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United nations environment programme
MINISTRY OF PLANNING AND INVESMENT
Vietnam Agenda 21 Office
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN VIETNAM
MINISTRY OF PLANNING AND INVESTMENT Vietnam Agenda 21 Office
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN VIETNAM
civil society representatives and politicians agreed on a common aspect of sustainable development and judged nations and mankind to be responsible for implementing sustainable development. Sweden. The Resolution of the Ninth National Party Congress. ensuring a harmony between the artificial environment and natural one. This conference was followed by the Earth Summit on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil in 1992. A general declaration about sustainable development that encompasses twenty seven basic principles. social. which maintain biodiversity". The fundamental principle of sustainable development is that humans are the centre of sustainable development and that long-term development should be driven by peoples' demands. Sustainable development in Vietnam has been endorsed by the leaders of the leading Party and serves as a guideline for the State. the international community has hosted many summits and conferences to discuss this issue. humans have striven toward development. which states: "Fast. A common feature among these is the harmonious consideration of demographic. and environmental protection" and "socio-economic development is closely combined with the protection and improvement of environmental resources. To obtain this target. In these conferences.PREAMBLE Every human being wishes that he and the members of his community can live in a good. economic. and economic growth is consistent with the realization of social progress. efficient and sustainable development. 3 . To reach the targets of sustainable development. To reach the target of sustainable development. The most recent meeting was the World Summit Conference on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg. The initial meeting was the United Nation's Conference on Human Environment held in 1972 in Stockholm. many programmes have been deployed. South Africa in 2002. natural resources. This ensures that development progress in the short term will not compromise long-term development. There are various ways of development. Sustainable development is a strategic choice selected by all nations. healthy and happy environment and the quality of life continues to be improved. and environmental issues. equality. This is a Sustainable Development. Humans are entitled to have a peaceful and healthy life that is balanced with nature.
Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Vietnam Government approved "The strategic orientation for sustainable development in Vietnam. Vietnam Agenda 21 Office has complied a manual on Sustainable development in Vietnam. Vietnam Agenda 21 Office revised and upgraded the manual into this booklet. 65 Van Mieu street. There are certainly mistakes in the booklet and the English translation was unofficial. This is a framework plan to realize the targets of national sustainable development in the 21st century. such as the result of Vietnam's poverty alleviation programmes and some indicators of five year socio-economic development plan 2006-2010. Vietnam Tel: (84-4) 747 3603. Dong Da.Ministry of Planning and Investment Add: Room 702 . This manual introduces the concept of sustainable development. In the year 2007 thanks to the support from AIT/UNEP Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific together with ADB RETA 6198 Project.org 4 . dissemination and implementation of Vietnam's Agenda 21. This Office advises to Minister in realization Vietnam's Agenda 21 and acts as secretariat for National Council for Sustainable Development. the Prime Minister established the National Council for Sustainable Development with the members from Party agencies. Contact: Vietnam Agenda 21 Office . Ministries." (Vietnam Agenda 21) in August 2004. the implementation situation of sustainable development globally and in Vietnam. and sectors in September 2005. and the implementation process of Agenda 21 at the sectorial and local level. feedback and suggestion in order to improve it. Moreover. 747 4824 Fax: (84-4) 747 3602 Email: agenda21@va21. To support the propaganda. the manual supplies basic information of the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals in Vietnam. Hanoi. the principal contents of Vietnam Agenda 21. Therefore.org * Website: http://www. To manage the implementation of Vietnam Agenda 21 in the country.705. The Vietnam Agenda 21 Office was established by Minister of Planning and Investment in June 2004.va21. the editors would like to express their thank for any comments.
. . . . . . . . . . .34 Sectors and localities actively deploy Agenda 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Part 1 Sustainable Development: Concept and Global Implementation Progress The Development . . . . .9 What is sustainable development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Sustainable development has not yet been achieved . . .36 Part 3 Formulate Local Agenda 21 Benefits and formulation principles of Local Agenda 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Sustainable development implementation arrangements . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENT Introduction . . . . . . .11 What is Agenda 21 . . . . . . . .16 Vietnam is signatory to many international commitments on environmental protection and social development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Some initiatives related to sustainable development have been implementing in sectors and localities . . . . . .13 How do countries build and realize a national strategy for sustainable development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Part 2 The Strategic Orientation for Sustainable Development in Vietnam Vietnam strengthens environmental protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 8 principles for sustainable development in Vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 The sample process for formulating local agenda 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Content of Vietnam Agenda 21 .21 19 priority areas in development policy .10 Global implementation of sustainable development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Realizing sustainable development in the 21st century . . .
55 The millennium development goals in brief . . . . . . . . accumulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 International comparison of a number of health norms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 International comparison of several social norms . . . . . . . . . consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Regional poverty rate in the period 1998-2004 (according to international standards) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 International comparison of foreign debt . . . .75 Health . . .77 International comparison of poverty rate (living under per capita income 1 USD/day) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .years socio-economic development plan 2006-2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Main targets of socio-economic development in the period 2001-2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Gender equality . . . .71 Import-export . . . . . . . . . . .79 Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Balance of gross domestic product. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Education and training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 International comparison of economic structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 International comparison of education in 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Annex . . . . . . .70 Balance of state budget income and expenditure . . . . . .60 Main targets of the five . . . . . . .72 Population and labour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 International comparison of economic scales . . . . . . . . . .81 International comparison of Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 ABBREVIATION LSDC SD LA 21 Local sustainable development council Sustainable development Local Agenda 21 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Some figures of reality of natural resources and environment . . . . . . . . . . .Part 4 Reference Data of Vietnam development situation Vietnam’s social development and poverty reduction goals (VDGS) until 2010 . . . .
PART 1 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: CONCEPT AND WORLD IMPLEMENTATION PROGRESS .
transformed from a traditional agricultural society to an industrial society.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam THE DEVELOPMENT There are 6. and now to a society that is based on the knowledge economy. The rapid exhaustion of natural resources was also forecasted. Living 8 . We have altered a wild planet into green fields. Mankind has achieved progress in the past 100 years.7 billion people on the planet. The human not only improves the planet but also starts to subdue the universe. and transport systems. During the last 100 years the global population doubled each 40 years. Real income per capita (based price in 1995) has increased from USD 989 in 1980 to USD 1345 in 2000. prosperous cities. World population (billion people) The industrial revolution and economic development have brought societies to a new development stage. Between 1950-1960. However. standards of half of the world's population have risen remarkably. the green revolution in the agricultural technology that enabled to restrain widespreading of hunger. it was thought that some large countries such as China and India would not be able to feed their rapidly increasing population.
illiteracy.2 billions of very poor people (18%). • One fourth of the global population is illiterate. • More than one billion of people do not have daily access to clean water.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT HAS NOT YET BEEN ACHIEVED The development on earth is not yet sustainable.9 billion hectare (30% of total area for cultivation on the planet) has decreased in the last 50 years. and diseases are still prevalent: • Presently there are 2. one person dies by HIV/AIDS every 10 seconds.8 billion poor people (43%) and 1. • Globally. More than 100 million children do not attend school. • One-third of the Earth's large creatures live in crowded habit and face the risk of extinction. Serious Environmental Degradation: • The environmental quality of 1. There are 57 millions of people infected with HIV/AIDS. • It is predicted that the Earth's temperature will increase by 3 . • Two-thirds of the Earth's fishing areas are over-exploited and are unable to regenerate naturally.7 degrees Celsius by 2110 if humans continue with their present pattern of fuel consumption. two third of human will lack of sufficient clean water supplies. • The planet losses 5% of its tropical forest area each year. In the coming 25 years. poverty. 9 . Hunger.
(Preambles of Global Agenda 21.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? “In order to have a safer and more prosperous life. current environmental and development issues must be solved in a balanced way". The building is firm only when its components are closely and harmoniously linked together . S ustainable development sounds like constructing a socio-economic building on an ecological environment foundation. mechanism. society and environment must be harmonized. tools and processes of implementing policies. Rio de Janeiro 1992) “ S ustainable development is the development that satisfies the needs of the current generations without compromising the capacity of future generations to satisfy their own needs". combined comprehensively and integrated… and balanced effectively through policies. Economic Goal SD Social Goal Environmental protection Sustainable development means that all three major aspects relating to mankind life as economy. Life Economic Environment 10 .
Global Agenda 21 on sustainable development. • 1983: The United Nations set up the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) • 1992: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was held in Rio de Janeiro. 179 government representatives participated and signed the 5 following important documents: 1. 11 • . 3. Post Rio: After Rio 1992 Conference. 5. The Assembly recognized global progress toward achieving sustainable development. population. climate and global warming and food.. 2. The Statement of Forest Principles.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam GLOBAL implementation of sustainable development • 1972: The United Nations Conference on Human Environment was held in Stockholm. human rights. the cities. 4. • 1997: The General Assembly of the UN appraised five years of progress on the implementation of Agenda 21 (Rio +5). The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. the discussion and action on Agenda 21 continue at global level with a series of summits: social development. Sweden and attended by representatives from 113 nations. women.. The Conference was the first global meeting on environment. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development with 27 principles. ect. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
• Agenda 21 addresses the development challenges of the 21st century. cooperation and information mechanisms). • Agenda 21 was pledged to be implemented by 179 Nations that participated in the United Nation Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. (4) Implementation instruments (finance. whose well being is the ultimate goal of all environment and development policies" (Global Agenda 21. settlement). hunger elimination. • Agenda 21 calls upon all the nations to formulate their own plan.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam WHAT IS AGENDA 21? "First and foremost our message is directed towards people. social equity. science and technology. (3) Strengthening the role of major groups. and environmental protection. 12 . consumption pattern. health. reasonable resource use. population. solutions for achieving sustainable development. poverty alleviation. affirms that human aspirations are to achieve a stage of development that is harmony of economic development. 1992) • Agenda 21 is a general framework to implement programmes to achieve sustainable development in 21st century. (2) The protection and management of natural resources. • Agenda 21 is composed of four main contents: (1) Social and economic aspects of development (poverty. strategy and basic policies.
. natural resources protection and management.Johannesburg declaration on Sustainable development and Action Program "Plan on the implementation of Johannesburg declaration".Kofi Annan Spoke on March. 2001. .Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam REALIZING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY "Our greatest challenge in this new century is to catch up with the idea of sustainable development .Combining 3 development key points about development: economic growth.Reaffirming the worth of Global Agenda 21. changing the manner of consumption and production. International Summit • Y ear 2002: Conference on Sustainable Development was held in Johannesburg (South Africa) with the participation of 196 countries and many organizations. and the improvement of human health. Key tasks to be achieved by 2015 were proposed at the Hinesburg Summit Conference: hunger elimination and poverty reduction. . poverty reduction and social justice as well as environment resources protection.and to turn it into reality to all the people in the world". sustainable development in the context of globalization. The United Nations secretary-general . 13 .Stressing the concern that the implementation of sustainable development is still slow.which seems to be abstract . .
and realized a national strategy for sustainable development. there were 70 countries (accounting for 36% of the number of countries in the world) that have structured. approved. The World (191 countries) Implementation Approval Editing A number of parts No data The number of countries 14 .Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam HOW DO COUNTRIES BUILD AND REALIZE A NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? Up to the end of 2003.
PART 2 THE STRATEGIC ORIENTATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN VIETNAM (Vietnam Agenda 21) .
Established Environment Agency in Ministry of Science. • 1992: Established Ministry of Sciences. • 1998: The Political Bureau of Vietnam Leading Party issued the Directive for strengthening environmental protection in the period of industrialization and modernization of the country. Global Agenda 21. • 1996: Promulgated Mineral Law. The Political Bureau issued the Directive no. Petroleum Law. • 1999: Promulgated a Solid Waste Management Strategy for Vietnamese cities and industrial parks to 2020 and established the Regulations for the Management of hazardous waste. Veterinary Ordinance. Principle landmarks include: • 1991: Promulgated Law on Environmental Protection and issued National plan for environmental and sustainable development for the period 1991-2000. Adopted Law on Water Resources. • 1995: Adopted National Action Plan on Biodiversity Protection. making commitments to the implementation of sustainable development at national and local level in the country. • 1994: Promulgated Decree No. Ordinance on Radiation Safety and Control. 36 about environmental protection on industrialization and modernization process. the Government of Vietnam sent high ranking delegates to the United nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and signed Rio declaration on environment and development. • 2004: Signed the National Strategy on Environmental Protection for period 2004-2010 and oriented to year 2020. 16 . • 2002: Established Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. Ordinance for Botanical Protection and Audit. Technology and Environment. Technology and Environment. 175/CP on instruction for implementation of the Law on Environmental Protection.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam VIETNAM STRENGTHENS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION In 1992. • 1993: Approved Law for Environmental Protection.
• 1998: United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). 17 . Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). • 1999: International Declaration on Cleaner Production. • 2000: Implementation of Millennium Development Goals.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam VIETNAM IS SIGNATORY TO MANY INTERNATIONAL COMMITMENTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT • 1990: Convention on the Rights of the Child. Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. • 1991: International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. • 1995: Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movement of Hazardous Waste and their Disposal. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). • 1993: Vietnam became a member of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). • 1994: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). United Nations convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
education. Guide the human resource training to facilitate the implementation of the Strategic Orientation for Sustainable Development in Vietnam. Set up and operate information system on sustainable development issues. localities. locals. Support ministries and sectors. and 40 members represented for Party agencies. Propose new initiatives and seek for resources to realize the initiatives to advance sustainable development. deploy large-scaled. 18 . Minister of Planning and Investment as Standing Vice Chairman. Summarize the situation and annually report to Prime Minister on the results of deployment and implementation of the Strategic Orientation for Sustainable Development in Vietnam. enterprises and social agencies. Leader of Ministry of Science and Technology as Vice Chairman. sectors. Organize and cooperate cross-sectorial and cross-regional activities in terms of development planning.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The National Council of Sustainable Development was established in accordance to Decision No. ministries. 1032/Q§-TTg dated 27/9/2005 of the Prime Minister. social organizations and concerned agencies in formulating their sustainable development strategic orientations as well as sustainable development projects and programmes. Leader of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. National assembly. T he standing office assists for National Council of Sustainable Development is the Sustainable Development Office located in Ministry of Planning and Investment. responsibility and awareness raising for all sectors. enterprises. levels and all people strata about sustainable development. The National Council of Sustainable Development advises Prime Minister to: • Organize. highly cross-sectorial and cross-regional programmes and projects. Steer propaganda. instruct and steer the implementation of the Strategic • • • • Orientation for Sustainable Development in Vietnam throughout the whole country. The council has Deputy Prime Minister as Chairman.
Act as focal point /coordinating unit for international cooperation programme and projects on SD. monitor. 19 . and other institutions to organize workshops. provinces. Draft and submit actions plan. 685/Q§-BKH dated 28/6/2004 of the Minister of Ministry of Planning and Investment with following functions and tasks: 1. provinces. communication and training. supervise. Formulate and implement SD projects with its respective functions. Cooperate with line ministries. coordinate the development of SD programmes and projects among ministries.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OFFICE The Sustainable Development Office is established in accordance to Decision No. provinces. 2. 3. Collaborate with institutions to promote the National Council on SD establishment. policies. 8. annual and 5 year plan for implementing Vietnam Agenda 21. provide information and technical assistance in the field of SD. 6. measures for implementation of the Vietnam Agenda 21. Organize and manage the implementation of the Vietnam Agenda 21. Execute other tasks assigned by the Ministry of Planning and Investment's Minister. 4. 5. Convene and cooperate with other line ministries. overall manage SD activities. and evaluate the results of those programmes and projects in the country. 7. to develop mechanism.
On 17/8/2004. 153/2004/TTg to promulgate The Strategic Orientation for Sustainable Development in Vietnam (Vietnam Agenda 21). The government assigned the Ministry of Planning and Investing to preside over the preparation of National Agenda 21.term target. Economy Society Environment Organize the implementation of sustainable development 20 . The Vietnam Agenda 21 includes following main contents: Assess development situation from the point of view of sustainability Long . main principles of sustainable development. the Prime Minister issued decision No.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam CONTENT OF VIETNAM AGENDA 21 In the August 2000. Priority areas for sustainable development.
modernization. businesses. Social-economic development. quick. the ministries. population communities and the whole people. 6. environmental protection should be closely combined with guarantee of national defence and security as well as social safety and order. agencies. The development process must equally satisfy the needs of the current generations without causing obstacles for the life of future generations. 7. Human beings are the centre of sustainable development. social and environmental ones enjoy benefits". Sustainable development is the cause of the whole Party. 4. 8. 21 . appropriately and harmoniously combine with the social development. sectors and localities. combine canvass propaganda. reasonably exploit. 5. 2. thriftily and effectively utilize natural resources in accordance with the principle "all aspects: economic. Protection and improvement of environment quality are to be considered as an inseparable factor from the development process. Science and technology is the foundation and momentum for the country's industrialization. Consider economic development as the central task. Tightly attach the establishment of an independent and autonomous economy to the international economic integration on basis of self initiative. authorities at all levels. 3. Apply uniformly economical and legal instruments.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 8 PRINCIPLES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN VIETNAM 1. social organizations. strong and sustainable development.
• Save resources for development. 1. 2. initiatives are needed in order to maintain stable economic growth. Sustainable development of regions and localities. • Transfer from an economy that exploits and uses raw natural resources to the ones that relies on processed resources in order to increase value added to every exploited unit of natural resources. 5. Implement the "clean industrialization" process. Transform production and consumption patterns towards environmentally friendly direction. effectively use the scarce natural resource and ensure the sustainable exploitation of these resources. 22 . Maintain rapid and sustainable economic growth rate Although the economy has experienced relatively high growth rate. • Transfer from a mainly resource extensively Exploit and use reasonably sources of capital use economy to one that is intensive.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 19 PRIORITY AREAS IN DEVELOPMENT POLICY 5 Priority economic areas for sustainable development 1. Agriculture and rural sustainable development. Maintain rapid and sustainable economic growth rate. • Build the accounting system for environmen- tal economy. to add environment and social fields into the national accounting frame. 3. These include the following: • Maintain economic renovation initiative to improve a socialist oriented market mechanism. 4.
3. • Introduce economic instruments to adjust the unsustainable consumption. The following changes to the consumption pattern are required: • Restructure the production and consumption service activities. Yet factors remain that have an adverse affect on the stable increase in prosperity. which is to limit industrial pollution through developing green industry. Transform production and consumption patterns towards environmentally friendly direction People's lives have been clearly improved. The principle of environmental pollution prevention must be thoroughly understood and applied to the planning of industrial zones. • Raise awareness about how to live an environment friendly lifestyle.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 2. Some of these factors include the waste of materials and fuel in production. "Clean industrialization" at first requires the planning of industrial development that will adhere to the environment friendly principle. Several areas which have significant impact to the environment should take initiative in building and implementing the action program of sustainable development: • Energy • Mineral resource exploitation • Transport • Construction • Trade • Tourism 23 Economical and reasonable use Reuse and recycle Friendly with the environment . lavish consumer lifestyles that contribute to environmental pollution. Implementing "Clean Industrialzation" The central task of promoting industrialization and modernization must not be carried out at any price.
• Increased cooperation between State mana- gement authorities is required to ensure an interdisciplinary and inter-regional approach to development.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 4. • Plan for the sustainable development of rural areas. • Broad participation is required for the implementation of local development projects from organizations and people at all levels. employment creation. • Adjust the economic structure aiming at economic growth. Agriculture and rural sustainable development Agriculture. • Promote the application of agricultural modern technology and ecological agriculture. 5. forestry and fisheries are economic areas which have close relationships with ecological environment and have been participated by two-third of the national population. • Apply an agricultural system that is suitable to the local ecological condition. Sustainable development of regions and localities A regional development strategies should also focus on the regions that are significantly less developed. and environmental protection. poverty reduction. Some major orientations are: • Improve policy and legislation that relate to the exploitation and use of natural resources. 24 . • It is necessary to raise awareness and to increase management capability about sustainable development at all governmental levels. • Every region should formulate a sustainable development action program (local 21 agenda).
Empower position of women in socio-economic development and protection of natural resources and environment. improve working condition and living environment sanitation.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 5 priority social areas for sustainable development 6. Hunger eliminatation and poverty alleviatation Vietnam has made great achievePoverty rate in Vietnam (%) ments in hunger elimination and poverty alleviation. However. Great attempts should be made to eliminate hunger. 10. Key points that require focus include: • Poverty reduction and hunger elimination are the key priorities in sustainable • • • • development strategy. 9. mountainous and plain areas. poor people still account for a considerable share of Vietnam's population and disparity in living standards among regions and social groups is on tend to increase. Orient the process of urbanization and population migration towards the sustainable development urban areas. Support the ethnic minorities in social-economic development activities and environment protection. 8. Narrow the gap between the rural and urban areas. 7. Develop health care services. 25 . professional skills and qualifications and match needs of nation's development. Improve education quality in order to raise intellectual level. appropriate allocation of population and labour forces for each region. Create favour conditions for integration of vulnerable social groups into communities. 6. alleviate poverty and speed up the implementation of social progress and equity. Continue to reduce population growth rate and create jobs for the working forces.
Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 7. 26 . Reduce population growth rate and create jobs for the working forces Although the population growth rate was controlled but Vietnam's population continues to increase having a great impact on the country's economy. Consequently. society. a polluted urban environment. people migration from rural areas creates much social pressure. • Orient and adjust the migration to ensures local improvement of employment condition and living standards for people. Sustainable urban development requires the implementation of many comprehensive activities: • Review the overall planning to ensure the sustainable urban development. Urbanization and resettlement orientation Population rate of urban (%) The urbanization process is taking place at a rapid rate and faces a lot of challenges including constructing infrastructure and public service with sufficient quantity and quality. and environment. degraded natural landscapes. • Minimize environmental impacts caused by the urbanization process. Population Labor 8. • Create more jobs for people as well as Forecast population and labor till 2020 strengthen human resources and make the society stable and healthy. intellectual and spiritual regards. it is necessary to: • Firmly maintain reduction in birth rate and improve the population quality in physical.
• Carry out education on environment protection and sustainable development in schools as well as raise public awareness about these issues. • Pay special attention for training human resources for rural areas. • Protect social groups under high risk. • Develop the system of human resource training towards labour export. prevent and combat contagious diseases. • Mobilize the whole society and people to strengthen education system and diversify education and training forms. it is required: • Consolidate and strengthen medical system in order to meet people's basic needs on health care. • Support the provinces under difficulty so that the whole country reach the target of popularization of basic secondary education by the year 2010. create equal opportunities for people to access education and training services and improve the quality of human resources as well as develop individual capacities. improve working condition and living environment sanitation In order to constantly improve people's health. 27 . Develop health care services. 10. content. • Firmly develop education for ethnic minorities and regions under difficulty. • Alleviate detrimental impacts caused by environment pollution on the people health. • Develop preventive healthcare. constantly reduce diseases and all people entitled to primary healthcare services as well as create conditions for all people to access and use better quality healthcare services. education and training methods. Improve education quality The responsibilities of education and training sector in sustainable development strategy is to continuously strive for improvement in the people's intellectual level.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 9. The following initiatives should be undertaken: • Reform curricula.
More than 50% of the lowland area and 60% of the mountainous areas are showing signs of environmental degradation. 16. 11. limiting its negative impacts. introduce combined practices of agricultural production and forest farming. replant forests. • Introduce programs on intensive farming and land cultivation. 12. 19.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 9 priority areas for sustainable development of natural resource and environment 11. 14. planning. 18. 28 . Forest protection and development. develop irrigation systems. Air pollution control in urban and industrial zones. • Manage river basin. it is necessary to: • Improve laws on land use right. Biodiversity conservation. Solid waste and toxic waste management. Implement measures for mitigating climate change. Prevention of land degradation and effective and stable use of land resource. 15. Prevention of land degradation and effective and stable use of land resource The land and farming area available per capita in Vietnam is relatively small. and management. Appropriate exploitation and thrifty and sustainable utilization of mineral resources. • Allocate regional population properly. Protection of marine coastal and islands environment and promotion of marine resources. preventing and controlling natural disasters. 17. In order to prevent further degradation and to sustainably use land resources. 13. Water environment protection and sustainable utilization of water resource. maintain ecological balance in lowland and mountainous areas.
destroyed land environment and decreased vegetation coverage. Perfect the management system of mineral resource. Urbanization and industrial development cause an increase in the scope and intensity of water pollution. upstream areas. Water environment protection and sustainable utilization of water resources The source of surface water and underground water is relatively plentiful. • Apply the principle "water users pay" and "polluter pay". Introduce wastewater treatment technologies. • Strictly and more effectively enforce mineral law. Increase the amount of investment for recovering useful mineral substances.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 12. • Organize mineral exploitation procedures in appropriate manner. 13. Vietnam has important advantages in mineral resources. • Improve mineral exploitation and processing technologies. that has caused loss of mineral resources. and ground water sources. • Formulate consistent planning for sustainable utilization of mineral resources and environmental protection. it is unevenly distributed according to seasons and regions in Vietnam. However. In comparison with many countries in the world. Priority activities in the sustainable use and protection of water resources include: • Formulate policies and legislation that outlines sus- tainable water management practices that balance water demand among regions. • Improve irrigation systems. Appropriate exploitation and thrifty and sustainable utilization of mineral resources minerals are non-renewable natural resources. Due to poor management the country's mineral resources have been over-exploited. The flood in rainy seasons and the drought in dry seasons occurs in many places. 29 . • Implement programmes to structure the combined management of river basins. Prohibit the arbitrary exploitation of mines.
These areas hold nearly 60% of the country's population.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 14. Nevertheless. Vietnam has an exclusive economic zone of one million km2. and most of the major industrial zones. 30 . resources and envi- ronment management under the principle of sustainability. about 50% of large cities. • Encourage the use of alternative material and fuel. which is three times larger than the country's land area. coastal and island environments and promotion of marine resources Marine resources are very important for Vietnam's economy. forests in Vietnam continue to face many threats. • Apply modern logging and wood production tech- nology that is highly efficient in the use of wood. • Prevent and control forest fire and environmental disasters related to forest. • Continue to foster the allocation of land and forest to households and collective bodies. Marine and coastal environments are very sensitive to human impacts. Coastal regions are centers of social and economic activity. poverty reduction and environmen- tal harmonization. Forest protection and development By actively reforesting and protecting resources. • Prevent and efficiently and timely treat marine environmental accidents. Actions required to safeguard marine and coastal environments include: • Formulate a strategy for marine economic development. forest coverage has increased. 15. Protection of marine. • Assist people in planting and protecting forests and promote ecological agricultural-forestry development. • Diversify economies for job generation. • Establish and efficiently manage marine and coastal protected areas.
• Improve energy efficiency and encourage the use of clean energy sources. • Reduce solid waste at the source by using clean technologies friendly products. recover the waste to control environmental pollution. • Construct hygienic landfills for medium and large cities. vehicles and domestic activities should be thoroughly evaluated and controlled. 31 . the air pollution caused by dust and exhaust fumes from industry and vehicles is prevalent in large urban and industrial areas. Proper management of solid and toxic waste • Actively prevent. • Strengthen strict control of toxic wastes. • Pollution caused by industrial enterprises. • Promote the application of recycling technology. Reduce air pollution in urban areas and industrial zones Although the level of urbanization and industrial development is not high in Vietnam.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 16. • Environmental impact assessments must be undertaken on all socio-economic development projects in order to prevent possible causes of air pollution. and environmentally • Initiate public movements on hygienic living environment and economical use of natural resources and other products. 17. Encourage waste classification at the sources. treat. • A "polluters pay" principle should be applied. • Encourage the private sector to participate in the collection and treatment of solid waste.
Mitigate the negative impacts of climate change. 19. Priority activities include: • Develop regional bio-diversity conserva- tion action plans.845/TTg. • Encourage communities to establish and realize common regulations and to incorporate indigenous knowledge on bio-diversity protection in local areas. • Develop and pilot eco-tourism projects. • Consolidate. Vietnam's Action Plan for Bio-diversity Protection was promulgated in December 1995 in Decision No. 32 . Construct natural museum systems.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 18. expand and decentralize management systems for national parks and natural protected areas. • Promote propaganda. • Enhance communication and education activities to raise people's aware- ness about biodiversity. Promote biodiversity inventory and research. dissemination and raise awareness for the community to effectively implement the National Programme to phase out ozone depleting substances and the National Plan to implement the UN Frame Convention on Climate Change. • Strengthen and improve capacity of hydro-meteorologist and improve the quality of hydrometeorology forecasts. Vietnam is in the region where many natural disasters occur and economic activities also increase environment accidents. Biodiversity conservation Vietnam is among the ten countries that have the highest bio-diversity in the world. prevent and control natural disasters Climate change due to human activities is having adverse environmental impacts on global and regional scales.
Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Hot spots of environment 33 .
3. sectorial and local environmental information systems. Improve environmental management capacity.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENTS The leading role of the government: T o successfully implement the Strategic Orientation for Sustainable Development in Vietnam. organization and involve participation of communities. 2. • Establish a Council to instruct local and Monitoring system People awareness Local Agenda 21 sectorial sustainable development. • Improve the system of legal documents. • Promote national. 5. the leading role of the Government to implement the Strategic Orientation must be improved. • Establish an environmental management unit in ministries and enhance capacity for environmental research and monitoring agencies. Develop an economic accounting system and use economic instruments in environmental protection. 6. Institutional development. • Establish mechanism for integration and Management ability Law Finance coordination among agencies. There are the following actions are required: 1. Promote public education and awareness raising of sustainable development. Encourage and integrate finance resources to support the implementation of sustainable development. Formulate sectorial and local sustainable development action plan. • Improve technical and professional skills for environmental management officials. 34 . 4. Establish sustainable development evaluation and monitoring indicator system.
There are many ways to mobilize public's wide participation toward the realization of sustainable development. people discuss. Development policy formulation and implementation should mobilize the broad participation of all people according to principle "people know.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Involve the whole society's participation in sustainable development: Sustainable development is the cause of all people. and improve public awareness of sus- tainable development via mass organizations and community. • Promote people's initiatives and mastership and institutionalize the participatory role of people in social and community management. people do and people monitor". 35 . • Launch activity programs by each social group in each locality and nation- wide with the contents of sustainable development. education. and replicate those models. Each social group participates to promote sustainable development on its own way. • Organize communication. natural resource and environmental protection self-management system etc. • Establish demonstration models on sustainable communities. These groups include: • Women • Teenagers and young people • Farmers • Workers and trade unions • Businessmen • Ethnic minorities groups • Intellectuals and scientists.
Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Sectors and localities actively deploy Agenda 21 36 .
Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Sectors and localities actively deploy Agenda 21 37 .
Part 3 Formulate Local Agenda 21 .
society. 40 .Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam "Each region and locality (provinces and cities directly under the Centre) should formulate its own Agenda 21 to confirm its activities towards sustainable development in reference to major directions given in the Socioeconomic Development Strategy and the Strategic Orientation for Sustainable Development in Vietnam". and environment harmoniously and sustainably. hamlet. LA 21 is the multi-stakeholder process and has the wide participation of all organizations and local people. provinces. indicators and solutions in Vietnam Agenda 21 to ensure the development of economy. ( Vietnam Agenda 21) What is Local Agenda 21? Local Agenda 21 (LA 21) is the action plan formulated by local people and government that base on concretization of goals. mountain village. communes. The locality means any form of communities. highland village. districts.
organizations. build action plans. Each step of formulation and implementation of LA 21 needs the approval of member groups in communities. programs and local practices are reviewed. revised and even adjusted to be in line with the goal of sustainable development. implement and monitor. 41 . • The exchange process also improves people's awareness about sustainable development issues. • Legal policies. local government understands the needs and experiences of people.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Benefits and formulation principles of Local Agenda 21 Benefits from formulation of Local Agenda 21 • Through opinion exchange and consensus building. Agenda 21 is the common outcome of communities. and communities to work out sustainable development strategy in consistence with local context. relying on ideas of communities. • Local Agenda 21 can also be referred to as an overall framework for local development projects. • Agenda 21 is a continuous process to promote initia- tives. How does Agenda 21 differ from a normal plan? • Formulation of Agenda 21 is the process implemented from "bottom to top". enterprises. not a result of any local authority. • The wide participation of people in all process steps is the key factor to success in the implementation of the sustainable development.
2. Local authority and mass organizations cooperate closely in formulating and implementing Local Agenda 21. 3. local community obtains consensus on future direction of sustainable development and long-term vision for the locality. Incorporation of economic. 5. schools. mass media…). enterprises. monitoring. evaluating and reporting. 42 . social and environmental considerations in local development objectives. 4. Action plan and specific measures should be worked out. 6.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Principles in formulation of Local Agenda 21 The formulation of Local Agenda 21 relies on seven principles: 1. Broad public participation (community. Regular monitoring and reporting mechanism regarding implementation of action plans and sustainable development progress in locality should be set up. Build sustainable development indicator system in line with local conditions for planning. 7. During preparation of Local Agenda 21.
• Establish reporting and supervising system.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Implementation of Local Agenda 21 is to translate global and national thinking into local actions The content of Local Agenda 21 The LA 21 need to include the main contents as follows: • Assess the current socio-economic environmental state of localities. • Define sustainable development goal and indicator system of localities. draw on strong points. 43 . weaknesses. • Focus on concrete local conditions. shortcomings to compare with requirements of sustainable development goals given in Vietnam Agenda 21. • Establish action plan to carry out sustainable development strategy. decisions and implement action plans. • Mobilize people to join discussions.
Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam
THE SAMPLE PROCESS FOR FORMULATING LOCAL AGENDA 21
Base on experience from localities around the world and consider Vietnam conditions, the Circular No01/TT/KHDT was promulgated by Ministry of Planning and Investment to guide Vietnam Agenda 21 implementation, the Circular mentioned the sample process for formulating sectorial and local agenda 21. The process includes 4 main steps. The 4 steps in the sample process: step 1: Preparation step 2: Analyze state
- Economy - Society - Environment - Institution Strong and weak point, conflict, cause
step 3: Build documents
- Goal - Long-term sustainable development viewpoint - Priority sector => Local SD strategy orientation - Pilot project
step 4: Implementation
- Make plan - Formulate machinery - Establish mechanism - Estimate resources - Select pilots
- Action plan - Supervision norm - Periodical report - Co-sectorial coordination mechanism
Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam
Steps 1: prepare for the action mechanism and organization The preparation step includes following main activities: 1.1. Make the plan for LA 21 formulation. 1.2. Set up an organization to coordinate the formulation and implementation of LA 21. There are two main organizations: + The local sustainable development Council. + The sustainable development Office. The local sustainable development Council (LSDC): • Coordinate agencies, organizations, forces in the area. • Prepare sustainable development guidelines and policies, direct for making plans, monitoring, evaluating and reporting the implementation of sustainable development. • Provide guidance for propaganda, education, and awareness raising of sustainable development and disseminate information. • Draw up the guidelines for co-ordination of the locality with other localities, sectors; international, central agencies to promote sustainable development.
1.3. Define operational mechanism.
• The function and task of LSDC and the LA 21 office. • The regulation and charter. • The strategy to mobilize the participation of agen-
cies, social organizations and the whole people. 1.4. Estimate the budget and human resource. 1.5. Identify and promote the best SD practices.
Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam
Step 2: Analysis and evaluation of real current situation and the development process The analysis is to answer questions: Does present development meet requirements of sustainable development? Which factor, area or aspect fails to meet those requirements and the reason why? Important result of this step is the report on local real situation with main contents:
• Evaluation of socio-economic and environment development. • Reveal the contradictions and conflicts between protection of natural envi-
ronment, social development and economic growth, and their causes and effects. Methods to use for analysis: Statistical analysis, social survey, factor analysis, forecast modeling, analysis of strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT analysis), strategic environmental assessment, policy analysis, evaluation of the use of local natural resources and the real situation of environmental pollution and management.
2.1. Analysis of the local economic growth process and reproduction.
• Inputs (capital, natural resources, labour), outputs (products, wastes),
process (technology, management).
• Assessment of growth factors (extensive and intensive, internal and external
• Local potential and prospect factors. Obstacles and challenges. • Causes and possible solutions.
• How have natural resources been exploited and used? Is there a strategy for using local and imported resources? • Assessment of environmental impacts of the socio-economic development strategy. health.). • Examine how main social classes and groups have benefited from the devel- opment (employment.2. 2. political rights. minor regions in terms of population. Evaluation of real state of natural resources and environment. • Assessment of natural resources and environ- ment management. • Analyze the trend of change of living standards and socio-economic gap between social groups and its affects for future development. poverty reduction. 47 . income. • Evaluate the impacts of main social policies and services to classes. position in the society and community. • Analysis of contradictions between the need for socio-economic development and environmental protection. education. etc. ethnicity. and environment hygiene. living standard. migration. Analysis of social impacts of the development process.3.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 2.
• Review the legal documents. socioeconomic development strategy. Institutional analysis to make sure that socio-economic and environmental aspects are integrated in the sustainable development. large projects. and the direction of integrating socio-economic and environment to minimize conflicts of economic growth with environmental protection and social inequality. • Study • Study local customs and habits. • Put forward priority action plan to promote local sustainable development. • Review the planned targets.4. local regu- lation and culture from the point of view of sustainable development. 48 . planning. Step 3: Build action program and projects to implement local agenda 21. • Identify long-term targets. environmental protection strategy.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 2. monitor and report. define develop- ment viewpoint (long-term vision). Translate priority in the Vietnam Agenda 21 into local priority action plan and SD projects. organizational system and mechanism for management and coordination of all local governmental agencies.
Entrepreneurs 6. Recommend the activities for social groups to promote sustainable development: 1. allocate budget for projects. Intellectuals. scientists 8. Women 2. make plan for mobilizing capital sources from locality and the community to implement the project. 2. 49 . institutionalize the process of monitoring. Classify and rank development programs and projects in the order of priority and build implementing schedules. 5. 4. Build the enforcement system to ensure the implementation of Sustainable Development action plan. Teenagers 3. Build set of indicators.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Step 4: Organize the implementation of local Agenda 21 1. Include SD programs and projects in the local annual plan. Workers. 3. trade unions 4. Build action plan and prepare resources for the implementation of the local Agenda 21 for the period 2006-2010. Farmers 5. Religion. evaluating and reporting. Minor ethnic people 7.
supervise the implementation of local Agenda 21. social groups Council for SD Local SD council is the organization to guide. social organizations. social Local administration Public communication class. • Agencies. and opinions of all people in the community. • Public communication system. Review Research Propose Draft LA21 Consult Get consultant opinions of agencies. Enterprises 50 .Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Building Local Agenda 21 is a continous process of collecting initiatives. organizations . discussions. • Local enterprises and business. coordinate. Mass. business and comnunities Communicate Draft LA21 Communicate Submit it to people commit => people council to be approved It is necessary to attract the participation and coordinate activities of 4 principle groups: • Local administrations at all levels.
It is possible to use calculating methods for indicators to convert into the same measure unit and index. • The United Nations SD indicator set composes 58 indicators that belong to 51 . Use index system: the indicators that have different measure unit. • Human development index (HDI) is a combination of three indicators: economy (GDP per capita). There are two principal approaches in using indicator for sustainable development: 1. education (percentage of people going to school) and health (life expectancy). Up to now. For example: • Green GDP: equal GDP minus environment and resources damages. 2. is converted into indexes for each target group and general MDG index. there is not official indicator system to measure and assess sustainable development. • Genuine Progress indicator (GPI): equal GDP minus environment and resources damages. reflect many aspects. the target and characteristic of Agenda 21. equivalent energy unit. value reflecting inequality in income distribution and social evil. Use one or some composite indicators: Composite indicators allow to translate cost or benefits into a common unit of measurement (such as monetary unit. • The indicator set for Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of United Nations is composed of 23 goals that belong to 8 groups of targets. environment and institution. 3 groups: economy.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Assessment indicator system for sustainable development. society. • Real accumulation: equal domestic net accumulation plus investment in edu- cation and minus environment and resources damages. According to the local condition. add value of care for family labour and voluntary activities. equivalent area unit). the indicator sets for sustainable development can be built for each area.
forestry. • The community takes part in cultivating and pro- tecting forest. no pollution for environment) • Use recycled and reused products to replace non-renewable material. and other resources. • Coordinate reasonably fishery cultivation with cul- tivation and protect salt forest. • Plan and manage sustainable cities. fisheries. 52 . apply methods of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). coral reefs nature in protected conservation areas and buffer areas. job and income for people. create a clean working environment which does not damage for workers' health. • Apply methods of conservation and preventing pollution for environment. Industry and construction: • Apply cleaner production in industry estab- lishments. increase productivity of plants. eco . livestock.methods in order to prevent pest in agriculture. saline coastal forest wetlands ecosystem. • Produce eco-products (to economize energy. cultivation systems and eco-farming in coastal areas to protect soil. aiding to hunger alleviation and poverty reduction.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam SOME INITIATIVES RELATED TO SUSTAINBLE DEVELOPMENT HAVE BEEN IMPLEMENTing IN SECTORS AND LOCALITIES Agriculture. forestry and fisheries: • Build eco-villages. water resource. materials. agro-forestry cultivation systems on the sloping soil. • Use organic fertilize.
reduce cost for energy in the offices. • Use biodegradable materials to replace plastic and metal. sun. poverty and protect resources and environment. reuse and change it into organic fertilizer. support each other and community to protect soil. sea and environment.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Change consumption pattern: • Promote social groups (women. • Save energy (use improved coal. private) in environment services. • Produce and use products replaced wood. wood cooker. gas. wind. water. minerals. • Invent facilities and disseminate use of renewable energy such as biogas. 53 . • Establish local enterprises (cooperative. youth) to implement reasonable and economical consumption. Develop sustainable community: • Build village regulation to promote cultural life style. Manage resources and environment: • Classify wastes at source recycle. • Build community mechanism in supervising resources and environment protection. stream and hydro energy. ect. alleviate hunger. alcohol instead of petrol and oil.). forest. • Establish Sustainable Development fund of community to support econom- ic.
PART 4 REFERENCE DATa OF VIETNAM DEVELOPMENT SITUATION .
55 . the incidence of poverty by a half (50%) using 2000 benchmark and according to international standards. achieve improved education quality and increase two-session schooling attending rate of children at primary school level. by 2010. (2) Reduce. (4) Increase upper secondary enrolment rate at right age to 50% by 2010. between 2001 and 2010. (5) Eliminate illiteracy for 100% of illiterate under-40-year-old women by 2010. Achieve improved and universal education (1) Increase net enrolment rate at right age in primary education to 97% by 2005 and to 99% by 2010. the incidence of poverty by three fifths (60%) using 2000 benchmark and according to the National Targeted Program on poverty reduction and job creation standards. the incidence of food poverty by three fourths (75%) using 2000 benchmark and according to international standards. that means from 12% in 2000 to 23% in 2010. 2. (3) Increase lower secondary enrolment rate at right age to 90% by 2010.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam VIETNAM'S SOCIAL Development AND POVERTY REDUCTION GOALS UNTIL 2010 (These goals are set up to achieve the Millennium Development Goals committed at the Millennium Summit) 1. (2) By 2010. Reduce incidence of poverty (1) Reduce. (3) Reduce. that means from 32% in 2000 to 15-16% in 2010. by 2010.
(2) Improve mother's heath condition after giving birth.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 3. (3) Increase the participation of women in agencies and sectors at all levels by and additional 3-5% in the next 10 years. (4) Ensure that names of both husband and wife appear on land-use-right certificates. (2) Reduce the infant mortality rate to 20/1. (4) Reduce the under-five malnutrition rate to less than 20% by 2010. (5) Reduce vulnerability of women in family violence.000 live births in the whole country.5 kg) birth rate to 5% by 2010.000 by 2010. (3) Reduce the under-five mortality rate to 27/1.000 by 2010. Improve maternal health (1) Reduce. 56 . 4. by 2010. (5) Reduce the low weight (under 2. (2) Increase the number of women in elective and government bodies at all levels. Promote gender equality and improve aptitude and roles of women (1) Eliminate gender gap in primary and secondary education by 2005 and this gap among ethnic minorities by 2010. isolated and poor areas no later than 2010. Reduce birth rate and child mortality and malnutrition (1) Reduce birth rate to achieve the natural average substitution rate in the whole country no later than 2005. 5. the maternal mortality rate to 70/10. of which the mountainous areas are given special attention. and in remote.
typhoid. increase the percentage of forest cover to 43% by 2010. ensure that 100% of new factories use these technologies or are equipped with less polluted devices. Reduce HIV/AIDS infected cases and eradicate other social diseases (1) Slow down the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2005 and halve the rate of HIV/AIDS transmission rate by 2010. 7. environmental problems in all rivers are basically addressed. injury and damage caused by smoking. (4) Ensure that 85% of rural population and 95% of urban population can have access to safe water 2010. 50% of factories are granted environmental protection certificates. minimize the number of people sickened by cholera. etc. (3) Achieve the completion of improved and upgrade water sewerage systems in all cities. malaria. Achieve 40% of cities and 70% of industrial parks and export processing zones having central waste water treatment systems that correspond to environmental protection standards. (2) Use step-by-step environmental friendly technologies. increase trees in urban areas. industrial parks. and export processing zones. and plague. (3) Prevent people from accidents. ensure that all wastes are treated by standardized processes. (2) Maintain the achievement of polio eradication. ensure that 80-90% of solid waste is collected. Ensure environmental sustainability (1) Plant trees on bare land and bald hills. 57 . petechial fever. 60% hazardous wasted and 100 hospital waste is treated.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 6.
(2) To ensure that. post offices. (1) To increase time for television and broadcasting in ethnic languages. (3) To support ethnic minority people to have more chance to work in state organizations. (2) To increase the rate of trained laboured to 40% in 2010. 75% of households will have hygienic latrines. lighting systems. (2) To improve intellectual standards for the people. cultural. preserve and develop the nation's traditional value of ethnic minority. Development of information culture. meeting houses) and make sure that 100% poor communes will have essential infrastructure by 2010. 9. roads. by 2010. schools. poor communities and communes (1) To upgrade or build essential infrastructure projects (small irrigation projects. 58 . communal medical centers.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 8. 10. preservation of culture of ethnic minority. 75% of rural population will be accessible to clean water ( 60l/person/day). Strengthening and extending health-care. and information activities in service of ethnic people. Essential infrastructure projects for the poor. markets. Preserving and developing ethnic language reading and writing skills in areas that remain high rate of ethnic people.6million more jobs per year reaching total employment of 8 million in five years. (3) To reduce the unemployed rate in urban areas to below 5% of total labourers of working age in 2010. Job creation (1) ) To create 1. To increase the rate of female workers to 50% by 2010. water. improvement of life to the people. (4) To make sure that land use right is given to people of ethnic minority and mountainous areas.
to make sure that all household in urban areas be granted land user right and house owner right in legal land. particularly for female households. (1) To improve the poor's accessibility to a transparent and responsible government. (4) To increase employment in terms of quantity and quality and ensure employment safety for the poor and those in hard condition. orient targets and allocate better resources for programs benefiting the poor. (3) To reform policy and social welfare system and encourage participation by the community in forms of voluntary insurance.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 11. (2) To further complete policy and institutions for the poor. 59 . 12 Promotion of administrative policy and supply of legal knowledge for the poor. (4) To reduce red tape and push back corrupt practices in implementing democratic state management with participation of its people. (1) To improve economic conditions for the poor. (3) To complete reform strategy relating to public area. (2) By 2010. (6) To build a strategy for preventing and minimizing acts of God. jurisdiction and financial management to better support the poor. to reduce by 50% the amount of people at risk of poverty due to natural calamity and other risks. By 2010. To reduce vulnerability and develop social security network for disadvantaged and poor people. (5) To further protect minors and thoroughly solve child labour problems.
60 . (1) Ensure that. will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. between 1990 and 2015. (1) Halve. and begun to reverse. 2. (1) Reduce by two-thirds. the spread of HIV/AIDS. 5. (2) Halve. Achieve Universal Primary Education. by 2015.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN BRIEF (Millennium Development Goals . the under-five mortality rate. children everywhere. 4.MDGs) 1. between 1990 and 2015. the maternal mortality ratio. the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day. 6. between 1990 and 2015. Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women. Improve Maternal Health. the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. and begun to reverse. between 1990 and 2015. Malaria and Other Diseases. boys and girls alike. Combat HIV/AIDS. 3. (1) Reduce by three-quarters. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger. the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. (1) Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and to all levels of education no later than 2015. Reduce Child Mortality. (1) Have halted by 2015. (2) Have halted by 2015.
(3) Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing States (through Barbados Program and 22nd General Assembly provisions). non-discriminatory trading and financial system. (1) Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 7. especially information and communication. rule-based. more useful for people. and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction. (2) Halve the number of people without sustainable access to safe water by 2015. (6) Cooperate with private sector to make new technologies. (2) Address the special needs of the Least Developed Countries Includes: Tariff and quota free access for LDC exports. 8. enhanced program of debt relief for HIPC and cancellation of official bilateral debt. (3) Improve remarkably living standards of at least 100 million people living in slums by 2020. predictable. 61 . Ensure Environmental Sustainability. (1) Develop further an open. Develop a Global Partnership for Development. (4) Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term. (5) Cooperate with developing countries to formulate and implement appropriate and effective job creation strategies for young people.
44 40 . forestry.2 .9 53.10.Services Growth rate of production value .9 41.Agriculture.Total export turnover % 7.7 1 Source: The 5-year socio-economic development plan 2006-2010.5 Trillion VND Billion USD USD 818.104.22.168 16.760 94 .0 3. forestry.0 640. fisheries .8 10.3.0 38.15.41 Billion USD 110.2 7.Agriculture. fisheries .1 15 -16 43 .7 .2 9.0 4.Agriculture.0 % % % 3. fisheries .0 1.Industries and construction .8 258.5 .050 .Industries and construction . 62 .Services Export-Import .5 7.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam MAIN TARGETS OF THE FIVE-YEAR SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2006-20101 Indexes Unit Actual of 2001-2005 Targets of 2006-2010 ECONOMIC TARGETS GDP growth rate Of which: .98 1.8.5 . forestry.693 -1.Industries GDP at current prices (by the end of period) Total GDP in VND Total GDP in USD GDP per capita Economic structure (by the end of the period) .0 . November 2006.5 15.2 % % 5.100 % % % 20.2 7.
11 8.Population (at the end of period) .000 live birth Million people ‰ % Provinces 83.Percentage of trained workers (at the end of period) .Percentage of poor households (new standards)(1) .14 64 % Million people % % % % % 22 7.40 1.0 286.Share of labour in services out of total labour force . forestry and fisheries out of total labour force .Maternal mortalities per 100.41 1. SOCIAL TARGETS % Billion USD % 17.Urban unemployment rate (at the end of period) .Growth rate of export .Share of labour in industries out of total labour force .5 40.0 .Ratio of Total investment/GDP B.27 60 63 .24 50 % Case 25 80 26 .3 25 18 58 10 .Number of people attain jobs (converted) .Number of provinces achieving upper secondary school universalization (at the and of period) .Population growth rate (at the end of period) .0 50 <5 40 23 .5 130.5 14.7 Billion USD % 86.Percentage of women attain new jobs .Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam .9 37. Development investment Total investment capital of 5 years (at 2005's prices) .33 31 88.4 0.5 139.7 16.5 40 5.12 0.Total import value .2 18.Annual reduction of birth rate .Growth rate of import 6.Share of labour in agriculture.
Under-5 children mortality rate .5 C.Percentage of households has access to Vietnam Radios .Percentage of industrial and export-processing zones has standardized central waste-water treatment systems. .0 2.Total internet subscribers (at the end of period) .Forest coverage .sub.Number of telephones per 100 people (at the end of period) .8 99.4 62 45 42-43 75 100 % 25 100 % 7.Percentage of area of natural land preserved for maintaining bio-diversification .Under-5 children malnutrition rate .5 99.Percentage of poor communes provided with essential infrastructure .Percentage of rural population has access to clean water .Net enrolment rate of upper-secondary school-aged children .Net enrolment rate of lower-secondary school-aged children .9 95 90 16 25 <20 100 99 90 >50 34.Under-1 children mortality rate . NATURAL RESOURCES. especially in Mekong River Delta . .Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam . ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEV.Percentage of households has access to Vietnam Televisions %o %o % % % % % % Mil.2 Million tons 102 140 . % % 18 28 25 80 98 85 50 19.9 10.Percentage of abolished urban slums and rural temporary houses.Net enrolment rate of primary school-aged children .Volume of carbon-dioxide emission(2) 64 % % % 37.5 11.
Percentage of severely polluted production units is improved .Percentage of newly-established production units uses clean technologies and has pollution treatment devices .VND 260. 65 . and in urban areas .70 50 (1) Average income per capita: in rural areas .Percentage of hazardous waste is treated .Total energy consumption(3) .Percentage of population has access to sanitary environment .Percentage of hospitals' waste is treated . (3) Total energy used for production and living activities.25 17 90 80 100 75 16. (2) Taking to account the carbon-dioxide emitted by production and living activities.000 per month.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam .Percentage of solid waste is collected .200.Percentage of enterprises is awarded ISO certificates % % 44 50 85 100 % % % % Million TOE % 65 40 65 33 15.000 per month.
production value of industries 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Export turnover increase rate (average) Annual birth rate decrease Population growth rate (up to 2005) Employment (5 years) Percentage of trained labourers (up to 2005) Percentage of children of lower secondary school age (up to 2005) Percentage of children of upper secondary school (up to 2005) Percentage of poor households according to national standards in 2001 (up to 2005) Percentage of under.1 7.5 25 85 50 7 25 71.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam MAIN TARGETS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE PERIOD 2001-20052 Indexes 1 2 GDP growth rate (average) Economic sectorial structure (up to 2005): .41 1.0 17.4 16.five malnourished children (up to 2005) Average life expectancy (up to 2005) Use of clean water (up to 2005) 5.3 62 20. fishery . forestry. fishery ratio .0 38. November 2006.33 7.service ratio 3 Rate of production value growth (average): -production value of agriculture. 66 .agriculture.9 41. forestry.5 2 Source: The 5-year socio-economic development plan 2006-2010.5 0.industry and construction ratio .
6 613. Usage (Trillion VND) .250.Accumulation .GDP at the current price .4 365.7 65.Export 445.080 1.8 34.4 71.2 32.5 67. Consumption Indexes 2003 2004 2005 2006 Estimated achievement 2007 1.4 30.8 69.5 36.4 771 704 443 865 1.4 33.1 1.2 36.8 32.1 28.030.1 715.7 31. 67 .Consumption in which: personal consumption .2 68.9 1.8 2.Consumption .2 406.Import 2.9 715.5 38. Accumulation.7 35. consumption structure (%) .5 3 Source: The 5-year socio-economic development plan 2006-2010. November 2006.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Balance of Gross Domestic product.454.6 837.2 347.8 747.Accumulation .0 481.4 27.5 217.9 616.Consumption . Sources (Trillion VND) Total source .7 258.4 668.6 66.3 67.0 578.5 611.2 63. Compared with GDP(%) .8 973.7 584.721.Accumulation 4.7 1.8 66.8 35.144 936 3.3 33.3 535.4 509.4 416.0 464.1 297. Accumulation.Savings 72.8 553.6 35.
940 7.980 9.6 5.2 8.400 13.417 88 173 94 136 576 90 480 1.290 3.3 1. ESCAP GDP PER CAPITA USD current exchange rate In accordance with USD exchange rate parity of purchase power 26.990 4.435 379 689 222 462 859 103 2.490 4.140 2.0 5.640 3.5 4.170 1.530 4.9 4.890 1.190 12. IMF.460 4.630 8.230 202 6.288.100 1.930 24.8 62.5 4.020 5.220 20.450 17.0 47.590 24.540 Vietnam China Philippines Indonesia Myanmar Thailand Korea Singapore 68 .Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam International comparison of economic scales (Data of 2004) Country Populati on (million people) GDP growth rate 20002004 (%) Gross National Income (GNI) Gross National Income of equivalent value Billion USD USD/ person Billion USD USD/ person Vietnam China The Philippines Indonesia Malaysia Thailand South Korea Singapore 81.3 7.5 24.5 214.0 5.650 2.210 8.5 4.700 1.4 81.780 2.020 21.180 Source of data: 2005's world development report of World Bank.10 39 1.080 810 3.
Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam
International comparison of economic structure
(Data of 2004)
Country Vietnam China The Philippines Indonesia Malaysia Thailand South Korea Singapore Agriculture 22 15 14 17 10 10 3 0 Industries 40 51 32 46 48 44 35 35 Services 38 34 54 38 42 46 62 65
Source of data: 2005's world development report of World Bank,
65.0 62.0 54.0 51.0 46.0 40.0 42.0 38.0 34.0 32.0 38.0 35.0 35.0 48.0 44.0 46.0
22.0 17.0 14.0 10.0 10.0 3.0
Philippines Indonesia Malaysia
Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam
International comparison of foreign debt (2003)
Total amount of foreign debt
Long term debt
Guaranteed Non-guardebt anteed debt of private individuals
Total value of foreign debt (billion USD) Vietnam China The Philippines Indonesia Malaysia Thailand 15.8 193.6 62.7 134.4 49.0 51.8 14.2 120.6 55.3 101.2 40.2 40.9 14.2 85.6 36.2 73.4 25.5 17.8 0 35.0 19.0 27.8 14.7 23.1
Foreign debt compared with GDP (%) Vietnam China The Philippines Indonesia Malaysia Thailand 40.3 13.7 77.8 64.5 47.3 36.2 36.2 8.5 68.6 48.6 38.8 28.6 36.2 6.0 44.9 35.2 24.6 12.4 0 2.5 23.6 13.3 14.2 16.2
Source of data: ESCAP
Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam
Balance of state budget income and expenditure
Indexes 1. GROSS INCOME OF STATE BUDGET rate of income increase a. Domestic income (excluding crude oil) % in the total amount b. Income from crude oil % in the total amount c. Others % in the total amount 2. TOTAL STATE BUDGET EXPENDITURE rate of spending increase a. Spending on investment % in the total amount b. Regular spending % in the total amount c. Spending on paying debts, aids % in the total amount 3. OVER-EXPENDITURE OF STATE BUDGET % of GDP
Bn (billion) VND % Bn VND % Bn VND % Bn VND % Bn VND % Bn VND % Bn VND % Bn VND % Bn VND %
5 years 2001-2005 848,732 19.8 410,793 52.8 193,135 24.8 173,756 22.4 979,810 19.4 274,415 28.0 486,785 49.7 129,212 13.2 154,539 4.85
0 44.Consumer goods % compared with total import Unit 5 years 2001-2005 Bn USD % 110.8 Bn USD % 130.Agricultural.Light industry and small scale industry products % compared with total export .Machinery.2 18.6 79.Raw material and fuel % compared with total import .3 9.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Import .8 Bn USD % Bn USD % Bn USD % 41. forestry and aquatic products % compared with total export IMPORT OF GOODS Total import turnover Rate of increase Including .8 17.0 72 .7 34.Heavy industry and mineral products % compared with total export .1 7.8 61.2 28.6 25.5 Bn USD % Bn USD % Bn USD % 37.Export Indexes EXPORT OF GOODS Total export turnover rate of increase Including . equipment and spare parts % compared with total import .6 40.1 31.
78 58.0 74.59 60.35 44.8 17.5 5.4 54.03 60.1 25.65 - - 73 .7 43.0 Number of labourers working in the economy Labour structure .3 73.16 61.3 23.30 72.5 23.Agriculture.3 16.Services Percentage of trained labourers Percentage of unemployed people in urban areas Percentage of used work time in rural areas 40.0 5.2 21.43 72.6 41.3 25.8 17.2 82.2 77.9 25.3 61.7 19.7 73.6 56.65 79.6 25.9 22.0 84.9 60.31 55.7 5.10 80.7 19.2 5.6 42.5 83.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Population and labour Indexes 2003 2004 2005 2006 Estimated Achievements 2007 POPULATION Population on average In which: Rural population Percentage of rural population/ the whole population LABOUR 80.12 60.5 5. forestry and aquaculture .Industries and construction .8 85.2 27.
600 7.5 19 45 40 74 .600 3.350 6.674 6.074.538 2.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Education and training Units: Thousand persons Index Number of kindergarten children Number of primary school children Number of lower secondary school children Number of upper secondary school children Newly enrolled university and college students Newly enrolled students of vocational schools Newly recruited technical workers Newly enrolled post-graduate students Retraining.800 6.153 14.6 54 31 2006 2.000 346 267 1.041 6.181 15.587 7.5 36 19 2004 2. refreshing courses to staff Number of provinces achieving compulsory lower secondary universalization 2003 2.500 6.5 44 25 2005 2.700 2.1 11.184 582 388 180.994 6.750 320 250 1.616 300 194 1.500 7.100 3.057 521 321 236 17 44 32 Estimated achievement 2007 2.220 3.175 8.
0 98.0 93. 75 . literate rate among adult aged 15 and over.1 86.0 Figures source: UNESCO's Global education supervision report.930 0.1 99.2 94.0 92.0 94.0 79.0 92.0 93.EDI is synthetized basing on indexes including rate of primary education universalization.0 88.3 89.5 99.914 0.5 88.912 0.6 93.3 91.7 95. .0 98.9 90.904 0.990 64 54 70 65 60 4 94.5 96.2 89.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam International comparison of education in 2004 Country Education development index (EDI) Mark Ranked among 127 countries Rate of primary education universalization Literate rate among adult aged 15 and over Gender equality level Educati on quality Vietnam China Philippine Indonesia Thailand Korea 0.921 0.7 95.3 99. gender equality level in education and education quality.
8 26.4 200 23 2005 2006 17.3 18 30 25 100 65.2 69.6 29 24 98 68 25 2007 (estimated) <16 27.7 International comparison of a number of health norms Country Average longevity (2002.4 205 24.4 99 61 195 24.4 25.5 22.3 98.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Health 2003 Under-1 children mortality rate (%) Under-5 children mortality rate (% ) Percentage of under-five malnourished children (%) Percentage of communes with medical stations Percentage of communes' medical stations with doctor (%) Total number of hospital treatment beds (thousand) Number of hospital beds/10 thousand people 21 33 28.1 2004 18 32. year) Under-5 children mortality rate (2002. %o) Vietnam China Philippine Indonexia Malaysia Thailand Korea 70 71 70 67 73 69 74 6 6 6 4 6 5 76 . %o) 26 38 37 43 8 28 5 Mortality rate (2003.6 99 65.
Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Regional poverty rate in the period 1998-2004 (According to international standards) Whole country Rural area Urban area Northeastern area Northwest area The Red River delta Northern Middle area Southern Middle area Western Highlands South-east area The Mekong Delta Source: Survey of population living standards in 1993. 1998. 2002 and estimated 2004 77 .
1 1.7 9.7 7.4 6.9 11.9 13. ESCAP.2 42.790 0.682 0.6 10.3 43.7 4.0 5.2 2003 10. Vietnam achieved 0.7 5.7 26. International comparison of several social norms Country Human development index (HDI year 2001) Mark Ranked among 177 countries Percentage of income or consumption 20% of the poorest 20% of the richest Wealth and poverty difference (times) Vietnam China Philippine Indonesia Malaysia Thailand Korea Singapore 0.3 12.4 2.8 7.2 5.0 18.8 48.751 0.3 6.5 42.6 53.5 5.4 8.2 12.1 1996 23.5 50.9 33.8 Source: World Bank's International development report of 2005.691 and ranked twelfth among 177 countries 78 .6 - Source: Economic-social survey within Pacific and Asia countries year 2005.0 52.4 9.686 0.6 36.8 41.4 4. * In 2002.3 18.3 20.768 0.3 54.2 2000 15.5 49.7 5.0 44.879 0.721 0.884 109 104 85 112 58 74 30 28 8.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam International comparison of poverty rate (living under per capita income 1 USD/day) Country Vietnam Cambodia Indonesia Lao Philippine Thailand India 1990 50.6 9.9 5.5 37.9 42.3 45.0 4.2 43.
5 47.7 47.8 45. college University 1996-1997 48.9 39.0 46.4 51.6 47.8 49.9 44.3 2003-2004 47.5 51.8 48.5 38.5 46.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Gender equality Rate of female pupils classified by education levels: Unit: % Level Primary education Junior secondary Senior secondary Vocational high school.5 48.1 1997-1998 47.5 Rate of female representative in people's committees of all levels in the term 1999-2004 and 2004-2009: Province and City District Precinct and commune 79 .1 2001-2002 47.0 46.8 50.
7 % 93 94 95 - - Thou.6 Thou. hours 368 390 540 550 550 % 86 88 90 - - Film 13 14 15 16 17 80 .4 50.5 104 105 Thou. copies Mil. hours 198 198 200 210 225 655 680 700 740 780 140 140 150 160 170 49 49 49 50. copies Mil. copies Mil.1 48. copies Thou.3 396.5 91. hours 325 326 332 336.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Culture Estimated 2004 achievement 2007 370 390 Indexes Unit 2001 290 2002 332 2003 350 Total number of published book Of which: school-text books Total number of published newspapers Of which: The People Newspaper Number of hours of Voice of Vietnam radio programs Number of broadcasting hours of the Voice of Vietnam radio Percentage of households able to hear the Voice of Vietnam radio Number of hours of Vietnam Television Station programs Number of broadcasting hours of Vietnam Television Station Percentage of household able to watch Vietnam Television Station Number of cinematographic feature films made to order Mil. hours 37.
833 5. Fish * Freshwater fish * Sea fish 4.950 9.000 25.000 1.791 14. Reptile * Marine reptile 5. Beast 81 .300 2. Amphibians 6.215 14.785 8. Bird 7.958 3.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Some figures of reality of natural resources and environment The forest cover 1945-2003 Specialized forest Artificial forest Natural forest The diversity in species component of wildlife Organism group The named species in VN 18.000 963.630 1.000 55.002 60 4.038 260 5 158 830 300 The species in the world 1.000 10.750 4.320.585 547 2.265. Insect 3. Animal * invertebrate * vertebrate 2.
058 1.675 Resource Loss in mineral exploitations Loss Rate (%) Underground coal exploitation Open-cast coal exploitation Apatite exploitation Metal ore exploitation Building materials exploitation Oil exploitation 40 .209 85.330 1. Natural Reserve 2a.287 2.30 15 .541.369.283.20 50 . National Park 2.849 215. Landscape protection area TOTAL 27 60 49 11 39 126 957. Species reserve 3.60 Source: Ministry of Industry.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Specialized forest system (till 12/2003) Amount Area (ha) 1.43 15 .60 10 . 2004 82 .15 26 . Natural reserve 2b.
Until now. 50% of solid waste in urban is domestic waste of household. About 70% urban solid wastes were collected. there is about 15 tons of solid waste discharged in Vietnam. 20% of industrial waste. only 20% of dumping ground is sanitary.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Rate of clean water. in which there is 80% of domestic waste. Toxic waste Other waste Industrial waste Domestic waste 83 .using people (%) Solid waste in 2003 Every year.
8. soil.3 84 . human health related to environment. ability of decrease population pressure…. such as: quantity of green house exhaust fumes. the world economic forum meeting at Davos (Sweden) announced annual report of environmental sustainable index.0 52. The lower mark shows weaker sustainability of environment. The high mark reflects the better ability in environmental protection in next decades. 5.4 50. According to this report.8 42. management ability on natural resources. 4. 3.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam international comparison of Environment In January 2005. The sustainable index of environment of Asian countries as following: 1. from this they calculated environmental index. scientific and technological level.8 52. Malaysia Myanmar Laos Cambodia Thailand Indonesia Philippines Vietnam 54. quality of water. considering the safe level of environment. Vietnam and Philippines are at the end of list of 8 Asian countries and 98th among 117 developing countries. 7.1 49. Experts calculated average value of 21 indexes.3 42. 6. 2.7 48. air.
Percentage of population with access to clean water 15. 7. Rate of literate adults 17. Population total Natural population growth rate 10. 9. 5.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam Annex Local sustainable development indicators (Draft) Economic area: 7 indicators 1. Crimes per 100. Percentage of population living under poverty level 11. 3. Percentage of population with access to sanitation 16. Percentage of nature reserve area compared with natural square 85 . 4. Traffic accidents per 100. Percentage of children in compulsory lower secondary school 18. 6. 2. rate of rural working utilization 13. Forest coverage 23.000 people 21.000 people Area of Resource and Environment: 6 indicators 22. Percentage of malnourished children under-five 12. Life expectancy (in years) 14. Urban unemployed rate. Percentage of population with access to model communication means 20. GDP per capita GDP growth Structure of national economic sector Agricultural labor rate of the total labor Revenue and expenditure rate of state budget Export turnover FDI ratio compares with whole country Social area: 14 indicators 8. Percentage of trained labor 19.
Reuse and recycle rate of waste Social area: 17 indicators 13. 2. Percentage of enterprises is awarded ISO 14001 certificates Institutional area: 2 indicators 28. Maternal mortality rate in having a baby 86 . 9. 4. Number of staffs in sustainable development office Vietnam sustainable development indicators (Draft) Economic area: 12 indicators 1.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 24. 7. Debt rate compares with GDP 11. Population total 14. Local sustainable development strategy 29. Energy consumption/annual GDP 12. Gini index about income difference 16. 6. Annual rate of soil degradation 26. Percentage of population living under poverty level 15. Ratio of male/female salary 17. Percentage of industrial groups and zones with waste treatment systems 27. 5. 8. 3. GDP per capita GDP growth Structure of national economic sector Agricultural labor rate of the total labor Investment rate compares with GDP ODA and FDI rate of investment of total social investment Investment rate for studying and deploying (R&D)/GDP Investment rate of education compares with GDP Import/export balance 10. Percentage of irrigated agricultural land 25.
Percentage of industrial groups and zones with waste treatment system 36. Percentage of population with access to clean water 22.000 people in the year Area of Resource and Environment: 12 indicators 30. Annual fish yield 41. Annual rate of soil degradation 34. Housing area per person in the city 28. Percentage of trained labor 26. Discharge of greenhouse gases 38. Number of sustainable development offices. Life-span 21. Traffic accidents per 100. Students and collegians per 1000 people 25.Sustainable development implementation in Vietnam 18. Urban unemployed rate 20. Percentage of literate adult 23. Finance mobilization for hunger elimination and poverty alleviation. Percentage of irrigated agricultural land 33. Percentage of under-five malnourished children 19. Number of localities has Agenda 21 43. Ecosystem are in danger of species threatened by extinction 40. Percentage of nature reserve area compares with natural square 32. Forest coverage 31. Percentage of population with access to model communication means 27. Annual exploitation rate (main mineral) 35. Number of enterprises awarded ISO 14001 certificates 37. Economic loss due to calamities Institutional area: 3 indicators 42. 87 . Percentage of children in compulsory lower secondary school 24. Crimes per 100. number of staffs in sustainable development offices 44.000 people in the year 29. Urbanization rate with air pollution beyond standards 39.
Printing 1000 copies. 58-2008/CXB/51-79/GTVT by the Transport Publishing House. Publication Permit No. A5. issued on 21 March 2008 .
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