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Essar Refinery Integrated Management System

SOUR WATER STRIPPER UNIT (5100) OPERATING MANUAL

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SIC AM HOD

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INDEX
S.NO.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

DESCRIPTION
INTRODUCTION PROCESS DESCRIPTION BATTERY LIMIT CONDITIONS KEY FEATURES OF MAIN EQUIPMENT OPERATING VARIABLE AND PROCESS CONTROL SAFETY INTERLOCKS AND ALARMS ANALYTICAL CONTROL PRECOMMISSIONING PROCEDURE COMMISSIONING PROCEDURE SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE TROUBLE SHOOTING MAINTENANCE DOS AND DONTS SAFETY EMERGENCY SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE UTILITY CONSUMPTION ANNEXURES

PAGE NUMBER
3 5 8 9 14 16 18 19 40 43 45 48 50 51 54 58 59

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 OBJECTIVE
The Sour Water Stripping Unit (5100) processes sour water generated in the following units: Crude Distillation Unit (1000) Vacuum Distillation Unit (1100) Amine Regeneration Unit (1200) Saturated Gas Separation Unit (1300) Visbreaker Unit (2000) Naphtha Hydrotreater Unit (3000) Unsaturated Gas Separation Unit (3500) Diesel Hydrodesulphurization Unit (4000) Sulphur Recovery Unit (5000) The Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) and Ammonia (NH3) present in the sour water are stripped off and are routed to the Sulphur Recovery Unit (5000). The stripped water is partially routed to the Crude desalters of the Crude Distillation Unit (1000). The remaining stripped water is sent to the Waste Water Treatment Plant (8400).

1.2 SECTIONS OF SWS


The SWS unit consists of three sections. They are as follows: The degassing section. Sour water stripping section. Low pressure condensate collection section.

1.3 FEED SPECIFICATION


The design of the unit is based on the refinery crude mix of 70% Arabian Light and 30% Arabian Heavy. The Unit receives sour water feed from the above said units. The unit is designed to process 185030 kg/hr of sour water. The feed quantity comes to 169467 kg/hr of sour water if the deferred units are not considered. The feed quantity from the individual units and their constituents are listed below.

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TOTAL SOUR WATER(kg/hr) CDU VDU ARU SGU VBU NHT UGS HDS SRU DCU* DGH* DNH* TOTAL

H2S

NH3

SALTS

HCS

H2

N2

SO2

CO2

29546 67888 5510 216 13624 850 25578 21255 5000 7413 8051 99 185030

41.36 71.57 24.59 1.68 9.42 0.38 28.43 167 8.15 186.1 20.40 559.0 8

0.35 8.37 38.12 48.55 83 5.09 93.0 20.40 296.8 8

4.71 6.67 11.38

0.08 0.08

0.03 0.03

0.08 0.08

0.1 0.10

0.08 0.89 0.97

* Deferred units.

1.4 PRODUCT SPECIFICATION


The stripped water produced in the unit is required to meet the following specifications: H2S: maximum 10 ppm wt. NH3: maximum 100 ppm wt.

1.5 TURNDOWN AND OVERDESIGN REQUIREMENTS


The unit is capable of operating at 50% of its hydraulic design capacity. It is also capable of operating at 110% of its hydraulic design capacity. The overdesign on the stripper including the overhead system is based on 10% overdesign on the reboiler duty.

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2. PROCESS DESCRIPTION
The SWS unit consists of three sections. They are as follows: The degassing section. Sour water stripping section. Low pressure condensate collection section.

2.1 DEGASSING SECTION


The sour water from CDU/VDU/SGU/VBU/NHT and UGS are collected in the Sour water buffer vessel (75V-001) located in the Visbreaker Unit (VBU). From there it is routed to the Sour water collecting vessel (51V-201) at a pressure of 4 kg/cm2g and temperature of 40C. The sour water line from DHDS joins the sour water line from VBU to 51V-201. The sour water flashes from 4 kg/cm2g to 0.2 kg/cm2g on entering the collecting vessel as a result of which, the lighter hydrocarbons present in the sour water get separated and are routed to the H 2S flare header. The pressure in this vessel is floating on the flare pressure. Fuel gas is used for blanketing purpose. Liquid hydrocarbons present in the sour water are skimmed off and are pumped by the Slop oil Pump (51P-201) to the Wet slop tank in PIT.

2.2 SOUR WATER STRIPPING SECTION


The sour water feed pumps (51P-202A/S) pump the sour water from the collecting vessel (51V-201) to the sour water stripper column (51C-201). The sour water is preheated from 40C to 68-70C against the stripped water from the column bottom in the feed/bottom exchanger (51E-201). The sour water stripper column contains 28 trays. Except tray no.6 (which is a chimney tray) all the trays are valve trays. The sour water stripper consists of a washing section (trays 1to 6) and a stripping section (trays 7 to 28). The sour water flow controller to the column is cascaded with the level controller on 51V-201. The sour water enters the stripper column on the 7 th tray. Two vertical thermosyphon type reboilers (51E-202A/B) are provided for heating the column bottom liquid. The stripped water enters the bottom of the reboilers on the tube side and the vapours generated leave the reboiler at the top. Low pressure Steam (LP steam) is used as the heating medium. The flow of LP steam to the reboilers is controlled by a flow controller which is cascaded with the sour water feed controller. The LP steam flow is controlled on ratio with the feed flow. The condensate generated in the reboilers is separated by traps whose downstream is connected to the LP condensate knock out vessel (51V-301).

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A part of the liquid collected in tray no.6 (chimney tray) is pumped by the circulating reflux water pumps (51P-204A/S) to circulating water air coolers (51EA202A/B), where it is cooled from 98C to 65C before entering in the top of the column to wash the overhead gas. The temperature of the overhead gas is controlled by changing the angle of the Fin fan blades (pitch control). The flow of reflux water is controlled by a flow controller. There is a provision for routing the stripped water from the stripped water cooler (51E-203) downstream to the chimney tray. The stripped water from the column bottom, at a temperature of 118C, is pumped by the stripped water bottom pumps (51P-203A/S) to the feed/bottom exchanger (51E-201) and then to the stripped water air coolers (51EA-201A/B/C/D). The stripped water is cooled to a temperature of around 65C at the outlet of the air coolers. It is then cooled to 40C at the outlet of the stripped water trim cooler (51E203). Sea cooling water is used as the cooling medium in 51E-203. The stripped water is then routed partially to the Desalters of the Crude Distillation Unit (CDU). The rest of the stripped water is routed to the Waste Water Treatment Plant (8400) for further treatment. The bottom level controller of 51C-201 controls the stripped water flow to WWTP. A start-up/recycle line is provided for routing the stripped water from the outlet of 51E-203 to 51V-201. This line is used during internal circulation of the plant during start-up/shutdown and also during low throughput of SWS. The stripper top pressure is maintained at 0.9 kg/cm 2g by a pressure controller which is cascaded with the SWS acid gas flow controllers located in the two trains of the Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU). There is a second pressure controller which vents the overhead gas to the H2S flare in case of a high pressure build-up due to SWS acid gas cut-off in SRU. The stripper overhead line to SRU is steam jacketed in order to avoid plugging due to ammonium salts deposition. In case of a pressure build-up which could not be controlled by the flare pressure controller, two PSVs (51PSV-019A/S) are provided with a set point of 3.5 kg/cm 2g to protect the column.

2.3 LOW PRESSURE CONDENSATE COLLECTION SECTION


The Low pressure condensate from the SWS reboilers (51E-202A/B) is routed to the LP condensate flash vessel (51V-301). The vessel also receives low pressure condensate from the ARU reboilers (12E-202A/B/C/D) via the condensate collection vessel (12V-203). It also receives condensate from the LP condensate flash drum (50V-009). The LP condensate produced in DHDS is also routed to this vessel. The vessel is provided with condensate overhead condensers (51EA-301A/B). The

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condensate from 51V-301 is pumped with condensate pumps (51P-301A/S) to the Refinery LP condensate system on level control.

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3. BATTERY LIMIT CONDITIONS


S.NO. SERVICE TEMPERATURE (C) DESIGN OPERATING PRESSURE (kg/cm 2g) DESIGN OPERATING

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Sour Water Acid gas to SRU Stripped water to CDU Stripped water to WWTP Fuel Gas Low Pressure Steam Demineralized Water Sea Cooling Water Supply Sea Cooling Water Return Sweet Cooling Water Supply Sweet Cooling water Return Service Water Instrument Air Plant Air Nitrogen

150 245 100 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65

40 90 40 40 Ambient 190 <50 31 39 (max.) 34 50 (max.) Ambient Ambient Ambient Ambient

10 6.5/FV 10 10 10 6.5 6.5 8 12 12 12

4 0.8 15 15 4 4 5 4.5 3.5 4.5 3.5 5 7 7.5 7.5

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4. KEY FEATURES OF MAIN EQUIPMENTS


4.1 SOUR WATER STRIPPER COLUMN
Tag No. Fluid handled Design pressure Operating pressure Pressure drop Hydrotest pressure Design temperature Operating temperature Capacity Corrosion allowance No. of trays Maximum allowable P per tray : 51C-201 : Sour Water : 4 (Bottom)/F.V (External) kg/cm2g : 0.9 (Top)/1.1 (Bottom) kg/cm2g : 0.2 kg/cm2 : 8.3 kg/cm2g : 150 C (Bottom) : 90 C (Top)/121.1 C (Bottom) : 130 m3 : 6 mm : 28 (27 valve trays + 1 chimney tray) : 0.007 kg/cm2

4.2 FEED/BOTTOM HEAT EXCHANGER


Tag No. Type : 51E-201 : Floating head type shell and tube heat exchanger

4.2.1 SHELL SIDE Process fluid Design pressure Operating pressure Hydrotest pressure Design temperature Operating temperature No. of passes Capacity Corrosion allowance 4.2.2 TUBE SIDE Process fluid
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: Stripped water : 21 kg/cm2g : 17.6 kg/cm2g : 31.5 kg/cm2g : 150 C : 121.6 C (Inlet)/101.8 C (Outlet) :1 : 0.85 m3 : 3 mm

: Sour water
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: 9.5 kg/cm2g : 5.2 kg/cm2g : 14.3 kg/cm2g : 150 C : 40 C (Inlet)/60 C (Outlet) :2 : 0.55 m3 : 6 mm : 186

Design pressure Operating pressure Hydrotest pressure Design temperature Operating temperature No. of passes Capacity Corrosion allowance No. of tubes

4.3 SOUR WATER STRIPPER REBOILERS


Tag No. : 51E-202A/B

4.3.1 SHELL SIDE Process fluid Design pressure Operating pressure Hydrotest pressure Design temperature Operating temperature No. of passes Capacity Corrosion allowance 4.3.2 TUBE SIDE Process fluid Design pressure Operating pressure Hydrotest pressure Design temperature Operating temperature No. of passes Capacity Corrosion allowance No. of tubes

: Low Pressure Steam : 6.5 kg/cm2g : 3 kg/cm2g : 13.3 kg/cm2g (Vertical, at the top) : 245 C : 142.9 C (Inlet)/142.9 C (Outlet) :1 : 2.56 m3 : 1 mm

: Stripped water : 4.5 kg/cm2g : 1.1 kg/cm2g : 10.3 kg/cm2g (Vertical, at the top) : 160 C : 120.9 C (Inlet)/121.1 C (Outlet) :1 : 4.28 m3 : 3 mm : 1960

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4.4 STRIPPED WATER COOLER


Tag No. : 51E-203

4.4.1 SHELL SIDE Process fluid Design pressure Operating pressure Hydrotest pressure Design temperature Operating temperature No. of passes Capacity Corrosion allowance 4.4.2 TUBE SIDE Process fluid Design pressure Operating pressure Hydrotest pressure Design temperature Operating temperature No. of passes Capacity Corrosion allowance No. of tubes

: Stripped water : 21 kg/cm2g : 17.5 kg/cm2g : 31.5 kg/cm2g : 95 C : 65 C (Inlet)/40 C (Outlet) :1 : 5.124 m3 : 3 mm : Sea cooling water : 10 kg/cm2g : 5.5 kg/cm2g : 15 kg/cm2g : 65 C : 31 C (Inlet)/39 C (Outlet) :4 : 4.68 m3 : 0 mm : 1100

4.5 SLOP PUMP


Tag No. Fluid handled Manufacturer Capacity (Maximum/Rated) Suction pressure Discharge pressure Differential head NPSH available Pumping temperature
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: 51P-201 : Hydrocarbons : M/S. Kirloskar Ebara Pumps Ltd. : 5/1 m3/hr : 0.4/4.5 kg/cm2g (Normal/Maximum) : 4.2 kg/cm2g : 64.6 m : 3.0 m : 40 C
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4.6 SOUR WATER FEED PUMPS


Tag No. Fluid handled Manufacturer Capacity (Minimum/Normal/Rated) Suction pressure Discharge pressure Differential head NPSH available Pumping temperature : 51P-202A/S : Sour Water : M/S. Kirloskar Ebara Pumps Ltd. : 84/168/184.8 m3/hr : 0.8/4.5 kg/cm2g (Normal/Maximum) : 5.4 kg/cm2g : 47.4 m : 6.2 m : 40 C

4.7 SOUR WATER STRIPPER BOTTOM PUMPS


Tag No. Fluid handled Manufacturer Capacity (Minimum/Normal/Rated) Suction pressure Discharge pressure Differential head NPSH available Pumping temperature : 51P-203A/S : Stripped Water : M/S. Nuovo Pignone

: 87.7/175.4/182.9 m3/hr : 1.7/5.0 kg/cm2g (Normal/Maximum) : 17.65 kg/cm2g : 172.4 m : 6.5 m : 121 C

4.8 CIRCULATING REFLUX WATER PUMPS


Tag No. Fluid handled Manufacturer Capacity (Minimum/Normal/Rated) Suction pressure Discharge pressure Differential head NPSH available Pumping temperature
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: 51P-204A/S : Sour Water : M/S. Kirloskar Ebara Pumps Ltd. : 64.7/129.4/142.4 m3/hr : 3.2/6.0 kg/cm2g (Normal/Maximum) : 5.9 kg/cm2g : 28.7 m : 24.3 m : 98 C
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4.9 LP CONDENSATE PUMPS


Tag No. Fluid handled Capacity (Minimum/Normal/Rated) Suction pressure Discharge pressure Differential head NPSH available Pumping temperature : 51P-301A/S : LP condensate : 65/130/143 m3/hr : 0.6/1.0 kg/cm2g (Normal/Maximum) : 8.5 kg/cm2g : 84.3 m : 5.3 m : 105 C

4.10 SOUR WATER COLLECTING VESSEL


Tag No. Fluid handled Design pressure Operating pressure Hydrotest pressure Design temperature Operating temperature Capacity Corrosion allowance : 51V-201 : Sour Water : 3.5 (Internal)/F.V (External) kg/cm 2g : 0.2 kg/cm2g : 5.25 kg/cm2g (Horizontal, at top) : 150 C (Bottom) : 40 C : 70.7 m3 : 6 mm

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5. OPERATING VARIABLE AND PROCESS CONTROL


5.1 COLLECTING VESSEL LEVEL CONTROL
The sour water collecting vessel, 51V-201 level is to be maintained in the range of 35-65% for normal operation. High level in the vessel can lead to liquid carryover to the H2S flare header as the vessel is floating with the H 2S flare header. Too low a level will lead to cavitations of the sour water feed pumps, 51P-202A/S. The level controller, 51LC-002 controls the level in the vessel by controlling the sour water feed to the column. 51LC-002 is cascaded with the feed controller, 51FC-008. The sour water feed flow to the vessel is dependent on the sour water generation in the other process units which is dependent on the crude mix used.

5.2 HYDROCARBON IN SOUR WATER


The sour water coming to the collecting vessel, 51V-201 is likely to contain lighter and heavier hydrocarbons in varying quantities. These hydrocarbons are to be removed in the collecting vessel for better operation of the stripper column and subsequently the Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU). The sour water feed entering the collecting vessel flashes from 4.0 kg/cm2g to 0.2 kg/cm2g, resulting in the separation of hydrocarbons. The lighter hydrocarbons are routed to the H 2S flare header. The heavier hydrocarbons are removed by skimming operation wherein the level in the vessel is raised till level starts building-up in the slop oil compartment of the vessel. The liquid in the slop oil compartment, after skimming operation, is allowed to settle for up to 2 to 3 hours. Any sour water in the compartment is drained to the sour water drain vessel, 50V-401 and the remaining oil is pumped to the wet slop tank located in the PIT area by the slop oil pump, 51P-201.

5.3 SOUR WATER STRIPPER BOTTOM LEVEL CONTROL


The sour water stripper column (51C-201) bottom level is maintained in the range of 50-60% to ensure sufficient flow of stripped water to the bottom pumps and also to maintain the water level in the reboilers. The bottom level controller, 51LC-004 controls the bottom level by controlling the flow of stripped water to the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP-8400). The stripped water is consumed primarily by the CDU desalters. Any residual flow is then sent to the WWTP on level control of the stripper bottom.

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5.4 LP STEAM FLOW CONTROL


The LP steam flow to the reboilers (51E-202A/B) is controlled based on the H2S and NH3 content in the stripped water. The flow controller, 51FC-010 controls the LP steam flow in ratio with the flow of the sour water feed to the column. The feed forward signal from the feed flow measurement is dynamically compensated in a lead/lag block.

5.5 COLUMN TOP PRESSURE CONTROL


The stripper column top pressure is maintained at 0.9 kg/cm 2g. It is controlled by the pressure controller, 51PC-017 which is cascaded with the SWS acid gas flow controller, 50FC-109/209 located in the Sulphur Recovery Unit. Usually one train of the SRU is run on a fixed SWS acid gas load while the other is floating on the top pressure of the stripper column. The top pressure should be maintained as low as possible because a higher pressure in the sour water stripper also implies a higher bottom temperature. The LMTD of the stripper reboilers (51E-202A/B) may become critical when the bottom temperature approaches the LP steam temperature. The H 2S and NH3 content in the stripped water might become too high due to reboiler limitation. When the SWS acid gas is not taken in the SRU trains due to process upsets or during start-up/shut down operations, the overhead gas is routed to the H2S flare header and the pressure in this case is controlled by 51PC-018 which operates a control valve (51PV-018) on the flare line.

5.6 COLUMN TOP TEMPERATURE CONTROL


The stripper column top temperature is maintained at around 90C. This is achieved by varying the circulating reflux water flow and temperature. The circulating reflux water flow is controlled by 51FC-012. The circulating reflux temperature at the outlet of the overhead condensers, 51EA-202A/B is controlled by 51TC-011 which varies the blade angle of the fin fans (pitch control). The water content in the sour acid gas to SRU is dictated by the top temperature. A too low sour gas temperature will lead to excessive H2S and NH3 concentrations in the reflux.

5.7 LP CONDENSATE VESSEL LEVEL CONTROL


The LP condensate knock out vessel, 51V-301 receives low pressure condensate from the SWS & ARU reboilers, DHDS and SRU. The vessel level is controlled by 51LC-007 which operates a control valve (51LV-007) in the condensate outlet line from the vessel to the LP condensate system.
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6. SAFETY INTERLOCKS AND ALARMS


There are no safety interlocks in the SWS unit (5100). The alarm values are given below.

6.1 ALARMS
S.NO . DESCRIPTION TAG NO. LL ALARM SETTING L H HH UNIT OF MEASUREMENT

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Lighter H/C flow from 51V-201 to H 2S flare Stripped water flow to CDU Stripped water flow to WWTP LP steam flow to reboilers Reflux flow to 51C-201 51V-201 skimmed oil compartment level 51V-201 sour water level 51C-201 bottom level Chimney tray reflux water level 51V-301 level 50V-401 level 51C-201 P SWS acid gas pressure to SRU SWS acid gas pressure to H2S flare 50V-401 pressure 51E-203 stripped water o/l. temperature 51E-201 stripped water

51-FI-003 51-FI-005 51-FI-006 51-FT-010 51-FT-012 51-LT-001 51-LT-002 51-LT-004 51-LT-006 51-LT-007 50-LI-505 51-PDI020 51-PT-010 51-PT-018 50-PI-524 51-TI-002 51-TI-006 15

50 40 5 11000 80 25 35 40 6.5 35 5 0.0 160 65 65 60 94 65 50 0.3 1.3 0.8 1.0 0.2 35 115 50 123 1.2 90 100 100

Nm3/hr m3/hr m3/hr Kg/hr m3/hr % % % % % % Kg/cm2 Kg/cm2g Kg/cm2g Kg/cm2g C C

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18 19 20

inlet temperature 51E-201 sour water outlet temperature 51EA-202A/B reflux water outlet temperature 51C-201 top temperature

51-TI-007 51-TI-010 51-TT-011

35 60 80

80 70 100

C C C

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7. ANALYTICAL CONTROL
Sampling frequency is given below for monitoring the performance of the unit. Sample analysis results to be obtained from laboratory and necessary corrective actions to be taken.
S.NO. SAMPLE SAMPLING LOCATION PARAMETERS TO BE CHECKED FREQUENCY

1 2 3

Sour Water Stripped Water Reflux Water

51P-202A/S suction line 51E-203 o/l. line 51P-204A/S o/l. line

H2S, NH 3, pH H2S, NH 3, pH H2S, NH 3, pH, chloride, iron and cyanide

On request Once per day Once in 15 days

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8. PRECOMMISSIONING PROCEDURE
8.1 INTRODUCTION
Pre-commissioning is the phase of work after construction and before commissioning, and involves bringing the system to a specified degree of cleanliness. The facilities are required to be cleaned in order to: 1. Reduce the risk of corrosion. The presence of debris enhances corrosion so a pipeline should be clean. 2. Maintain the transport efficiency and the quality of the product. 3. Protect downstream facilities from fouling.

8.2 GUIDELINES
The following guidelines summarize all activities required to be completed during the precommissioning phase of the project. Proper pre-commissioning will ensure that the facilities can be made operable with the least number of problems. The Precommissioning Team shall become familiar with all data and information. The Precommissioning Team shall start the pre-commissioning checks as early as possible during the late construction activities to ensure that the final installation of all equipment is as designed and specified. The following is a list of guidelines to be followed: 1. Observe site preparation, trenching, ditching, backfill and foundation installation, along with materials used. 2. Inspect the condition of each piece of equipment and skid as it is received and set on its designated foundation, along with any equipment critical to the skid equipment operation, which may be shipped in separate containers. 3. Inspect or verify from records the proper installation and testing of all piping systems, including the following: a. Welding methods. b. Flange gaskets and bolting, including insulating kits. c. Testing of all piping systems. d. Removal of all blinds or spool pieces used during hydrostatic testing. e. Proper position of spectacle blinds. 4. Witness or conduct, and record all ground tests for all wiring above and below grade.

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5. Witness or calibrate, and test all instruments in accordance with the Precommissioning Procedures, and record all calibrations and test data on the checklists provided for each instrument and instrument loop. 6. Witness or conduct, and record instrument loop checks on all systems. 7. Verify that all materials used for the construction of the facilities are new and damage-free. 8. Verify that lubricants, oil, coolant, etc., required for all equipment are on the job site and in good condition (i.e. not contaminated). 9. Check the process safety equipment. 10. Ensure that fire extinguishers are in place. 11. Check all electrical closures. 12. Ensure that all escape routes are clear of obstacles. 13. Ensure that all PSV inlet/outlet block valves are locked open (where applicable). 14. Wear personal safety equipment. 15. Clear area of unauthorized personnel. 16. Be aware of wind direction. 17. Be aware of designated meeting area location. 18. Ensure that fire detection equipment is operational (where applicable). 19. Ensure that the following safety equipment are loaded in field vehicles: a. First aid kit b. Scott air packs

8.3. PRE-COMMISSIONING PROCEDURES


8.3.1. GENERAL During the final stage of construction and on completion of construction, there is a large amount of detailed preparatory work which should be done by operating personnel in cooperation with others at the job site. The primary purpose of this work is 1. To acquaint the operators with the equipment. 2. To inspect the equipment to make certain the construction was done exactly as shown on the piping and instrument diagrams and system integrity. 3. To ensure the equipment is as per specifications. 4. To ensure the equipment is free of debris and construction trash.

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5. To ensure the cleanliness of piping free from debris and welding slug. 6. To ensure tightness of the system. 7. To start the pumps and drivers to make certain they will operate correctly (run-in). 8. To commission all utilities and supporting facilities so these will be ready for the start-up of the process equipment. Since the whole sulphur recovery unit operates at near atmospheric pressure and the system is designed for moderately low pressure, due care should be given to protect the system from over pressurization during carrying out precommissioning activities. This section covers the work required in preparing the unit for operation. This work (such as testing and cleaning), is generally carried out during final stages of construction and on the whole, is generally carried out only once; however, it may be necessary to repeat some procedures after major turnarounds. Careful and through preparation is a prerequisite for satisfactory performance and will eliminate much trouble and delays during the start-up. An outline is presented for a general method of cleaning and flushing lines and equipment. The outline for checking pumps and Blowers, after installation and prior to operation, is applicable on all start-ups. Much of the work noted in this section is performed by construction personnel. No attempt is made herein to designate the personnel performing this preparatory work. There are some phases of the preparation, such as run-in of pumps during water circulation for line cleaning which are best completed by the facilitys operating personnel. Much valuable experience can be obtained in this manner. 8.3.2. INSPECTION AND TESTING
8.3.2.1 FINAL INSPECTION The plant should be checked against the Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs). Vessels should be checked externally and internally. Additionally the area should be clear of unnecessary items. 8.3.2.2 CLEAN UP OF AREA 1. All construction equipment must have been removed, particularly scaffolding and combustibles such as canvas, ropes, and lumber. The area should be free of construction debris. 2. All unnecessary piping connections should be removed.

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3. Stairs, walks and platforms should be clear of scraps of metal or other obstructions. 4. All safety facilities should be on hand, and carefully inspected for operability.
8.3.2.3 SITE PREPARATION, FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURAL STEEL The Pre-commissioning Team shall confirm that soil compaction tests, data on concrete materials and mixes used, and concrete compressive strength test results, and verify the following against construction drawings and specifications. 1. Inspect the site to determine that all excavations, grading, drainage ditches, culverts, pits, surfacing, and roadways are in accordance with the specifications, plans and detail drawings. 2. Verify that all earth compaction tests for foundation bases, backfill, dikes etc. are in accordance with the specifications. 3. Verify that all concrete foundations, locations and elevations are in accordance with the specifications, plans, and detail drawings. 4. Verify that all concrete materials, mixes and compressive strength tests are in accordance with the specifications. 5. Verify that all concrete reinforcing steel designs are in accordance with the specifications, plans, and detail drawings. 6. Verify that all structural steel support materials, design, installation and coatings are in accordance with the specifications, plans and detail drawings. 7. Verify that all fences, gates and entrance barriers are installed in accordance with the specifications, plans and detail drawings.

8.3.2.4 CHECKING PLANT AGAINST PIPING AND INSTRUMENT DIAGRAMS Following construction it is necessary that a careful inspection be made of the equipment to ascertain that the construction was performed exactly as indicated on the piping and instrument diagrams. This can best be accomplished by covering every line and every notation with print marking pencils as the check is made. Particular attention should be paid to the details where errors in
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construction are most likely to occur. Any deviations from design are to be brought to the attention of those concerned for special consideration. 1. All items are installed and proper sizes and ratings are used. 2. Control and check valves installed in the proper flow direction. 3. Relief valve nameplate settings are correct for the service. 4. Free operation and full travel on all manual valves. 5. The temporary bracing/tie downs installed for modular shipment have been removed.
8.3.2.5 VESSELS AND TANKS Review all vessels, tanks and columns for compliance with specifications and codes. 1. Verify that nameplate data is in accordance with specifications, drawings and vendor data. 2. Verify that all nozzles are connected to appropriate piping, instruments or anodes, or are blinded in accordance with the drawings. 3. Check for external damage to the vessel, or tank shell, heads nozzles and supports. 4. Verify that all spectacle blinds are in the proper operational position in accordance with the drawings. 5. Verify that the vessel or tank was successfully hydro tested. 6. Verify that the external paint and coatings are in accordance with the specifications as to surface preparation, application, type, color, and thickness, and that any damage coating has been repaired. 7. Verify that the vessels, tanks internal coating / painting are carried out as per drawings/ specifications. 8. Verify that vessel, tank or drum is grounded to the ground loop. 9. Verify that the vessels are clean and that any dirt, pieces of metal, superfluous material, etc., have been removed. If any vessel has obviously been subjected to lots of dirt, remove the line off the bottom of the vessel and clean. 10. Verify that Man-ways, test plugs, and vent/drain plugs are in place.

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11. Determine that the location and range of level instrument internal floats, external type displacement tube cages or differential pressure type nozzles are as specified. 12. Verify that all orifice plates are available to be installed in their proper locations. Prior to hydrostatic testing, make sure that the lead lines to and from orifice tap flanges are shut off.
8.3.2.6 COLUMNS INSPECTION AND BOX UP Before the columns are boxed-up, inspection of column is to be carried out as per column drawing. A checklist is to be prepared giving the following details to enable thorough checking. 1. Packing -Type of packing, Metallurgy, Supports, Packing alignment. While man-way boxing up tightness of nuts and grip of clamps to be checked and corrected. 2. Nozzles. 3. Distributors. 4. Vortex breaker at the bottom. 5. Location of thermo wells. 6. Nozzles orientation as per drawings. 7. Check earthing. 8. Column nozzles to be made clear before final boxing-up of the column. 9. Check that columns/drums, which can be isolated, are protected by a PSV. 10. Check that horizontal drums are equipped with boot if water can be present. 11. Check that level controls are provided for water/liquid HC and liquid HC/gas HC. 12. Check that wire mesh is provided when necessary. 13. Check that steam out connections with block valves and blind flanges are provided. 14. Check that there is a vent on the top with block valve to remove steam and gas during steam out. 15. Check that vortex breakers are provided on liquid outlets when pumps are taking suction on this outlet. 16. Check that there is a drain at the lowest point.

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17. Check that manholes are installed as required and located for safe clean out, maintenance, and emergency removal of people from vessels.
8.3.2.7 HEAT EXCHANGERS 1. Check the metallurgy of the shell, tube, tube sheets, channel cover, baffle, and header box for their correctness as per design. 2. Check for the tube sizes, number of tube and shell passes and direction of flow streams. 3. Ensure enough space is provided for pulling out the tube bundle out. 4. Check the name plate to see all design specifications are matching. 5. Check the Flange size and gasket ratings are proper. 6. Ensure the insulation with respect to personnel protection and heat retentions are done properly. 7. Check the grounding of the heat exchanger. 8. Check all nozzles for their cleanliness. 9. Watch the Hydro-testing of the shell and tub side and ensure all the water from the exchanger is drained out after the hydrotesting. 8.3.2.8 AIR COOLED EXCHANGERS 1. Check that the fan-pitches are as specified. 2. Ensure that the motor switches are accessible from the grade and are closer the exchanger. 3. Check whether vibration switch is on each fan. 4. Check the motors for their proper direction of rotation and they are properly grounded. 5. Check the belt tension of the motor drive pulleys are equal and correct. 6. Ensure that the motor amperage reading meter s easily accessible. 7. Ensure that the exchanger is free to expand. 8. Check the Tube surfaces for its cleanliness. 9. Ensure adequate space is provided for Tube pulling.

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8.3.2.9 ROTATING EQUIPMENT The Pre-commissioning Team shall use the specific vendor data books as reference for each piece of rotating equipment when conducting precommissioning work. Vendor procedures shall take precedence if different from the procedure listed below. 1. Verify that name plate data is in accordance with specifications, drawings and vendor data. 2. Verify that equipment is firmly anchored and dowels are in place, if required. 3. Verify that driver, coupling and driven equipment are properly aligned. Alignment shall be checked cold and hot in accordance with procedures in the vendor data books. 4. Check that all guards are firmly attached to protect personnel from rotating shafts, couplings, and belts. Check that proper clearances are maintained between rotating parts and guards. 5. Verify that the external paint and coatings are in accordance with the specifications as to application, type, color, and thickness, and that any damaged coating has been repaired. 6. Verify that recommended quantities of spare parts, materials and lubricants are on hand. Refer to vendor data books. 8.3.2.10 ELECTRICAL MOTOR DRIVERS Specific electrical procedures shall be used as detailed in the specific vendor data books. 8.3.2.10.1 PUMPS / BLOWERS 1. Verify that suction strainers / filters and silencers are installed on all pumps. 2. Verify that the discharge check valve is installed in the proper flow direction on all pumps. 3. Check impeller and shaft for damage. 4. Verify the seal system is properly installed. 5. Verify that the alignment is proper. 6. Verify the correct direction of rotation and RPM. 7. Verify the vibration. 8. Verify that the auxiliary such as lubricating oil system consisting of lubricating oil tank, pumps, piping and

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instrumentation are complete as per vendor design for Blowers. 9. Verify that lubricating oil flushing is carried out for lubricating oil system. 10. Verify that specified instrumentation is installed, checked and calibrated.
8.3.2.11 INSTRUMENTATION 1. Check the instrument type, range and size. 2. Ensure the installation is done as per general project standard. 3. Ensure location of local indicators is such that they are easily readable. 4. Ensure all instruments are properly calibrated. 5. Check the direction of installation of Orifice plate is proper. 6. Check control valves for their fail safe position as per design. 8.3.2.12 PROCESS PIPING After construction is completed, the process piping and manifolds must be cleaned of all construction debris, hydrostatically pressure tested and purged of all oxygen if required before the start up procedures can be undertaken. The process lines to and from the vessels, however, must be cleaned by flushing with water or blowing with air. The hydrostatic test water is used to flush the vessel bottom connected lines. The flushing and blowing of process lines can be done before or after hydrostatic testing. It is suggested that it be done after testing. Then all flanges broken to clean lines will have new gaskets and will be included in the test. All orifice plates can be installed and connections tested. 1. Experience has shown that time and effort put into flushing and blowing systems and pipeline prior to start up results in less trouble encountered during and immediately following start up. Special attention should be given to lines upstream of control valves and lines upstream of pumps. 2. Before draining water from vessels make sure that a high point vent on the vessel is opened to prevent pulling a vacuum on the vessel. 3. The Pre-commissioning Team shall use the specifications, plans and detail drawings for reference in checking all piping systems
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to determine that they have been properly fabricated, installed and tested. 4. Verify that all piping tie-in points agree with the drawings. 5. Verify that all temporary blinds have been removed and that all spectacle blinds are in the correct position for operation. 6. Verify that the material and ANSI pressure rating of all piping, flanges, valves, and equipment are in accordance with the drawings. 7. Verify that welding procedures and weld examinations are in accordance with the specifications, either by witnessing the work or checking construction records. 8. Verify that hydro testing (or pneumatic testing) has been successfully completed at the required pressure in accordance with ASME B31.3, either by witnessing the work or checking construction records. Also check the following: a. That the correct Test Media has been used for hydro testing e.g. hydro test water for stainless steel pipes should not contain over 500 PPM of chlorides or should be inhibited water. b. That hydro test fluids were drained from all systems after the completion of tests, and disposed of away from the site as directed. c. That all blinds, temporary spools, valves and fittings used for hydro testing have been removed. d. That the Utility Water System is filled as soon as possible during precommissioning. e. Check that all piping has no arc burns, and has not been damaged during shipment and construction. 9. Verify that insulation and heat tracing is installed in accordance with the specifications, plans, and drawings. 10. Verify that all flange gaskets are installed and that each flange nut thread is filled with the bolt. 11. Verify that insulating flange kits are installed as shown on the drawings. 12. Verify that valves are properly installed.

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13. Nameplate data, including valve type, pressure/temperature rating, and materials are as specified and shown on the drawings. 14. Check valves, globe valves, and choke valves are installed in the correct flow direction. 15. Block valves (where applicable) are installed in the correct flow direction. 16. Valve handles are properly located for clearance and ease of operation. 17. All valves operate freely and all valve stems are coated with graphite/lubricant mix. 8.3.3 HYDRO TESTING Hydrostatic tests are made on site fabricated or modified pipe-work to prove strength of materials and welds. This test is made by completely water filling the pipe to be tested and increasing the pressure to the specified pressure. Normally, a portable positive displacement pump will be used to raise the pressure. This test should not be confused with other less severe tests generally carried out before a start-up to check tightness of connections. The hydrostatic testing is ordinarily done by construction personnel. If for any reason it should become necessary for the operators to carry out such a test, the specified pressure. Equipment to be tested is generally divided into groups of similar test pressures and isolated from other sections by installing suitable blinds. Screens should be placed in the suction lines of all pumps bef ore any liquid is allowed to pass through them from newly constructed lines. If this is not done, scale, weld metal or slag, stones, etc., may lock or damage the pumps. The screens also act to trap such dirt in a location where it can be conveniently removed. Screens should be placed in a flange between the suction valve and the pump so that the screen may be removed without de-pressuring any vessels. The flow through the screen should preferably be downward or horizontal. Precautions should be taken to place screens in a location where the dirt particles will not drop into an inaccessible place in the line when the flow through the pump stops. If this should happen, it would not be possible to remove the dirt upon removal of the screen. A low pressure air test can be placed on the sections of the unit prior to a water test so that any open lines or flanges may be discovered and taken care

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of before liquid is admitted. However, a water hydrostatic test is necessary for final testing and the location of all leaks. A low pressure air test may be used in place of hydrostatic for low design pressure, electrical flare lines. It should be remembered that in pressure testing vessels and towers that the test gauge should be placed at the bottom of the vessel so that the liquid head will be taken into account. Site hydro test of shop fabricated vessels is not required. Before introducing water into a tower vessel, vents should be opened. They should also be opened before draining the test water. After the test, reduce the pressure developed during the hydrostatic test very slowly. All water testing and cleaning (hydro testing and other) should be done with water that is low in chlorides. Since it will not be practical to pressure test all equipment in the plant simultaneously, the plant should be divided into sections as governed by the test pressure for each section. Blinds must be made and installed in the system to isolate sections. Blind all safety valves and block all instruments. Some further suggestions which should be followed prior to and during the hydrostatic test period are as follows: 1. Relief valves must be removed, blinded or gagged. 2. All items under test must be liquid filled and all air vented. 3. Internals such as level ball floats, which are not designed for the test pressure, must be removed. 4. All the instruments and control valves must be isolated and removed. 5. Orifice plates shall not be installed. 6. Items, such as connecting piping to a vessel under test, which are capable of withstanding the test, may be subjected to the test. 7. Items, such as vessels connected to piping under test, which are not capable of withstanding the test, must be isolated by blinding. 8. A water filled system must be vented while draining to avoid collapsing equipment not designed for vacuum. 9. The minimum temperature at which hydro testing should be conducted is 15.6C (60F). 10. All relief valves (PSVs) must be bench tested and set before final installation. This testing and setting may be done while hydrostatic testing is in progress.

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8.3.4. CLEANING OF LINES AND EQUIPMENT After hydro testing or pneumatic testing is completed, the lines and the equipment of the plant must be cleaned out. The cleaning is normally done after the hydrostatic pressure testing of lines and equipment has been completed. Then, after cleaning, all orifice plates and restricting orifice plates can be installed. The cleaning can be done prior to testing if desired. The plant will be tested with water. Water used for testing and flushing should be clean. Experience has shown that the time and effort put into cleaning systems and piping prior to start-up usually results in less trouble encountered during and immediately following start-up.
8.3.4.1 FLUSHING Flushing can be defined as the internal cleaning of system piping and equipment, utilizing a high velocity stream of gas or liquid as the flushing media. As a result of construction, plant piping and equipment contain mill scale, construction debris, and other foreign matter. Each system must be flushed to remove any foreign matter that could obstruct or damage plant equipment during start-up and operation. 8.3.4.1.1 GENERAL GUIDELINES 1. Pre-definition of flushing loop: Prior to start of flushing, a flushing loop diagram be made and followed during flushing. 2. Loop should not be too long. 3. Enough water draining points should be available in the chosen loop. 4. Proper isolation of equipment which are not intended to be flushed with water. 5. Providing a fine mesh strainer in pump suction if the pump is intended to use for flushing. 6. Ensure enough supply of water for flushing. 7. Look for pressure build up in system. 8.3.4.1.2 FLUSHING LINES 1. All piping should be thoroughly cleaned of debris and scale. Generally, fluid handling lines are flushed with water and thoroughly drained. Where practical, clean
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2. 3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

water should be supplied to the vessels and the contiguous lines be flushed away from the vessel. Do not flush debris into equipment. Water flushed lines which do not drain freely should be blown clear with air. Gas-handling piping may be either water flushed or air blown. Water should be blown from the gas lines on completion of flushing. Gas piping to compressors must be free of water. Instrument air lines should be thoroughly blown with clean dry air. In all cleaning by flushing, whether with water, steam or air, maximum volume and velocity should be used for thorough cleaning. Care must be taken to avoid a vacuum condition when draining any pieces of equipment. When flushing from a vessel or other equipment, adequate venting must be provided. Following is a guide for flushing: a. Orifice plates must not be installed prior to flushing. b. Control valves should be removed or rolled out. Flexitallic gaskets cannot be reused so they should not be put in until final installation. Temporary gaskets can be used for initial installation. c. Instrument lines should be closed off or disconnected. d. Flush pump intake and discharge piping while disconnected. e. Supply and exhaust steam lines to turbines are cleaned by blowing while disconnected. f. Flush through open end lines. Do not restrict flow. g. Regulate rate of flushing medium from source. For example, water from a tower, regulate at the tower; and steam, at the valve in the supply to the line being blown. h. Up stream throttling is effective for flushing for creation of velocity head for effective flushing. i. Flush through open ends.
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j. Where possible, flush downward or horizontally. k. First, flush or blow each lateral header from the source to end. l. Second, flush or blow each lateral header from the main to end. m. Always flush through bypass to an open end before flushing through equipment. n. For steam systems, flush well through dirt leg drains and steam trap bypasses before placing the trap in service. o. Disconnect lines at exchangers and flush to open ended lines. p. Upon completion of line flushing of any system, carefully check that all temporary breaks are reconnected, control valves replaced, and pump alignments are normal. 8. As water is circulated through the system, the temporary screens should be removed, cleaned, and replaced until no foreign matter collects on them, indicating the system is clean. After washing is complete, clean the screen and replace in the line for initial plant operation for extra pump protection. Drain all water from the system at low points. Be sure that vents are open when draining equipment. 9. After the flushing/cleaning of the piping is completed carry out the leak test for the process piping as the majority of the process piping handles the H2S. To carry out the leak test pressurize the system with air or nitrogen and check the system for the leakage with the help of soap solution. All the flange joints and weld joints shall be leak tested prior to the entry of process fluids. 10. Safety Measures while flushing: a. Flushing materials to be discharged to such areas where it will not create a slippage or other hazard. b. Flushed water should not get accumulated in plant working area (water logging).

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8.3.4.1 AIR BLOWING Air blowing is carried out either for pneumatic flushing where water flushing is not recommended or for drying the pipe subsequent to water flushing. Air blowing at medium pressure will ensure fine particles removal. The air blowing / pneumatic flashing shall be carried out in similar way as water flushing. While carrying out air blowing the following safety precautions must be taken. 1. A pre defined loop is taken-up for air blowing. 2. System is not pressurized beyond allowable pressure. 3. Wear ear protection. 4. Wear safety goggles. 5. Alert personnel in blow off areas to keep away from blow-off points. 6. Air venting point is away from personnel movement area.

8.4. LEAK TESTING


After the piping system have been flushed and cleaned and after installation of all permanent elements, fittings and instruments with permanent gaskets, the system tightness and integrity checking must be performed. The properly tightened system eliminates the possibility of major leak and minimizes hazard. Since sulphur recovery unit handles toxic and combustible materials such as H2S, NH3, SO2, it is strongly recommended to carry out system tightness check thoroughly and confirm. All the process piping must be thoroughly tested for leak. The following utility lines must be leak tested as these constitute to either loss of valuable utility or cause personal safety hazard in the event of leakage. 1. IA lines / tubing. 2. Nitrogen. 3. Fuel gas. 4. Vaporized LPG. 5. Flare and Blow Down. 6. LP / MP Steam. 7. Steam Condensate. 8. BFW. 9. DM Water. 10. Plant Air.

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8.4.1 LEAK TESTING PROCEDURE 1. Define the leak testing loop by preparing a testing loop diagram based on P&ID. 2. Pressurize a predefined loop with air to about 2 kg/cm2.g or to a value depending on the loop chosen. 3. Apply soap solution in all flanged joints and screwed connects. 4. Systematically check for leaks and visually check for bubbling / foaming. 5. Tighten all identified leakage joints. Re-pressurize the system and repeat the earlier step. 6. A pressure hold up test afterwards may be carried out necessary. 7. The leak test on all process piping and fuel gas / LPG piping and flare / blow down piping must be conducted very rigorously. 8. If the leak tested joint is opened for any reason during subsequent commissioning activities such as catalyst loading, the leak testing must be conducted once again for those joints in question before proceeding with further commissioning activities. 9. After leak testing the system must be depressurized without fail.

8.5. CHARGING OF ESSENTAL UTILITIES


The utility system should be commissioned first for the commissioning of the process unit. When all of the utilities are in service or operational, plant start-up may be taken up. The following utilities required for the plant are available from the plant B.L. These utilities are charged into the respective piping system in a logical sequence. 1. Service Water. 2. Drinking water. 3. Fresh Cooling water supply / return. 4. Plant air. 5. Instrument air. 6. Nitrogen. 7. DM water. 8. Boiler Feed Water. 9. LP Steam. 10. MP Steam. 11. LP condensate. 12. Blow down system.
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13. Fire water. Of the above utilities, utility 1 to 6 are to be charged as soon as the utility piping system is flushed and cleaned in all respect as the charging of these utilities is important for further precommissioning activities. The other utilities shall be charged after the entire plant piping and equipment system are complete in all respect to receive these utilities. 8.5.1 SERVICE WATER Service water shall be charged from the B.L piping into the unit service water header. The service water header shall be flushed with service water itself. The low point drains shall be kept open and the water shall be drained at some intervals to ensure that the dirty water is no more appearing in the drain. When visual checking of drained water appearance is satisfactory, then it may be considered that the system is clean and all consumer points such as hose stations are fed with service water. 8.5.2 DRINKING WATER The drinking water header shall be flushed with service water first followed by drinking water itself. Drinking water shall be charged from the B.L piping into the unit drinking water header. The low point drains shall be kept open and the water shall be drained at some intervals to ensure that the dirty water is no more appearing in the drain. When visual checking of drained water appearance is satisfactory, then it may be considered that the system is clean and all consumer points such as eye washers / showers are fed with drinking water. 8.5.3 COOLING WATER The cooling water supply and return headers shall be flushed with service water by using the jump over provided at the end of the header. The low point drains shall be kept open and the water shall be drained at some intervals to ensure that the dirty water is no more appearing in the drain. When visual checking of drained water appearance is satisfactory, then it may be considered that the system is clean. Cooling water shall be charged from the B.L piping into the unit cooling water header and the cooling water return header shall be connected to the return header and the cooling water circulation is established. If needed all consumer points such as heat exchanges supply and return lines may be charged. Cooling water circuit may also be taken up for cooling water system passivation, if required along with OSBL cooling water circuit.

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8.5.4 PLANT AIR Plant air system shall be purged with plant air only by charging Plant air from B.L. The purging shall be done until the system is clean. Prior to purging the low points drains shall be opened and any entrapped water shall be drained out. When the system is purged completely the piping system shall be pressurized to the normal operating pressure and the consumer points may be fed. The pant air header low point drains may be periodically opened to drain out condensate water. 8.5.5 INSTRUMENT AIR Instrument air system should be purged with plant air to make the system clean. The purging should be done through the entire header once through. After purging and ensuring that the outlet air is devoid of any dust / particle, the drain points should be opened and checked for condensate water. When plant air purging is completed, the instrument air shall be charged from the B.L and instrument air purging is done. The system shall be checked for instrument air quality. When the quality is found satisfactory, the system shall be pressurized and consumer points such as IA manifold may be charged. The leak testing should be carried out for any leakage around flange joints or fittings / screwed connections. 8.5.6 NITROGEN Nitrogen is assumed to be available in unit battery limit. The header should be purged / blown with plant air for several times to ensure that line debris is completely removed. The plant air purging should be followed by instrument air purging. Once the system is completely dried, the system may be pressurized with instrument air to about 4 kg/cm2.g and leak test may be carried out and leaks may be attended to. The system shall be depressurized and nitrogen shall be charged into the header from B.L. The nitrogen purging shall be carried out at least two to three times thoroughly at low pressure. The oxygen content of nitrogen header should be checked after each purge. The purging shall be continued until the oxygen content of the header is almost equal to the B.L nitrogen oxygen concentration. Depending on the progress of making the system oxygen free, the number of purges may be required. Normally three to five times the system volume shall ensure the permissible oxygen content in nitrogen. When the system purge is completed, the header shall be pressurized to normal operating pressure. All vents / drain points shall be tightly capped or blinded to avoid leakage of N2 to atmosphere. With the completion of commissioning of the above utilities, the plant pre-commissioning

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can proceed. The commissioning of other utilities shall be carried out once the plant piping and equipment system pre-commissioning is completed.

8.6. INERT GAS PURGING


Inert gas purging is carried out for mainly process, flare, fuel gas / LPG gas and Nitrogen piping system. The inert gas purging is however recommended for all carbon steel piping if the subsequent commissioning activities after flushing and cleaning, are not taken up immediately as the inert atmosphere reduces the chances of oxidation of iron and eventual rusting due to oxygen in air. However, the inert gas purging is mandatory for hydrocarbon, NH3 / H2S carrying piping / equipment as any explosive mixture formation with air may give rise to possibility of explosion hazard during feed cut-in / start-up. Nitrogen gas purging is the common method of purging to remove air from the system. Procedure for Inert gas Purging: 1. Preparation of purging loop diagram and pre-define the loop such that the loop is not too long. 2. System vents / drains identification. The system vents should be as high as possible. 3. Frequent draining of water from low point drains should be ensured. Water draining prior to purging is to be ensured when system is in blocked condition. 4. Identify and arrange portable Oxygen analyzer to check purge progress. Use LEL scale to check where explosive mixture is expected. 5. Restrict personnel movement in the area where purging is in progress. 6. Use personnel protective equipment to avoid direct contact with Nitrogen as the gas causes asphyxiation. 7. Initial purging must be done at near atmospheric pressure. 8. Purge the system at low velocity. 9. Ensure that the displaced air is vented from only one point at the farthest end, keeping other vent / drain points closed. 10. Monitor O2 level in the vented gas frequently. 11. Normally 2.5 ~ 3 times the system volume may be sufficient to achieve the required O2 level of 0.5 % if the air displacement is slow. However, continue purging for a longer period to ensure that the final O2 concentration is maintained and no new pockets of air is observed.

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12. After the air displacement, box up the system with a positive N2 pressure of about 1.0 kg/cm2.g. 13. Ensure that the purged system / piping / equipment is isolated positively from other non purged system. 14. All vents / drain points should be capped / flanged as per end connection. 15. Record the purged piping / equipment system in the purging loop diagram.

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9. COMMISSIONING/START-UP PROCEDURE
9.1 START-UP PROCEDURE
The normal start-up procedure for the Refinery Sour Water Stripper (51C201) can be summarized as follows: 1. Preparation for start-up. 2. Filling of the Collecting Vessel (51V-201). 3. Filling of the Refinery Sour Water Stripper (51C-201). 4. Start Circulating Reflux. 5. Start Air Coolers. 6. Start Reboilers. 7. Start Bottom Circulation. 8. Introduce Sour Water. 9. Sour Gas to SRU. 10. Normal Operation. 9.1.1 PREPARATION FOR START-UP Before start-up all pre-operational checks should be completed. All equipment, valves and instruments are to be checked, the utility systems should be precommissioned and the headers of the utilities should be charged. Equipment and lines are required to be flushed; pressure testing, draining, drying out have to be completed. The relief system is to be commissioned. All blinds have to be removed and the battery 1imit valves have to be in closed condition. 9.1.2 FILLING OF THE COLLECTING VESSEL The Collecting Vessel (51V-201) is filled with DM water through the utility connection up to high level. The suction line of the Sour Water Feed Pump (51P-202 A/S) and the pumps are also filled. The fuel gas valve in the purge line to the Collecting Vessel is opened to achieve a positive gas flow to the flare. 9.1.3 FILLING OF THE REFINERY SOUR WATER STRIPPER To fill the bottom o f the Refinery Sour Water Stripper (51C-201) the Sour Water Feed Pump (51P-202 A/S) is started. The minimum capacity of the pump is much bigger than the DM water make-up flow through the utility connection. The level of the Collecting Vessel (51V-201) has to be checked and the pump must be stopped at low

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level in the vessel. Refill the Collecting Vessel and restart the Sour Water Feed Pump to fill the reboiler compartment of the Sour Water Stripper bottom. Repeat this procedure until the reboiler compartment is filled. The suction of the Sour Water Stripper Bottom Pump and the hold-up compartment of the stripper up to normal level have to be filled with water via the vessel drain. The suction of the Circulating Reflux Water Pumps (51P-204A/S) and the chimney tray is filled via a connection in the suction of the Circulating Reflux Water Pump. 9.1.4 STARTING CIRCULATING REFLUX The Circulating Reflux Water Pump (51P-204 A/S) can be started. The level on the chimney tray must be watched and the pump must be stopped at low level in the chimney. If necessary refill the chimney and restart the Circulating Ref1ux Water Pump until the circulating reflux loop is filled. The flow controller is set on the normal operating flow. 9.1.5 START AIR COOLERS The fans of the Circulating Water Air Cooler (51EA-201) and the Stripped Water Air Cooler (5lEA-202) are started. Also the cooling water flow to the Stripped Water Cooler (51E-203) is turned on. 9.1.6 START REBOILERS Slowly increase the steam flow to the boilers (5lE-202A/B) till 60% of the design flow. Set protective pressure controller on the top of the column at 0.9 kg/cm2g. When pressure becomes too high, the control valve to flare opens. No vapors are sent to the SRU yet. The temperature controller on the top of the column is set on 90C. 9.1.7 START BOTTOM CIRCULATION The start-up line from the Stripped Water Cooler (51E-203) to the Collecting vessel is opened and Sour Water Stripper Bottom Pump (51P-203A/S) is started. The flow controller in the feed 1ine to the column is set at the turndown flow necessary for the minimum load of the stripper trays. 9.1.8 INTRODUCE SOUR WATER Sour water from the process units can enter the Sour Water Stripper unit in to the Collecting Vessel. The level controller on the bottom of the stripper shall now
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send the stripped water to waste water treatment. Throttle the globe valve in the start-up line, but recirculate enough water to load the trays in the stripper. The flow ratio between the feed and the reboiler steam shall be adjusted to meet the stripped water specification. The H2S and NH3 content can be checked via the sample connection in the stripped water. If the CDU desalters are in operation and the stripped water is off specification, stripped water shall be exported to the CDU. The waste water treatment unit shall receive on spec stripped water. 9.1.9 SOUR GAS TO SRU The set point of the temperature controller in the stripper OVHD is set on 90C. As soon as the Sulphur Recovery Unit (unit 5000) is ready to receive sour gas put the pressure controller to the SRU on automatic with the set point 0.9 kg/cm2g. When a sour gas flow to the SRU is realized the set point of the protective pressure controller to flare is increased in order to stop the sour gas flow to flare. 9.1.10 NORMAL OPERATION The start-up/ recycle 1oop shall be closed gradually, when more process units are in normal operation. The steam flow to the reboiler is put on ratio control with the stripper feed flow. All other process variables are adjusted (check) to their normal operating conditions on the controller are put on their automatic mode.

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10. SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE


10.1 NORMAL SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The normal shutdown can be summarized as follows: Stop sour water flow. Empty Col1ecting Vessel. Stop Sour Water Stripper Bottom Pump. Stop Stripper Reboi1ers. Stop Circulating Ref1ux. Empty the columns/vessels. Depressurize the Sour Water Stripper Unit. Purge unit with nitrogen.

10.1.1 STOP SOUR WATER FLOW Intake of sour water is stopped by closing the battery limit valves to the Collecting Vessel. In the mean time the steam flow to the reboilers is set in manual mode. Close the control valve in the sour gas 1ine to the SRU and open the control valve to flare. The export of stripped water to the CDU is stopped. 10.1.2 EMPTY COLLECTING VESSEL The Collecting Vessel (51V-201) is emptied by the Sour Water Feed Pump up to minimum liquid level. The Sour Water Feed Pump is stopped at low level alarm. The remaining water in the Collecting Vessel (51V-201) is drained in the Sour Water Drain Vessel. The slops in the Collecting Vessel shall be drained to the AOC. 10.1.3 STOP SOUR WATER STRIPPER BOTTOM PUMP The Sour Water Stripper Bottom Pumps to the waste water treatment are stopped at low level in the hold-up compartment of the stripper. The pump shall be started intermittently at high level alarm. 10.1.4 STOP STRIPPER REBOILERS The steam flow to the reboilers can be stopped.

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10.1.5 STOP CIRCULATING REFLUX Stop the fans of the air cooler in the circulating reflux system. Stop the Circulating Reflux Pump and close the flow control valve.

10.1.6 EMPTY THE COLUMNS/VESSELS Empty the content of the Stripper (51C-201) and Stripper Circulating Reflux system by draining to the Sour Water Drain Vessel. 10.1.7 DEPRESSURIZE SWS Stop the fuel gas blanketing on the Collecting Vessel (51V-201) and put the pressure controller on manual with a setting of 1.0 kg/cm 2a. Put the protective controller in the stripper overhead on manual with a setting of 1.0 kg/cm2a and depressurize the Stripper system via the line to flare. 10.1.8 PURGE UNIT WITH NITROGEN Connect a nitrogen supply to the utility connection of the column/vessels and purge the column/vessels and vapour lines.

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11. TROUBLE SHOOTING


11.1 GENERAL PROCESS PROBLEMS
1. Sudden temperature changes should be avoided whenever possible, since they might cause leaks at flanges or loosening of iron sulfide scale from the equipment walls. 2. H2S is an extremely poisonous gas. Utmost care must be taken to avoid exposure of personnel and environment to this gas, e.g. when draining H 2S containing liquid or when taking gas samples. In special circumstances, protective masks must be worn. 3. The lower and upper explosion limits of H 2S in a gas air mixture are 4.3 and 45.5 vol. %, respectively. In the stoichiometric ratio with air, it explodes violently when ignited. 4. All steam traps should be checked frequently to ensure a proper heating performance. In this way plugging of the process lines, equipment and valves can be avoided.

11.2 STRIPPER CONDITIONS


In order to create the vapor required for stripping, the sour water must be boiled at the bottom of the column. The bottom temperature is therefore fixed by the boiling point of the water which in turn is determined by the operating pressure and H 2S composition of the water. The efficient operation of sour water stripper unit is largely depends on the parameter of sour water stripper. The major variables are 1. Circulation rate of the pump around system 2. Overhead temperature and pressure 3. Reboiler temperature The H2S partial pressure in the stripper bottom is determined by: a. The operating pressure in the stripper b. The quantity of steam/m3 of stripped water produced in the reboiler. In summary it is stated that the steam flow generated in the reboiler must ensure that: 1. The loaded sour water entering the stripper will reach the boiling point in the bottom of the column 2. The heat required for desorption of the H2S and CO2 is supplied
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3. Sufficient steam is available to lower the partial pressure of the H 2S above the stripped water, thus reducing the H 2S content in the stripped water. The energy input is normally expressed as kg steam per hour supplied to the reboiler. Note: The reduction / increase of the sour water rate and steam rate should not exceed maximum and minimum design values set by column turn-down. Deviations form the correct steam requirement at constant design conditions will have the following effects: Lower steam consumption in the reboiler will result in a higher H 2S content in the stripped water. The temperature in the bottom of the stripper is determined by the pressure and sour water composition. As often the pressure is fixed by the press ure drop across the down-stream SRU and the operating pressure and thus also the stripper bottom temperature can only be varied marginally. As the amount of steam required to obtain the same stripped water will increase with temperature, the pressure should be kept as low as possible within these constraints. The pressure in the stripper section is more or less constant and dictated by the pressure drop over the downstream equipment.

11.3 STRIPPED WATER QUALITY


The sour water stripper unit takes the sour water as feed and removes H2S and NH3 from the sour water. The treated water called as stripped water leaves the unit from stripper and sent to CDU desalters or WWTP. Hence the quality of the stripped water should be closely monitored by the operator. It is recommended that during start up of the plant check the quality of the stripped water at least once in a shift. Later on the frequency of sampling can be reduced to once in a day. 11.3.1 FOAM PROMOTING IMPURITIES Foaming results from the presence of foam promoting impurities in the solution. The most well known impurities are: 1. The presence/formation of FeS in stripped water consuming units made of carbon steel and handling H 2S containing gases is predictable, especially during the initial startup and startups after maintenance shutdowns, when the presence of iron oxides is more likely.

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2. Foreign materials originating from related equipment, such as: lubricants from compressors, grease (containing soap basis) from plug valves, conservation oils/greases from new equipment, filter elements made of cotton material. 11.3.2 DETECTION OF FOAMING/CARRY OVER The following observations may be an indication that foaming or carryover is occurring or is about to occur: 1. An erratic profile of the differential pressure measurement over the trays of the stripper; the pressure drop over the trays increases during foaming. 2. A sudden increase in stripper overhead temperature. 3. Higher than normal water losses. 4. A sudden drop of the liquid level in the bottom of the stripper. 5. Dirty and opaque water. 6. A positive test for the foaming tendency. To a great extent foaming can be prevented by applying the following measures: Use of pure make-up cold condensate. It should be stated that many observations which might be interpreted as foaming of the sour water can be explained by other events, e.g.

OBSERVATION

POSSIBLE OTHER CAUSES

Liquid carry-over High pressure drop over the trayed sections Low level in stripper

Fouling of stripper trays Overloading of stripper As above

As above and in addition leaking a stripped water cooler. Testing of the water foaming tendency by a laboratory test - even carried out once or twice a shift - will not give the assurance of an early warning, as foaming can start suddenly. However, it is recommended to do the foam test on a regular basis and under standardized conditions in order to have comparable results available in case of a slow increase of the foaming tendency of the water.

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12. MAINTENANCE
Maintenance activities in the Sour Water Stripper Unit may be of the following types: 1. 2. 3. 4. Mechanical- Routine & Non-Routine. Electrical- Routine & Non-Routine. Instrument- Routine & Non-Routine. Civil- Routine & Non-Routine.

12.1 MECHANICAL
Routine Mechanical activities involve the following: 1. Preventive Maintenance (PM) of all rotary equipments. 2. Look, Listen and Feel (LLF) of all rotary equipments. 3. Bearing and lube oil make-up of pumps. 4. Steam trap inspection, repairing and replacement work. Non-Routine Mechanical activities involve the following: 1. Breakdown maintenance of rotary equipments. 2. Pump strainer cleaning work. 3. Scaffolding erection/removal job. 4. Exchanger tube and tube sheet leaks attending. 5. Steam tracing and jacketing lines leak attending job. 6. Knock out drums demister cleaning/replacement job. 7. Steam leak attending work involving cold and hot works. 8. Hot bolting work. 9. Column tray repair/replacement works. 10. Any other jobs which are not carried out normally.

12.2 ELECTRICAL
Routine electrical maintenance activities involve the following: 1. Electrical preventive maintenance (PM)-A, B & C types of all motors. 2. Lighting maintenance work. Non-Routine electrical maintenance involves the following: 1. Breakdown maintenance of motors. 2. Cable disconnection and connection work for mechanical job. 3. Any other activity which is not carried out routinely.

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12.3 INSTRUMENTATION
Routine instrument activities involve the following: 1. Instrument preventive maintenance (PM). Non-Routine activities involve the following: 1. Interlock bypass. 2. Malfunctioning instruments maintenance. 3. DCS malfunctioning problems attending. 4. DCS alarm tags set point changing job. 5. DCS graphics updating work. 6. Control valves maintenance activities. 7. H2S detectors attending/calibration job. 8. Any other activity which is not carried out routinely.

12.4 CIVIL
Routine civil maintenance involves the following: 1. Regular housekeeping work. 2. Scrap/debris shifting from workplace to disposal area. 3. Insulation work. Non-Routine activities involve the following: 1. Concrete breaking/laying work. 2. Road laying work. 3. Temporary shed erection/removal. 4. Refractory repairing/replacement. 5. Any other activity which is not carried out routinely.

12.5 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS


All maintenance activities should be carried out with proper work permits. Contract personnel involved in the work should have the mandatory safety and H 2S awareness trainings and must be wearing/using the necessary Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs). Tool Box Talk (TBT) to the contract personnel should be given by the maintenance Engineer before starting the job. All critical works should be having a TBRA (Task Based Risk Assessment) sheet along with the work permit. SOP (Standard Operating Procedures) to be followed for proper handing over of equipment for maintenance (Refer 17.1 ANNEXURES-SOP for standard Operating Procedures). Work Permit Procedure is to be followed strictly.

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13. DOS AND DONTS


13.1 HYDROGEN SULPHIDE
DO In case of eyes or skin contact, flush the affected area with plenty of fresh water for at least 20 minutes. In case of eye contact, get prompt medical help. In case of inhalation, take the victim to fresh air immediately. Restore breathing with mouth to mouth artificial respiration. Keep the victim warm and at rest. Get prompt medical help. In case of significant exposure, hospitalize the patient for 72 hours. Use personal protective equipment for eyes, hands, feet and respiratory system. Immediately evacuate the area endangered by H 2S gas. Remove all the sources of ignition and ventilate the area. Prevent the escape of gas when possible. DONT Dont attempt rescue operation without Buddy system.

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14. SAFETY
14.1 AMBIENT H2S MONITOR EQUIPMENT
The following information deals with the prevention of possible danger hazards encountered in the Sour Water Stripper Unit. For the protection of the operating personnel an H 2S monitor system is installed. The monitor is a multiple channel system specific for continuous monitoring of H 2S in the ambient air. The system consists of a number of sensor assemblies and a solid state monitor. The channels are independent and each channel continuously reads the H 2S gas concentration at its remote sensor location. Manual override switching is included to permit read out of any given channel without interrupting automatic response of alarm circuits. Meter range: 0 - 100 ppm H 2S. The complete system consists of one monitor, a number of local sensors, an indicator situated in the control room panel and a warning alarm system in the unit as well as in the control room. The alarm is audible and visible. The blue beacon on top of the Satellite Building and plant starts glowing and the alarm siren starts, in case of a leak of H2S of concentration more than 25 ppm is detected by a meter. When the concentration of H2S in the atmosphere, after the alarm is actuated, appears to increase considerably, the SWS has to be shut-down manually. The alarm is set at a value of 25 ppm by volume of H 2S. It is advised to check the sensors every six months. Process gas leaks of minor nature can be detected by means of cotton waste soaked in ammonia. If this is brought into the vicinity of the leak, white fumes of ammonium salts will be formed. Also, filter paper wetted with lead acetate solution can be used. The lead acetate turns black when exposed to H 2S.

14.2 SPECIAL SAFETY MEASURES AND INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE


This paragraph describes how to prevent hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide poisoning and some suitable protecting equipment. Carelessness, negligence or ignorance of danger are often the causes of H2S and SO2 poisoning.

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Operators must be instructed to avoid inhalation of gas whenever possible, by working on the windward side of the place where gas is escaping. Furthermore, they should not stay unnecessarily without protection under process gas lines or equipment, since H2S and S02 are gases heavier than air. Process staff and senior operating personnel have an additional responsibility and they should show by their own example that precautions should be taken. Instructive bulletins issued by the safety department and education are also very important. In places where high concentrations of gas may occur, especially in enclosed spaces, one should wear a compressed air breathing apparatus or hose masks connected to a clean air supply. If air is supplied by an air blower, care must be taken that the air blower has been placed upwind and clear of any source of gas, in order that the person wearing the mask will have a supply of uncontaminated air. When the aforementioned masks are in use an attendant should be stationed at the air supply point. As an extra precaution somebody equipped with a compressed air breathing apparatus should watch each hose and safety line and prevent them from becoming entangled. Personnel should not enter an enclosed space without a belt with a life line. Also an attendant should remain in a safe location at the other end of the life line at all times. Even at low concentrations of H 2S and SO2 a canister type mask may not be worn, as this type is unreliable. To prevent irritation of the eyes full goggles with water dams are recommended. The water dams prevent fogging of the lenses, which should be made of safety glass.

14.3 FIRST AID MEASURES


If a person has lost consciousness by inhalation of H 2S or SO2 gas, the following procedure is advised: 1. Remove the patient to fresh air or a well ventilated room and loosen any restrictive clothing. 2. In conjunction with point 1 above, contact the medical department (OHC), and call immediately a doctor, stressing the nature of the accident. 3. Application of oxygen to a patient should only be carried out by a person familiar with the use of oxygen inhalation apparatus. An attempt to apply oxygen by a person not familiar with the use of the apparatus may result in the loss of valuable time and/or may harm the patient.

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4. Keep the patient comfortably warm, but not hot. If the patient regains consciousness during this period, keep him as calm as possible as he might be in a state of shock. 5. If; however, respiration of the patient has stopped, commence artificial respiration treatment at once and continue until professional assistance arrives. 6. It should not be attempted to give anything to eat or to drink to an unconscious patient. NOTE: Do not attempt to enter a gaseous area to render assistance before putting on a compressed air breathing apparatus or breathing air hose mask.

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15. EMERGENCY SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE


Emergency shutdown of the Sour water stripper unit (5100) can take place because of the following reasons: Feed failure Utilities failure Equipment / process line failure Fire. The emergency shutdown can be of short duration or long duration. In case of shutdown of long duration, normal shutdown procedures should be followed as given earlier. Hence, handling of emergency shut-down of short duration is described here.

15.1 FEED FAILURE


Sour water stripping unit runs on feed from CDU, VDU, SGU, UGS, ARU, VBU, NHT and SRU sections. If one of the above feeds fails, then the section needs to reduce the throughput accordingly. In this case unit shut down may not be needed immediately. But, however, in the above case, the internal parameters may change depending upon the throughput of the unit. If the feeds from all the sections fail, then emergency shutdown to be taken as follows: 1. Close the battery limit valve on the main feed inlet line. 2. Reduce the steam flow to the Sour Water Stripper and adjust the exchanger loads accordingly. 3. Close the battery limit valve of the stripped water line to CDU and WWTP. 4. Close the off gas line to SRU and fully open 51PV-018 in manual mode.

15.2 UTILITIES FAILURE


The utilities consumed in the Sour Water Stripper unit are listed as: LP steam Fuel gas Sea cooling water (supply and return) Power Instrument air

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15.2.1 LP STEAM FAILURE In case of failure of LP steam, the stripping of H 2S and NH3 from sour water stripper will cease and hence take the following action: Stop feed gas to SRU immediately and close battery limit block valve. Isolate LP steam of 51E-202A/B by closing isolation valves. Stop feed to the stripper by stopping 51P-202A/S. Because of reduced stripping, chimney tray level of stripper (LI006) will come down and watch the level and if it is low, then stop 51P- 204A/S also. In case of retrieval of steam within a short period, the section can be taken on line immediately from this point. If it is planned for a shutdown, then start depressurizing the stripper by opening 51PV-018. 15.2.2 FUEL GAS FAILURE In case of fuel gas failure, there will not be much impact on the unit. But if 51P-202 A/S starts loosing suction, try to increase level in 51V-201 and run the feed pump. Connect Nitrogen to perform the same function as of fuel gas. 15.2.3 SEA COOLING WATER (SUPPLY & RETURN) FAILURE In case of sea cooling water failure, stripped water temperature to CDU and unit-8400 will increase. This can be managed, but inform CDU and unit-8400 immediately. 15.2.4 POWER FAILURE In case of power failure, all pumps and air cooler fans will stop and therefore, following action should be taken: Close feed gas to SRU immediately. Stop feed to 51V-201 by isolating battery limit valve. Stop supplying stripped water to CDU by closing battery limit valve to maintain level in 51C-201 at 50-60 %. Float 51V-201 and 51C-201 to H2S flare header. Close LP steam to reboilers by closing FV-010 and isolation valves on steam and condensate headers both. Ensure at least 60% level in the stripper column (51C-201)
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15.2.5 INSTRUMENT AIR FAILURE In case of instrument air failure, all the controllers will go to fail safe position i.e. Stripper level control valve (LV-004) will close. Feed to stripper valve (FV-008) will close. Circulating water circuit valve (FV-012) will open. LP steam to reboilers valve (FV-010) will close. Gas to flare valve (PV-018) will open. Condensate outlet valve (LV-007) will close. The various instrument indications will go off. Under such emergency, following actions should be taken: Inform sour water supplying and stripped water receiving units including SRU. Cut-off feed gas to SRU and close battery limit valve. Immediately isolate LP steam and condensate circuit of 51E202 A/B. Close battery limit valve of sour water header and also stripped water header. Check level, temperature, and pressure indication through gauges in the field. Keep 51V-201 and 51C-201 floating with flare and ensure they do not get pressurized. Stop fans of 51EA-201 and 51EA-202 and 51EA-301. Keep the unit in bottled up condition till the emergency is over. Once instrument air supply is restored, start the unit as per normal start-up procedure.

15.3 EQUIPMENT/PROCESS LINE FAILURE


Since H 2S is toxic in nature, all safety procedures have to be followed, while handling the situation. Depending upon the situation, cut off the feed and follow the unit shutdown procedure as mentioned in feed failure case. It will be possible to avoid shutdown only where standby equipments are available for lining up to system.

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15.4 FIRE
In case of fire, total unit shutdown will be required. Cut off the feed depending upon the nature and severity of the fire and put off the fire. Take normal/emergency shutdown, if required, as mentioned in feed failure case.

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16. UTILITY CONSUMPTION


S.NO. DESCRIPTION DESIGN CASE UNIT OF MEASUREMENT

1 2 3 4

LP steam to reboilers Sea cooling water to 51E-203 Power consumption of fin fans* Power consumption of pumps#

28350 567434 84 237.89

Kg/hr Kg/hr kW kW

*It has been considered that 2 fin fans each of 51EA-201/202/301 are running.
# It has been considered that 1 pump each of 51P-201/202/203/204/301 is running.

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17. ANNEXURES
LIST OF ANNEXURES
S.NO. DESCRIPTION PAGE NUMBER

17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6

Standard Operating Procedures P & I diagrams List of Equipments List of Control valves List of Safety Relief Valves Material Safety Data Sheets

60 61 62 63 64 65

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17.1 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES


S.NO. DESCRIPTION SOP NUMBER

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

SOP for sour water collecting vessel handover for inspection and cleaning SOP for sour water collecting vessel inertization SOP for sour water drain vessel handover for inspection and cleaning SOP for sour water drain vessel inertization SOP for sour water stripper column handover for inspection and cleaning SOP for sour water stripper column inertization SOP for toxic service pump strainer cleaning SOP for sour water stripper column stabilization SOP for sour water feed cut-in and stripped water line-up SOP for service or DM water circulation in sour water stripper column SOP for SWS shut down SOP for non-toxic service pump strainer cleaning SOP for sampling in SWS SOP for skimming in sour water collecting vessel SOP for SWS unit flushing

EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/001 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/002 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/003 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/004 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/005 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/006 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/007 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/008 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/009 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/010 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/011 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/012 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/013 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/015 EOL/SRU/SWS/SOP/016

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17.2 P & I DIAGRAMS

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17.3 LIST OF EQUIPMENTS


S.NO. EQUIPMENT NAME TAG NO.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Sour water stripper column Sour water stripper feed/bottom exchanger Sour water stripper reboilers Stripped water cooler Stripped water air cooler Circulating water air cooler Condensate overhead condenser Slops pump Sour water feed pump Sour water stripper bottom pump Circulating reflux water pump LP condensate pump Sour water collecting vessel Condensate knock out vessel Sour water drain vessel

51C-201 51E-201 51E-202A/B 51E-203 51EA-201A/B/C/D 51EA-202A/B 51EA-301A/B 51P-201 51P-202A/S 51P-203A/S 51P-204A/S 51P-301A/S 51V-201 51V-301 50V-401

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17.4 LIST OF CONTROL VALVES


S.NO. DESCRIPTION TAG NO.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Sour water feed to 51C-201 LP steam to 51E-202A/B Circulating reflux water to 51C-201 Stripped water to WWTP LP condensate from 51V-301 to refinery condensate system 51C-201 overhead to H 2S flare

51FV-008 51FV-010 51FV-012 51LV-004 51LV-007 51PV-018

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17.5 LIST OF SAFETY RELIEF VALVES


S.NO. PSV LOCATION TAG NO. SET PRESSURE 2 (kg/cm g)

1 2 3

51C-201 top 51C-201 sour water feed inlet line 51E-203 sea cooling water outlet line

51PSV-019A/S 51PSV-016 51PSV-009

3.5 9.5 10

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17.6 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS


17.6.1 HYDROGEN SULPHIDE Chemical formula : H2S Exposure limits : TLV-10ppm MAC-10ppm STEL-15ppm 17.6.1.1 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION Emergency Overview: Poisonous, flammable liquid and gas under pressure. May be fatal if inhaled. Can form explosive mixtures with air. May cause respiratory tract and central nervous system damage. Can cause eye irritation. Gas deadens sense of smell. Symptoms of exposure may be delayed. Potential health effects: Routes of entry: Inhalation. Acute effects: Irritation to the eyes, mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. May cause pulmonary edema, headache, dizziness, bronchitis and respiratory paralysis. High concentrations may cause collapse and death. Chronic effects: May cause conjunctivitis, photophobic, corneal bullae, tearing, pain and blurred vision. Medical conditions aggravated by overexposure: Persons with impaired pulmonary function or pre-existing eye problems may be at increased risk from exposure. 17.6.1.2 FIRST AID MEASURES

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Inhalation: Immediately remove victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Eye contact: Immediately flush with copious amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Skin contact: Immediately flush with copious amounts of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing. Ingestion: None. In the event of an exposure, consult a physician. 17.6.1.3 FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES Flash point : -60C Auto ignition temperature : 260C Flammable limits : LEL-4.4 vol% UEL-46 vol% Extinguishing media: DCP or CO 2. The only safe way to extinguish a H 2S fire is to stop the flow of gas. Special fire fighting instruction and equipment: Wear Selfcontained breathing apparatus and full protective clothing. Hazardous combustion products: Toxic CO and SO 2 may be given off during combustion. Unusual fire and explosion hazards: Vessel rupture may occur under fire conditions. Vapours may travel a considerable distance to the source of ignition and flash back. Emits toxic fumes under fire conditions. Fight fire from maximum possible distance. 17.6.1.4 ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES Evacuate and ventilate area. Shut off source if possible and remove source of heat. 17.6.1.5 EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION Eye/face protection: Safety glasses Skin protection: None
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Respiratory protection: In case of leakage, use selfcontained breathing apparatus (SCBA). 17.6.1.6 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Appearance : Colourless Odour : Rotten egg smell Physical state : Gas Vapour pressure : 18.5atm at 20C Vapour density : 1.175 Boiling point : -60C Solubility in water : Soluble Odour threshold : 0.06 to 1ppm 17.6.1.7 STABILITY AND REACTIVITY Stability: Stable under normal storage conditions. Hazardous polymerization: Will not occur. Hazardous decomposition: Sulphur oxides. 17.6.1.8 TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION H2S is almost as toxic as hydrogen cyanide and six times as toxic as carbon monoxide.
S.NO. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ppm Vol%

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Limit for odour detection Weak odour hardly noticeable Noticeable odour Obnoxious odour MAC-maximum allowable concentration for an eight hours working day Slight signs of inflammation of the eyes after one hour Limit that can be stood for six hours without adverse effects Limit that can be stood for one hour without consequences Odour no longer disagreeable
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0.14 0.77 4.6 7 10 50-100 78-128 170-255 198-283


Doc. No. Doc. type Page no.

0.001 0.005-0.010 0.008-0.013 0.017-0.026 0.020-0.028


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10 11 12 13 14 15

Distinct signs of inflammation of the eyes after one hour Danger to life within thirty to sixty minutes Fatal within thirty to sixty minutes Fatal after half an hour Causing immediate fainting Immediately fatal

200-300 355-496 425-580 500-700 700-1000 850-1980

0.02-0.03 0.036-0.05 0.043-0.058 0.05-0.07 0.07-0.10 0.085-0.2

17.6.2 AMMONIA Chemical formula Exposure limits

: NH3 : TLV - 25 ppm STEL- 35 ppm IDLH - 300 ppm

17.6.2.1 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION Emergency Overview: Pungent-smelling, toxic, corrosive, non-flammable gas. Has a suffocating odour. Overexposure to this gas may be fatal. It can burn and damage eyes, skin, mucous membranes, and any other exposed tissues. Inhalation can cause coughing and breathing difficulty. Contact with rapidly expanding gases, or contact with the liquid, may cause frostbite. It is lighter than air. Although labeled as a non-flammable gas, it can burn. Potential health effects: Routes of entry: Inhalation. Effects of inhalation: Inhalation of Ammonia vapors or gases may lead to irritation of the nose and throat. Exposures to high concentrations of Ammonia gas can lead to symptoms such as coughing, labored breathing, sore throat, and in some instances, chemical pneumonitis

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and pulmonary edema. High concentrations of Ammonia gas may cause an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Exposure to high concentrations may cause unconsciousness, and under some circumstances, death. Exposure to the eyes may cause temporary blindness, leading to permanent vision impairment. Repeated Ammonia overexposures by inhalation can result in emphysema. Skin or eye contact: Contact of the liquid (or gaseous product or the mist produced by Ammonia), with the skin can lead to severe burns or dermatitis (red, cracked, irritated skin), depending upon concentration and duration of exposure. Contact of the liquid (or gaseous product or the mist produced by Ammonia), with the eyes can cause pain, redness, and prolonged exposure could cause blindness. Contact with the undiluted liquid will cause frostbite, ulceration of the skin (which may be delayed in appearance for several hours), blistering, and pain. Contact with the liquid or rapidly expanding gas poses a severe frostbite hazard. Ingestion: While ingestion is highly unlikely, ingestion of Ammonia can damage the tissues of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and other tissues of the digestive system. Ingestion of Ammonia can be fatal. Additionally, aspiration by inhalation is possible, causing chemical pneumonia or death. Acute effects: This gas is extremely corrosive, and can burn and damage eyes, skin, mucous membranes, and any other exposed tissue. If inhaled, irritation of the respiratory system may occur, with coughing, and breathing difficulty. Overexposure to this gas may be fatal. Though unlikely to occur during occupational use, ingestion of large quantities may be fatal.

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Chronic effects: Persistent irritation may result from repeated exposures to this gas. Repeated Ammonia overexposures by inhalation can result in emphysema.

17.6.2.2 FIRST AID MEASURES RESCUERS SHOULD NOT ATTEMPT TO RETRIEVE VICTIMS OF EXPOSURE TO AMMONIA WITHOUT ADEQUATE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. At a minimum, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Personal Protective equipment should be worn. If necessary, fire protection should be provided. Remove victim(s) to fresh air, as quickly as possible. Trained personnel should administer supplemental oxygen and/or cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, if necessary. Only trained personnel should administer supplemental oxygen. In case of frostbite, place the frostbitten part in warm water. DO NOT USE HOT WATER. If warm water is not available, or is impractical to use, wrap the affected parts gently in blankets. Alternatively, if the fingers or hands are frostbitten, place the affected area of the body in the armpit. Encourage victim to gently exercise the affected part while being warmed. Seek immediate medical attention. Eye contact: If liquid is splashed into eyes, or if irritation of the eye develops after exposure to liquid or gas, open victim's eyes while under gentle running water. Use sufficient force to open eyelids. Have victim "roll" eyes. Minimum flushing is for 15 minutes. Skin contact: If Ammonia contaminates the skin, immediately begin decontamination with running water. Minimum flushing is for 15 minutes. Remove exposed or contaminated clothing, taking care not to contaminate eyes. Victim must seek immediate medical attention.
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In the event of an exposure, consult a physician. 17.6.2.3 FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES Flash point: Not applicable. Ammonia can be ignited. Auto ignition temperature : 651C Flammable limits : LEL-15 vol% UEL-28 vol% Extinguishing media: Water spray, foam, halon, DCP or CO2. Special fire fighting instruction and equipment: Wear Selfcontained breathing apparatus and full protective clothing. Unusual fire and explosion hazards: Ammonia is a toxic, corrosive gas and presents an extreme hazard to firefighters. In the event of fire, cool containers of Ammonia with water to prevent failure. Use a water spray or fog to reduce or direct vapors. Do not direct a water spray at the source of a release. This gas may ignite explosively, if released near an active fire. Ammonia is lighter than air, but conditions associated with a release can cause it to accumulate in low-lying areas. 17.6.2.4 ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES Evacuate and ventilate area. Shut off source if possible and remove source of heat. 17.6.2.5 EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION Eye/face protection: Splash goggles or safety glasses and face shield. Skin protection: Wear Neoprene Rubber gloves for industrial use. Use triple gloves for spill response. Use body protection appropriate for task. An apron or other impermeable body protection is suggested. Full-body chemical protective clothing is recommended for emergency response procedures.

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Respiratory protection: In case of leakage, use selfcontained breathing apparatus (SCBA). 17.6.2.6 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Physical state : Gas Vapour pressure : 128.8 psia Vapour density : 0.77 Kg/m3 at 32F Boiling point : -33.4C at 1atm Solubility in water : 84% Odour threshold : 0. 6 to 53 ppm Specific gravity : 0.594 Freezing point : -77C Ammonia is a pungent-smelling, toxic, corrosive gas having a suffocating odor. This gas is lighter than air and fumes strongly in moist air, producing a cloud of ammonium hydroxide mist. 17.6.2.7 STABILITY AND REACTIVITY Stability: Stable Hazardous polymerization: Will not occur. Ammonia does not decompose, but reacts with water to form ammonium hydroxide. Ammonia is not compatible with most metals, acids, or oxidizers. Ammonia can form explosive compounds with mercury, gold or silver compounds or the elements. Ammonia reacts violently with tellurium tetrabromide and tetrachloride, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, or the interhalogen compounds, and with acid halides, ethylene oxide, and hypochlorites (including household bleach). Poisoning or death can occur if ammonia (or ammoniacontaining products) are mixed with household bleach. 17.6.2.8 TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
S.NO. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ppm

Limit for odour detection


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2 3 4 5

Irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes, which can be tolerated for several hours. Immediate irritation of the throat, which may be tolerated for an hour. Immediate, severe irritation of the respiratory system and eyes occurs. This level of exposure may result in rapid death due to suffocation or fluid in the lungs. Exposure to concentrations in excess of 5000 ppm may cause laryngeal spasms, resulting in death.

25-50 100-150 400-700 >5000

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