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Kinematics: Systematic study of motion using distance, speed, time and acceleration is called kinematics Distance: It is the length of path (scalar quantity) Speed: It Is the time rate of change of distance Displacement: It is the change in position of a particle from initial position to final position

⃗

⃗⃗⃗⃗

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝑠

X1

X1

Position: It is the location of a particle with respect to reference point (origin)

X1

X2

Particle: It is the point object with infinitesimal size. Scalar: The scalar quantity has magnitude (numerical value) but no direction Example: mass, time, distance (length), temperature.

Vector: A vector quantity has both magnitude and direction Example: velocity ⃗⃗⃗⃗ , acceleration (⃗⃗⃗⃗ , displacement ⃗⃗⃗ . Velocity:

It is the rate of change of displacement It is time rate of change of displacement

⃗⃗⃗

**Average velocity: Ratio of change in displacement (
**

⃗

) to change in time (

) is called average velocity

Displacement (m) 𝑠 𝑡

**Time (sec) Instantaneous Velocity: Limiting value of the ratio
**

⃗

as time

approaches zero is called instantaneous velocity

.e.Acceleration: It is the time rate of change of velocity ⃗ ⃗ Average Acceleration: Ratio of change in velocity ( ⃗ ) to change in time ( ⃗ ⃗ Instantaneous Acceleration: Limiting value of the ratio ⃗ as the time ( approaches zero ⃗ Graph ⃗ 𝒂 𝑉 𝑽 𝒕 a = slope of V-t graph 𝑡 The acceleration of freely falling bodies is constant i.

KINEMATIC EQUATIONS For accelerated motion Second Equation of Motion ⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 1 .

Motion with constant acceleration-Calculation of distance travelled in a given time ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ( ) ⃗ Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 2 .

QUIZ: What is the density of earth? Solution: Mass of earth: Radius of Earth: Volume of Earth: Density: OR Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 3 .

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF MOTION Graph between position and time Position X7 X6 X5 Xx1 X4 X3 X2 X1 Time -t For freely falling body When the ball is thrown upward. the height increases with time to a maximum and then decreases to zero Slope (V) is the time rate of change of height ( ) Distance (Y-axis) Vs Time (X-axis) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 At top: Slope (V) = 0 At the end of curve Slope steep downward and represents the maximum downward velocity At the start of curve Slope steep upward and represents maximum upward velocity Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 4 .

sec2 25 20 15 10 05 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time (sec) Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 5 .8m.Graph between Velocity and time Velocity ms-1 25 20 15 10 05 0 0 2 4 6 8 time The acceleration of freely falling body is constant Constant acceleration g=9.s-2 It means that acceleration is not changing Acceleration m.

b). if the lightning strikes 1-mile from you and produces thunder. What is the acceleration? b. Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 1 . How far will it travel during the time? Solution: a). how long will it take for the sound to reach you? Solution: ⃗ ⃗ Example-2: If a falling object increases its velocity from 40m/sec to 60m/sec in 2 seconds then? a.Example-1: The speed of sound in air is about 1100ft/sec. What is the average velocity during the interval? c.

( ) b. Convert 1 mile to meter Solution: a. Convert 20ft to inches b. Distance travelled (s)? ⃗ ( )( ) Example-3: a.c). ( ) Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 2 . Convert 20ft to meter c.

c. ( ) THE CAUSE OF MOTION DO YOU KNOW? Isaac Newton (1942-1727) formulated three basic laws of mechanics These laws explain the behavior of moving object Einstein’s theory of light explains the behavior of objects moving with velocities near speed of light MAX Planks Quantum theory is used for the description of the motion microscopic particles of atom and nuclei. Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 3 .

Newton’s Laws NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION: An object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless some net external force acts upon it. who can tell? Newton’s Second Law: The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net external force exerted upon it and inversely proportional to its mass ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 4 . if it changes its position with respect to surroundings Quiz: At rest or motion. Newton’s first law of motion is also called Law of Inertia REST: An object is at rest if it does not change its position with respect to surroundings MOTION: An object is in a state of motion.

Find (a) acceleration (b) speed and distance after 3 seconds. Solution: a) b) ( ) Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 5 . greater the inertia Smaller the mass. in the absence of friction. Larger the mass.⃗ ⃗ ⃗ Force (F): It is an agency which tends to change the state of motion or rest of an object Mass (m): Mass of an object is a measure of the amount of matter in it and is a measure of its inertia It does not change. initially at rest. smaller the inertia Example: If a man exerts a force of 100 Newton on a crate of mass 5kilogram. in a state of motion It is a scalar quantity Inertia: It is a resistance to change the state of rest ot sate of motion.

F=100N 𝒂 𝑭 𝒎 𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝟓 𝟐𝟎 𝒎 𝒔𝟐 Newton’s third Law of Motion When one body exerts a force on a second body. the second body exerts an equal but oppositely directed reaction force on the first body For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 6 .

what will be its velocity after 3seconds? Solution: a. b.F21 Example: If a 2Kg mass is acted upon by a force of 10N what is the acceleration? If it is initially at rest.It’s the Law! F12 = . Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 7 .

CIRCULAR MOTION: Motion of a particle along circle is called circular motion r Examples: A stone whirled around by a string A satellite in orbit around earth r In circular motion direction of velocity changes continuously but (size) magnitude of velocity (speed) remains same Centripetal acceleration: In circular motion acceleration is produced due to change in direction because of centripetal force called centripetal acceleration Centripetal acceleration is directed along radius towards center of circle V= Velocity of particle moving along circle r = Radius of circle Centripetal Force: Force required to keep an object moving in a circle is called centripetal force ( ) This force is directed inward toward center of circle It acts in a direction perpendicular to the velocity towards center of circle 𝑉 𝐹𝑒 Centripetal force is proportional to the square of velocity and inversely proportional to the radius of circle Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 1 .

an object leaves the circular path and travel in the straight line according to Newton’s law 𝐹𝑐 Centripetal force in term of angular velocity ( ) Centrifugal force (center fleeing force) Force required to keep an object moving. This force is equal and opposite of centripetal force Clinical Application of Circular Motion: Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 2 . away from center of circle is called centrifugal force.Example: Centripetal force keeps a car on a circular track Centripetal force keeps the earth to move around the sun In the absence of centripetal force.

the resultant forces can be obtained by using Pythagorean Theorem Hypoteneous Perpendicular Base ( ) √ √ √ √ ( ) ( ) 𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝐹2 𝑙𝑏 𝜃 𝐹1 4 𝑙𝑏 Page 3 Mohammad Akhtar Kamran . ( ) When two forces act at right angles. It is used in separating material of different densities.e. Less force will be required to keep them moving in a circle as radius is larger. Laboratory centrifuge separate material according to their densities. Heavier particle in centrifuge will move to the outside. The vector sum of two 50pound forces directed in opposite direction is zero. its speed It is used to separate different type of proteins from cellular material Forces as Vectors Forces (F=ma) is a vector quantity and has both magnitude (numerical value) and direction There are several forces acting in different directions on a single object Net external force is the sum of all the forces acting on an object i. It can be used to measure densities Ultracentrifuges are important tools in microbiology research.

The angle ( ) can be measured by protractor. Knee flexion abduction force vector diagram Resultant Force 1 2 3 4 Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 4 .The diagonal of a rectangle gives the direction of resultant force.

which is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of distance between them ***REPAIRED*** R= distance between centers of masses G= proportionality constant= 11 2 2 r Stone F on stone F on earth Earth Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 5 .The force of gravity The earth attracts all objects towards its center due to gravity Newton’s law of gravitation: It states that every object attracts every other object with the gravitational force.

𝐹 MOON Earth Earth 𝐹 Weight: The weight of an object is defined as the force of gravity acting upon it Weight Density It is the weight per unit volume ( ) Specific Gravity: Ratio of density of material to density of water ( ) Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 6 .

8N/Kg = 98N Example-2: If a person has a mass of 5slug. What is the density of aluminum block? Solution Clinical Application of Gravity Due to the downward pull of gravity. post-operative patient are often placed in special position.Example-1: What is the weight of 10kilogram object? Solution: m = 10Kg g = 9. The head may be elevated after surgery for drainage of blood from the brain. What is his weight? Solution m = 5slug g = 32 Pound/slug IN = m×g W = 5slug × 32 Pound/slug = 160 Pounds Example-3 Volume of a 100 gram block of aluminum is 37cm3. all objects tends to move to the lowest possible position Gravity drainage is used to remove fluid from the lungs The gravitational force provides the pressure for administration of intravenous fluid. Brain surgery may be performed in sitting position to lessen the danger of hemorrhage. the pressure in the blood vessels of legs and feet is higher than that in head and neck and people have edema of the feet and legs due to standing for long time The gravity effect can be seen in the veins of arms and hands if the arms are left hanging for long period The improve gravity drainage. transfusion and so on The force of gravity has an effect upon the circulation of fluid Because of gravitational Pull. Mohammad Akhtar Kamran Page 7 .8N/Kg W = mg W= 10Kg × 9.

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