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Analytical Theory

A Group Report in PSY 605 Advanced Theories of Personality


Rudolf John B. de la Cruz Fritzie Cristina B. Diaz Vincent Franklin D. Velasquez
SUBMITTED TO:

Eduardo C. Caligner, Ph. D.

Graduate SchoolUniversity of Sto. TomasEspaa, Manila

10 & 17 July 2010

ANALYTICAL THEORY
by Rudolf John B. de la Cruz Fritzie Cristina B. Diaz Vincent Franklin D. Velasquez Graduate School University of Sto. Tomas Analytical Theory It rests on the assumption that the occult phenomena can and do influence the lives of everyone.

I.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF CARL JUNG: AN UNHAPPY CHILDHOOD

CARL GUSTAV JUNG (July 26, 1875 June 6, 1961) Jungs personal life led to the expansion of his theoretical notions. His personality theory, which focuses on the inner world of the individual, is a reflection of his loneliness as a child. Jungs emotional alienation from his parents contributed to his feeling of being cut off from the external world of conscious realty. He had a difficult and unhappy childhood marked by deaths, funeral, neurotic parents and their failing marriage, religious doubts and conflicts, and bizarre dreams and visions. As a coping mechanism, he turned inward and became preoccupied with pursuing his unconscious experiences as reflected in his dreams, visions, and fantasies (Schultz & Schultz, 2005). The dominant childhood beliefs that formed his theory are 1) the importance of visions and dreams (which gave rise to the collective unconscious) and 2) his possession of a dual personality (i.e. "Personality Number 1," as he termed it, was a typical schoolboy living in the era of the time, while "Personality Number 2" was a dignified, authoritative and influential man from the past.)1 Religion was also a strong running theme running through Jungs early years. Engagement in the occult and mysticism, as well as Goethe influenced his theoretical notions later in life.

II.

JUNGs RELATIONSHIP WITH FREUD: THE CREATIVE ILLNESS

The relationship between Jung and Freud spanned 7 years (1906-1913), beginning with a correspondence (initiated by Jung) that developed into 330 letters and several face to face meetings. Their 7-year friendship was quite influential in dream theory. Creative illness a period of 4 years (1913-1917) during which Jung explored in depth his own dreams and fantasies, thereby resulting in the creation of his psychological system. He studied the Gnostic writers, drew mandalas and postulated on the goal of psychic development. It is similar to Freuds self-analysis.

The wise old man is 100 years older than the schoolboy who was the real Jung.

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Ellenberger (in Hergenhahn, 1995) defined creative illness as: A period of intense preoccupation with an idea and search for certain truth. It is a polymorphous condition that can take the shape of depression, neurosis, psychosomatic ailments, or even psychosis . . . Throughout the illness the subject never loses the thread of his dominating preoccupation. It is often compatible with normal, professional activity and family life. But even if he keeps his social activities, he is almost entirely absorbed with himself . . . The subject emerges from his ordeal with a permanent transformation in his personality and his conviction that he has discovered a great truth or a new spiritual world.

Table 1 Comparison between Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory and Jung's Analytical Theory
Concepts basic reality origins of conflict developmental emphasis aim of life Freud physiology (libidinal organization) clash of instincts childhood (psychosexual development) reduction of tension Jung psyche (archetypes) ignoring part of the psyche middle age (self archetype)

individuation transcendence Ego core of personality center of consciousness scope of the unconscious personal unconscious personal unconscious collective unconscious origins of the unconscious anxiety caused by clash of repeated experiences of instincts humans contents of the unconscious repressed wishes and fears archetypes nature of dreams disguised attempts at wish attempt to express fulfillment undeveloped parts of psyche (i.e. archetypes) function of dreams To preserve sleep compensation for waking attitudes and personality mechanism of dream dream-work symbolization formation methods of dream free association amplification interpretation symbol interpretation active imagination dream series method symbol interpretation

III.

COMPONENTS OF PERSONALITY A. Ego This is everything of which we are conscious and entails performing the functions related to everyday life, sense of identity and continuity in time.

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It is not equivalent to psyche since the conscious experience of the ego only represents a small portion of personality while the psyche refers to both the conscious and unconscious aspects of personality. In a healthy person, ego takes a secondary position to the unconscious self. Hence, consciousness plays a relatively minor role in analytical psychology. Overemphasis on expanding the conscious psyche can lead to psychological imbalance. B. Personal Unconscious This consists of material that was once conscious and then repressed or material that was not vivid enough to make an initial conscious impression. It is quite similar to Freuds unconscious and preconscious combined. However, there are two exceptions: 1) Jungs personal unconscious not only stores past experiences but also anticipates future events; 2) Jungs personal unconscious serves as adaptive function by accentuating qualities underrepresented in the conscious. Complex clusters of emotionally-loaded or highly valued thoughts contained in the personal unconscious; personally, disturbing constellation of ideas connected by common feeling tone. A complex has a disproportionate influence on ones behavior since the theme around which the complex is organized keeps recurring over and over again. For example, a person with a power complex will spend a big amount of time and energy striving for power. It can be both personal and collective. Word-association test2 research technique that Jung used to explore complexes within the personal unconscious, It consisted of reading 100 words one at a time and having a person respond as quickly as possible with a word of his or her own. The time span that the patient responded to each word, breathing rate, and electroconductivity of the patients skin were measured. Complex indicators factors that indicated the presence of a complex 1) 2) 3) 4)
2

displaying longer-than average time to a stimulus word repeating the stimulus word back as a response failing to respond at all using expressive bodily reactions (e.g. laughing, increased breathing rate, or increased conductivity of the skin)

Developed earlier by Francis Galton and Wilhelm Wundt.

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5) 6) 7) 8)

stammering continuing to respond to a previously used stimulus word reacting meaninglessly reacting superficially with a word that sounds like the stimulus word e.g. pie-die 9) responding with more than one word 10) misunderstanding the stimulus word as some other word C. Collective Unconscious This is Jungs most controversial, yet most distinctive concept. It is a collection of inherited predispositions (come from the universal experiences of humans have had throughout their evolutionary past) that humans have to respond to certain events. According to Jung, it is the deposit of ancestral experience from untold millions of years, the echo of prehistoric world events to which each century adds an infinitesimally small amount of variation and differentiation. It is also called the objective psyche. It may be considered objective for two reasons: 1) it is common to everyone; and 2) it has a better sense of the selfs deal than the ego or conscious self does. The ancestral experiences are also called racial memories, primordial images and archetypes. IV. DYNAMICS OF PERSONALITY A. Psychic Energy Psychic energy is the energy through which the work of the personality is performed. It is a manifestation of the life energy (libido) the energy the organism as a biological system. B. Libido
While Freud saw libido as merely sexual energy, Jung defined libido as the general energy that can be directed to any problem that arises, be it biological or spiritual. In the early years of life, it is expended mainly on eating, elimination and sex. As the person becomes more proficient at satisfying these needs or as they become less important, it is applied to philosophical and spiritual needs. It is the driving force behind the psyche (personality).

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The value of something is determined by how much libidinal energy is invested on it.

C. Principle of Equivalence First Law of Thermodynamics (The Principle of Conservation of Energy):3 states that the amount of energy in a system is essentially fixed, and if it is removed from one part of a system it will show up in another. However, the psyche is not a closed system, it is only partially closed. Because of this, the total amount of energy in the system may fluctuate as energy can exit to the external environment or enter the psyche from external sources. In psychology, it states that only so much energy (libido) is available, and if one component of the psyche is overvalued, it is at the expense of the other compartments. D. Principle of Entropy Second Law of Thermodynamics: states that a constant tendency exists toward the equalization of energy within a system; when two bodies of different temperature are placed in contact with one another heat will pass from the hotter to the colder body. In psychology, it states that there is an existing tendency for all components of the psyche to have equal energy or equilibrium. E. Principle of Opposites Unlike the first two aforementioned principles, this is more applicable to Newtons Third Law of Motion: states that to every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.4 In psychology, it states that if one aspect of personality is developed, it is usually at the expense of its polar opposite. Every concept of the analytical theory of Jung has its polar opposite. These are: unconscious conscious, rational irrational, feminine masculine, animalistic spiritual, causality teleology, progression regression, introversion extroversion, thinking feeling, and sensing intuiting.

3 4

Thermodynamics is the study of the behaviour of energy flow in a natural system. Third Law of Thermodynamics: states that a state called absolute zero would occur if all the thermal motion of molecules (kinetic energy) is removed.

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Compensation process wherein the unconscious adjusts for the areas that are neglected or overemphasized in the conscious. F. Synchronicity This occurs when two independent events come together in a meaningful line. Jung said that mental telepathy, clairvoyance, and other paranormal phenomena are evidence of the principle of synchronicity. He believed that many of those phenomena cannot be explained as chance coincidence; instead they suggest that there is another kind of order in the universe in addition to that described as causality. G. Causality and Teleology Evolution of motivation from ancestral experiences can either be from: Causality holds that present events have origins from past experiences; maintains that what a person will become is a function of what one already has been. Teleology holds that present events are motivated by goals and aspirations for the future that direct a persons destiny; belief that a persons anticipation of the future must be considered if the persons personality is to be completely understood. H. Progression and Regression Progression adaptation to the outside word which involves a forward flow of psychic energy Inclines the person to react consistently to a given set of environmental conditions. Regression adaptation to the inner which involves a backward flow of psychic energy Activates the unconscious, an essential aid in the solution of problems I. Individuation Process This is the process for the various systems of the psyche of becoming completely differentiated and fully developed. Neurosis result of systems in the psyche that are too underdeveloped, becoming centers of resistance and capturing energy from more developed systems

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J. Transcendent Function When diversity is achieved by the operation of the individuation process, the differentiated systems are then integrated by this transcendent function. It has the capacity to unite all the opposing trends of the several systems and to work toward the ideal goal of perfect wholeness selfhood.
K. Self-Actualization/Self-Realization

Self-actualization/self-realization is the fullest, most complete differentiation and harmonious blending of all aspects of a humans total personality. L. Sublimation and Repression Sublimation It is the displacement of energy from a more primitive, instinctive, and less differentiated process to higher cultural, spiritual, and differentiated process. Repression It is the blockage of the discharge of energy through instinctual or sublimated channels. The repressed energy takes residence in the unconscious and eventually influences conscious behavior. M. Symbolization Two Functions of a Symbol: Represents an attempt to satisfy impulse that has been frustrated An embodiment of an archetypal material A symbolic representation of an instinctual activity can never be entirely satisfying, because it does not attain the real object and discharge all the libido. Jung believed, that the discovery of better symbolssymbols that discharge more energy and reduce more tensionenables civilization to advance to higher and higher cultural levels. V. ARCHETYPES

The word archetype is from the Greek arkhetupon, first mould or model, in the meaning of being the initial version of something later multiplied.
It is an inherited predisposition to respond to certain aspects of the world. An archetype exists for whatever experiences are universal, those that each member of each generation must experience. Humans have inherited predisposition to react to these and other categories of

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experience. The collective unconscious is by far the most important and influential part of the psyche and its inherited predispositions seek outward manifestation.

Jung's main archetypes are not 'types' in the way that each person may be classified as one or the other. Rather, we each have all basic archetypes within us. He listed four main forms of archetypes: A. Shadow
The shadow is the darkest, deepest part of the psyche. It is of the part of the collective unconscious that we inherit from our ancestors and contains all the animal instincts when our concerns were limited to survival and reproduction, and when we weren't self-conscious.

B. Anima
The anima is the female component of the male psyche that results from the experiences men have had with women through eons. This archetype serves two purposes. First, it causes men to have feminine traits; second, it provides a framework within which men interact with women. It is within this idealized framework that men form their interactions with women in their lifetimes.

C. Animus
The animus is the male component of the female psyche. It furnishes the woman with masculine traits and also a framework which guides her relationship with men. As with the anima, the complex animus with its many conflicting images ids projected onto actual men in a womans lifetime.

The Syzygy (the divine couple)


In combination, the anima and animus are known as syzygy (a word also used to denote alignment of planets), representing wholeness and completion. This combining brings great power and can be found in religious combinations such as the Holy Trinity.

D. Self
The self is the component of the psyche that attempts to harmonize all the other components. It represents human striving for unity, wholeness, and integration of the total personality. When this integration has been achieved, the person is said to be selfactualized. E. Other Archetypes Jung said that there is no fixed number of archetypes which we could simply list and memorize. They overlap and easily melt into each other as needed.

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1. Persona
Persona is the Latin word for mask. It is used to describe ones public self. Although the persona is expressed at the conscious level of the psyche, the predisposition to project an image to the outside world lies within the collective unconscious. The persona archetype develops because humans need to play a role in the society. It is the part of the psyche which known to other people. 2. Mana Archetypes are not really biological things. They are more spiritual demands. It is curious that in primitive societies, phallic symbols do not usually refer to sex at all. They usually symbolize mana, or spiritual power. These symbols would be displayed on occasions when the spirits are being called upon to increase the yield of corn, or fish, or to heal someone. The connection between the penis and strength, between semen and seed, between fertilization and fertility are understood by most cultures. 3. The God Archetype It represents our need to comprehend the universe, to give a meaning to all that happens, to see it all as having some purpose and direction. 4. The Hermaphrodite Both male and female, represents the union of opposites, an important idea in Jung's theory. F. Family Archetypes 1. The Mother The mother archetype is our built-in ability to recognize a certain relationship, that of "mothering." We have evolved in an environment that included a mother or mother-substitute. It stands to reason that we are "built" in a way that reflects that evolutionary environment: We come into this world ready to want mother, to seek her, to recognize her. 2. The Father This is often symbolized by a guide or an authority figure. It is stern, powerful, controlling. 3. The Child This is represented in mythology and art by children, infants most especially, as well as other small creatures. The Christ child celebrated at Christmas is a manifestation of the child archetype, and represents the future, becoming, rebirth, and salvation.

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4. The Family This represents the idea of blood relationship and ties that run deeper than those based on conscious reasons. G. Story Archetypes 1. The Hero A person who bravely overcomes great difficulty in order to realize his destiny. He could be described as a role-model, urging each of us to go ahead and pursue our own quest to realize ones destiny. 2. The Maiden She represents purity, innocence, and, in all likelihood, naivet because she is unaware of the collective unconscious. 3. The Trickster This is often represented by a clown or a magician. The trickster's role is to hamper the hero's progress and to generally make trouble. 4. The Wise Old Man He is a form of the animus, and reveals to the hero the nature of the collective unconscious. 5. Animal Archetypes This archetype is representing humanity's relationships with the animal world. The hero's faithful horse would be an example. They are thought to be particularly wise. Animals, after all, are more in touch with their natures than human.

VI.

PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES A. Attitudes These are general orientations that the psyche takes in relating to the world 1. Introversion
It is a turning of the libido inward to where the person is more influenced by the inner world than by the outer world. Introverts tend to be quiet, imaginative, and more interested with ideas than in other people.

2. Extroversion

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It is a turning of the libido outward so that the individual pays greater attention to the outer world than to the inner world. Extroverts tend to be sociable, outgoing and interested in people and activities.

B. Functions of Thoughts
It pertains to how a person perceives the world and deals with information and experience.

1. Sensing Jung's 'Sensation' function translates signals from the senses into factual data. There is no judgement of right or wrong, good or bad, implications, causes, directions, context, possibilities, themes, or related concepts. Sensation sees what is, as what it is. 'Sensation' is the opposite to 'Intuition'. 2. Thinking Jung's 'Thinking' function is a 'rational' process of understanding reality, implications, causes and effects in a logical and analytical way. It is systematic, evaluates truth, and is objective to the extent that evaluation is based on personal intelligence and comprehension. 'Thinking' is the opposite to 'Feeling'. 3. Feeling
Jung's 'Feeling' function makes judgments on a personal subjective basis. It is a 'rational' process of forming personal subjective opinion about whether something is good or bad, right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable, etc., and involves sentimentality and humanity. 'Feeling' is the opposite to 'Thinking'.

4. Intuiting Jung's 'Intuition' function translates things, facts and details into larger conceptual pictures, possibilities, opportunities, imaginings, mysticism and new ideas. Intuition largely ignores essential facts and details, logic and truth. 'Intuition' is the opposite to 'Sensation'.
Thinking and feeling are called rational functions because they make judgments about experiences. In addition, thinking and feeling are considered opposites. Likewise, sensing and intuiting, the irrational functions, are thought to be polar opposites. Sensing and intuiting are considered irrational because they both occur independently of logical thought processes.

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C. Eight Personality Types


By combining the two attitudes and the four functions, Jung described eight different types of people.

1. Thinking Extrovert
Intellectual analysis of objective experience is of utmost importance. This type of person lives according to fixed rules and expects everyone else to do the same. Personal matters such as health, social position, family interests, and finances are neglected.

2. Feeling Extrovert
This type responds emotionally to objective reality. Such a person is respectful of authority and tradition. There is always an attempt to adjust ones feelings to those appropriate to the situation.

3. Sensing Extrovert This type is buffeted about by sensory experience. He/she is a realist which is concerned only with objective facts. The life of this type is governed by just what happens. Only the tangible and the concrete have value. He or she rejects subjective thoughts or feelings as guides for his or he life. 4. Intuiting Extrovert
This type sees external reality in a multitude of possibilities. New experiences are sought with enthusiasm, pondered until their implications are understood, and then abandoned. This type is often viewed as immoral and unscrupulous. There is little concern with the convictions and the morality of others. Like the sensing extrovert, this type is irrational and is little concerned with logic.

5. Thinking Introvert
Life of this type is determined by subjective rather than objective, he or she appears to others to be inflexible, cold, and ruthless. Such individuals will follow their own thoughts regardless of how unconventional and dangerous to others they may be. For this type, subjective truth is the only truth and logical thought is employed only to ones own subjective experience.

6. Feeling Introvert
This type emphasizes the feelings that such experience provides. Objective reality is important only in so far that it elicits subjective images that can be privately experienced and valued. Conversation is difficult because it requires at least two individuals to have the same subjective reality and its associated feelings.

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7. Sensing Introvert
This type gives his or her own meaning to her own sensory experience as is the cases of many artists. Because this type of embellishes his or her own sensory experiences with subjective evaluations, interactions with objective reality are unpredictable. Sensory experience is important only insofar as it elicits subjective images.

8. Intuiting Introvert
In this type, it is the implications of internal images that are explored thoroughly. Such a person, often a mystic or a seer, produces new and strange ideas. Of all types, this type is most aloof, distant, and misunderstood. He or she is often viewed as eccentric genius. Important philosophical and religious insights are often produced by this type.

VII.

CRITIQUE OF JUNG

Jungs theory can be credited with many original concepts in personality theory. .A numbers of Jungs concepts have been integrated into other major theories of personality. The Jungian concepts of self and self-realization are integral to the humanistic theories of Maslow and Rogers. Introversion-extraversion, on the other hand, has received a great deal of attention from trait theorists, particularly Eysenck. Development across the lifespan was an idea advanced by Jung that finds its most vibrant expression in Eriksons psychosocial theory of psychological development. Murray was also influenced by a number of Jungian concepts in the course of constructing his personological theory of needs and presses. STRONG POINTS Self-Actualization/Self-Realization His was the first theory to discuss the process of self- actualization. This theory emphasized on the importance of the future in determining human behavior. Related to this idea was his emphasis on the purpose and meaning in ones life. Archetypes At first glance, might seem to be Jung's strangest idea. And yet they have proven to be very useful in the analysis of myths, fairy tales, literature in general, artistic symbolism, and religious exposition. They apparently capture some of the basic "units" of our self-expression. This suggests that the archetypes actually do refer to some deep structures of the human mind. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Based on Jung's types and functions, results from these does not place people on dimensions that run from "good" to "bad," they are much less threatening which encourage people to become more aware of them.

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Comprehensiveness/Ability Framework.

to

Organize

Observations

into

Meaningful

There are a wide variety of disciplines and information encompassed by Jungs theory. His influence extended well beyond the fields of psychology and psychiatry, to include the realms of anthropology, literature, and religion. WEAK POINTS Nonfalsifiable therefore Unscientific Except for some research on psychological types and functions of thought, little empirical research has been performed in an effort to validate the major components of Jungs theory. Principles of equivalence, entropy, and opposites, as well as notions collective unconscious and self actualization go untested. Lacks Empirical Support Psyche - while there is some evidence that myths, symbols, and forms transcend culture, there is no evidence that these archetypes exist in a biologically based collective unconscious. Libido - like many of Jungs concepts libido largely inaccessible to empirical testing. Synchronicity - Not only does he fully support the teleological view, but he goes a step further and talks about the mystical interconnectedness of synchronicity. Synchronicity, by definition, is virtually impossible to test. Collective Unconscious - Not only does he postulate an unconscious where things are not easily available to the empirical eye, but he postulates a collective unconscious that never has been and never will be conscious. Low Parsimony The Law of Parsimony state that when two theories are equally useful, the simpler one is preferred. Although human personality is not simple, many think that his theory is more cumbersome than necessary. Low Practicality Although the collective unconscious may have some usefulness in helping people understand cultural myths and adjust to lifes traumas, the theory has limited usefulness in aiding therapist, teachers, parents solve everyday problems. Not Internally Consistent As for operational definitions, Jung, like other personality theorists, did not define terms operationally. He used his terms consistently BUT he often used different terms to describe the same concept.

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VIII.

CONCEPT OF HUMANITY

Jungs view of human nature is among the most complex ever described. The human psyche is embedded in the past, present, and the future. It consists of conscious and unconscious elements, masculine and feminine traits, rational and irrational impulses, spiritualistic and animalistic tendencies, and a tendency to bring all this contradictory tendencies and impulses into harmony with each other. Self-actualization is achieved when such harmony is approximated but self-actualization must be sought; it does not occur automatically. According to Jung, lifes primary goal is to achieve self-actualization, or a harmonious blending of the many components and forces within the psyche. Self-actualization and individuation go hand in hand. Individuation refers to the process by which components of the psyche are recognized and given expression by a particular individual. As self-actualization is approximated, the self becomes the new center of the personality and is experienced as being suspended between opposing forces of the psyche. Jung believed that the self was symbolized by a mandala, Sanskrit word for circle. The self is perceived as the center of the circle, or midway between the many polarities that make up the psyche.

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