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Electrical and Electronics Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute Chennai, India firstname.lastname@example.org Vinod Kumar Electrical and Electronics Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute Chennai, India email@example.com Dr.K.Sujatha Electrical and Electronics Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute Chennai, India firstname.lastname@example.org
Electrical and Electronics Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute Chennai, India email@example.com
Abstract— The project is aimed to mobilize vehicle
emission test and monitoring. This Project has a provision for remote data communication through GSM network. This is achieved with the use of an ARM processor, gas sensor and GSM modem. To accomplish first Kit has to be installed in Vehicle. As the vehicle comes in motion sensor starts sensing the COX level, displays the same in LCD. If the COX level increases the safe value predetermined, text message is communicated indicating the COX level and vehicle number to the Road Transport Office (RTO) as well as the owner through GSM modem.
Keywords- Vehicle emission, GSM, sensor, monitoring system
Our aim is to monitor the air pollution contributed by vehicles through a wireless monitoring network. Here we are using a GSM Modem based technology interfaced with ARM processor connected through the Gas sensor. The mobile device used here monitors the Gas levels of every instant. Here we are going to monitor and communicate the gas pollutant level to take proper measure by RTO authority. Poor air quality has become a very seriously problem in the world. In order to monitor and control air pollution better, it is essential to correctly designate the sources of pollution. According to the reports from around the world, on-road vehicle emissions were believed to be the major source of air pollution in urban cities, contributing over 60% of the carbon monoxides (CO), 30% of the hydrocarbons (HC) and 20% of the nitrogen oxides (NOX) to the national emission inventory. A recent investigation by China Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) shows that vehicle emissions contribute 79% of air pollutant, and this figure will remain unchanged in the future. Further researches show that the majority of vehicle emissions come from roughly 10% to 30% of used vehicles which be called as gross emitters. Concerning the high demand of good air quality, study on
vehicle emissions is crucial and necessary for the ultimate purpose of monitoring and improving air quality. The international and local governments have established various programs of Inspection and Maintenance (I/M), as well as the total planning and control standards. However in-use systems have been heavily criticized as costly, wasteful and causing great inconvenience to the testers and drivers. And it cannot present the real world vehicle emissions. Many vehicles, which had passed the emission test in the testing station, are playing the roles of gross polluters in real world driving conditions. Given the growing criticism on the system, researchers are looking for improving testing and data analysis approaches. On one hand, advanced test technologies have been developed. One of these methods makes use of remote sensing technique, which employed non-dispersed infrared instrument in 1980s and tunable diode laser system in 1998 to acquire the real-time data of vehicle emission in driving conditions. Remote sensing vehicle emission system has been widely used in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia and so on . On the other hand, analyses of vehicle emission testing data were investigated. The emission Factor models based on dynamometer test, MOBILE (US EPA, 1993) and EMFAC (CARB, 1996), have been widely employed to evaluate air quality in North America. The relation between emission intensity and driving speed was investigated by M.Andre in Europe. Researchers in Tsinghua University have explored the study of characteristic and effects of vehicle emissions in Beijing and Macao. For the remote sensing data, people in Denver University have done a series of experiments and data analysis in different district in Denver, Chicago and Log Angeles. Lei Yu developed an on-road estimation model for estimating the CO, HC emission rates and a vehicle’s instantaneous speed profile. The remote-sensing system of vehicle emissions were also applied in several major cities in China. This paper aims to analyze the factors affecting vehicle emissions. It also proposes a model for predicting the on-road major-emitters by combing the remote sensing data
72-6.04 NCR*.3-32. Kanpur. Kolkata.04 Nationwide Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 2010. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes (by reference mass) of light commercial vehicles. Lucknow.90 Euro 2 1. Chennai Euro 1 2. g/km Year Reference CO 1992 - 17. The policy also created guidelines for auto fuels. the Indian government accepted the report submitted by the Mashelkar committee. Table 1: Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles) * National Capital Region (Delhi) † Mumbai. They can be used as a ground-work for the identification of gross emitters in I/M system. during the year of 2011.80 0. II. 13 Cities† 2010 Euro 4 0. The percentage of hits reaches 93%.04 NCR*.0-1. Based on the recommendations of the committee. Bengaluru. The roadmaps for implementation of the Bharat Stage norms were laid out till 2010. The committee proposed a road map for the roll out of Euro based emission norms for India. Car makers were not prepared for this transition and in a subsequent judgment the implementation date for Euro II was not enforced. Table1 illustrate Indian emission standard. compare the EU light-duty vehicle .63 0. Chennai. It also recommended a phased implementation of future norms with the regulations being implemented in major cities first and extended to the rest of the country after a few years.50 0.0 2000 Standard Reference Date Region 2005 India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide 2010 2001 NCR*. 13 Cities† The first emission norms were introduced in India in 1991 for petrol and 1992 for diesel vehicles. LITERATURE SURVEY 2010. They are developed based on the remote sensing test data of taxi emissions from field test in India. Sholapur.500 kg) are summarized in Table 2. Surat.95 Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2003. Mumbai. Kolkata.and the idle test data.6 1996 - 5. These were followed by making the Catalytic converter mandatory for petrol vehicles and the introduction of unleaded petrol in the market.74 2005. Ahmedabad. Jamshedpur and Agra Table 2 Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles.5 Euro 3 0. 13 Cities† Emission standards for light-duty diesel vehicles (GVW ≤ 3. Pune. On April 29th 1999 the Supreme Court of India ruled that all vehicles in India have to meet Euro I or India 2000 norms by June 1st 1999 and Euro II will be mandatory in the NCR by April 2000.0-9.64 0.04 Nationwide Bharat Stage III Euro 3 2005.04 NCR*. reduction of pollution from older vehicles and R&D for air quality data creation and health administration. the National Auto Fuel policy was announced officially in 2003. In 2002. Hyderabad.
The purpose of this portal is to raise awareness of these issues with GSM security. Detecting gas released will be measured and given to the ADC as input. the MSC attempts to complete the call using the MSRN provide.emission standards page for details on the Euro 1 and later standards. the PSTN routes the call to the Home MSC based on the dialed telephone number. with one translation record per subscriber (see the example below). the MSC sends a Routing Information Request to it. to attain routing information required to route the call to the subscribers' current location. The HLR generates a response message. Microcontroller compares this data with predefined data. Remote sensing tests of vehicle emissions were carried out in Chennai in 2012. The MSC stores global title translation tables that are used to determine the HLR associated with the MSISDN. GSM has been dubbed the "Wireless Revolution" and it doesn't take much to realize why GSM provides a secure and confidential method of communication. is one of the many solutions out there. This is achieved with the use of an ARM processor. When only one HLR exists. The MSRN is essentially an ISDN telephone number at which the mobile subscriber can currently be reached. Everyday. which includes the MSRN. then microcontroller sends the SMS to pre-stored mobile no. gas sensor and GSM modem. When more than one HLR is used however. The MSRN is a temporary number that is valid only for the duration of a single call. The tests involved a 7-day field measurement in different locations to obtain the representative profile of vehicle emissions in the city. DESIGN CONCEPT POWER SUPPLY CO SENSOR GSM Modem ADC CO2 SEN SOR ARM Processor GPS LCD Fig1 Architecture Diagram This architecture diagram proposes vehicle emission test and monitoring. The MSC must then query the HLR based on the MSISDN. The complexity of the cell phone is increasing as people begin sending text messages and digital pictures to their friends and family. it maps the MSISDN to the IMSI.2 . If the COx level increases the safe value predetermined. This has a provision for remote data communication through GSM network as shown in Fig1. All the features and advancements in cell phone technology require a backbone to support it. General System for Mobile Communications. The HLR then queries the VLR for a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN). As the vehicle comes in motion sensor starts sensing the COx level. the translation tables are trivial. The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ≤ 2. A typical on road remote sensing vehicle emissions testing system based on ARM technology is used in these measurements. the translations become extremely challenging. up to 6 seats) III. millions of people are making phone calls by pressing a few buttons.500 kg. Having determined the appropriate HLR address. When the HLR receives the Routing Information Request.T. GSM security issues such as theft of service. The system has to provide security and the capability for growth to accommodate future enhancements. and sends it back across the SS7 network to the MSC. ADC will convert this analogical data into digital format and forwards to the controller. privacy. To accomplish first Kit has to be installed in Vehicle. “vehicular wireless sensor network for vehicle emissions monitoring” is the one which gives the information of the parameters if any sensed parameter is out of pre-defined threshold value indicating predisaster. and legal interception continue to raise significant interest in the GSM community. Even less is known about the security measures and protection behind the system. The mobile communications has become one of the driving forces of the digital revolution. GSM. text message is communicated indicating the COx level and vehicle number to the Road Transport Office as well as the owner through GSM modem.O office When a user dials a GSM mobile subscriber's MSISDN. Little is known about how one person's voice reaches the other person's phone that is thousands of miles away. indicating Pre-Disaster. if it exceeds the threshold then GSM is activated. displays the same in LCD. as shown in Fig. Finally. and ascertains the subscribers' profile including the current VLR at which the subscriber is registered. GSM modules will transmits this data to the mobile no which is located in the R. The cell phone is slowly turning into a handheld computer.
MQ-7 Gas sensor In Fig3 shows the typical sensitivity characteristics of the MQ7 for several gases. EMI (Electromagnetic Interference). Poor air quality has become a very seriously problem in the world. it is . through the GSM modem similar message will be communicated to Road Transport Office (Main Server) and the vehicle owner. the emissions analyzer gives the concentrations of the pollutants. including CO in percent. This smoke is received by the MQ-7 gas sensor installed on the pollution detection kit. CONCLUSION From this reference we can conclude that Different methods for pollution monitoring and control are discussed. exhaust concentration reading. It is used for accessing the detail information of the vehicle. it has excellent long term stability. Rs: sensor resistance at various concentrations of gases. This information includes vehicle number. in their: Temp: 20℃ 、 Humidity: 65%、O2 concentration 21% RL=10kΩ Ro: sensor resistance at 100ppm CO in the clean air.Standard concentration below danger level was collected with the help of pollution regulatory organization of India. Based on the changing intensity of the received signal. Stationary data was collected from the vehicle at rest . in the cases of real time monitoring and testing. So. as well as the idle-test data collected from.5 minute from high voltage to low voltage ). The measurement instrument sends laser beams across the road through the exhaust plumes of the passing vehicle. output signal measurement is made within one or two complete heating period (2. H2 signal when the sensor is shifted from clean air to carbon monoxide (CO) . RESULT If the vehicle is found emitting harmful exhaust. The relationship between them is described: Rs\RL = (Vc-VRL) / VRL Fig3 sensitivity characteristics of the MQ-7 for CO. In order to monitor and control air pollution better. Change in resistance of the Gas Sensor gives the various Concentration of Exhaust gases. A.2 GAS Measurement When a moving vehicle measurement system. its speed and acceleration are first measured and recorded for determining the conditions of the engine to reduce the error produced in abnormal states. They are based either on survey results. Result may be used by the authority for taking regulatory measure. Stationary tests. COx in part per million (ppm).Fig.Sensitive layer of MQ-7 gas sensitive components is made of SnO2 with stability. GPS location. currentbased methods known from literature do not work well. LASER based etc. The location is also communicated through the GPS receiver. The surface resistance of the sensor Rs is obtained through effected voltage signal output of the load resistance RL which series-wound. It is shown that.
“Remote vehicle exhaust emission sensing for traffic simulation and optimization models. Part D: Transport and Environment. 2002.K. E-23-4-2000 .Kuschel. Part D: Transport and Environment. G. Inc. 2001. no. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to extend sincere gratitude to Mr.. Sept. Mannering. “Driving speeds in Europe for pollutant emissions estimation. Head of Department (Electrical & Electronics Engineering).36.Stedman. 321335.A. 5177-5184.S. pp. Inc. vol.Fisher. NC.L. Sept. no.  National Air Quality and Emissions Trends. no. . 11-37.Xie and G. CRC Project no. 1998. 5. E-23-4-2001. G. REFERENCES  S.H. Jan. D.A.  M.our project guide Dr. J.”Atmospheric Environment vol.” Report for Coordinating Research Council. 337-347. 3.Sujatha for constant encouragement and support throughout the project.Ramesh. “An on-road motor vehicle emissions inventory for Denver: an efficient alternative to modeling.H. 6. S. EPA-455/R-00-003. April 2000. pp. “Statistical modeling of vehicle emissions from inspection/maintenance testing data: An exploratory analysis.Pokharel. “On-road remote sensing of vehicle emissions in the Auckland region.S.Stedman. pp. vol. Seet and F.S. “On-road remote sensing of automobile emissions in the Chicago area: Year 3.Pokharel.March 2001. 2000.Bishop.A.Bishop.Stedman. “On-road remote sensing of automobile emission in the Los Angeles area: Year 2. 1. So in order to minimize the faults and shortcoming of previous work here we are taking help of new technology overcome the existing lacuna.  S. 2000.Pokharel. CRC Project no.Bishop.” Report for Coordinating Research Council. 5. pp 21-36. Research Triangle Park.” Transportation Research. J.” Transportation Research. pp.  G. United States Environmental Protection Agency. D. Part D: Transport and Environment.5.” Transportation Research.”  S. Andre. G.I.  L. 1998  S. Yu. D.G. vol.Bluett.H..essential to correctly designate the sources of pollution.W. We are Developing ARM based Gas sensors to monitor the harmful gas levels using GSM modem for direct communication with Road transport Authority. Washburn.