M.E. 5IpolIIeHKO I.M.

Fepacmrin
B.B.
JIOTO~hKMH

Tepnonim,
"Y KpMe.n.KHl1ra" 1999

TEPHOnlJIhChKA ,LJ,EP:>KABHA ME,LJ,I1LJHA AKA,LJ,EMI.5I 1M. 1..51. rOPEA LJEBCbKOrO

M.o.51poweHKo

l.M. Fepacuaia B.B. JIOTOUbKHH

BII1CbKOBA TOrrOrPA<DIJI
(HaBllaJIbHHM nocifirunc)
Pexoueuooeauo M03 Ytcpaiuu RK uaeuassnui: nocitmu« OJlR C1J1yc)e1l111ie; .He()U'IlIlIX axa OeM iii. yuieepcutnemie.

Tepuonim,
"YKpMe.ll.KHHra" 1999

3MICT

vznc

623,71 (075) DDK 68,911 7 51 77

M.Ii. Rpornemw, I.M. Fepacuais, B.B. JIOTOl.lbKItH.
51 77 Biticsxoaa -ronorparhis. Tepuonins: YKPMe.ll.KHllra, 1999. 80 c. ISBN966-7364-28

niny -

HaB4aJlbHHH nocifiuu« P03KpHBac OCHOBtli HaBlJaJlbHi mlT~~HlI P032 "Biiicsxoaa Tonorparpill" .ll.ucLI,HnJliHH '"3anlJlbHO-BIHcbKoBa

ni.ll.rOTOBKa" . 3ri.ll.HO 3 nporpaun ni.ll.rOTOBKU odiiuepis sanacy 3 411CJlaCTY.ll.eHTIB BUllIHX Me.ll.HlJHIIX HaB'IaJlbHI1X saicnanin. .. .. BiHcbKOBa Tonorparpill 0'36pOIOCMaH6YTHiX orpiuepis Me.ll.H'IHO.I CJlY)f(6H sanacy He06xi.ll.HHMUTonorpacpillHHMU 3HaHHlIM11 HaB.H'~~aMH: MIJle3aCi B TOCYBaHH)IlKHXCnpHSIC ) ni)J,BHllIeHHIO60HOBO'iaK"fHBHOCTI IHCbKi nocaraenB HIO ycnixy y 6010.

Y.ll,K 623,71(075) ssx 68,9 H 7

ISBN966-7364-28-3

© M.D. 51poweHKo, I.M. Fepacavia, B.B. JIOTOUbKI1H, 1999

nEPE.ll,MOBA 5 BCTYn 7 P03.ll.iJl I. TOnOrPA<I>lQHI KAPTH •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 9 1.1 npH3HalJeHHlI i xoporxa xapaxrepacruxa ronorpaqn-max xapr 9 1.2. Macurrafin ronorpadii-nurx xapr. BH3HalJeHHlI sincraai no xapri 10 1.3. 306pa)f(eHHlI MiclIeBHx npenueria i penseey ua ronorpaqnuuax icaprax 12 1.4. BU3HalJeHHlI npauoxynnrx i reorpadnuuax KOOp.ll.UHaT MiclleBHx npenaeria no xapri 17 1.5. Posrpadnca i HOMeHKJlaTypa ronorpadiiunnx xapr 23 1.6. BH3HalJeHHlI no xapri YMOBcnocrepexeuns, MacKYBaHHlI i 3aXHCHHX )lKOCTeH MiclleBocTi 24 1.7. Ilpasana aaueceaua aa xapry opicurupia 'ra iHWHX 06'CKTiB 26 Poanin 2. OPI€HTYBAHHR HA MICLI,EBOCfl3A KAPTOIO T A IiE3 KAPTI1 •••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 28 2.1. Cnoc06H OpicHTYBaHHlI na MiclleBocTi 28 2.2. BH'3HalleHHlI cropin ropH30HTY i nanpaaxis ua MiclleBocTi 28 2.3. BHMiplOBaHHlI KYTiB i aiacraai ua MiclleBoCTi 32 2.4. Pyx sa a3HMYToM. Ocofinuaocri OpicHTYBaHHlI aa MiclleBocTi 6e3 KapTH 38 2.5. OpicHTYBaHHlI KapTH. B113Ha4eHHlIna xapri Micllll caoro CTOllHHlI 42 2.6. TIi.ll.rOTOBKano xapri Bi.ll.OMOCTeH)J.JIli pyxy aa a3HMyToM 47 2.7. OpicHTYBaHHlI aa MiclIeBocTi 3<1KapTOIO B pyci. 50 Poanin 3. BE.ll,EHH$I POliOQOI KAPTI1 52 3.1. npH3HalJeHHlI p060'10'j KapTH Ta BHMOrH.ll.OHe'i. Ilinroroaxa KapTH no p060TH 52 3.2. OCHOBHinpaBHJI<IBe.ll.eHHlIp060'10'i KapTH. Ilpnnana nna p060TH 57 3.3 YMOBHi 3HaKH 'ra cxoposeui noaaaseaua. Hanuca ua xaprax 58 3.4. Haueceuua o6CTaHoBKH aa xapry 61 3.5. Haueceuua H<Iicapry 06'CKTiB 3<1 npliMoKyTHHMH 'ra 'ix reorpacpilJHHMH KOOp.ll.HHaTaMH 68 3

,UO,UATKI1 I. Kaprorparplsui

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70

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3. CKopO'leHHJI,
Cnl1COK

JlKi 3aCTOCOBYIOTb Y 60HoBIIX JliTepaTYPII

74 87
83
HaB'laJlbHHii rpaM noci6HI1K ni.D.rOTOBKH odiiuepia

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OCHOBHi HaB'laJlbHi

"Biiicsxo-

ronorpadiis" Bolioai

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n in -rac caaocriiiuoi noro xapaxrepy, Y cniurao pn i Ha'laJlbHHKI1 ninpoaninis

HY, WBH.D.KI1MI1TeMnaMH,

scix JlCIHOK3MO)KYTb TiJlbKH TO.D.i,KOJIH BOHI1 6Y.D.YTb nocriiicyciziia, 3 HKI1MI1 B3aCMO.D.iIOTb.

HO 3HaTI1 p03MillleHHJI, i 'IaCnlH Y CY4<1CHHX YMOBax 4<1C 6010 6e3 ronorpadnuaoi BHKOPHCTOBYI04H 6YTHbOMY p06HTH odiiuepn 3<1HelO pisni

oprauhyaaru
xaprn

tiiii

ninposninie

i ynpaanaru

i 3H<lHb BWCbKOBO'i

'ronorparpli

HeMO)KJlHBO. xapry, THJlOBY i B

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cTY.D.eHTl1 (a B MaiiT<lKTH'IHy,

sanacy)

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p03p<lXYHKH,

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H<l4aJlbHHKa

B 06CJl3i nOCa.D.H, sxy 3aiiMalOTb,

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aa MicueBOCTi 3 KapTOIO ra 6e3 He'i, BeCTH noa'maua 3 iHWHMH .D.11CUHnJliHaMH Me.D.114HOrO ua

Me.D.H4HO'j CJlY)K6H nonxy. TicHO T<lKTHKOIO i

OC06J1HBO 3 3araJlbHOIO

opraaiaauiero
a caae:

satiemeuenns. Einsuricn,
MicueBOCTi, TH piuieuus.

rurrans

siiicbKOBO'i

ronorparpii,

OpiCHTYBaHHH 6010 (npajiuar-

BHKOHaHHH pi'3HHX BI1MipiB aa xapri, nJlaHYBaHHH 6010, BH3Ha'IeHHH opranisauia uiJleBKa3iBKH

opruahauis

60iioBHX 'ra iuuri

3aB.D.aHb ninposninaa, 3a6e3C CKlla.D.OBOIO 4aCTHHOIO 6Y.D.YTb

npOBe.D.eHHH pesoruocuapoaxn, ne4eHHH 6010 ra ynpaaniaas), UUX .D.HCIIHnJliH.

B3aCMO.D.i·j ii acefii-nroro

TOMY 3HaHHH, OTPHMaHi na 3aHHTTHX 3 BiiicbKoBo'iTonorpacjJi'j, THX (HaB4aJlbHUii 36ip y

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aiiicsxax), 5

4

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xadienpax,

a TlIKO)l( MO)l(e BI1KOPHCTOBYBaTHCSIua 3aHSlTTSlX3 L1l0 HaB'laJlbHHIl nocifimuc BHSlBHTbCSIKOpHCcxnany, 6y,ne cnpn-

ai IlCbKOBO'i rcnorpudiii. ABTOPH cnoniaaiorsca, HHM,nJISI CTy,neHTiB BHL1lI1XMe,nII'IHI1X saxnanla, MOJlO,nI1Xodiluepia Me,n114HO'iCJlY)l(611sanacy i SlTH ni,nBIIL1leHHIO urrafiaoi xym.rypn a TaKO)l( y Mai16YTHbOMY,nJISl

Bcryn
Tonorpadiis
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xanpoaoro

-

uayxa,

L1l0 BI1B4aC cnocofin y aarnani posnin nnauia ionorpa~i'i,

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Maf16YTHix odiiuepis,

i Bi,n06pa)l(eHHSI 'ii ua nanepi ronorpadiia

i xapr,

BI1B4eHHSI i P03Bi,nKH MicueBOCTi 3 MeTOIO BI1KOpHCTaHHSI i"i B

TaHHSI 36po'ii60i1oBo'iTexHiKH, BOCTei1 MicueBOCTi, i iuuri ,naHi, 06'CKTH neofixiztai acecropouusoro KYBaHHSI; BHSlBJlSlTHsa nonouororo npOTHBHHKa; BHSlBJleHHX uineii npu Bii1cbKaMH; xoopnanaru panninui

nOBHor03aCTOCYBaHHSl3aXHCHHXO BpaXYBaHHSI YMOB npoxinuocri aep03HiMKiB HI inuri 3ac06H no xapri

SI,nepHoro uanany i aepoaaiuxax 'ra yn'ra p03paXYHKOBi

T04HO BH3Ha4aTH 60i10BHX

BHMiplOBaJlbHi

oprauiaauii

,nii1, uineaxaaiaxax

BneBHeHO OpiCHTyBaTHCSIaa He3Hai1oMiH MicueBOCTi, OC06JlHBO BHO'Ii, CBOC4aCHOi nOBHO 3,nii1cHIOBaTH aaxonn, L1l03a6e3ne4YlOTb Bii1cbKaM OpicHTYBaHHSI i uiJleBKa3aHHSI aa noni 6010, Bii1cbKoBa ronorparpis C onuicio 3 naiii ,nHcUHnJliHa,

B YMOBax 06Me)l(eHo'i BH,nHMOCTi i B pyci aa BeJlHKHX MapWOBI1X WBI1,nKOCTSlX; Ha,ni?iHicTb i npanansuicn, 51K aaaxansna Ba)l(JlHBiwHX psnoaoro cxnany

CKJla,nOBHX 'taCTI1H 60i10BO'i ni,nrOTOBKH odiiuepis, scix PO,niB Bii1CbK,

cepxauria

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3B'S13KY3 iHWHMH ,nHCUHnJliHaMH HaB'laHHSI Bii1CbK, Oc06JlI13HaHHSI-

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Einsuricri,
npn posainui,

nnraas

Bii1CbKOBO'i 'ronorpadiii, Bii1CbK, npoaeneaus

aa MicueBoCTi npn nepecysauui ninro ronui opraaiuuo

BHXi,nHHX ,naHHX ,nJlSl Be,neHHSI BorHIO ainnoaiaae

BXO,nSlTby 3aB,naHHSI TaKHl 'I Hoi', sorueaoi

KH Bif1CbK, L1l0 suaxozurn, i HacTaHoBax,

Bi,n06pa)l(eHHSI y Bii1CbKOBllX craryrax

6

7

TaKHM

'IHHOM, 'ronorparhiuua

ninroroaxa

KOMaH.nt1piB i COJl,naT no-

P03,niJl I

BHHHa 3,nit.icHIOBaTHCb He TiJlbKI1 aa 3aHSlTTSlX 3 usoro JlIOBaTHCb i fiemepepauo nncunnnia, oc06mIB0 y,nOCKOHaJlIOBaTHCb y npoueci

npenvery,

a ii aaxpiniuunrx

ni,nrOTOBKI13 HaB'laHHSlX.

TonOrPA<I>IQHI KAPTI1

ua nOJlbOBI1X 3aHSlTTSlX i BiikbKOBl1X

npAKTHqHE3AH~TT~
3UII1I1111111I-

2 zoo

1. Tlpuuurtenn» i KOPOIIIKtI Xap{/KlIleplICIIIlIKa monoepatpi-uutx K([PIII. 2. M acuunatiu monoepadnunux «aptn. Busuauenun 6ioCIII(I}Ii I/O «apmi. 3. Sotipaotceun» MiClW«UX npeouemie i penscqiy ua 11 101I0?P{UjJi'lHII.\·
IW

P ma x.

4. BWI/(/'1el/lIJ1 I/PJlJ'vtoK)'IIII/UX i eeozptupiuuux KOOpiJIIH{(1II MiclW«IIX npeouemie I/O «apmi. 5. PO'J?papReIIl/JI i nouetnotamypa 1l1011O?papilJl1UX «apm. 6. B1I6'1el/lIJ1 110 «apmi y.\IO« CIIOClllepeJICeI/IIJ1, uackyeanu» i JaXIiCIlUX ssocmet! uicueeocmi. 7. Ilpaeuna nanecenus ua "'apl11)' opicumupie lila intuux oti'ckmie.

1.1. nPM3HAQEHHjl.1 KOPOTKA XAPAKTEPMCTHKA TOnOrPA<1>IQHI1X KAPT
Tonorpadiisna

xapra -

OCHOBHI1H rpacpi'lHI1H 306pa)l{eHHSI MicueBHx MicueBi

,noKYMeHT MicueBoCTi,

SlKHH MicTI1Tb TO'lHe i uarnsnae Ha Tonorpacpi'lHHX

xaprax

npenaerin i penscrpy. npenuera sotipaxyicrscs aaransrOpI130HT~UlSlMH. KapTlI

HonpHHHSlTl1MH YMOBHHMH 3HaKaMH, a penscdi npH3Ha'leHHH Tonorpalj)i'lHoi'

Tonorpadiisui xaprn npaauaueui ,nJlSl P060TI1KOMaH,nHpiB i urrafiis scix cryneuie npn ninroroaui, opraaiaauii i seneuui 60HOBHX ,niH. 3a HHMH
BI1B'IaIOTb i OUiHlOlOTb MicueBicTb, KyTI1 TOtUO. BI13Ha'talOTb

aiacranl

i nnouri.nnpexuiitni SlKHH BHKOpuCTOByTOLIHO BH3Ha'lHTI1 i uineii. B 6010 i

Tonorpadiiuui

KapTH C Ha,niHHHM npoairuuucov,

IOTb BiHcbKa.nJJSI OpicHTYBaHHSI i pyxy ua MicueBoCTi. no HI1X nJl<lHYIOTb Mapwi i rOTYIOTb ,naHi.nJJSIpyxy no a311MYTax, KapTI1,no3BOJlSlIOTb He TiJlbKI1 CBOCMicue nepe6YBaHHSI, ane i Koop,nI1HaTI1 OpiCHTHpiB BiHCbK. ynpaaniaus

TOMY BOHH WI1POKO BHKOPI1CTOBYIOTbCSl .nJJSIBKa3iBOK uineii .nJJSI onoreonenoi HO'j npHB'Sl3KH 60HOBHX nopazucia r

Tonorparpiuna
BiHcbKaMH

xapra

C O,nHHM i3 OCHOBHHX 3ac06iB 6010, MicueBoCTi

npu oprauiaauii

i seneuui

To-nricn,
ain 'ij MaCWT<16y,

i ,nOCTOBipIi1CTb 306pa)l{eHHSI

aa xapri

aanexurs 9

8

Knacndilsauia
pi3HIIX .uiJlSlTH KOMaH.uHO-WTa6HIIX

i

xapaxrepucrnxa
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Tonorpa~illllUX

xapr
i BI1KOpllCTaHHSlM B YMOBIIO MO)f(lIa 110-

'!IICeJl. pa)f(cHi .uac

Hanpuxnan,
ua xapri CM (a60

MaCWTa6

3a CBO'jMI1 MaCWTa6aMI1,

OCHOBHI1M IlpI13Ha'leHHSlM

i3 3MeHweHHSlM

1:50 000 03Ha'I(lC, Y 50 000 pasia,
KapTH, -

uio sci
T06TO

JliHi"i MicuCBOCTi

306-

1 CM aa

xapri

aianoaiY RKOMY
3MeH-

ronorpadriuai

xapru

50 000

500

1.1)Ha MicueBocTi. MacllTa6 Bllpa)f(eHHii .up060M, 4HCJlO, RKC noxasyc

ua:
~ 3a MaCWTa60M: BCJlIIKOMaCWTa6Hi

LJUCJJOBHH MacllTa6

(I :25000, 1:500(0), cepenuso-

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crynnn,

( 1: 100000, I:2000(0) i .upi6HoMacwTa6H i (I :500 000, I: 1000 0(0); ~ aa OCHOBHIIM Ilpl13Ha'leHHSlM Ha T<lKTH'IHi (1:25 000,1:50000, 1:1000(0) i oneparusui (1:200 000,1:500000,1:10000(0). Kapra MaculTa6y 1:25000 - BHKOPI1C1'OBYCTbCSI B aiiicsxax .uJlSl ne1'<lJlbHOrO BI1B'IeHHSI OKpeMHX Haii6iJlbW Ba)f(JlI1BI1X pyoexia i .uiJlSlHOK MicueBOCTi, nanpuxnazt: npu ~opcYBaHHi BO.uHIIX nepeunco.a, .uecaHTYBaHHi i T.Il. BOHa BHKOpHCTOBYCTbCSI TaKO)f()J.JlSl BllMiplOBaHHSI i p03paxYHKiB npu npoex1'YBaHHi i 6Y)J.iBHHUTBi BiHcbKOBO-iH)f(eHepHlIx cnopya. Kapra sracurrafiy 1:50 000 - Bl1KOPHCTOBYCTbCSI .uJlSl BHB'leHHSI i ouiHKII MicueBocTi KOMaH)J.HpaMH ninpoaninia, opiorryaauua no HiH, nposeneuM acurrafiui HSIBHMipiB BKa3aHHi i p03paxYHKiB,

aa xapri

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a

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i

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ap ranepii

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1 CM ua xapri, T06TO 3Ha'lCHHSI MacwTa6y. 411M 6iJlbWI1H Mac"wTa6 KapTH, 1'111.1 neransaiure na Hiii sofipaxeua MicueBicTb. 3i 3MeHweHHSlM MaclUTa6y KapTI13MeHwycTbCSI i xinsxicu, HaHCCCHIIX Ha Hiii neranea MicueBoCTi. mo6 BH3HalfllTl1 ua ieapri aincram, MiiK TOlfKal\UI MicueBoCTi (npensreTaMil), BIIKOPUCTOBYlOlfH lfllCJlOBIIH MaClUTa6, nOTpi6110 BJlMipHTII aa xapri sincrans MiiK lIJ1MII TOlfKaMU B CaHTJlMeTpaX i nOMHOiKHTII OTpUMaHe lfllCJJO na ua
MicueBOCTi

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B 060pOHi,

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Hanpaxnan,
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na xapri
.uBOMa

MacwTa6y

xapra

B Bil1CbKax. 'IaCTllH i

BOHa

WH-

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.uJlll BHB'ICHHSI i OUiHKH

MicueBoCTi, B 6010.

ninpoaninaua opicno

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OpicHTHpaMH

OpiCHTl1paMI1 -

1:50000 (3Ha4eHHSI MacwTa6y cxnanac 4,2 CM. Bizmoaiauo na MicueBoCTi 4,2 x 500= 21 OOM.

MaClUTa6

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fiesnoSlKi BI1-

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uineri

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Ilpunann

i npl1uiJ1IOBaHHSI MalOTb WKaJ1l1, nO.ll.i6Hi

J1I1TI1na 6000 piBHI1X lIaCTHH i 3'C.ll.HaTI1paniycaua M<lTIIMeMO 6000 OJl.HaKOBI1X L\eHTPaJlbHI1X KYTiB.

KiHUi nyr i3 L\eHTPOM xorra

no WKaJII1 6iHOKJISI.

o

PIIC.

21. Flonirnca xyrosripa -- rucauna
BeJ1lI'HlHI1 uenrpansuoro xyra (aanucycn, xim.xicrt, KYTiB"

)J,nH BH3H,l'leHH5I niHiHHo'i C5I: 0-0 I) norpifino

o - 0I =
32

.ll.OB)KI1HY xo.na p03)J.iJ1l1TH aa aaransuy cnpouieuus,

2IlR/6000 = 6.28R/6000. CKOPOTl1MO Ha 6,28. Ilpoaiaura

MaTI1MeMO: 0-0 1=( l/955)R

Pllc.22.

BIIMiploBaHH5I

KYTiB

sa

.!lOnOMOrOIO

6iIlOIOI51

33

BHMipJOBaHHSIKYTiB aa ~onoMoroJO KOMnaCa
CnO'IaTKY MYWKY Bi3HpHoro MeXaHi3MY KOMnaCa BCTaHoBnlOlOTb H HynbOBY noninxy WKMH. nOTiM nOBOpOTOM KOMnaCa B rOpH30HTanbHiH nn . III11 Hi CYMilllYIOTb xepea uina« i MYWKY niuito Bi3YBaHHSI 3 HanpSlMOM ua nisn ~ MicLleBHH npenaer tuins). Ilicna roro, He MiHSlI04H nOnO)KeHHSI xovnacy, Bi3HPHHH npanan nepe BO.u.SlTbE nanpsa aa npaana MicLleBHH npenuer i 3HiMalOTb no uncani eianix SlKHH 6y.u.e ainnoaiaara 3Ha4eHHIO BHMiplOBaHoro KYTa B rpanycax, Ilpa Bli MiplOBaHHi xyra B THCSl4HHX, ninho Bi3YBaHHSI cyulutaicrs cn04aTKY 3 aanpa MOM ua npaeuii npenuer, TaK SlKpaXYHOK THCSl4HHX 3pOCTac npOTH xony ro .u.I1HHHKOBO·j TpinKH. C

-

xopotaca ciPHHKiB: .u.OB)KHHa-

0-90, wHpHHa -

0-50, BHCOTa-

-

nansui pyxn: BeJlHKHH - 0-40, BKa3iBHHH - 0-30, Mi311HeUb Ilpenuer cnia TPHMaTH Ha aiacraai 50 CM sin OKa.

0-30; 0-20.

IHe JI

II

BHMipJOBaHHSIKYTiB sa nonoaoroio J1iHiUKH
3a

nonouoroio

niHil1KH 3 MiniMeTpOBHMH

no.u.inKaMH MO)KHa BHMipSIT

KyT B nonirncax KYTOMipa i B rpanycax. 5IKllIO niHiHKY TPHMaTH nepen c060 na aiacrani 50 CM aia OKa (pHc.23),TO 1 MM aa niHiHLli 6y.u.e ainnosinara .u.BO THCSl4HHM (0-02). Ilpa BHMlplOBaHHi xyra He06xi.u.HO ninpaxyearu na niHiHLI 'HICJlO MiJliMe7piB Mi)K Micl.(eBHMH npe.l1.MeTaMH (UiJlRMH) i nOMHOl/(HTH Ha 0-02 O.u.ep)KaHHH peaynsrar 6y.u.e ainnosinara 3Ha4eHHIO BHMiplOBaHoro xyra THCSl4HHX. Ha pHC. 23 KyT Mil/( CTOBnaMH CTaHOBHTb 0-32 (16MM xO-02), BHCOTa

Pnc.24.

BHMiplOBaHllSI

KYTOBHX Bemi411H

nepesa -

0-21 (I 0,5MM x 0-02).

KYT Mi)K BenHKHM i cepennia nansuaaa pyxn .u.OpiBHIOC 90° (pHC. 25), a Mi)K cepeziuia i BKa3iBHHM - 40°. 3HalO4H LIe, MO)KHa BH3Ha4HTH KPYTicTb cxnny. Ha ManlOHKY KPYTicTb cxuny .u.OpiBHIOC 20-22°.

-~ ~--:-- ·--:-r~}~_;.:
, I

~ ,

I

Pnc.23. Bauipioeanua

KYTiB aa

nonoaoroio

niHiHKH

Ilpn BHMiplOBaHHi xyra B rpanycax niHiHKa BHHOCHTbCSI nepen cofio ua alncraas 60 CM. Y LlbOMY BHna.u.KY 1CM sa niHiHLli 6y.u.e ainnosinaru 10. BHMipJOBaHHSIKYTiB sa AonoMoroJO ni~pY"HHX MaTepiaJ1iB
BH~OpHCTOBylOTb nesemuci ni.u.pY4Hi npenuern (niHiHKa, oniseus, Kopo~~a cipuuxi»), a TaKO)K nansui pyxu (pHC. 24) . .I),lUI usoro TPe6a 3HaTH Ix 3HaLJeHHII B THCSl4HHX: - MM niHiHKH einnoainac 0-02 (.lI.BOMTHCSl4HHM); - KpyrJlI1H oniaeus Mac niaaerp 0-12; 34

Pnc.2S.

BU31ta4eHlUI

KPYTOCTi cxuny

BHMipH BmCTaHi
. Bi.u.CTaHi na MicLleBocTi B 3Me)KHOCTi ain 06CTaHoBKH i xapaxrepy naM.'4~~HHXsasnaus BHMiplOlOTb na OKO, no cninouerpy MawHHH, aa KYTOBHMH i IHIHHHMH P03MipaMI1 MicLleBHx npenaeris, npoaipou KpOKaMH, sa Bi.u.HOweHHSlM WBH.u.KOCTi cairna no 3ByKy, ua cnyx, aa 4aCOM i WBH.u.l<iCTIOpyxy.

35

Ha aa
Hi WKOJ1I1),

OKO -

Bi.LJ,CTaHb BH3Ha4alOTb (HanpHKJ1a.LJ,

WJ1S1XOM nopiBHSlHHSI

3 Bi.LJ,OMHM

MicueBOCTi

Bi.LJ,pi3KOM.

100

MeTpOBa

.LJ,HCTaHuiSi

ua cranio-

BUMiplOBaHHH Bi.LJ,CTaHb, Cni.LJ,OMeTpOM

sinaani MaWI1HOIO, i B KiHUi

no cnmOMeTPY BH3Ha'JalOTb

MalUliHII SlK pi3HHUIO Bi.LJ,J1iKiB 3

npoiineny
n04aTKY

aa

noporu.
KYTOBI1MH p03MipaMH npenueria 6a3YCTbC npen BeJ1114HHaMI1. KYTOBi xounaca, P03MipH

Pllc.26.

BI1311a4CIIHSI

aiacraui
BiMaJJi

aa JlillifilllfMl1

p03MipaMII

npenveris pyxy npOH.LJ,eHO-

BH3Ha'IeHHSI aa 3ane)J(HOCTi

Bi.LJ,CTaHei13a

Mi)J( KYTOBHMH

i J1iHii1HHMH

BII3Ha4eHHH UeH ro

aa .. aCOM i lUBII.nKicTIO

MeTiB BHMiplOlOTbCSI

B THCSl4HHX 3a .LJ,OnOMOrolO

npHJ1a.LJ,iB cnocrepe

MeTO.LJ, HKOPHCTOBYIOTb.LJ,J1S1 npl16J1H3HOro B

BH3Ha'IeHHSI

)J(eHHSI i npHuiJ1IOBaHHSI, Bi.LJ,CTaHb.LJ,O npenueria Y MeTpax BH3Ha4alOTb 3a CPOPMYJ101O:

.0= Y '1000.
BII3Ha'JeHHH -.LJ,e B - BHCOTa (unrpuna) KYTOBa BeJ1H4HHa npenuera, npe.LJ,MeTa, M; THC. HaMi4eHoro B 6iHOKJ1b OpiCHTH a , CTIO Bi.n.naJJi sa Bi.nHOlUeHHHM lUBII.nKOCTi KMfro.LJ, 3BYKY a 3ByK '.LJ,Klno cBiTJJa i3 LUBH .

B

LUJ1S1XY,.LJ,J1S1 xoro Cepe.LJ,HIO WBI1.LJ,KicTb MHO)J(aTb Ha sac C " . pyxy. epe.LJ,HSI WBH.LJ,KlCTb fIlLUOXO.LJ,a 61J1S15 KMfron '1 npn PYCI' H • 8- I()KM f ron Ha...... c , a J1H)J(ax npHKJ1Cl.LJ" sxuio .LJ,030P P03Bi.LJ,KH pyxasca HCl J1H)J(ax ro • :. 6iJISI 30 KM, .LJ"TO BlH npOHWOB

3

PY (oxpeve ciTKH

Y-

330 ulc,
T06TO

CBiTJ10

p03nOBCIO.LJ,)J(YCTbCSI Ha6J1H)J(eHo Ha

300 000 . orpi
'6'

HanpHKJ1a.LJ, (pHC. nepeso),

22),

KYTOBHi1 P03Mip sxoro

I KM

aa 3 C TI

BHCOTa OT)J(e,

12 M,

.LJ,OpiBHIOC TPbOM

MaJ1HM nO.LJ,iJ1Ka

.u~ 3BYKy

n~MHo)J(HTH

330 ulc,

HO PI3HHUIO

• 'H1ClB Bi.LJ,cnanaxy

i O.LJ,ep)J(HMO Bi.LJ,CTaHb 3 SlKOi'BiBCSI sorous ua 4HCJ10

6iHOKJ1S1

(0-15),

Bi.LJ,CTaHb.LJ,OOpiCHTHPY

0 UIO)J( PI3HHUIO HanpHKJ1a.u, no

MO)J(Ha no.uiJ1I1TH

3.'

,

Bincraus

cnoCTepira4 MicUSI cnarraxy

n04YB

nOCTpiJ1

4epe3

II

C nICJ1S1 cnanaxy,

'

12 ,u=Ts'lOOO=800

M.

BII3Ha4eHHH 3a .LJ,OnOMOrolO prorors TIoTiM B MiJ1iMeTpax

BmCTaHi J1iHii1KH, BHCOTY

sa JJiHiUHIIMII

p03MipaMII aa Bi.LJ,cTaHi

npenxerie

BII3Ha

.. eHHH BiMaJJi nOMi'lHI1K

aa CJJyx B BH3Ha4eHHi Bi.LJ,CTaHi BH04i .

posviuteaoi
(WHPHHY) npenuera

50 CM

Bi.LJ,OKa, BHM

npenuera,

aa SlKI1M cnocrepiracu .LJ,iJ1S1Tb a BHMip H i OTpHMYIOTb Bi.LJ,CTaH

TpeH?BaHHH CJ1yx .LJ,06PHH noTpl6HO 3HaTH Ta6J1HUIO,
OO'rKTII i xapancp
Tuxa
P01MOS3.

.LJ,ii1CHYBHCOTY (WI1PI1HY) B MiJ1iMeTpaX, B MeTpax. renerpadnuui

B cairraxerpax aa

18)' .... Y' 3apSltJ.iK1.1HIIH]6poi,
Ory'IIIY

HY J1iHiHKOIO .LJ,O npenvera

pe3YJ1bTaT

MHO)J(aTb

5

xatuens,

pi'1aHIIJI npcty

0,1 ·0,2 0,3

'bUIlBaIlIHI

U

3CMJlIt.)Kim(lB

HanpHKJ1a.LJ" J1iHii1ui Bi.LJ,pi30K

CTOBn BHCOTOIO

6M

(pHC,

26),

aaxpuaac

Py6<l111U1

i

fIIl]UIHIUI

rncy

(1IK1KatIHH

cosupu]

10 MM,

Bi.LJ,nOBi.LJ,Ho Bi.LJ,naHb.LJ,O CTOBna

Ila ..liIlIlSf '

'spyfiaunx aepcu

0,4 O,X

r~IX iliflOM06il1lU

Jl=
To-mien,
MI1 CKJ1a.LJ,aC 5-10 BH3Ha4eHHSI

to ',5=300

600

Konauns

(pliTT}!)

oecn.e

0,5 ~ 1,0 ~::

M, i J1iHii1HHMH BeJ1H4HH

noo~,",u" CTpiJlbOa

nocrpinn 1aSTUMaTa 'fcpraMIl. pyx Tauh:is

Bi.LJ,CTaHeH sa KYTOBHMH

% .LJ,OB)J(I1HI1Bi.LJ,CTaHi,

uto BHMiplOCTbCSI,

1----_:_---------

CTpiJ.bOaaJYfllnep.i

1.

3-4

_:~o~.~1.:.5

_j
37

36

BII3Ha<teHIISI BOrOHb CBiTJ10

BiMaJli

sa )).eMaCKYIO<tIlI\1U

03HaKal\U1

TaK, 11106 Bi3I1PHCl pHCKa ~ BHI1

ein

L(HrapKH

BH)).HO,LI.O

500

M.

1,5 - 2 KM. CnaJ1aXH nOCTpiJ1Y i3 CTpiJ1eL(bKo"i 36po'j -)).0 1,5 - 2 KM. CBiTJ10 <pap aBTOM06iJ111 i TClHKa -)).04 - 8 KM.
KHweHbKOBoro

nixrapa

-,LI.O

npopis •- MYWKa 36iraJIl1ClI npeziver. Y L(bOMY nOJ1o)KeHHI n03Ha4Ka na J1iM6i MyWKH ue BeJ1H'IHHCl npsvoro Cl311MyTCl ua MicL(eBHi1

3 Hanp"MO n

. M HCl MICL(e-

np.OTI1 BKa3' IBHI1KCl 6' 1J111 npe)).MeT(pHc.

27).

2.4. PYX 3A A3HMYTOM. OCOEJIHBOCTI OPI€HTYBAHHR HA MICll,EBOCTI EE3 KAPTH
Uei1 OpiCHTHPH, MaHHi cnoci6 BHO'li i

pyxy
npn

WHPOKO 06Me)l(eHili

BHKOp~ICTOBYIOTb BH,LI.HMoCTi. Horo a3HMYTOM BHTPHMYIOTb

aa

MicL(eBOCTi,

6i)).Hii1

H

CYTb nOJ1l1rClC Y BHTPI1

nia -iac pyxy 3a,LI.aHOrO MarHiTHIIM sincraai B L(bOMY uanpauky. Hanpsuox
a Bi,LI.cTaHb BHMiplOlOTb KpoKaMH a60 no

nanpaujcy ua
aa )).onOMorolO
MaWHHI1.

MicL(eBOCTi

xownac

nH
~

cntnouerpy 0"

\

,
240"

n.Ll
PlIc.28. 137" 300 rrHa
BI13I1a<lefIlISi MarlliTlloro Cl31lMyry

no

xoxinacy nepeso
6Y,LI.e

,LI.aHoMY MaJ1IOHKY MarHiTHHi1

Cl3HMYT HCl nOO,LI.HHOKe

. ,,_.,Jlll BH3HCl'IeHHlI 3BOpoTHboro OTHiij a3HMYT "" . ,1IKHH BI,LI.PI3HlICTbCli

HClnplIMKY . pyxy BI,LI.3HCllJeHHlI

~/

OTPI6HO BOPOTHiH

,LI.O,LI.ClBClTH a60 Bi,LI.HiMaTH 1800 Bi,LI. np YY a3HMYTBi lIMOro a3HMYTY· Ha pHC. ,LI. xpexroro nepeaa Hfl TO'IKY CTOllHHlI 6Y,LI.e 1500 o

npxaoro

BHKOPHCTOBYIOTb 3BOCl3HM T HCl 1800

28

.

)1,J1S1 BII3Ha<teIlIlSluanpSlMKY" YTOM (pHC 29) He 6 . i,LI.JliK lIK ~

nJl
180" Plle.27.
):(Jlll pyxysa ,LI.aHi: MarHiTHi BI13I1C14CIIIISi ManlinlOf"O a311MYTY BH"3Ha'IHTI1 BHXi ua Mapwp a3HMYToM He06xi,LI.HO CnOlJaTKY no xapri pyxy Mi)l( TO'lKaMI1 Y sarnani

. ' HH l,LI.nYCHlBWH aJlbHii1

aa 3a)).aJUIM MaruinUlM , .0 XI,LI.HOBCTaHOBHTH aa uixani xounacy aaanporn )).OPIBHIOC 3HCllJeHHIO sananor-o MarHiTHoro a3~
MICLleBOCTI <piKcaTop MarHiTHo'i C . IMYTY·

na

.

a311-

MYWKH . nOTIM,

nnouuou TaK uioti ,, YJlbOBO'i nO,LI.iJlKH WKaJlH.

ni

BHI'IHHH

.~~JJKH, nOBepHYTH xounac Y ropH30HKIHeL(b CTPiJJKH BC TaHOBHBCli uaanporu

a3HMYTH

H<mpllMKiB

nosopory

ra Bi,LI.cTaHi Mi)l( HHMI1, lIKi mllOpMJllllOTb IOTb Y Ta6J111L(1O(Ta6Jl. MaruiTultit MarHiTHoro

CXeMI1 (pHC.

29) a60

BHnHC

He 3MiHIOIOlJH nOJlO)l(eHHlI ' . . i3YBaHHlI sepes L(iJlHK' K~Mndcy, H~MITHTH na MICL(eBocTi l a OpiCHTHP i 6Y,LI.e Han MYWKY ~KHI1-~e6Y,LI.b BIMaJleHI1H OpiCHTHp. n THpl1 ro PliMOM, BJ,LI.nOBI,LI.HI1M3a,LI.aHoMY a311MYTY p ,,_.,Jlll BHTPI1MYBaHHlI HanplIMKY

no JliHi"i

Hanpsv
opi3 KO)l(-

I).
ue KYT, Bi,LI.paXOBaHI1i1 Bi,LI.niani-moro nanps aa x CTPiJlKI1 "30piCHToBaHoro

a3UMYT

Ilia

'

MepH,LI.iclHY (MarHiTIIO"i

icounacal

. ....uac pyxy nYHKTY " (y

aa a3HMYTo .

yxy
'6

BHKOPI1CTOBYIOTb

. rtpovbsui a3HMYTH

M nOTPI

HO 3HaTH MarHiTHi

,LI.OMrO,LI.I1HHI1KOBO·j CTpiJ1KH,LI.O HanpSlMKY BOCTi. BiH IlI.06 Mac "3HalJeHHlI BI1"3Ha'II1TH TPe6a Bi,LI. 0° ,LI.O360". MarHiTHHH

ua 6Y,LI.b-S1KI1i1 npenuer

na Mic

a"3I1MYT na MicueBHi1

npenuer

aa ztono KO

roio xownaca,

CTaTl1 06J111lJ'ISlM,LI.O L(bOrO npe,LI.MeTY i 30picHTYBaTH KOMrtaC B OpicHToBaHoMY nonoxceuai,

nac, nOTiM, yTpHMYIO'II1

BCTaHOBHTH Hi3

Ha ~apwpYTI pyxy ra Bi,LI.CTaHi Mi)l( nYHKTaMI1 pyxy "B napax 40JlOBIKa Cepe,LI.Hboro 3 5 M). Ilpu nepexom ai POCTY ,LI.BaKpOKH npH6Jll13HO ,LI.OpiBHlOlOTb . ,LI. ,LI.HorO nYHKTY ,LI.O O iuuror OPICHTHPH a Bi,LI.c ' . 0 ,LI.°TPI1MYIOTbCli uanpaay , TdHb nt,LI.paxoBYIOTb "y nap' ."H yHKTax nOBopOTY 3' . c ax KpOKIB. a n04aTKOBHX d BI13Ha4eHI1M a311MYT ' ,LI.lITb HanpliM pyxy. OM aa ,LI.OnOMorolO xounacy 3Ha-

OKiB"

3X

39

. , IOTb a60 6iJ1bW Bi)lJlaJ1e6 alOTb 13anaM SITOBY orv BH HP . .. 6J1u)I«le JlO nyHKTY nOBOP 'j H . ..) 60 p03MllUeHH . e HI1HOpiCHTHP {JlOnOMI)I(~~U1 ':. 5lKlU0 3 npOMi)l(HOrO OPICHTHP~ H

B UbOMY HanpHMI pyxy

.

Ha MapWPYTi npoMi)l(Hi

(npOMI)I(HHH!~;~~~~~:~b TO . OPIC~HP

HaCTynHHH

opicurap-

Y~O<I~::

BIIJlHO nYHKTY nOBopOTY, (a60 JlOnoMi)l(~i).

H BHKOpUCTOBYIOTb C~lJ1yeTUMICue 0 n\KO'j MO)l(J1HBOCTi eMaC, TO K?MnaC H K~ac

3

npeJlMeTiB, BOrHi, HCKpaB.1 3IpKH.

TPHMalOTb nepen C06010 B OPICHTOi3 BiJ1bHOonyweHOIO CTPIJ1KOIOBeCb Y BBa)l(alOTb npHMY, 1U0 npOXOJlHTb 4e0J10)l(eHHi, a sa HanpHM pyx BaHO MY n

pea

npopi3

MyWKU.

ill"
850M _ 10 XB

Plfc.30. 06xiJ{ nepeuncoa

nil

a) ni)1.iHWOBWH)1.0 nepeWKO)1.H (TO'IKa MyT noaoro

I), BH3Ha4HTI13a

KOMnaCOM a311-

1
cop.

HanpHMY pyxy B3)1.0B)I(nepeWKO)1.11npasopys

a60 niBOPY4 i npo-

J{OB)I(YBaTH PyxaTHcSI sa UI1M H3HMYTOM, BI1MiplO10411 Bi)1.CTaHb,)1.0KiHLJ.SI nepeWKO)1.1i(T04Ka 2); 6) Y T04Ui 2 3anl1CaTI1 npOH)1.eHYBi)1.CTaHb(1-2) i BI13Ha411TI1nanpau
1!)_" 1230M_14xB 82011. Ill.

aa ne-

nOyaTKOBHM a3I1MYTOM, 3p06~ITH nOBopOT i PyxaTI1CSI na T04KY peWKO)1.H), paxYlO411 KpOKH; B) npl1HWOBWI1 B T04KY

3 (xiaeiu,

3, pyxarucs

J1iBOPY'l (npasopy-r)

JlO TO'IKI1

4

sa 3BOPOTHI1M a3I1MYTOM)1.0 nanpsay J{OpiBHIOC BiJlCTaHi Mi)l( TO'lKaMI1 r) y ro-rui

1 i 2;

1-2, nOKI1 He 6Y)1.enpOH)1.eHOurnsx,

1U0

PlIc.29. CxeMa pyxy sa a311MYTOM

4 BI13Ha'lI1TI1HanpSlM sa

nO'laTKOBI1M a311MYTOM npO)1.0B)I(YBai Bi)1.CTaHi)J.OB)I(HHYeiapiaxa

TH pyx sa HI1M, )1.0)1.aBWI1)1.0 npoiineuoi PitHy nepeWKO)1.11 HanpSlMi MapwpYTY). B

2-3 (WH-

OEXlil nEPEWKOll
. . •• MicueBOCTi Ha WJ1H ., M TOM Ha BIJlKpUTIH . 5lKlU0 nin 'lac pyxy 3a ,\3H Y '6HO' TlnaM'HTaTH 0PICHTUP 6 nepeWKoJla, nOTPI ., 3ycTPiHeTbcH HKa-He. yJlb H B HanpHMi pyxy; . OJl'\TH 'ij JlO npOHJleHOro WJ1HXY,n npOTHJ1e)!{HoMY 60ul nepewK.OJl BIJlCTaHb 1.11. c .' BH3Ha<IHTH)1.0Hboro . ..• )1.0BH6paHoro 0PICHTHpy I, ... WH nepeWKO)1.Y, nt)1.IHTH uboro,06lUWOB HX n 0)1.0B)I(YBHTHpyx. .' 'IHBWH 3a KOMnHCOM HanpH M.WJ1 y, p. 06Me)l(eHo'j BU)1.HMOCTI (HI4, T'f .... OCTI'IU B YMOBC\X 30) Ha 3HKPliTIH MlcueB , OMn\KI1M 4HHOM (pHC. . ..,CHIOBaTH3a KOMnac 06xi)1. nepeWKO)1.H MO)l(Ha3)1.111

OCOOJIHBOCTiOpicHTYBaHHH na MicueBOCTi 6e3 KapTH B pi3HHX YMOBax BHO'li OpiCHTYBaTI1CSI aa MicueBOCTi 3Ha'iHO cxaaauuue, Danno MicueBHx npenaeris i CPOPMI1 penscdry, ClI, BHO'li CTalOTb Ba)l(KO nOMiTHHMI1. ltoMy 3ane)l(I1Tb Bi)1.nonepenusoro }(piM roro, Hi)l( B)1.eHb. B

SlKiB)J.eHbnerure p03ni3HaIOTbOpicHTYBaHHSI BHO'Ii fiararo no xapri i aepodio-

Bnesneae

BHB'IeHHSI MicueBocTi

Torpa<pillM, 3anaM'SiToBYBaHHSI OCHOBHI1X JliHiHHI1X i nnOllll1HHI1X opicrrrupia. BHO'Ii He06xi)1.HO 3aB)I()1.H3HaTI1, B SlKOMYnanpsai pyxaCTbcSI . (sa cTOpOHaMI1 ropl130HTY) niapoanin

40

41

Mapuipyr
CHTHpiB, uiof HHlpH

pyxy

BH04i n03Ha4<lIOTb!lK He6ecHi

npaBIIJ10

B3,UOB)I( J1iHiHHHX opiopiesorui. a TaKO)l( MicueBi cno-

nOJ1erWHTI1 ni'uTPI1MaHH!l

Hanp!lMKY

pYXy. 51K ,UonoMi)l(Hi

BHKOPHCTOBYIOTb

CBiTHJ1<l, BiMaJ1eHi

npe,UMenl c06aMH _

Ilpu

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6
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51

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ro LJacy, YMOB 06cnlHOBKH BH3Ha'leHHH csoro

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Kapry OpiCHTYIOTb sa KOMnaCOM i pomhaarors
OpiCHTHPH, lIKi 306pa)l(eHi Bi311PYIOTb noueproso Ha xapri. nOTiM, aa BH6paHi OpiCHTIlPII

na MiclI,eBOCTi )J.Ba-TpI1 BHna)J.KY, B no JliHiHUi Hd-

lIK i B nortepennsouy i uaxpecmorcrs

npllMKl1 Bi)J. OpiCHTIlpiB Ha ce6e. Yci ui HanpllMKI1 onuiii T0411,i, aka 6YJl.e TO'IKOIO CTOllHHlI.

nOBI1HHi nepeTHYTIlClI

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Pnc.35.
BU3Ha'iCHIISI TO'IKII CTOSlIIIISI sa CTBOpO~1 i Jtillil1iHlM OpiCIITIiPOM

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3HaXO)].II'IHCb ua JliHHiHOMY opicarupi

H Y CTBOpi 3 )].BOMa iHWHMI1 ~iclI,enpavy 4epe~ YMOBHI ~Ha-

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36
---I-

npuxnani, CTBOPOM CJlY)I(HTb uanpau BYJll1Ui HaCeJleHOrO nYHK':Y: )J,JlIl BI13Ha'IeHHlI TO'IKI1 CTOIlHHII OpiCHTYIOTb KapTY sa JlIHICIO CTB~PY, a nOTiM, npHKJlaBWI1 JliHiHKY)J.O fioxoaoro opicurnpa (?~peMe )J.epeBO): B13HPYIOTb aa nsoro i npoaonars npauy no nepecixauna s J1I~ICIOCT~OPY· Td~,)J.e nepecisarorscs JliHili CTBOpy 3 niuioo Bi3HPYBaHHlI ua OPICHTI1P, 16y)].e 3HdXO)].lITHCli TO'lKa CTOIlHHlI. Pllc.37.

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niJl.rOTOBKa BI1KOHYeTbCli ua BeJlllKOMaCWTa6Hili i BKJlIO'lac: BI1B'leHHlI MiclI,eBOCTi; BI16ip MapwpYTY Tonorpa¢i4HiH xapri

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i Bi)].CTC1Hel1 Mi)({ B116-

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i

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46

47

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PHc.39.

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(pl1c.39)

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PIIC. 40. PSlJ1Il I KOllOlIKl1

no pai10HY (pHc.42).

cxnana-

npasnno, rapuouncoio

54

55

PillKH YMOBHOro Ha

i )].)KepeJla,

Bi)].TiHHIOTbCH CI1HiM

oniaueu

MeTO)].OM nOTOBl1I.eHHH

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pi-ucu. pi-rui
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TaKO)K ni)].HSlTI1 OCHOBHi noporn.zte

srapuri,

paHOHI1 Bi)].n04I1HKY. )),JlH3aBepweHHH

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pofiouoi

KapTH nOTPi6Ho

ninnncaruu

(na-

npnxnan: P0604a xapra Ha'JaJlbHHKa Me)].H'IHoi· CJlY)K6H 10MlI), HaHeCTI1 ul1CPpoai 3Ha'leHHH xoopzuraaruoi cirxn ua Ty 4acTHHY KapTH, HKa nOKpl1BaC paiiou \ta~i6YTHix 60HOBI1X )].iH, ni)].HSlTI1 MacwTa6 i3 TaKHM p03paxYHKoM, 111.06MO)KHa 6y JlO, He posroprarosa BCIO xapry, KOPI1CTYBCtTl1CH ueio npn OpiCHTYBaHHi,

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nnauuiera;

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npl1JIa)].1I )].JIH p060TII. YMOBI1 p060TI1 orpiuepis npn nenenui P06040'i KapTH xapaxrepnsyion.ca ., ,•. II 36epe)KeHHH MiHiM~lJlbHI1MI13pylIHOCTHMI1 3aB'laCHO nOTyp6YBaTI1cH P0604a i He)].OCTaTHicTIO 'lacy. npo xapra see Hc06xi)].HC BC)].CTbCH,HK

a) xapra

niniruyra

no WHPHHi

6) xapra cxnaneua rapuouncoio;
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.
H<l CTOJII. )].OBrOBI'IHICTb .,

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i npunaruicrs ni)].HiManHlI

Ile 3MYWYC
zina p060TI1 npasnno, KapTH )].0 poni a60

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no p060TH, KapTII. Ba)KJlHBHM eranou 111.0 nepen npu

sa nonouororo

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i npHHHHTTH

ni)].HiMalOTb n03Ha'iOK

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111.06Y 306pa)KeHi~i iHWI1H orpiuep:

ua xapri

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Mir

BiJlbHO p03i6nianer-

i KapTOrpa(~14HHX

3~~IKIB. KOJlbOPI!.

raxr:

"

paTIICb

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(Ha'laJlbHI1K),

nns ni)].HiMaHHH )].epeBHHHOllltarapHHKOBOI )].JlH ni)].Hir-.HIHHH

POCJlHHHOCTI,

J111H 'IH iHWIIH

orpiuep. KapTII

13 cxaaauoro
nani

BIII1I.C MO)KHa 3p06HTII rpeoa flaHOCHTH

BI1CHOBOK, 111.0 npu axyparno, P03MipH TOHKH-

rinporparpii

i 60JliT; (KpiM.

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06CTCHlOBKII YMOBHIIMI1

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)].JlH WJlHXOBO'i Mepe)Ki 06'CKTiB

saninuiul);
.. ~ YMOBHI1I1

Mil JliHiHMI1

i BCTaHOBJlCHHMH

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npn-rouy

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no-

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i3

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BiHCbKOBIIX

O)].IIHHUb, noope

nYHKTH

i 3aJli3HI1ui

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i He nopyWYBaTI1

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aa p060llY

HClHOCHTbCH YMOBHHMI1 3HaKaMII i KOM6iHauicIO

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(CI1HborO»)].JlH npOTHBHllKa )].JlH csorx BiHCbK: 3aB)].aHHH

YMOBHI1X 3HaKiB pi3HHX

ua icapri

ni)].HiMLHOTb Ti HaCCJleHI rIYI~KTH, HKI BKa?YIOTb na Py6i)K, paiiou, HKHMIt ~.OTpI61.iO OBOJlO)].ITH 1'0111.0,

cuyry

a60 ItarIPHMOK uacryny, flinl ni)].HiMalOTb

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3CJleHOrO KOJIbOpy. Ix Me)KI 06BO)].HTb :rOBCTO CJla6KI1M HaTIiCKOM OJlIBUH. Horo

1.
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nOJlO)KeHHH, i

i tl,ii'

caoix

MexaHi30BaHllx,

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ninicio,

a nnouuutu

BCCPC)].IIHi 3aWTPHXOBYlOTb

Ix TI1Jll1 n03Ha'ia1OTbCH

na xapri

Bi)].noBi)].HI1M113HaKaMI1

KOJlbOPY,

56

57

2. flOJlO)f(eHHSI, '3aBJUIHHSIi .1Ij')CBO'IX aprunepiiicsxnx. KO)f( iH)f(eHCpHllx, KY rn ix THJlH XiMi'IHHX,

3eHiTHI1X, a Taniap03aiJliB 3B'1I3-

pazno'rexui-urux

niapoaztinia,

'IOPHHM KOJlbOpOM. CHHiM KOJlbOpOM. i nOllcHI0104i ra HaHMeHYBaHHlI niaposninie emu.oro. no .nii1cHoro

3. Yci naui npo BiHcbKa npoTHBHHKa -

Kovaunno-cnocrepeaort nYHKTI1 HaHOClITbCSI aa KapTY TaK, Ul06 sepTI1KaJlbHa npsua JliHiSl, lIKa e npo.nOB)f(eHHIlM o.nHiei' i3 cropiu reoMeTPI1'IHoi' diirypu, CBO')MHH)f(HiM KiHu.eM arutpanacs B TO'IKY Micu.eBocTi,.ne P03MiUlYfTbCSI nYHKT ynpaaniuus (pIIC. 44).

4. Hyuepauis

aanucu,

SlKi

BiaHOClITbClI no CBO')X BiHcbK, n03Ha'IaIOTbClI YMOBHHM 3HaKOM sopiroro Py, a sxi Bi.nHOClITbClI.nO npOTHBHI1Ka '1a1OTb niiicsxa, xa), HaHOClITbClI na KapTY sinnoainno BOCTi ~i 03MiUlYIOTbc1I3a P

KOJlbO-

YMOBHi 3HaKH, lIKi n03HanOJlO)f(eHHlI ·)X aa Micu.e-

aoruesi 3ac0611 i 60HOBY TexHiKY (SiK CBO'),TaK i npOTHBHI1HanpSlMKoM .nili a60 Be.neHHlI BorHIO.
';

3.3. YMOBHI 3HAKM I CKOPOQEHI I103HA QEHH».
HAI1MCM HA KAPTAX
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ue csoepinua MOBa apMi'), Y3aKOHeHa

rpauurei,

pimoro npuauauenua TOUlO) HaHOClITbCSI aa KapTY 3 aOTPI1MaHHlIM MacwTa6y. Toni ix 'IaCTO Ha311BalOTb
pyoexd <DirypHi YMOBHi '3HaKI1, lIKi MalOTb npa-

sorueai Il0311U.i·) aprunepii,

nyuxris

ua xapry 3aJlC)f(HO Bia

MaCWTaOHlumYMOBHHMI13HaKaMI1.

i uanpauxy

nacryny:

BHJlbHY reOMeTpl1'IHY CPOPMY,KpiM paHOHiB ii ninsuox BorHIO aprnnepir (nooaHHOKi TaHKI1, apranepirici,xi i MiHOMeTHi fiarapei ua BOrHeBI1X nosnuixx), a TaKO)f( nYHKTH

B saxinuovy

nanpaxucy

i ua MapUJi; i npn ofioponi ¢POIITOM na niaui-r.

B niB)lCHIIOMY uanpsxncy

ynpaaninua,

3ac0611 3B'1I3KY, .nellKi iH)f(eHepHi '3ac0611 i cnopy-

Ba)f(JlI1Be Micu.e npn

aeneuni pofiouoi

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Ilpn HaHeceHHi cxopovens
I. 51KUlO ninposnin TI1HH, TO n03Ha4Ka

Ha xapry

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P0611TbClI 6e3 BKcl3iBKI1 nouepy ninpoanina

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1-i1 .nHBi3ioH BXO.nI1Tb no cxnany

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nOJlKY, TO u.ei1 sanae Ha icapri MO)f(Ha 3p0611TI1 TaK: 1/3an, 217Mn. SlKI1HBXO.nI1Tb.nO cicnany o.nHic'i 'JaCTllIlH, 3anHCYCTbcSI

3. OaTaJ1bHOH,

nin nopll.nKOBI1MH HOMepaMI1 (I M6, 2M6, TOUlO), a SlKUlO 6aTaJ1bHOH nic cauocTiHHo,6e3 rOJlOBHI1X CHJl, uanpuxnazi, y nepenoaovy B U.bOMY aunazncy BKa3YCTbClI i iioro npnaanexuicn, HanHCH aa xaprax Pllc.43. P03MiulCIIIHI n03aMaCIllTa6HUX
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TO

-

1/15Mn.

Ha KO)f(HiH p0604iH xapri 6y.nYTb MaTH Micu.e SlK U.H<pPOBi, TaK i TeKCTOBi HanHCI1. )J.JlSli"i aenenas BHKOPHCTOBYIOTbCSI KpeCJ1S1pCbKHHa60 HOp-

58

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i nOXllmfiL

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HaHeCeHHi TiJJbKI1 .uJ1S1
l

ua xapry

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3.4. HAHECEHHB O.6CTAHOBKM HA KAPTY
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xaprano

p060TI1

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na

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6aTaJlbHOH (nl1Bi3 iOH)

2
y

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no npHHHHTTSI

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oaana
a60

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a nOTiM

y

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i

Cxopouenus
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ra

iHwi

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ua xapry.

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ny

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apny apxyura CiTKH is aaxo-

Ilpasunsuo

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P03Mi11lC1I1151 nanucis cepenuuu

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He TPe6a

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2/3

rml6lfHIf

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i 3JlOBJKHBaTH TaKTHLJHHMH

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47) 61

60

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HaHOCSlTbCSIaa KapTY CYL(iJlbHOfO

(<>
(-=-<
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a 8U AbHO

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A. 11
.r

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I

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ua xapry
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52. Iloxas

ua xapri pyfiexcy, paiiouy,
niJJ.p03JJ.iJI3MI1

JJ.iJISlIlKIl i cMym,

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rpefia

norpuayaacnpasa noY

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nOBHHHa 6YTH npH6JlH3HO

2 MM,

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0,5

MM (pHC.

48).

HaHeceHHX nYHKTiB 'ra iHWHX MicL(eBHX npenueria

HaJ1iBO, a paHOHI1 060POHI1, 30Cepe)l)l(eHHSI (p03Miw.eHHSI) npOTH XO)lY rO)lI1HHI1KOBo"i CTpiJlKI1. Hi)l( 40TI1pMa T04KaMI1 nanpaai npOBO)lI1TbCSI ninis

Henpaeu6bHo

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paiioay

(ninsnxa)

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52).

pytiexy,

H.npa.UAbHO

npa.UA.HO

III
Pllc.49. Haucceuus
rpainuei

ua «apry niuii ofiopouu
npoaona a60
n, sanexcao

3

npucrocyaanusu

)10

pencdiy
nOJlOBOHI! He

e
KapTY

1m6

~

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noannui

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YMOB

«III
PIIC.

ta-H5an

4111

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MapUJ

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50. Haucceuua

na xapry paiionia,
npOBO)lHTH

B 5!KIIX

__ <r+
...__

flpaSUAbHO

rI'~ ,
cxiauoro

53. Haneceuus na

ninpoaninla,

1110 3J(iilc1l10IOTb

YMOBHi 3HaKH lli.ll.p03.ll.iniB, TI1 He aa noporax 60KY na sincraai

5!Ki 3.ll.i\k~1l0IOTb . noporn

Mapw, a HI1MI1,

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}

a60 KOJlOHHI1X WJlSlXaX, a nopsn

i3 nianeuuoro,
HIM,

2-3

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Take
aiiicsxa
oninpn TaHHSl3HaKY

nOJlO)l(eHHSI

KOJlOHH Bi)lHOCHO

06YMOBJleHO

nnauyion.

P03MiCTIlTil

ni)lTYWOBYBaHHi Ha3BI1 eneaeuria

YMOBHoro nOXi)lHOrO

KOJlOHI1 3Ha4HO ronorpatpiuua

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MaWHHi nixo rn

P03Bi,nYBaJlbHHH aaria

CnOCTepe)f(HHH nYHKT

i3 BKa3iBKolO

A - apTI1JlepiHCbKI1H cnocrepexuaa nyHKT; Il- nOCT ll'OBiYp~Horo cnOCTepe)f(eHH~' I- iH)f(eHepHHH cnocrepexunn nYHKT; ,

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CKOPOQEHHlI,

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1IKI 3ACTOCOBYIOTbC1I )J,OKYMEHT AX

B IiOMOBlIX

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n il1P031liJlH nno (npOTHnoBiTpHHOi 3eHiTHo-paKeTHa fiarapea, B3BOn - 3p6aT]), 3pB. 3eH~THO-apTHJlepii1cbKa fiarapes - 3a6aT]) 3eHITHa paKeTHO-apTHJlepiHCbKa fiarapes - spafiarp nil1p03l1iJlH cneUiaJlbHHX BiiicbK IH)I(eHepHo-canepHa po'ra, B3BOn - icp, iCB. POTa XiMi'IHoro 3axHCTY - pX3. PonI3B'1I3KY -p3. nil1po311iJlH TeXHiQHOrO 3a6e3neQellHH ABTOM06iJlbHa pOTa PeMOHTHapOTa Focnonapcskaf B3BOn B3Bon 3a6e3ne4eHHlI i THJlY - aBT]). - peMp. - rOCB. - B36.

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j

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(+ neT)

DOCT cauirapnoro

3 M6 DYHKT 3anpaBKI1 6aTaJlbHOHY 3 BKa3iBKOlO npunanexsocri
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&,1

TepMiHOJloriH 3araJlbHOrO npH3HaQelfllH AB<Ulrapn (ap'cprapn] - AB (Ap) EaTaJlbHOHHH~jnyHKT sanpamcn - En3 EoHoBa MaWHHa niXOTH - EMn • DOHoBa poaainyaansua n030pHa MaWHHa DOKOBa noxiana 3aCTaBa EP)J,M En3

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-

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MpDYHKT 60110BOrO nOCTa4aHHlI POTH3 BKa3iBKOlO npnuaneacnocri nYHKT 06CJlyrOBYBaHHlI aa MapwpYTi (Il. - naJIHBHO-MaCTHJlbHI1MI1 MaTepiaJlaMI1, X- xapllaMH, T - TeXHillHo'i nonoxoru, 0ofiirpiny.a 4epBOHHM ltpeCTOM- MenI14HHH)

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81

80

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KiJlOTOHa KOMaHtl.HO-CnOCTepe)f{Hlli1 nyHKT KOMaHtl.HO-WnI6Ha MaWHHa MiHHO-BI16yxOBi aaropozrscenua Metl.I14HH"nYHKTnOJlKY Metl.ll'lHHH nyHKT 6anlJlbHOHY Menll'lHllii nOCTpOTH CnOCTepe)f{HIIH nyHKT

-ICll -KT -KCll

cnHCOK

BI1KOPHCT AHOY JIITEPATYPI1
Y'le6HHK. Y'le6HHK. M.: BoeHH3naT, 1976. M.: BoeHH3naT, 1986. -

-KWM
-MB3 -Mllll -Mllfi -MllP

I. Boeunas ronorpadias: 2. Boenuas ronorpadma: 3. Boeaaas ronorpadms:
neJleHIIH. -

Y4e6HHK M~ xypcauros M.: BOeHII3AaT, 1990. - 223 c.

278 c. 383 c. Y'le6Hbix nonpas-

-cn
-OKOJl. -OP -BiAM. -OKp. -113 -P33 -np-K -11110 -fITpe3 -TITC -PY -PXP -P3 - p03Me)f{JliHill -p-H - PEr (PeM. f) -- P-)f{ per. (n. per.) -31l11M - BT. 3 (BT. 3, BT. 11) - niaurtinn., ex., 3ax. - niau-sax., nina-ex - nian- 3ax., nian- cx. --3B -MTY -TfI3 -Xell -513 -51M -51M3 -33P (TITO)

Henoropkasnti sanae Borueaa nosuuia
OKOJlHU~ OTPYHHi pe'lOBHHH

-H3 -BrI

Binuirica
OKpeMHi1

Flepenoenii saria PyxOI\H1ii saria saropozrxeas
llpOTHBHllK

4. Kapra odnruepa: Y4e6HllK. - M.: BOeHI13naT, 1985. - 175 c. 5. Ha-ransuas aoeauas nOnrOTOBKa: CnpaBO'IHOe nocofiue soenpyKa.- MHHCK: Haponaas ACBeTa, 1975. - 478 c. 6. fIpl1eMbl H cnocofiu neHcTBHii COJlnaTB 6010: Y4e6Hoe noco6I1e.M.; BoeHH3naT, 1988. - 271 c. 7. Eoenoii ycras cyxonyrnux soilcx. 4.2. (6aTaJlbOH, pora). - M. Boenmaar, 1986. -~ 352 c. 8. PYCKo-YKpallHcKI1H cnosaps. -- KHeB. - 1962. - 160 c. 9. Cnoaaps soeunux TepMHHoB.1988. - 180 c.

Ilporunonirpaaa
Ilporuraaxoaaii

060pOHCI (npOTIIT<lHKOBa 060pOHa)

pesepa TIYHKT TeXHi'lHoro cnocrepexeuun Panioaxrunue ypasceuaa Paniauiiina i xiMi4Ha poaairnca
P03BinYBaJlbHHH3ariH P03Me)f{YBaJlbHa JliHi~ PaHOH PeMOHTHo-eBaKyauiHHa rpyna (peMOHTHa rpyna) Py6i)f{ peryrnoaanua (nYHKT perymoaauaa) 36ipHHii nyHKT nOWKOn)f{eHHXMaWllH BapTOBI1H aarin (BapTOBa

sacraaa,

BapTOBHii

nocr)

TIiBHi'lHHii, niBneHHHii, cxinnaii, '3aXinHHi,juanpsvo« IIiBHi'1HO-3axinHI1H, nieai-mo-cxinuua, niBneHHO-3axinllHH, niBneHHo-exi)~HHIi uanpaao« 30eepetl.)f{eHI1Hsoroas TatlKOBHH MOcToYKJlatl.aJ1bHllK Tunsua noxiaua 3aCTaBa XiMi'1HHii cnocrepexouni 51nepH<1 36pOll 51AepHa MiHa 51nepHo-MiHHi aaroponn 3ariH 3a6e3nelleHH~ pyxy

nocr

82

83

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M.G.

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KOMn'~TepHa BepCTKa H.E. EeNbKo

HPYKY 26,05.99 p. Ci>opMaT 60x8q/16. Timec New Roman Cyr L!.PYK OIj)CCTIII Ill. YM. JIPYK. apx, 4,88 06JI-B")~. apx. 4,63 HaKJIa)'13000 np. 3aM. N\! 16 Ilinnucauo
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ni)U'oTOBJICIIIIIlI1 y BiJlJ1iJli KOM'IOTCPHO'iBepCTKII Bunaaunrrraa "YKpMC)~KllIlra" Yxpaiua 212001 M. Tepuonim., MaiiW1I1 BOJli, I.

HaLIPYKOBaHO B JIPYKaplii auaasuuursa "YKpMC!IKllllra" Yspaiua 212001 \1. TCpIIOniJlL, Mai1Hali Borri. I.

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