1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION In our competitive world today, leadership skills are crucial to any successful business.

Leadership is commonly used to refer to activities such as conducting, guiding, or directing people; initiating activity. How can leadership be applied in so many ways and what constitutes a leader in all of these situations? The answer is contained in the realization that perhaps the most fundamental characteristic of leadership, and therefore of leaders, is personal leadership which is the ability to lead others and oneself in the direction he wants your life or his business to take. Some individuals are born leaders while others have to procure the skill and talent to successfully make their mark as a leader. In nursing, leadership is important in today's changing health care climate. Nurse leaders affect staff satisfaction, patient outcomes, and the fiscal status of most health care organizations. In business, it is important because all people are silently asking to be led. Business is a collection of people working for the same cause, and a leader is required to define that cause. Growth of a business will only come through the time and talents of others. Our group has chosen to conduct an organizational study on Engineering and Machinery Corporation Inc. (EMCOR Inc.) in Mati City, Davao Oriental among others because we want to understand how leadership and management are done, how are they applied not only to nursing but also to business, and how do they impact business massively. EMCOR Inc. is a a hundred-percent Filipino-owned retail business corporation specializing in appliances, furniture, IT products, motorcycles, and money transfer through its network of specialty chain stores in the Visayas, Mindanao, and Palawan areas. The company believes that as responsible members of the Philippine society, it

2 should pursue its profit objectives in the spirit of service to the community (Santos, 2009). On February 24, 2012 at 4:00 in the aftrenoon, our group conducted a throrough interview with the Sales Coordinator of EMCOR Mati Inc. by using a guided questionnaire. Mrs. Cecile Franco, the manager, wanted the sales coordinator, Mr. Carlo Esteban, in lieu of her to entertain the group’s questions. Through the in-depth interview, we were able to gather the necessary data needed to conduct an organizational case study on such company. However, not all data was disclosed since some are confidential to the company. Conducting an oganizational case study may help us understand how each process of management is important as to how each can affect the company as a whole, how essential it is to have a plan, to know how to organize one’s employees, and learn how to direct and control for the betterment of the company itself. In addition, this will also help us appreciate the essence of these simple lines and boxes in an organizational chart as to how these things impact the company intensely especially in the flow of communication and in knowing what are the specific roles and responsibilties each position in the company holds. Learning all these things will not only make us knowledgeable about what an organization is, how does it work but also, this will enable us to really understand what is reality and how should we be able to excel in such reality as efficient leaders and managers in the future. Why? What happens without leadership? The best analogy that can be drawn here is a ship without a captain. Not leading an organization is a sure-fire way to make sure it sinks.

OBJECTIVES

3 General Objectives Generally, this study aims to know and holistically understand the organizational structure and the management process of EMCOR Mati Inc. in Mati City, Davao Oriental. Specifically, it shall: 1. Present the planning strategy used by the company; 2. Determine how do they do organizing; • • • • • • • What is their organizational structure; What are their levels of hierarchy; How do they do departmentalization; How do they select their staffs or personnels; How do they orient the new personnels; What are the job descriptions and titles in their company; and How do they schedule.

3. Determine how they do directing; • • • • • • • What leadership theory are they basing on; What leadership style are they using; What are the leadership skills that their leaders posses; What are their bases of power; How do they delegate; How do they communicate with one another in the company; What motivational theories does their manager use to motivate the employees; • How do they manage their time; and

4 • How do they manage conflicts among personnels in the company. Determine how does the company do controlling. How do they develop their employees/staffs. 5. 4. Provide recommendations on how to improve their company specifically their services. and How do they manage and ensure the quality of their products. • • • How do they budget. .

their company covers a wider range of products (from motorcycles. plus they also cater money transfer via Western Union. unhealthy levels of rivalry between departments. appliances down to IT products). they offer a longer term in credits making their products much affordable to the people. weaknesses. The strengths or attributes within their company that are considered to be important to the execution and ultimate success of their business are the facts that their company is bigger among other companies here in Mati City.strengths. the process of SWOT involves four areas of consideration . are identified and addressed. and threats.. these . However. and that all factors related to the effort.5 Chapter II PLANNING Planning is one of the most important project management and time management techniques. A plan is like a map. EMCOR Mati Inc. The company’s weaknesss must have something to do with internal factors that could prevent the achievement of a successful result to their projects. believes that planning is indeed essential. According to Hill (1997). In planning. as matter of fact. factors such as a weak internal communication system. According to Mr. in order to accomplish this task. 2012). Esteban. one can always see how much he has progressed towards his project goal and how far he is from his destination (TechRepublic. both positive and negative. It is preparing a sequence of action steps to achieve some specific goal. When following a plan. opportunities. they use a strategy called SWOT analysis to ensure that there is a clear objective defined for their project or venture. If a person does it effectively. EMCOR Mati Inc. has no weakness at all. furnitures. he can reduce much the necessary time and effort of achieving the goal. and inadequate funding for their projects are not present in their company since they ensure that if there are conflicts among the members of the company.

As for inadequate funding. human resource department. they always see to it that everything is planned intricately especially their budget aand funds. planning is done and disseminated to the other departments by the Mrs. Esteban. plus they offer a longer credit term and money transfer. computers. most Filipinos save money to buy something during holidays or big occasions to avail discounts that’s why we see these as a great opportunity for our company” said Mr. they have these promotions and these caravan sales which are usually held outside their stores to reach out to people in far areas especially in opportune times of big occasions such as feasts. and the service operation. they are the biggest and they cover a wider range of products. Fortunately. and the accounting head are present for them to plan their daily operations and the activities for that year. sales coordinator. Besides. and the scheduling and budgeting. It is only the manager who presides and they never invite guest speakers during planning. ‘kwela skwela’ every June for students in which there are sales for some IT products such as laptops. For the opportunities. the most important of all is planning as it the foundation of such. Franco herself through meetings. “During times like these. The planning setting of the company usually happens in their office during evening after the working hours. All heads of the departments like the credit officer. They plan everything before proceeding to their daily operations in their store.6 are resolved immediately during their morning meetings. Mr. Some activities that they do are promotions such as caravan sale. finance service operation. The last area covered by SWOT analysis are threats which could cause trouble for the business or project. There are four departments in such company namely. store operation. people have money. With regard to the hierarchy of powers. they see no threats to their company at the present time since among other businesses here in Mati City. Estaban added that in a particular operation. .

They always time it with big occasions such as feasts. the schedule depends on the feasiblity of a particular place considering proper timing. the sales coordinator did not disclose any more information on their planned activities for this year as. they evaluate themselves based on yesterday’s performance. Chapter III ORGANIZING . such information is confidential. As for caravan sales. they usually have a meeting to see to it that conflicts are already resolved if there are any. During such meeting. like he said. Every morning before starting to work. and they assess if their objectives were met or not.7 etc. they plan about their sales quota. However.

2011). Esteban says that organizing is performed to assemble and arrange all their required resources. Mr. Under the sales coordinator are the sales representatives who entertain customers. and attendance incentive). merit admin. and those in charge for employee relations (client consultations and grievance procedure). This is depicted in the organizational chart (Mills. salary board. The finance service operation consists of a credit officer and finance service representatives. they have the inventory clerk and the cashier. Under the service men are the utilities who are tasked for the total quality management (TQM) of the physical operations (under the supervision of the sales coordinator). including their people. Under the book keeper.8 Organizing is the process of grouping activities for attaining objectives and assigning each grouping to a manager who has the authority necessary to supervise the group members (World Academy. those in charge for training and developing the skills of the employees (program development and workforce committe). and relationships within the agency. The store operation is headed by the manager. roles. The human resource department is headed by a director. 2005). It sets up the organizational structure by identifying groupings. Under him are personnels in charge for the compensation and benefits of all the employees in the company (job evaluation. The book keeper (assigned for all accounting matters_ and the sales coordinator (responsible for all sale matters) come after the manager. Figure 1 illustrates the organizational structure of EMCOR Mati Inc. and the cleanliness of the whole store. The service operation includes service men and technicians who are responsible for the ‘after sales’ in which customers who have bought defective products come to them and have them repair such products. They are the ones responsible for investigating on the clients who apply for credit to determine the customer’s capability to pay. so that the required work can be .

their personnels are united in performing interrelated tasks thereby assisting them in working together effectively. By means of organizing. .9 accomplished successfully.

Organizational Chart of EMCOR Mati Incorporated. Davao Oriental .10 Organizational Structure Figure 1. Mati City.

In EMCOR Mati Inc. Whenever there are new applicants. has a pyramidal type of organizational structure. human resource department. However. the manager will refer these people to the human resource department for evaluation and interview. it is Mrs. the company uses a suggestion box wherein employees can discreetly comment or suggest for the improvement of the management of such company.. Franco who does all the decision-making whereas the employees will only follow all the commands made by the manager. Departmentalization EMCOR Mati Inc. Levels of Hierarchy A hierarchy refers to the levels of management in any business. and service operation. they can also suggest ideas but it is still the manager’s decision that will count if such ideas will be approved or not. from highest to lowest.11 A. finance service operation. After his/her application for credit is approved. The company has four departments: store operation. Profile . Lower level workers take direction from higher level employees. In this matter. This shows the chain of command and the flow of communication which is from the manager down her subordinates. Those on a higher level have more decision-making power and control than employees who occupy a lower level in the hierarchy. These departments work hand in hand in all daily operations especially when it comes to credits such as installments for a particular product. B. the manager or the sales coordinator will refer the customer or the client to the credit officer wherein the officer will conduct an investigation on the client to determine his/her capability to pay. Additionally. C. he/she will be sent back to the manager or the sales coordinator.

is a 100% Filipino-owned retail business corporation specializing in appliances. Philips. Brother. Toshiba.12 EMCOR Inc. in the right place and at the right price. IT products. FS Furniture. . Epson. In 1976. Suzuki and many others. They have also partnered with Western Union for money transfer services. Honda. employees. Canon. Sony. the company retained the acronym "EMCOR" to take advantage of the popularity and goodwill the name had generated over the years. it shifted its product lines to Kawasaki motorcycles and NationalPanasonic appliances. JVC. La Germania. the JVR Foundation has given more than PhP200 Million in philanthropic work. educational/scientific research. it should pursue its profit objectives in the spirit of service to the community. shareholders and the government by supporting national and local agenda for economic development. it strives to maintain a balance between the interests of its customers. motorcycles. To date. EMCOR Inc. and Palawan areas. Acer. EMCOR Inc. believes that as responsible members of the Philippine society. They strive to reconcile the profit motive of the company with service to the nation. Samsung. The core of its existence is its ability to provide high quality service to its customers by providing the right products at the right time. healthcare and environmental sanitation and preservation. It is currently under the JVR Foundation Inc. Sharp. furniture. in 1958 originally under the name of Engineering and Machinery Corporation (EMCOR) as the franchise dealer of International Harvester (IH) in Mindanao with its base in Davao City. History Jesus V. and money transfer through its network of specialty chain stores in the Visayas. Sanyo. Thus. Whirlpool. del Rosario founded EMCOR Inc. Electrolux. Mindanao. carries a wide array of product lines like Panasonic. Kawasaki. Despite the change in product lines.—one of the many companies of the JVR Group of Companies. social reform.

Jesus V. we dedicate ourselves to progress. Visayas and Palawan islands. EMCOR entered into a marketing agreement with National-Panasonic Philippines. The latter was the distributor of National-Panasonic household appliances and home convenience products manufactured by Precision Electronic Corporation. Inc. furniture and money transfer. Mr. to personal growth and development and to become a model company • Commitment to Service . To attain this objective. Today. It has established a strong presence in the Philippines having more than 100 stores in the Mindanao. IT products. EMCOR is a 100% Filipino Company whose primary business activity is in the retail of household appliances. which is still underdeveloped. del Rosario as a guiding principle for the JVR Group of Companies. motorcycles. It was written by its founder. In 1992.13 In 1979. We must devote ourselves to the further development of the Philippines by providing our customers and the community we serve with quality products and services through our nationwide store network and by creating more job opportunities. General Principles and Creeds The General Principles and Creeds of EMCOR are recited daily by its employees. the Advanced Technology Systems (ATS) Department was established to cater to the growing market of Information Technology Products. • Corporate Mission We recognize our responsibilities to our country.

For without maturity and understanding. It must reconcile the profit-motive with service to the nation. the following are also recited daily. all of us must keep this principle constantly in our minds as we devote ourselves to the welfare of our company and of the Philippines. • Monday: Philippine Nationalism Through Industry This is our main objective. we shall exist in the future confused and without direction.14 To become a progressive company. • Wednesday: Cooperation . • General Creed Our contribution to the progress and development of our country can be realized only through unity and cooperation of each and every member of the company. we hope to contribute to the upliftment of the service standards of our industry and ultimately do our part in the task of nation building. For this reason. The Seven Creeds As part of its efforts to promote outstanding customer service. • Tuesday: Maturity and Understanding We shall work together in harmony with the spirit of cooperation. We shall be fair and just to all. Our main purpose is not only of financial gains nor to impress others of our achievement. Through these efforts therefore. it is our responsibility to provide high standards of service for the best interest of our customers. Our mission shall be to create job opportunities for a better standard of living and peace of mind. a progressive company automatically becomes a social organization. In this generation.

• Thursday: Achievement It will be our policy not to dominate the individual but rather to encourage trust and self confidence. we must respect the rights and ways of others. D. he has gained self-respect and satisfaction. We must be human to understand the problems of others. we must be proud of our own self-respect and thankful for the freedom to enjoy our friendship with our fellowmen. We shall work together as a family in mutual trust and confidence. • Saturday: Flexibility The development of the Philippines must be within the international standards of progress. we are thankful that through this peaceful association. so that through this unity and understanding. Through this policy. The more skilled and capable shall guide the apprentice. Third. and in every opportunity. But progress cannot be achieved unless we maintain flexibility to adapt with the ever-changing conditions prevailing around us. the individual will feel his contribution to the true spirit of our daily creed and to the foundation of our main objective. we can gain knowledge. that through this spirit of self-respect. we shall overcome all difficulties. we cannot fail. give comfort and understanding. dedication and self-satisfaction. And he must feel that through his own efforts. • Daily Creed on Self Respect First. Also be cordial and modest. Second. Staffing/Personnel Selection .15 Alone we are weak. • Friday: Common Courtesy If we are to be respected. Let us praise and encourage freely. together we are strong.

employee commitment. staffing is ‘putting people to jobs’. A graduate of four-year course is preferred since the company exercises promotions. the company sees it as an advantage if the applicant is residing within the city. fit in more quickly with peers and colleagues and readily contribute new ideas. In addition. staffing pertains to recruitment. For instance. Staff members who are properly trained and welcomed at the beginning of their careers will feel good about their choice of employer. the company has 23 personnels in which 5 are female and 18 are male. development and compensation of subordinates so that right type of people are available at right positions and at right time in the organization. In the simplest terms. Applicants are handled and are interviewed by the human resource department. These new employees will undergo several trainings and seminars in which they will be taught about strategies on how to sell and how to handle customers. selection. They are required to submit a resumé. a bio-data and a transcript to verify if they are a graduate of a four-year course in order to meet the standards of the company. It is the manager who decides if there is a need to hire new personnels. An age of not more than 28 years old is also one of their standards.16 According to Haimann (2009). They belong to the age bracket of 25 – 35 years old. Personnel Orientation Effectively orienting the new employees can pay big dividends in staff retention. company culture and customer satisfaction. E. a utility person will not remain as a ‘cleaner’ forever. One human resource personnel will be assigned for the orientation of the newly hired employees. . He can be promoted based on his performance thus education is very much considered. After deliberating and scrutinizing the applicants. At the present time. the human resource department will decide who will be hired and who will not be.

In their company. required qualifications of candidates. Inc. However.17 F.. sales coordinator. 2010). sales representatives. G. the availabilty of a particular position and the qualifications of an applicant are considered. and plan how he will use it to achieve his identified goals. Franco delegates such task to the sales coordinator. As for the scheduling of the activities of EMCOR Mati Inc. These define the qualifications and scope of responsibilities. Sometimes. Mrs. etc. the relationships and authorities of their personnel. and reporting relationship and coworkers of a particular job (Healthfield. These are manager. technicians. In EMCOR Mati. they can understand what their company can realistically achieve . It represents the tasks and deliverables that need to be completed to deliver the project on time. 2000). responsibilities. most important contributions and outcomes needed from a position. Scheduling are usually done with planning. Personnel Job Descriptions Job descriptions are written statements that describe the duties. By scheduling properly. Scheduling Scheduling is the process by which one look at the time available to him. They time their promotions along with the big occasions for a paticular month in a particular place. In addition. it is the manager who does all these.. The schedule is the most representative element of a project. utilities. there are several job descriptions one can apply. it provides project teams with a map for project execution and delivers a baseline for tracking progress and managing change (Microsoft Project. if the manager wishes to. job descriptions are greatly emphasized during orientation in order for the new personnels to understand the functions and roles each position holds.

Employees in EMCOR Mati Inc. Being late is not a new thing to Filipinos. Chapter IV DIRECTING Directing is said to be a process in which the managers instruct. Like any other companies. the company only allows 3 lates in 15 days. They work 8 hours a day from Mondays to Saturdays. he will be dismissed and can no longer work again in that company. guide and oversee the performance of the workers to achieve predetermined goals. Also. It is of the . work from 7am – 5pm. they can plan to make the best use of the time available. they also offer leave privileges to their employees as mandated by law. preserve contingency time to handle the undexpected things and minimize stress by avoiding over-commitment to themselves and to others. If such employee still continues his tardiness despite being verbally reprimanded by the manager.18 with their time. However. This can cause a demerit on the personnel’s performance and can surely affect his promotion and salary as well.

2012). Planning. staffing have got no importance if the direction function does not take place (Management Study Guide. Understanding leadership models can help an organization identify potential leaders (Guzman. The lists of traits or qualities associated with leadership exist in abundance and continue to be produced. is "ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen. Based on the belief that leaders are exceptional people. . as explained by successful businessman Alan Keith. military and Western. Whilst early theories tend to focus upon the characteristics and behaviours of successful eaders. While larger companies actively mine the work force for great leaders. This led to the next school of Trait Theories.19 heart of management process." Good leaders move their followers to action and help them realize their potential to accomplish a greater objective. owners often need to fill this role themselves. 2012). organizing. A review of the leadership literature reveals an evolving series of 'schools of thought' from “Great Man” and “Trait” theories to “Transformational” leadership (see table below). destined to lead. from ambition to zest for life. The use of the term 'man' was intentional since until the latter part of the Great Man Theories twentieth century leadership was thought of as a concept which is primarily male. later theories begin to consider the role of followers and the contextual nature of leadership. They draw on virtually all the adjectives in the dictionary which describe some Trait Theories positive or virtuous human attribute. Leadership Theory Leadership. A. born with innate qualities. for small businesses.

20 These concentrate on what leaders actually do rather than on their qualities. Table 1. focusing on the mutual benefits Transactional Theory derived from a form of 'contract' through which the leader delivers such things as rewards or recognition in return for the commitment or loyalty of the followers. This is a refinement of the situational viewpoint and focuses on Contingency Theory identifying the situational variables which best predict the most appropriate or effective leadership style to fit the particular circumstances. This area has probably attracted most attention from practising managers. This approach sees leadership as specific to the situation in which it is being exercised. Theorists . This approach emphasises the importance of the relationship between leader and followers. EMCOR Mati Inc. whilst some situations may require an autocratic style. The Organizational Leadership Theories. The central concept here is change and the role of leadership Transformational in envisioning and implementing the transformation of Theory organisational performance. uses two types of leadership theories – the behaviourist and the transformational theories. The behavioral theory describes leadership not as a set of traits but a set of behaviors and styles.It also proposes that there may be differences in required leadership styles at different levels in the same organization. Based on the data gathered. others may need a Situational Leadership more participative approach. For example. Different patterns of behaviour are observed Behaviourist Theories and categorised as 'styles of leadership'.

the manager also focuses on the big picture and uses communication to motivate her employees to effectively and efficiently execute their vision. manager uses a democratic type of leadership wherein she presides over a collective decision process. It is the ability of an individual to influence. She gets to decide what will be done and how to do such. 2009). It is Mrs. democratic. However. Leadership Styles According to House (2007). leadership is the manner and approach of providing direction. B.21 studied three main leadership styles: authoritarian. and to actively seek out new ideas to realize objectives (Guzman. the leader maintains the final decision making authority (Clark. All the personnels are interdependent with one another as shown by the collaboration of the store operation and the finance service operation departments in some cases like credits. . motivate. The EMCOR Mati Inc. and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members. and laissez-faire (Lauritzen. implementing plans. The company employees also prefer such approach to leadership since aside from the fact that they can suggest on the decision-making process. Yet. 2009). Transformational leadership theory calls for leaders to be visible and accessible. and motivating people. 2012). The EMCOR Mati Inc. This is what’s happening in their company. A democratic leadership style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process – determining what to do and how to do it. Franco who does most of the decision making while involving some of her employees such as the sales coordinator and the credit officer in the planning. Moreover. she always has the last say to this and that. uses a democratic type of leadership. their performance also increases when their manager uses positive reinforcement.

knowing and understanding group resources. These are getting and giving information. understanding group needs and characteristics. According to the Mr. Having highly developed human skills. She is knowledgeable and analytically able within that specialty. In addition. human and conceptual skills that their manager. she also sees the usefulness and limitations of these feelings. assumptions. she is sufficiently sensitive to the needs and motivations of other personnels in her organization thereby enabling her to judge the possible reactions to. and outcomes of. Esteban. already posseses. With regard to the conceptual skill. their manager always understands and is proficient in every activity. manager of learning. Besides. she is aware of her own attitudes. counseling. their management seems to rest on three basic developable skills: technical. controlling the group. Leadership Skills According to Phelps (2001). and beliefs about the other members or personnels of their company. Mrs. Mrs. Mrs. Technically. The company’s manager is the one who directs the activities of the employees and undertakes the responsibility for achievement of objectives through such efforts. setting the example. Bánáthy (2003) organized the leadership competencies into eleven skills that are easily teachable. With practice. Franco is able to see the enterprise as a whole. she recognizes how the various functions of the organization depend on one . sharing leadership. Franco. evaluation.22 C. Franco always understands and motivate her employees. good leadership is a result of the careful application of 11 skills that any post leader or officer can learn to use. and knows the use of the tools and techniques of the specific discipline. these skills can become a part of the adult’s or youth officer’s leadership style and will prove helpful in exploring and all other leadership situations. representing the group. the various courses of action she may undertake. planning.

23 another. and expert. and the political. Another base of power that the manager utilizes is referent. 2012). Bases of Power Bases of power refer to the methods that managers and leaders utilize to influence their employees. In order to meet the targets. These rewards can range from increased salaries to promotions. Principles of Delegation According to the Management Study Guide (2012). Five bases of power were identified by French and Raven in 1960. This base of power derives from the employees' respect for a manager and their desire to identify with or emulate him or her. and how changes in any one part affect all the others. She manager gives some sort of reward to her employees. E. Referent power rests heavily on trust. Franco utilizes is the legitimate power since the employees believe that she has the right to give orders based on her position. with power being the ability to do things or have others do what one has ordered while authority is the foundation on which that power is built (The Coach’s Zone. the manager should delegate authority. the manager leads by example. She also visualizes the relationship of the individual business to the industry. D. social and economic forces of the nation as a whole. Delegation of authority means division of authority and powers downwards to the subordinates in order to achieve effective results. legitimate. These five types of power are coercive. One base of power that Mrs. Power can be manifested through one or more of these bases (Encyclopedia of Management. Mrs. referent. Another is the reward base of power. 2006). reward. the community. a manager alone cannot perform all the tasks assigned to him. In their company. Authority and power are intertwined. . Franco utilizes only three bases of power among the five.

Communication Communication in organizations encompasses all the means. Esteban said. It is not because she could not do the task. although they have a big company. probably the most popular explanations of motivation are based on the needs of the individual. They always sees to it that all instructions that are given are clear enough for the employees to understand their functions and responsibilities.24 Mrs. she delegates because she thinks the task could be done better if a particular personnel other than her will do it. 2000). but. Besides. G. According to Poertner (2002). In delegating. their store is small and the personnels are just near each other. . they follow the channeling system when referring to the right person to contact to. and there is enough time for her subordinate to learn. to exchange hearsay and rumors. She usually delegates authority to the sales coordinator. these various modes of communication may be used to disseminate official information between employees and management. Franco delagates tasks whenever she is not around for some reasons. Some of the motivation theories that are based on needs are Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory in which he identified 5 levels of human needs – physiological needs. In management circles. and across the network of managers and employees in a business (David. F. both formal and informal. As what Mr. or anything in between. Motivation Theories Motivation is a complex phenomenon. she always sees to it that she has selected the right person to whom the task is to be delegated. They also make sure that information is disseminated correctly and properly so as to avoid misunderstandings and conflicts within the personnels. by which information is passed up. Several theories attempt to explain how motivation works. down.

especially to increase effectiveness. According to Mr. love and belongingness. achievement. Time Management Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities. organizational pictures. . Their manager should really use motivational factors (satisfiers) liberally to inspire work and performance. Franco utilizes Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory in motivating her employees. As the manager. and McClelland three basic needs theory which recognizes that everyone prioritizes needs differently. 2012). He identified three specific needs. and feelings of recognition. efficiency or productivity (Ward.25 safety and security. are adequate before she starts to build satisfiers into their jobs. growth opportunities. but that they are actually learned through life experiences. etc. self-esteem. they simply must be in place for the work to get accomplished. and are the key to job satisfaction and motivation). He also believed that individuals are not born with these needs. Esteban. These are need for achievement. for power. She makes it sure that she utilizes both of these factors in hiring and retaining staffs or personnels. If not. Mrs. Herzberg’s two-factor theory in which he indentified two sets of factors that impact motivation in the workplace – hygiene factors (salary. and for affiliation (Accel Team. hygiene factors do not create job satisfaction. working conditions. these factors will only serve to dissatify the company’s personnels. and self-actualization. She ensures that hygiene factors such as salary. H. and technical quality of supervision) and satifiers or motivators (responsibility. job security. she always sees to it that she finds out what employees really do in their jobs so she can make improvements if needed thus increasing job satisfaction for the employees and the performance of the company as a whole. job security. 2012).

I. Conflict Management According to Thomas (2004). Managing a conflict requires a high level of self leadership as well as excellent communication skills. says L. Franco always sees to it that time is properly managed and that everyone should follow what’s in the schedule since every activity or operation in their store has allocated time especially during promotions. Franco always holds meetings . employees. up to 30% of a typical managers time is spent dealing with conflict and yet avoiding conflict is not only impossible but undesirable. Esteban stated that in their company. Employees including the manager work for 8 hours from Mondays to Saturdays. Conflict between entrepreneurs and their partners. and customers hampers operations and often contributes to business failures. some conflicts are really inevitable so their manager needs to embrace conflict and create an environment where differences of perspective can be discussed and a win-win outcome can be created. The store closes at 5 o’clock in the afternoon. goals. Personnels are governed by their working hours. there should always be proper communication among their members since the most common causes of conflicts in their company are instances wherein there’s poor communication. 2011). For this reason. Their store opens at 8 o’clock in the morning and employees must arrive at least 15 minutes earlier. different attitudes. suppliers. Randolph Lowry.26 Mrs. and there are disagreements about their needs. He added that in order for conflicts to be solved. president of Lipscomb University in Nashville (Klein. Mrs. values and perceptions clash. The company only allows 3 lates in 15 days (regardless of the minutes late and if these lates are consecutive). priorities and interests. Mr.

1970). . Control in management means setting standards. It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective action so that deviation from standards are minimized and stated goals of the organization are achieved in desired manner. Chapter V CONTROLLING Controlling is one step of the management process.27 every morning to see to it that conflicts are already resolved before starting their daily operations. Thus. control comprises these three main activities (Mockler. measuring actual performance and taking corrective action.

travel expenses such as diesel or gasoline for their vehicle. and manpower. food. Franco is responsible for the success of the company which is usually achieved by performing their functions. controlling is responsible for transparency of that success. Franco formulates a budgetery plan while considering factors such as the number of people. EMCOR also does budgeting. Budgeting Budgeting is simply planning the process of creating a budget. Their budget aims to achieve reasonable targets and strives for more profits every year. Like any other business. controlling cares to define steps to achieve this goal and method of monitoring of movement toward that goal. controlling includes adjustment of the goal to the global vision of the company and that all the functions of management and all departments of their company will be adapted for this purpose. as economic and financial situations change. 1999). al. personnels.. So when she decides on the specific goals that will be achieved for their store. However. it is against the rules and regulations of the company to disclose their budgeting plans to people who are not personnels of EMCOR. It is organized in the same format as a financial statement. operation. When budgeting. Also. the anticipated income and expenses developed in the budget are compared to the actual performance of the business as recorded in the financial statement (Pinney. et. wages.28 While Mrs. A budget is a forecast of all cash sources and cash expenditures. their budget is revised periodically. At the end of the year. and most commonly covers a 12-month period. Mrs. Franco sees to it that their budget is easy to apply and flexible. . so their budget must also adapt to changes whenever required. Mati Inc. A. Mrs. Also.

he sees budgeting as a means of planning where the money is going and from where money is going to come in. he added. they gather and have a meeting to evaluate yesterday’s performance and to see to it that conflicts are . “A business without budget is like shooting in the dark. 2011). In addition. spending and overall cash flow allowing them to perceive problems before they occur and alter their plans to prevent those problems. not on the his/her personality characteristics. they always know where to aim for. B. Every morning before starting to work. the evaluation of the personnels’ performance is done by Mrs. you do not know where you want to go and where you have reached”. Mr. When they budget.. They usually do performance evaluation once in 6 months.29 When asked how important budgeting is for them. The manager assesses them quantitatively (how much sales do they contribute this month or this year) and qualitatively (this referes to how they see the quality of the employees’ performance as a whole). Franco in collaboration with the human resource department basing on the sales quota set for the employees. It measures skills and accomplishments with reasonable accuracy and uniformity and provides a way to help identify areas for performance enhancement and to help promote professional growth (The Division of Human Resource. They company also provides a suggestion box for the employees so they can discreetly comment or suggest to their head for the betterment of the company. In EMCOR Mati Inc. Performance Evaluation/Appraisal Feedback A performance appraisal is a review and discussion of an employee's performance of assigned duties and responsibilities based on th results obtained by the employee in his/her job. Esteban said that budgeting is very important as it greatly enhances their chances of success by helping them estimate future needs and plan profits.

and time management. Evaluating the employees will stimulate their interest and improve job performance. if there are any. Mrs. after appraising the employees’ performance. During the meeting. on-going effort on the part of an employee and the organization for which he or she works to upgrade the employee's knowledge. Staff/Personnel Development Staff development is a joint. staff development is no longer part of the manager’s work. In addition. managerial skills training. 2006). According to Mr. supervisory skills training. skills. In EMCOR Mati Inc. Esteban. C. Franco.30 resolved. Successful employee development requires a balance between an individual's career needs and goals and the organization's need to get work done (Jasper. Mr. Esteban says that trainings like these make positive contributions to their company’s performance. they plan how their daily operations will go. and abilities. will know if there is a need to design trainings or seminars for developing the skills and strengths of the employees.. According to Mr. However. and then to design trainings or seminars for the further development of skills and strengths. retaining an employee saves . Esteban. it is already the human resource department’s job to conduct trainings and seminars for their employees such as basic leadership training. A more highly skilled workforce can accomplish more as the individuals gain experience and knowledge. to evaluate job progress. personality development. Franco and the other supervisors gain a better understanding on their employees’ abilities so as to recognize achievement. performance evaluation or appraisal is important as periodic reviews help Mrs. what strategies they will use to increase their sales for that day.

they always undergo screening. before displaying the products. ‘Service before sales’ referes to the moment the customer enters and buys a product. they provide opportunities to develop new skills. In order to retain their employees. and inspection to ensure that their products are functional and in prestine condition without defects or any problems. Quality management standards provide a framework for a business to manage its processes and activities (Taylor. Quality management consists of quality planning. In addition. It is seen as a managerial model to increase individual development and a firm's competences. they utilize two methods to improve their service. quaity assurance. 2012). The other one is the ‘service after sales’ in which the service men take the responsibility of attending to customers who have come for complaints about defects and malfunctioning of the products they just bought from the company. Since signature brands are important to their business. These are ‘service before and after sales’. quality control. . 2012). entertain and cater the client as much as possible. total quality management is done by the service operation department and supervised by the sales coordinator. and quality improvement (Business Exchange. if there are any. In EMCOR Mati Inc. F. As such. D. It is the work of the sales representatives now to establish rapport.. Working to recognize quality management standards can help the company to meet customer expectations and ensure a benchmark for their products or services.31 EMCOR a great deal of money. Quality management Customer satisfaction is essential for any business. Estaban sees to it that the products they are selling have high quality standards and have no defects at all. Mr. testing.

and what you want the business to become. becoming more visible in the community. According to Mr. Esteban. We must have a vision of what you want to achieve. where you want to go. has already a superb way of leading and managing their company. getting more customers. Their planning is impressive as to how they use strategic methods to organize . We can improve our business on a number of fronts: by increasing profits. expanding the markets. total quality management indeed helps EMCOR to improve efficienty. EMCOR Mati Inc. Chapter VI RECOMMENDATIONS Every new day gives us a chance to move forward from our present situation. going public or a number of other items deemed desirable.32 The company does total quality management annually. reducing losses.

As such. Budget – is a financial document used to project future income and expenses. DEFINITION OF TERMS Action – formal proceeding in which a party exercises its legal right in a court. the company will get feedback from people enabling them know if they have satisfied their customers or not. in turn. The budgeting process may be carried out by individuals or by companies to estimate . Usually required when a property is sold. we only recommend that they continue what they do best epecially in reaching out to people in far-flung areas in doing these caravan sales and in all these promotions making their products more affordable to people who strive hard to let every day ends meet. As a group who views their company as exceptional. they could make use of suggestion box for the people aside from their employees so that the customers will also get the chance to comment and suggest about what they think is good for the company. Also. If other means (prescribed by rules of court) are used. taxed. Appraisal – f professional opinion. usually by means of a writ. Also. usually written.both good and bad .as the basis for developing business strategy and operational plans. With these reasons alone. or financed. insured. the proceeding is usually called a matter. will help the company enhance and improve efficiently. Authority –pPossessing the rights and powers needed to make the decisions and take the requisite actions to get a job done. or other asset whose market price is not easily determined.33 information and assign probabilities to potential events . business. of the market value of a property. This. such as a home. their company’s way of saving money by means of retaining their employees through developing and honing their skills is quite practical. the company will surely find ways to improve and enhance their services in response to their clients’ or customers’ complaints or suggestions.

and is based on the ability of the individual to sanction (punish) or prevent someone from obtaining desirable rewards. A person with coercive power can make things difficult for people. such as a publiclytraded corporation. Employees working under coercive managers are unlikely to be committed. such as an agricultural cooperative.34 whether the person/company can continue to operate with its projected income and expenses. industrial or professional activities. Communication –is the exchange of information. Conflict – a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs. Business – an organization or enterprising entity engaged in commercial. interests or concerns. Compensation – is the total amount of the monetary and non-monetary pay provided to an employee by an employer in return for work performed as required. Conceptual Skill – the ability to see the whole picture and the relationship of each part of the whole. Any entity engaging in business. from one person to another. or a non-profit organization engaged in business activities. Contingency – an alternative plan for use in case the original plan does not work out. A business can be a for-profit entity. Delegation – giving a portion of one’s responsibility and authority to a subordinate. or corporation. Coercive –p that is based on fear. which is an artificial person created by law. such as a proprietorship. having a entity with perpetual succession and a common seal. . Company –is an incorporated association. Is the opposite of reward power. with understanding. These are the persons that you want to avoid getting angry. and more likely to resist the manager. partnership.

and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Leader – is a member of a team who exhibits leadership qualities and attributes. Human Skill – the ability to manage people through respect for them as individuals. . Also called inducement. sensitivity to their needs and feelings. Generally every department has its own manager and chain of command. such as accounting. especially when accompanied by initiative and resourcefulness. designed to encourage that behavior. acquisition and investment. and good person-toperson relationships. finance deals with matters related to money and the markets. planning. Emulate – to be successful in comparison with somebody or something else. marketing. self-awareness. Human Resource – is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of. management of. Enterprise – entrepreneurial activity. direction and motivation) to accomplish organizational and team tasks and to improve the organisation and team. Dividends – a share of the after-tax profit of a company. Simply. Incentive – a reward for a specific behavior. It is the ability to influence people (by providing purpose. Feasibility – capable of being accomplished or brought about Finance – a branch of economics concerned with resource allocation as well as resource management.35 Department – specialized functional area within an organization or a division. Leadership – the process of influencing people while operating to meet organizational requirements and improving the organization through change. distributed to its shareholders according to the number and class of shares held by them.

The person has the right. considering his or her position and your job responsibilities. In other words. controlling and managing resources within an organisation. the manager leads by example. especially through giving charitable aid. Organizational Chart – a diagram of a company’s organization showing levels of management and lines by which authority and responsibility are transmitted. Referent – derives from employees' respect for a manager and their desire to identify with or emulate him or her. Philanthropic – helping other people. Motivation – is a driving force that initiates and directs behavior. It is a temporal or dynamic state within a person which is not concerned with his/her personality. to expect you to comply with legitimate requests. Retail – the sale of goods or commodities in small quantities directly to consumers. . Referent power rests heavily on trust. motivation is a kind of internal energy which drives a person to do something in order to achieve something. Power – the capacity to influence the behavior of others. organising. Sometimes called authority or formal power is that which is derived from the person's position in the organization. Management – relates to the responsibilities of a manager for acquiring. in a most timely and cost effective manner. In referent power.36 Legitimate – the power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization. Recruitment – the process of identifying and hiring the best-qualified candidate (from within or outside of an organization) for a job vacancy. Manager – one who directs and controls an assigned segment of the work in an enterprise.

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