or audio data are not damaged.

Kuttippuram . Special software is needed to embed and detect such digital watermarks. Dept.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking To solve this problem. Therefore. Structure of a digital watermark The structure of a digital watermark is shown in the following figures. Kowa 's SteganoSign is one of these software packages. The material that contains a digital watermark is called a carrier. we developed a technique for embedding digital watermarks in black-and-white still images and a software application that can effectively embed and detect digital watermarks. A digital watermark is not provided as a separate file or a link. of IT 6 MESCE. simply viewing the carrier image containing it cannot identify the digital watermark. It is information that is directly embedded in the carrier file.

of IT 7 MESCE. An example of an area where copyright protection needs to be enforced is in the on-line music industry. photographers.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking Both images and audio data can carry watermarks. Dept. Kuttippuram . including writers. A digital watermark can be detected as shown in the following illustration. However. musicians and artists. It is easy to duplicate audio and visual files. and is therefore probable that duplication on the Internet occurs without the rightful owners' permission. 1. these same opportunities provide ease of access to these works.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF DIGITAL WATERMARKS The Internet has provided worldwide publishing opportunities to creators of various works. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) says that the value of illegal copies of music that are distributed over the Internet could reach $2 billion a year. which has resulted in pirating.

When digital cameras are used to snapshot an event. and satellite-delivered video. image and video databases. RIAA reports that "record labels see watermarking as a crucial piece of the copy protection system. This suggests that there are many applications that could require image watermarking. image's origin and content can be verified. and that digital watermarking is needed to indicate who the culprit is. digital cameras. Another scenario in which the enforcement of copyright is needed is in newsgathering.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking Digital watermarking is being recognized as a way for improving this situation. digital libraries. video-on-demand systems. medical imaging. of IT 8 MESCE. including Internet imaging. This is so that later. surveillance imaging. Kuttippuram . whether their music is released over the Internet or on DVD-Audio". 1. the images must be watermarked as they are captured. sooner or later.3 THE PURPOSES OF DIGITAL WATERMARKS Watermarks are a way of dealing with the problems mentioned above by providing a number of services: Dept. They are of the opinion that any encryption system can be broken.

In addition. 3. Watermarks can be used to identify any changes that have been made to the watermarked data. 5. That is. The presence of a watermark in a work suspected of having been copied can prove that it has been copied. They aim to mark digital data permanently and unalterably. 2. With a tracking service. Kuttippuram . owners are able to find illegal copies of their work on the Internet. 4. Dept. watermarks are used in the protection of ownership. Some more recent techniques are able to correct the alteration as well. Copyright owners can incorporate identifying information into their work. By indicating the owner of the work. because each purchaser of the data has a unique watermark embedded in his/her copy.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking 1. any unauthorized copies that s/he has distributed can be traced back to him/her. so that the source as well as the intended recipient of the digital work is known. of IT 9 MESCE. they demonstrate the quality and assure the authenticity of the work.

2. When a person reproduces a work that has been copyrighted. copyright is the right of an author to control the reproduction of his intellectual creation" . a copyright owner needs to prove 2 things. copying even after having discovered a watermark in the work). The damages charge can be higher if it can be proven that the party's conduct constitutes willful infringement. of IT 10 MESCE. 1. Kuttippuram . In cases where it cannot be said that the owner's work and the possible illegal copy are identical. s/he may be held liable for copyright infringement. Dept. without the permission of the owner. and that the copy is "substantially similar" to the original). To prove copyright infringement. that is. s/he copied the work even though s/he knew that it was copyrighted (for example.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking 1. S/he owns the copyright in the work. the existence of a digital watermark could prove guilt. and The other party copied the work (usually determined by establishing that the other party had access to the copyrighted work.4 OVERVIEW OF COPYRIGHT LAW "In essence.

but should not detract from the content of the data. Invisible watermarks. Visible watermarks give an immediate indication of who the owner of the digital work is. They clearly identify the owner of the digital data. Invisible watermarks are designed to be imperceptible under normal viewing (or listening) conditions. more of the current research focuses on this type of watermark than the visible type. Kuttippuram . Both of these types of watermarks are useful in deterring theft. increase the likelihood of prosecution after the theft has occurred. Dept. however. of IT 11 MESCE. on the other hand. and data watermarked with visible watermarks are not of as much usefulness to a potential pirate (because the watermark is visible). but they achieve this in different ways. DIGITAL WATERMARK TYPES AND TERMS Watermarks can be visible or invisible: a. otherwise they would try to remove it. b.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking 2. Visible watermarks are designed to be easily perceived by a viewer (or listener). These watermarks should therefore not be detectable to thieves. they should be easily detectable by the owners.

Semi-fragile watermarks detect any changes above a user-specified threshold. c. Kuttippuram . or "broken". A fragile watermark is embedded in digital data to for the purpose of detecting any changes that have been made to the content of the data. Spatial watermarks are created in the spatial domain of the image. These usually produce images of high quality. Dept. Spectral (or transform-based) watermarks are incorporated into the image's transform coefficients. but are not robust to the common image alterations. depending on how they are constructed: a. The inversetransformed coefficients form the watermarked data. They achieve this because they are distorted. b. semifragile or robust: a.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking A further classification of watermarks is into fragile. and are embedded directly into the pixels of the image. Fragile watermarks are applicable in image authentication systems. Robust watermarks are designed to survive "moderate to severe signal processing attacks". Watermarks for images can further be classified into spatial or spectrum watermarks. of IT 12 MESCE. easily. b.

Dept.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking Perceptual watermarks are invisible watermarks constructed from techniques that use models of the human visual system to adapt the strength of the watermark to the image content. Kuttippuram . blind watermarking techniques are techniques that are able to detect the watermark in a watermarked digital item without use of the original digital item. Finally. The most effective of these watermarks are known as image-adaptive watermarks. of IT 13 MESCE.

Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking 3. both intentional (known as attacks on the watermark) and unintentional (alterations that the digital data item would undergo regardless of whether it contains a watermark or not). The watermark should be robust. 3. These are described below. of IT 14 MESCE. It should be difficult or impossible to remove a digital without noticeably degrading the watermarked watermark content. This means that it should remain in the content after various types of manipulations. Embedding the watermark signal in the digital data Dept. however. 2. That is. EFFECTIVE DIGITAL WATERMARKS 3. or transparent. The watermark should be perceptually invisible. If the watermark is a fragile watermark. it should be imperceptible (if it is of the invisible type). This is to ensure that the copyright information cannot be removed. where it should be able to survive the common image alteration of cropping). it should not remain in the digital data after attacks on it. but should be able to survive certain other alterations (as in the case of images.1 Features of a Good Watermark The following are features of a good watermark: 1. Kuttippuram .

data authentication and data item tracing all in one go. Larger alterations are more robust. Further properties that enhance the effectiveness of a watermarking technique. It should be a private key. 4. and detection of the watermark. unwatermarked [digital document or] image would be necessary for efficient recovery of property and subsequent prosecution". embed and detect the watermark are publicly known. but result in greater degradation of the data. without the key. embedding. but which are not requirements are: 5. Watermark key: it is beneficial to have a key associated with each watermark that can be used in the production.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking produces alterations. 6. it is difficult to Dept. of IT 15 MESCE. Hybrid watermarking refers to the embedding of a number of different watermarks in the same digital carrier signal. because then if the algorithms to produce. Kuttippuram . Hybrid watermarking allows intellectual property rights (IPR) protection. and are easier to detect with certainty. "Such decodability without requiring the original. and these should not degrade the perceived quality of the data. It should be easy for the owner or a proper authority to readily detect the watermark.

of IT 16 MESCE. Kuttippuram . The key indicates the owner of the data. (A more robust watermark usually requires a larger number of alterations to the carrier signal). It is of interest to identify the properties of a digital data item (the carrier signal) that assist in watermarking: 1. It must tolerate at least small. This is so that it can carry a more robust watermark without the watermark being noticed. Dept. well-defined modifications without changing its semantics. 2. It should have a high level of redundancy.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking know what the watermark signal is.

Kuttippuram . of IT 17 MESCE. THE WATERMARKING PROCESS DEMO 4.1 INVISIBLE WATERMARKING PROCESS DEMO Dept.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking 4.

Kuttippuram .Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking 4.2 THE VISIBLE WATERMARKING PROCESS DEMO Dept. of IT 18 MESCE.

Kuttippuram . ATTACKS ON WATERMARKS • Lossy Compression: Many compression schemes like JPEG and MPEG can potentially degrade the data’s quality through irretrievable loss of data.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking 5. scaling and cropping. Addition of a constant offset to the pixel values Local exchange of pixels other intentional attacks: Printing and Rescanning Watermarking of watermarked image (rewatermarking) Dept. translation. A/D conversion Resampling. Recompression Linear filtering such as high pass and low pass filtering. • Geometric Distortions: include such operations as rotation. Requantization. of IT 19 MESCE. • Common Signal Processing Operations: They include the followings. • • • • • • • • D/A conversion.

this section identifies digital watermarking applications and provides an overview of digital watermarking capabilities and useful benefits to customers. Kuttippuram . The various applications are: • Authentication • Broadcast Monitoring • Copy Prevention • Forensic Tracking • E-Commerce/Linking AUTHENTICATION Authentication identifies if content has been altered or falsified. of IT 20 MESCE. For example digital watermarking can verify authenticity and identify counterfeiting as a second layer of security for encrypted content. Dept.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking 6. The presence of digital watermark and/or continuity of watermark can help ensure that the content has not been altered. DIGITAL WATERMARKING APPLICATIONS Digital watermarking is rapid evolving field.

The key advantage of digital watermarking is that it enables tracking of the content to where it leaves an authorized path. and optionally. Dept. COPY PREVENTION Copy prevention helps the digital watermarks to identify whether the content can be copied. where broadcasts are received and processed. Detectors are placed at popular markets. distributor information. FORENSIC TRACKING Forensic tracking locates the source of the content. related content. E-COMMERCE/LINKING The digital watermarking enables the user to purchase or access information about the content. or items with in the content. resulting in reports to be sent to the owner. Kuttippuram .Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking BROADCAST MONITORING Broadcast content is embedded wit a unique identifier. It guards against unauthorized duplication. of IT 21 MESCE.

audio. Dept.t.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking 7. Kuttippuram . partial encryption. Stegnosign: For creating. 3.c. Signum: Allow digital fingerprints to be embedded into grahics. 2. MediaSec: Provide software for various media types. copyright protection. embedded messages and more. WATERMARKING SOFTWARE&SREVICES 1. of IT 22 MESCE. 5. embedding and detecting watermarks. Alpha-Tec: watermarking software for copyright protection and infringement tracking. Digimarc: For document verification. and internet tracking. 4. video e.

Dept. webmasters should be free to continue making their sites audio visually appealing. CONCLUSION Digital watermarks have been used in the last few years to protect the ownership of digital data.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking 8. of IT 23 MESCE. Kuttippuram . By using audio files and images only when they have obtained permission of the appropriate owner. Legitimate business and webmasters have nothing to fear from copyright law or new form of on-line enforcement technology found in digital watermarks and tracking services. Various techniques developed make use of the human audio-visual system.

2.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking 4. Dept.digitalwatermarking. 3. Electronics For You www. REFERENCES www. Kuttippuram .altavita. of IT 24 MESCE.

It imposes extra robustness on embedded information. of IT 25 MESCE. Digital watermarking doesn’t leave a noticeable mark on the content and don’t affect its appreciation. The information embedded is called watermarks. Dept. Watermarks are resistant to filtering and stay with the content as long as the original has not been purposely damaged.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking ABSTRACT Digital watermarking is an extension of steganography. These are imperceptible and detected only by proper authorities. The content is watermarked by converting copyright information into random digital noise using special algorithm that is perceptible only to the creator. Kuttippuram . is a promising solution for content copyright protection in the global network. Digital watermarking is the science of embedding copyright information in the original files. Digital watermarks are difficult to remove without noticeable degrading the content and are covert means in situations where cryptography fails to provide robustness.


and Ms. Department of IT for their valuable suggestions in the preparation of the paper. I am also greatly indebted to Mr. Head of Department of Information Technology and Computer Science. for his guidance and support to shape this paper in a systematic way. Saheer H. S. of IT 27 MESCE. Dept.S. Agnisarman Namboodiri. Kuttippuram . In addition I would like to thank all staff members of IT department and all my friends of S7 IT for their suggestions and constrictive criticism.Seminar Report ’03 Digital Watermarking ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Deepa.

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